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himself stood godfather to two. The princess of Wales knew well how to keep my uncle in her chains, having through subtlety enticed him to marry her; but fearful of being divorced by the king his father, for want of heirs, and that the prince would marry again, it is said she had you, and another son who died in his infancy, by some other person. And from your modes of thinking and acting being so different to the gallantry and prowess of the prince, it is thought you were the son of a priest or canon; for, at the time of your birth, there were many young and handsome ones in the household of my uncle at Bourdeaux. Such is the report of this country, which your conduct has confirmed; for you have ever shown a great affection to the French, and a desire to live at peace with them, to the loss of the honour of England. Because my uncle of Gloucester and the good earl of Arundel gave you good advice, and wished you to follow in the footsteps of your ancestors, you have treacherously put them to death. As for me, I will give you my protection, and will guard and preserve your life through compassion, as long as I shall be able.” For two hours did Henry thus converse, continuing to reproach the king with all the wrong he had ever been guilty of in the whole course of his life. He then took leave, re-entered his barge, and returned to his house; and on the morrow renewed his orders for the assembling of parliament. As an interlude to the narrative of Froissart, which details the deep dejection of Richard, the accounts given by his faithful attendant, and the manuscript of the Ambassades, show Richard, at intervals, with the lion-like desperation of the Plantagenets awakened in his breast. Sometimes the thoughts of his young wife, a prisoner like himself, and perhaps in equal danger, gave rise to tempests of rage, before whose sway the insolence of the usurper seems to have quailed, when in his presence. The time of the interview here described must have been one day of the three which intervened between the conference concerning the abdication just detailed and the meeting of parliament. The dukes of York and Aunnerle, and Henry, now called duke of Lancaster, went to the Tower, and * Froissart.

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sent the young earl of Arundel' to bid the king come to them out of his privy chamber. When this message was delivered to Richard, he replied, “Tell Henry of Lancaster from me, I shall do no such thing; if he wants to see me, let him come to me.”

On entering the king's apartment, none showed any respect to him but Henry, who took off his cap, and, saluting him respectfully, said, “Here is our cousin the duke of Aumerle, and our uncle the duke of York, who wish to speak to you.” Richard answered, “ Cousin, they are not fit to speak to me.” “But have the goodness to hear them,” said Henry. Upon which Richard uttered an oath, and exclaimed, turning to York,” “Thou villain what wouldst thou say to me! And hou, traitor of Rutland thou art neither good nor worthy to speak to me, nor to bear the name of duke, earl, or knight. Thou, and the villain thy father, foully have ye betrayed me;” in a cursed hour were ye born; by your false counsel was my uncle Gloucester put to death !” Aumerle replied to the king, “That he lied,” and threw down his bonnet at his feet: upon which the king said, “I am king and thy lord; and will continue king, and be greater lord than I ever was, in spite of all my enemies!” Upon this, Henry imposed silence on Aumerle.

