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enjoins his chancellor and the other lords spiritual and temporal of his council to endow her with were promptly rendered, it is certain she could not have enjoyed the satisfaction of appearing in them, courtly etiquette compelling her, within seven weeks after the date of Henry's letter of restitution, to assume the mockery of mourning weeds for his decease. This event occurred August 31, 1422. Joanna had been released from her captivity some weeks previously, and resumed her former state at her own palace of Leeds-castle the same summer, as the following entries appear in her household-book," dated July 14th, first year of Henry VI. It is to be observed, that first the duke of Gloucester, and then cardinal Beaufort, visited her just before the formal official notice of Henry's penitence, and assuredly brought her private intelligence of the change in her favour; for, on June the 12th, is an item “that the duke dined with her at Leeds, and went away after dinner; expenses for the feast, 4l. 2s.:” and, on the 2nd of the next month, “cardinal Beaufort dined with her at a cost of 41.14s.2d.” The newly enfranchised queen gave alms and oblations “at the cross of the chapel within Leeds-castle, which came to 6s. 8d.;” but she laid in a stock of Gascon (claret), Rochelle, and Rhenish wines, at the cost of 56l. 0s. 4d. Her alms seem influenced by her usual avarice, for if she could find money to buy so much wine, she might have commemorated her signal deliverance from captivity and obloquy by a larger outlay than a mark. All her recorded donations appear despicably mean; indeed, this precious historical document singularly confirms our estimate of her character, that grasping avarice was the chief source of her misfortunes. Her clerk, Thomas Lilbourne, proceeds to note the expenses of her mourning dress for the death of her persecutor, as well for her own person as the maids of her chamber. There are some odd notices of the price of making court-dresses, which may be amusing to the ladies of the present day. There are charges for seven yards of black cloth, for a gown for the queen at the feast of Easter, at 7s. 8d. per yard, and for making a gown for her, 1s. 6d. ; for one cape of black, for black silk loops, and for 400 clasps, (possibly hooks and eyes); for 74 yards of black cloth, at 7s. per yard, for the queen's person; for making a cape for the queen, for black satin, and for grey squirrel fur, 23s. 4d.; for fur for a collar and mantle for the queen, 20s.; for 1 oz. of black thread, 1s. 6d.; 3 dozen shoes, at 6d. per pair. Likewise to Agnes Stowe, of the family of lady Margaret Trumpyngton, for her good services to the queen, as a gift, 6s. 8d. To two serjeants-atlaw, to plead for the queen's gold, 6s. 8d. To Nicholas, minstrel, a gift of the queen, 6s. 8d. , None of Joanna's gifts exceed this sum, which is the amount of a mark. Some of the articles are curious, as, one pot of green ginger, 9s. 6d.; for rose-water, 7s. 6d.; to master Laurence, for cinnamon, 7s. 10d. The queen gives 6d. per pair for her maids’ shoes, and 7d. for those of her own wearing.
*This information is gathered from one of the valuable documents in the collection of sir Thomas Phillipps, of Middle Hill, Worcestershire. This gentleman, with a liberality only equalled by his munificence in purchasing MSS. containing
the true muniments of history, has permitted us not only access to his stores, but afforded his own advice and assistance in the transcription of references.
Notwithstanding the earnest desire of Henry V. for the restoration of Joanna's dower, the matter was attended with great difficulty, on account of the manner in which he had disposed of this property. He had, in fact, sold, mortgaged, and granted it away to a variety of persons, besides endowing his own queen (now also a queen-dowager) with the town and appurtenances of Hertford, and many other manors which had been settled on queen Joanna by his father, king Henry IV. The smoothing of such a ravelled skein caused much delay and trouble to all parties; and we find, in the second of Henry VI., that a petition was presented from the noble lady Joanna, queen of England, requiring all the grants of her lands made by the late king Henry V. to be quashed by parliament, that she might receive her revenues. The answer to the petition was, “that the same should be granted in all points, provided that those persons who had laid out money upon the queen's lands should have the option of taking the same under her, at the same term or rent at which they then held the same from the crown.”"
* Rolls Parl. iv. p. 247.
Joanna of Navarre survived her restoration to liberty, wealth, and royal station many years, “living,” says Weever, “in all princely prosperity.” Her grandson, Giles of Bretagne, was reared and educated with the youthful king Henry VI., and was much beloved by him; a circumstance which leads to the conclusion, that queen Joanna was likewise in favour at the English court. Her favourite residence was the sylvan retreat of Havering-Bower. She also kept her state sometimes at Langley, where her retirement was enlivened occasionally by shows, as the rude theatrical entertainments of the fifteenth century were designated. We learn, from a contemporary chronicle, that in the ninth year of Henry VI., a grievous and terrible fire took place at the manor of the lady queen Joanna, at Langley, in which there was great destruction of the buildings, furniture, gold and silver plate, and household stuff. These disasters happened “through the want of care, and drowsiness, of a player, and the heedless keeping of a candle.” This fire is the last event of any importance that befell the royal widow after her restoration to her rights. Joanna was treated with all proper consideration by the grandson of her deceased consort, the young king Henry VI. While residing at her palace of Langley, 1437, she was honoured with a New-year's gift from this amiable prince, as a token of his respect. This was a tablet of gold, garnished with four balass rubies, eight pearls, and in the midst a great sapphire. The tablet had been formerly presented to the young king by my lady of Gloucester; whether by Jaqueline or Eleanora Cobham, is left doubtful.”
