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commons in parliament." By the same authority queen Margaret received the grant of 1000l. per annum for life, out of the customs and subsidies on wools at the port of Southampton, besides sundry manors and hereditaments in the counties of Northampton, Southampton, and Oxfordshire, which were confirmed to her by this parliament.” These concessions to the queen and her infant boy were probably granted, to induce her to acquiesce in the appointment of the duke of York to the office of protector. A medical commission of five physicians and surgeons was appointed by the duke of York and his council to attend on the person of the king, and to watch over his health.” Margaret, meantime, engrossed between the first sweet cares of a mother, and the melancholy duty of watching over the fluctuations of her royal husband's afflicting malady," remained personally passive amidst these great political changes. Her party, however, were in a state of activity, and claimed for her no less rights than those usually allowed to the queen-consorts of France during the minority of an heir. Her demands are thus quaintly particularized in the “Item, the queen hath made a bill [list] of five articles, whereof the first is, that she desireth to have the whole rule of this land; the second, that she may make [or appoint] the chancellor, treasurer, the privy seal, and all other offices of this land, with sheriffs, and all that the king should make; the third, that she may give all the bishoprics of this land, and all other benefices belonging to the king's gift; the fourth is, that she may have sufficient livelihood assigned her for the king, the prince, and herself; but as for the fifth article, I cannot yet know what it is.” Indeed, in the clauses laid in the queen's name before the privy council, she (in her ignorance of the English constitution) insisted on little less than absolute power as queenregent during the incapacity of her husband and the minority of her son. This requisition was rejected: soon after (and doubtless connected with this movement) the arrest of the duke of Somerset took place, by the order of the protector York, in the queen's presence-chamber. Margaret resented this insult greatly, but was unable to do any thing openly for the protection of her friends. York proceeded to depose Somerset from his office of captain of Calais, and by letterspatent issued in the king's name, bestowed it on himself. Henry VI. began to amend in November: by the ensuing Christmas he was so much recovered, that on St. John's-day he sent his almoner to Canterbury with his offering, and his secretary to make his oblation at the shrine of St. Edward.” From the testimony of a contemporary witness, who describes the state of the king at this period, Henry appears to have been like a person just awakened from a long dream, when reason and convalescence returned. It was then that the infant heir of England, whom his entirely beloved consort queen Margaret had borne to him during the dark season of his mental malady, was presented to him, a goodly boy of fifteen months old, whose cherub lips had, perhaps, been taught to lisp the paternal name. The particulars of Henry's long-delayed recognition of his infant son are thus quaintly related in one of the Paston letters, and form a pleasing sequel to the account of his gloomy silence when the precious stranger was introduced to his notice a year before:*—“On Monday at noon the queen came to him, and brought my

sequel of the curious letter to the duke of Norfolk before quoted:— * Parliamentary History. * Ibid.

*Rymer's Foedera. The date of this commission is April 6th, and empowers those beloved masters, John Arundel, John Faceby, and William Hacliff, physicians, and Robert Warreyn and William Marschall, surgeons, to administer to the king, at their discretion, electuaries, potions, and syrups, confections and laxative medicines, in any form that may be thought best: baths, fomentations, embrocations, unctions, plasters, shavings of the head, scarifications, and a variety of other inflictions in the way of medical treatment. John Faceby was the favourite physician, who had attended king Henry all his life. The king granted a pension of 100l. per annum to him at the time of his marriage with queen Margaret, as the reward of his faithful services. From the same authority we find the courtdress of the king's physician was a green cloth robe and miniver cap.

*There is in the Patent rolls of this year an order under the privy seal, dated November 12, granting to a physician of the name of William Hately, in consideration of his faithful services to king Henry, and at the earnest desire of queen Margaret, an annuity for life. This physician's name is not included in the medical junta who had been appointed by the authority of the duke of York's council to attend on the sovereign, but was probably introduced by the anxious solicitude of the queen; and as Henry's convalescence took place about this time, we can have little doubt of his being indebted to the skill of William Hately for his cure.

* Edited by sir F. Madden, in vol. xxix., p. 305, of the Archaeologia. * Paston Letters, vol. i., p. 80. *Ibid. p. 230.

