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12. You may observe a toil-worn man. He is seated upon a hob at the door. He is without coat or waistcoat. His shoulder is peeping through the remnant of a shirt. The shoulder is red. Muscular. Sunburnt. The man is mending his shoes. He mends them with a piece of twisted flax. The twisted flax is called lingel.

13. Johnson showed roughness and violence. He showed these qualities in society. They were to be expected in such a man. This man's temper was not naturally gentle. It had been long tried by the bitterest calamities. It had been tried by the want of meat. It had been long tried by the want of fire and clothes. It had been tried by the importunity of creditors. It had been tried by the insolence of booksellers. The derision of fools had tried it. The insincerity of patrons had tried it. It had been tried by bread. Such bread is the bitterest of all food. It had been tried by those stairs-the most toilsome of all paths. It had been tried by deferred hope. Deferred hope makes the heart sick.


DIRECTION.-Separate the following complex sentences into the different statements contained in them:

1. In the month of July, when the grass on the meadow was long, many an hour have I spent in solitary enjoyment, watching the wavy motion produced on its pliant surface by the sunny winds, or the flight of the cloud shadows, like gigantic phantoms, as they swept rapidly over it.

2. On Christmas day, 1770, I was surprised by a message from my godfather, saying that he had sent a man and a horse to bring me to Ashburton, and desiring me to set out without delay.

3. Straghan made such haste, that the Earl of Sutherland, who at least pretended to have gathered together a body of fifteen hundred men to meet Montrose, chose rather to join with Straghan.

4. Of these, one was a man of six or eight and fifty, who sat on a chair near one of the entrances of the booth, with his hands folded on the top of his stick, and his chin appearing above them.

5. The walls of Sir Roger's great hall are covered with the horns of several kinds of deer that he has killed in the chase, which he thinks the most valuable furniture of his house, as they afford him frequent topics of discourse, and show that he has not been idle.



A Compound Sentence consists of two or more independent propositions.

The propositions joined to form a compound sentence are of equal rank (co-ordinate). They are usually connected by means of co-ordinate conjunctions; but they may stand joined by their very position in the sentence-connected without any conjunction expressed.

Co-ordinate Conjunctions are divided into four classes; namely, copulative, adversative, alternative, illative.

Copulative Conjunctions.-When the members of a compound sentence are in the same line of thought, the second adding to the first, the third to the second, and so on, they should be joined by copulative conjunctions. The following is a list of the principal copulative conjunctions:

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Adversative Conjunctions. When the propositions present thoughts in contrast or in opposition to one another, they should be joined by adversative conjunctions. The following are the principal adversative conjunctions:

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Alternative Conjunctions.-When the members present thoughts in alternation-expressing that which may be chosen or omitted, they should be joined by alternative conjunctions. The following are the principal alternative conjunctions:






Illative Conjunctions. When the members express thoughts one of which shall be an effect or consequence of the other, or an inference from it, they should be joined by illative conjunctions. The following are the principal illative conjunctions:

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The following sentences illustrate the various kinds of connection:

(Copulative) All the world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players.

(Adversative) True, he served the state in his youth; but then he betrayed it in his old age.

(Alternative) Either Rome must destroy Carthage, or Carthage will be a perpetual threat to Rome.

(Illative) They went away from town abruptly, so that I had no opportunity of seeing them again.

Conjunction Omitted.—Where the connection between the members is either copulative or adversative, the conjunction is frequently omitted. Abbott says, "When sentences are short, conjunctions may be advantageously omitted. The omission gives a certain forcible abruptness; as, 'You say this; I (on the other hand) deny it.'" Other illustrations are:

Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead; excessive grief, the enemy to the living.

Fools build houses; wise men live in them.

Ideas quickly fade; they often vanish quite out of the understanding.

Some sentences complex in form are equivalent to compound sentences. When the relation of the members is copulative, the conjunction may be absorbed in a relative pronoun or a conjunctive adverb; as,

James called for John, who [=and he] responded at once.
They shouted at the dog, which [=and it] fled in affright.

We shall discuss this next week, when [=and then] we may pos sibly come to a decision.

The monkey climbed into a tree, where [=and there] it sat chattering to me.

While such constructions are frequently met with even in good authors, it is better to avoid them. Modern writers seldom use relative pronouns or conjunctive adverbs to introduce independent propositions; and where we find forms passing into disuse, it is safer not to employ them. The following lines from Prof. Bain's Composition and Rhetoric furnish additional explanation on this point: "A relative pronoun refers one clause to another in the same sentence, but rarely connects two successive sentences. The old English usage of commencing a sentence with who for and he is now obsolete; the reason being that the relative expresses a close connection between the members joined.'


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DIRECTION.-Add to each of the following statements another statement, so as to make a copulative compound sentence. Thus:

Return, and .

Return, and I will deal with thee.

1. He turned from the road, and .

2. His action was not only considerate, but.

3. Raleigh persevered in his attempts at colonization

4. Steam is used to propel great trains across the continent; it is also . .

DIRECTION.-Add to each of the following statements another statement, so as to make an adversative compound sentence. Thus:

He was often warned of the danger, but .

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He was often warned of the danger, but, for all that, he persisted in his mad attempts.

1. Philosophy makes us wiser men;

2. It is a hard case; still.

3. Charms strike the sight, but .

4. We seek ever the light of knowledge .

5. He was wise and virtuous, yet . .

6. A whole city on fire is a spectacle full of horror

DIRECTION.-Add to each of the following statements another statement, so as to make an alternative compound sentence.

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He must return soon, or his affairs will

4. We must take the current when it serves, or

5. Man does not stand in awe of man, nor

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DIRECTION.-Add to each of the following statements another statement, so

as to make an illative compound sentence. Thus :

They are idle; consequently

they are discontented.

They are idle; consequently

1. This agreeth not well with me; wherefore,

2. Pope desired to excel; therefore .

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3. Our memories are most retentive in youth; consequently

4. Happiness does not consist in self-love; hence .

5. The Turkish government has possessed only two secrets for governing to drain and to brutify its subjects; hence.

6. These barbarous tribes meet only to attack and to destroy each other; so that . .

7. Infancy conforms to nobody; so that.

8. The shadow of the earth, in every position, is round;

9. Pittsburgh is the center of a rich coal region; hence .

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