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CHAP. “ noured with kisses, and the offering of lights and in

“ cense, though not with that true worship which pertains “ to the divine nature alone.” But how contrary this was to the faith and practice of the then Church of England, may be observed from the account given us of the sending

this synodical decree into England, by our annalist Roger Annales, de Hoveden: Charles King of the Franks, says he, sent A.D.791. over into Britain a synodical book, directed to him from Matt.West. Constantinople; in which book were found many things A,D, 793.

inconsistent with and contrary to the true faith; but especially it was decreed by the unanimous consent of almost all the eastern Doctors, however of not less than 300 or more Bishops, that images ought to be adored, quod om

nino Ecclesia Dei execratur, which the Church of God utAlcuinus. terly abominates. Matt. of Westminster adds, that Albinus

wrote a wonderful letter against this decree of the Councils, and together with the synodical book which had been sent hither, carried to the French King in the names of the Bishops and Princes of the realm. This shews what a sense they had of this decree, and how resolved they were not to receive it.

19. When carved or graven images were first introduced Inett's Orig. into the churches of England, and honoured with a religious vol. i. p.

as worship, I am not certain. But by what has been observed 210, &c. of the French, and particularly of the Normans, that they

were very fond of the worship of images, and therefore separated from their Bishops, because they were so far from indulging them in their humour of setting up more images in their churches, that they pulled down those which were already there; it seems, that though the English had in their churches the pictures of saints, and representations of the sacred history, they had no graven or molten images,

nor paid any sort of adoration to them, till they were here Abp. Cran, introduced by the Normans after the Conquest : then inmer's Articles of Visi- deed there were images set up in churches, and the people tation, &c. were taught to light candles before them, to creep to them,

and kneel before them, to kiss and deck them with gay garments, and to pray and offer to them. They had images in the body of the church, and the image of the saint to


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whom the church was dedicated, in the high chancel over CHAP. the high altar, besides the image of Christ on the cross called the roode, or the rood k Mary and John, because, I Lynwood's

Provinc. p. suppose, of the carved images of the blessed Virgin and 252, 253. that disciple standing at the bottom of the cross, as they are commonly pictured. These images were solemnly blessed by a prayer to God, in which it was rehearsed, that, “ he did not condemn the carving or painting the Rituale Ro“ images of his saints; and he was prayed to bless and" 6 sanctify that particular image, and to grant, that whoso“ ever shall humbly kneel before it, and desire to worship “ and honour the saint represented by it, may by that “ saint's merits and attainments obtain from him grace for " the present, and eternal glory for the future.” After which the images were sprinkled with holy water. To History,&c. these images, their altars, and the lights burning before of them ', legacies used to be left; these were sometimes in 31, 35, 41, money, viz. two pence, four pence, six pence, eight pence, 115. &c, sometimes wax, barley, &c. Legacies were likewise left to purchase palls for the several altars, and towels, &c. for the roode. To persuade the common people, that the saints were personally present with these their images, or however with some of them, the images were so contrived as to move their eyes, &c. and to seem to change their countenances, to weep, smile, &c. witness the crucifix commonly called the roode of grace, at Boxley in Kent, 65 which,” according to Mr. Lambard's description of it, “ was able to bow down and lift up itself, to shake and Perambula“ stir the hands and feet, to nod the head, to roll the eyes, k. “ to wag the chops, to bend the brows, and finally to re- p. 228.

of the Isle of Tenet, p.


tion of

ent, &c.

k Item, paid a joiner in Canterbury for making the rood Mary and 8. d. John, and painting the same

xi 0 For setting up the rood Mary and John, and for paper and thread to trusse the same

Church Book of Crundal in Kent. Lego ymagini crucifixi ibidem 6d. Item, Altari beate Marie 6d. Item, ymagini Katherine ibidem 3d. Ult, Test. Alice Pococke de St. Nicolao in Ta, neto, 1396.

CHAP. “ present to the eye both the proper motion of each memIII.

“ ber of the body, and also a lively, express, and signifi“ cant shew of a well contented, or displeased mind; biting “ the lip, and gathering a frowning, froward, and disdainful “ face, when it would pretend offence; and shewing a “ most mild, amiable, and smiling cheer and countenance, “ when it would seem to be well pleased.” All which was performed by wires, &c. as was publicly shewn at St. Paul's, where this image was taken to pieces, before a multitude

of people there assembled. Much the same account is Rosetum given us by Peter de Medrano, a Spanish Jesuit, of the Theologicum Scho. images of our Lady del Aviso, and of Pity, in the colleges lasticum,, of Lima, and Callaya in Peru, which, he says, non semel in &c. Hispal. 1702. p. miraculosum sudorem, lacrymasque resolutæ sunt. But 311.

above all, he tells us, is the miraculous image of our Lady del Rosario, the patroness of the royal city of Lima, and of the whole circuit of Peru, which is in the famous temple of the Dominicans, which, as he describes it, sæpe refulsit auricomis solaribus radiis ; atque in varios aspectus, veneratione, amore, et timore dignos, divinum vultum transmutavit: no doubt of it, by the same miracle that the roode of grace changed its countenance, and either looked cross or pleasant, as its keepers were pleased or displeased with the offerings of its superstitious worshippers.

20. They had likewise images of the Holy Trinity, two of which I have represented in the adjoining plate, taken from the Salisbury Primer. All which the followers of Wiclif condemned as savouring of idolatry m. Thus they

m In how great peril of idolatry the members of the Romish communion are, or they who join in the religious service of that corrupt Church, appears very plain from the following rubric; in the canon of the mass in the Manual after the use of Sarum, printed at Antwerp, 1542.-Hic erigat sacerdos manus et conjungat, et postea tergat digitos et elevet hostiam parumper; ita quod videatur a populo, et sic debet tenere quosque dixerit verba consecrationis; quia si ante consecrationem elevetur et populo ostendatur, sicut fatui sacerdotes, faciunt populum idololatrare adorando panem purum tanquam corpus Christi. But now the words of consecration are ordered to be pronounced secretly, so that it is impossible for the people to know whether the bread be consecrated or not.

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