Joanna departed this life at Havering-Bower. This event is thus quaintly noted in the Chronicle of London: “This same year, 9th of July, died queen Jane, king Henry IV.'s wife. Also the same year died all the lions in the Tower, the which was nought seen in no man's time before out of mind.” Joanna was certainly turned of seventy at the time of her death, which occurred in the fifteenth year of Henry VI., 1437. She survived her first husband, John duke of Bretagne, nearly thirty-eight years, and her second, Henry IV. of England, twenty-four." She had nine children” by the duke of Bretagne,—Joanna, who died in infancy; John, who succeeded his father, and died in 1442; Marie duchess of Alençon, who died 1446; Blanche countess of Armagnac, and Margaret viscountess Rohan, both of whom died in the flower of youth, supposed to have been poisoned; Arthur earl of Richmond, so long a captive in England, afterwards became illustrious in French history as the valiant count de Richemonte; Jules, the third son of Joanna, died in England, 1412; Richard count d'Estampes died the year after his mother. The queen had no children by Henry IV.
* This young prince was allowed an annuity of 123 marks.-Issue Rolls. He received the order of the Garter. Great jealousies regarding his English connexions arose on his return to his native country on the death of his grandmother, queen Joanna. An awful tragedy occurred in Bretagne, terminating in his death, and that of his brother, Joanna's elder grandson, duke Francis I. * Harl. MSS., 3775, art. 9. * Excerpta Historica, p. 149. * Page 123.
The following summonses were issued by Henry VI. to the nobles, male and female, to do honour to the funeral of this queen:—
“Trusty and well-beloved Cousin, know as much as we, by name of our leal uncle of Gloucester, and other of our council, have appointed the funerals of our grandmother queen Johanna (whom God assoile) to be holden and solemnized at Canterbury the sixth day of August next coming. Believe that we have appointed the said uncle and other lords and ladies of our realm, and you cousin [blank for the name], to be ready for the same day, to the worship of God and our said grandmother; we desire, therefore, and pray you, (putting off your pleasure, and ercusations ceasing,) dispose you to be in person at the solemnity of the said funcral, according to our singular trust in ye.
“Given under our privy seal, at Oxford, the 23rd day of July.”
Added to this document is the following list:
“To be at Canterbury at queen Joanna's interment: my lord of Gloucester, my lady of Gloucester, the earl of Huntingdon, of Northumberland, of Oxford, lord Poynings, the duchess of Norfolk, the younger countess of Huntingdon, of Northumberland, of Oxford. The archbishop of Canterbury, the bishop of Norwich, the bishop of Winchester, the prior of Christchurch at Canterbury, the abbot of St. Augustin's there, and the abbot of Battle.”
The corpse of queen Joanna rested at Bermondsey-abbey on its way to Canterbury cathedral, where she was interred in the same vault which her pious care had provided as the domus wltima of her royal consort, Henry IV. A superb altar-tomb * Stowe. Weever. * Betham's Genealogical Tables.
*Cottonian MSS. In the original document the queen's name is spelled ne, and Jehance,
had been prepared under her auspices for that monarph, and there their effigies repose side by side, in solemn state, near the tomb of the Black Prince. Joanna's statue, like her portrait in the picture of her coronation, gives us the idea of a very lovely woman; her throat long and delicate, her bust beautiful, and slender but rounded arms. Her features are small and regular, with an expression of finesse; the eyes and eyebrows very long. Her head is singularly high, and, at the same time, very broad from the eyebrows upwards: the whole gives the idea of an exact portrait. The tomb is wrought in alabaster, enamelled with colours. The dress is elegant; her beautiful arms are naked, being only shaded behind by the royal mantle, fastened to the back of her cotehardi by a jewelled band, which passes round the corsage, and rich brooches clasp the mantle on the shoulders. Her bosom and shoulders are much shown; round her throat is a collar of SS, very elegant, and the oldest specimen extant of this ornament. Studs set with jewels are placed down the front of the cote-hardi, a tight jacket trimmed with ermine, without sleeves; round her hips is a band of jewels, as a belt, from which her gown falls in full folds over her feet.
Joanna retained her first consort the duke of Bretagne's device,—an ermine, collared and chained, which is represented with her motto, TEMPERANCE, on the cornice and canopy of her tomb." Her arms may be seen by the curious in that valuable and beautiful publication, Regal Heraldry, by Mr. Willement. They were formerly in the windows of Christchurch, near Newgate.” The tomb of king Henry and queen Joanna is near the site once occupied by the shrine of Thomas à-Becket,_Henry having expressed a superstitious wish that his mortal remains should repose under the especial protection of this far-famed saint.
“But yet, though all was carved so fair,
may those say, with regard to the sepulchre of Henry IV.,
who are disposed to credit the statement of a contemporary,
though certainly not unprejudiced chronicler, subjoined:— * Sandford. * Willement's Regal Heraldry, plate 7.