Richard then, turning with a fierce countenance to Henry of Lancaster, asked “Why he was in confinement? and why under a guard of armed men? Am I your servant, or am I your king? What do you mean to do with me?” Henry replied, “You are my king and my lord; but the council of the realm have determined that you are to be kept in confinement till the decision of parliament.” The king then swore a deep oath, and said, “Let me have my wife.” “Excuse me,” replied Henry; “it is forbidden by the council that you should see queen Isabel.” Then the king in wrath walked about the room, breaking into passionate exclamations and appeals to Heaven, called them “false traitors,” offered to fight “any four of them,” threw down his bonnet as a gage, spoke “ of his father's and his grandfather's fame, and his reign of twenty-one years.” Henry of Lancaster then fell on his knees, and besought him “to be quiet till the meeting of parliament.” Before the meeting of parliament, this burst of spirit had subsided in deep despondency. Stowe declares that Richard's abdication took place in Westminster-hall; and that, by a singular coincidence, this ceremony was the first solemnized in that building since its new erection by Richard. The parliament waited, sitting in Westminster-hall, the termination of the following scene, which took place at Richard's prison in the Tower. Henry rode to the Tower with a selected number of prelates, dukes, earls, and knights, and dismounted in the court-yard; while king Richard, royally dressed, with the sceptre in his hand and the crown on his head, entered the hall in the Tower, but without supporters on either side, which was his usual state. He then addressed the company as follows: “I have reigned king of England, duke of Aquitaine, and lord of Ireland, about twenty-two years; which royalty, lordship, sceptre, and crown I now freely and willingly resign to my cousin, Henry of Lancaster, and entreat of him, in the presence of you all, to accept of this sceptre.” He then tendered the sceptre to Henry of Lancaster, who took it and gave it to the archbishop of Canterbury. King Richard next raised up his crown with both his hands from his head, and placing it before him said, “Henry, fair cousin, I present and give to you this crown, with which I was crowned king of England, and with it all the rights dependent on it.” Henry of Lancaster received the royal diadem, and delivered it over to the archbishop. Thus was the resignation accepted,—Henry of Lancaster calling in a public notary, that an authentic act might be drawn up of this proceeding, which was witnessed by all present. Soon after the king was led back to the apartments in the Tower from whence he had been conducted. The two iewels (the crown and sceptre) were safely packed up and given to proper guards, who placed them in the treasury of Westminster-abbey until they should be needed.' The news of the restraint in which the young queen of Bngland was held had been carried by some merchants of Bruges to the coast of France, together with the account of the deposition of her husband. But when the lady de Coucy arrived, who had been attached to the household of Isabella, the whole truth was known. Directly she alighted at the hotel of her lord at Paris, the king of France sent there to hear news of his daughter: he was so much shocked at the ill tidings she told of Isabella and her husband, that though his health had been good for some time, his agitation, on hearing of his daughter's reverse of fortune, brought back his fits of frenzy. The duke of Burgundy said, “The marriage of king Richard with Isabella was unadvised, and so I declared when it was proposed. Since the English have imprisoned king Richard, they will assuredly put him to death; for they always hated him, because he preferred peace to war. They will as certainly crown Henry of Lancaster.” This prediction of the queen's uncle proved true. During the last days of September, Henry of Lancaster was recognised by the majority of the assembled parliament as king; and was magnificently crowned in October, without the slightest recognition of the prior claims of the orphan heirs of the earl of March. While this revolution was effected, the young queen was removed to Sunning-Hill; there she was kept a state-prisoner, and sedulously misinformed regarding the events that had befallen her husband. The last hopes of king Richard had ended in despair when his cousin Aumerle had yielded the loyal city of Bristol, and his brother-in-law Huntingdom gave up Calais, and swore fealty to Henry IV. This fealty, however, only lasted six weeks. A plot was set on foot, headed by Aumerle, Huntingdon, and Salisbury, for killing Henry IV. at a tournament they were about to give at Windsor. Henry, whose health soon broke under the anxieties which beset the crown of thorns he had assumed, was sick at Windsor-castle. There was a spiked instrument concealed in his bed, for the purpose of destroying him when he lay down to rest; its introduction, says the monk of Evesham, “ was attributed to one of the young queen's servants.” Richard's doom was now sealed. He was hurried from

* Whose father Richard had put to death.

* Richard had left him regent of England, which he surrendered to Henry

without a struggle.

* Aumerle had just surrendered the loyal city of Bristol, the last hope of the unfortunate king.

* Froissart. This narrative is in perfect unison with the ancient laws and customs of England, which ordained that St. Edward's crown and regalia should be in the keeping of the abbot of Westminster.

the Tower to Pontefract-castle; meantime, the confederate lords flew to arms, and, dressing up king Richard’s chaplain, Maudelain, in royal robes, proclaimed that the deposed king had escaped from his gaolers. The young queen Isabella took an extraordinary part in this movement for the restoration of her husband.” When the earls of Kent and Salisbury came with their forces to Sunning-Hill, where she was abiding, they told her “They had driven the usurper Bolingbroke from Windsor to the stronghold of the Tower, and that her husband had escaped, and was then in full march to meet her at the head of a hundred thousand men.” Overjoyed at this news, the young queen put herself at their disposal. She likewise took great pleasure in ordering the badges of Henry IV. to be torn from her household, and replaced by those of her royal husband; in which “harmless spite,” says Hayward, “the queen Isabel took the utmost satisfaction.” A proclamation was likewise issued in her name, declaring “that she did not recognise Henry of Lancaster as king.” The queen then set out with her brother-in-law, the earl of Kent, and his allies, on their march to Wallingford and Abingdon. Full of joyful hope, Isabel expected every hour to meet her king triumphant at the head of a loyal army. She was with the barons when they entered the fatal town of Cirencester; but, amid the mysterious darkness which shrouds the termination of this insurrection, we lose sight of the actual manner in which the young queen was recaptured by Henry IV. Let

* He was exceedingly like Richard, and supposed to be an illegitimate son of one of the royal family; he was implicated in the illegal execution of the duke of Gloucester. He had adhered to Richard with the utmost fidelity, from his landing in Wales till his capture at Flint.

* Guthrie and Froissart. Sir John Hayward, p. 127, edition 1599. He says, "the insurgent lords came to the queen from Colnebrook to Sunning, a place near

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