lord prince with her; and then he asked, “What the prince's name was 2' and the queen told him, “Edward;’ and then he held up his hands, and thanked God thereof. And he said he never knew him till that time, nor wist what was said to him, nor wist where he had been whilst he had been sick, till now; and he asked who were the godfathers? and the queen told him, and he was well apaid, [content]. And she told him the cardinal was dead, and he said he never knew of it till this time; then he said, “One of the wisest lords in this land was dead.’ And my lord of Winchester [bishop] and my lord of St. John of Jerusalem were with him the morrow after Twelfth-day, and he did speak to them as well as ever he did; and when they came out they wept for joy. And he saith he is in charity with all the world, and so he would all the lords were. And now he saith matins of Our Lady, and evensong, and heareth his mass devoutly.” Margaret took prompt measures for Henry's restoration to the sovereign authority, by causing him to be conveyed, though still very weak, to the house of lords, where he dissolved the parliament,” and the duke of Somerset was immediately released and reinstated in his former post. The triumph of the queen and her party was short-lived. The duke of York retired to the marches of Wales, raised an army, by the assistance of his powerful friends and kinsmen, Salisbury and Warwick, and marched towards London, with the intention of surprising the king there. All the troops that could be mustered by the exertions of the queen and Somerset scarcely amounted to two thousand men.” On the 21st of May the royal army were stationed at Watford, and the next day the king took up his head-quarters at St. Alban's. The royal standard was erected in St. Peter's-street. The duke of York and his men were encamped at Heyfield. King Henry was not deficient in personal courage, but his holy nature revolted from being the cause of bloodshed, and he sent a message to the duke of York to ask “wherefore he came in hostile array against him?” York replied that “He would not lay down his arms, unless the duke of Somerset *Cardinal Kemp * Parliamentary History. * Guthrie.

were dismissed from king Henry's councils, and delivered up to justice.” Henry for once in his life manifested something of the fiery temperament of a Plantagenet, when this answer was reported to him by the agents of the duke of York; for with a loud imprecation—the only one he was ever known to utter—he declared, that “He would deliver up his crown as soon as he would the duke of Somerset, or the least soldier in his army; and that he would treat as a traitor every man who should presume to fight against him in the field.” The earl of Warwick, who commanded York's van-guard, commenced the attack by breaking down the garden-wall which stood between the Key and the Chequer in Hollowell-street, and led his men on through the gardens, shouting, “a Warwick! a Warwick l’’

The battle lasted but an hour. The king's army, made up almost all of gentlemen, was inferior in numbers, and pent upin the town. They fought desperately, and a dreadful slaughter ensued in the narrow streets. The king, who stood under his own standard, was wounded in the neck with an arrow at the commencement of the fight. He remained till he was left solus under his royal banner, when he walked very coolly into a baker’s shop close by,” where York immediately visited nim, and bending his knee, bade him “rejoice, for the traitor Somerset was slain.” Henry replied, “For God’s sake, stop the slaughter of my subjects l’ York then took the wounded king by the hand, and led him first to the shrine of St. Alban's, and then to his apartments in the abbey." When the slaughter, according to his entreaty, was stopped, Henry consented to accompany the victor to London on the following day, May 24th.

* Guthrie. 2 Ibid. * Newcome's History of St. Alban's Abbey, p. 357. * Lingard, vol. v. p. 200.




Queen retires to Greenwich—News of defeat at St. Alban's—Her despair—She is censured in parliament—Queen's secret council at Greenwich—King restored—Queen in power—Goes to Coventry—Her popularity there—Brief pacification—The “dissimulated love-day”—Old enmities renewed—Her hatred to Warwick—She breaks peace—Early promise of the prince—His badge— Lancastrian muster—Queen witnesses the battle of Blore-heath—Her forces worsted—Her precipitate flight—Her successful campaign at Ludlow— Triumph of the Red rose—Queen's Norfolk progress—Defeat at Northampton —Her retreat—Falls into the hands of plunderers—Escapes with her son— Captivity of the king–Queen embarks with her son for Scotland—Sympathy of the Scotch—Visited by the queen-mother of Scotland and the young king —His Scotch establishment—Margaret obtains succours—She returns to England–Wins the battle of Wakefield–Her victory at St. Alban's—Frees king Henry—Offends the Londoners—Earl of March enters London—Queen retreats to York—Lancastrians defeated at Ferrybridge and Towton—King and queen retire to Alnwick—Cross the Scotch border—Successful negotiations at the Scotch court—Pecuniary distress of Margaret and Henry–Margaret pawns her gold cup—Resentment of the queen-mother—Selfish policy of Louis XL–Margaret pawns Calais–Her champion, Pierre de Brezé.

Queen Margaret, on the approach of York's army, had retired with her ladies and the infant prince to Greenwich, where she remained in a state of agonized suspense during the battle of St. Alban's. The news of the fatal blow the royal cause had received, by the slaughter of her brave friends and the captivity of the king her husband, plunged her into a sort of stupor of despair, in which she remained for many hours.' Her chamberlain, sir John Wenlock, whom she had advanced to great honours and loaded with benefits, took that opportunity of forsaking her, and strengthening the party of her foe. He was chosen’speaker of the Yorkist parliament, . which king Henry had been compelled to summon.” The * Prevost. * Parliamentary History.

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