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friendly remonstrances of Henry V. His wounds soon healed, and he was seen riding side by side with his conqueror and kinsman, conversing in the most friendly terms, a few days after the victory of Agincourt. But after thus reconciling his unfortunate captive to life, Henry refused all ransom for him, because he was the next heir to the throne of France after Charles the dauphin. Orleans was sent to England, and at first confined at Groombridge, in Kent, the seat of Waller; but was afterwards consigned to a severe imprisonment in the Tower of London, where he composed some of his most beautiful poems. It was well that his fine mind possessed resources in itself, for his captivity lasted twentythree years

Isabella was first interred at Blois, in the abbey of St. Laumer, where her body was found entire in 1624, curiously lapped in bands of linen, plated over with quicksilver. It was soon after transferred to the church of the Celestines, in Paris, the family burying-place of the line of Orleans, now desecrated and in ruins.

No portrait exists of Isabella of Valois as the queen of Richard II. The one from which our frontispiece has been copied, is from an illuminated MS. discovered by Mr. Harding, the antiquarian artist, among the Harleian collection.' Isabella is represented as the bride of Charles duke of Orleans. She has evidently resigned the royal mantle and sceptre of an English queen. Her coronet is the circle of fleurs-de-lis of a French princess, and she merely wears the jacket-bodice, of the fashion of her era, of blue velvet figured with fleurs-delis, and bordered with white miniver: the stomacher is of the same fur. Not a single jewel adorns the person of queen Isabella, save the few in her coronal-circlet; her hair is worn dishevelled, as was then the custom of maiden brides when they approached the altar.

"The reference given by Mr. G. P. Harding is, Harleian MS. 4379, 43801 Brit. Museum.




Joanna's parentage—Descent—Evil character of her father—Her early youth— Contracted to the prince of Castile–Captured by the French—Rage of her father—Her release—Her hand demanded by the duke of Bretagne—Dower— Marriage—Horrible death of her father—Her husband's jealousy—Birth and death of Joanna's daughter—Heir of Bretagne born—French ambassadors saved by Joanna—Her conjugal influence—Her son betrothed to Joanna of France—Besieged with her lord at Vannes—She mediates a peace—Her daughter contracted to the heir of Derby, (Henry W.)—Espousals of two of her children—Joanna's first acquaintance with Henry (IV.)—His floral emblem Forget-me-not—Henry assisted by Joanna's husband—The duke of Bretagne —Death of the duke—His will—Joanna regent of Bretagne—Her wise government—Inauguration of her son—Sought in marriage by Henry IV.-Her subtlety outwits the pope—Married to Henry—Visit of the duke of Burgundy to Joanna—His presents—Joanna puts her sons into his hands—Deed of gift to her aunt.

JoANNA, or Jane of Navarre, the consort of Henry IV., is one of those queens of England whose records, as connected with the history of this country, are of a very obscure and mysterious character; yet the events of her life, when traced through foreign chronicles and unpublished sources of information, are replete with interest, forming an unprecedented chapter in the history of female royalty. She was the second daughter of Charles king of Navarre, by the princess Jane of France, daughter of king John, the gallant and unfortunate opponent of Edward III. The evil deeds of Joanna's father had entailed upon him the unpopular cognomen of Charles le Mauvais, in plain English, “Charles the Bad.” This prince, being the son of the daughter and sole offspring of Louis X. of France, from whom he inherited the little kingdom of Navarre, the appanage of his great-grandmother, queen Jane, fancied that

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he had a superior claim to the throne of France to his cousin Philip of Valois, to whom, in consequence of the inexorable Salic law, the regal succession had reverted. It is certain that Charles of Navarre had a nearer claim to the throne of his grandfather and uncle than Edward III., who only derived his descent from Isabella of France, the sister of these princes, and even if the Salic law had not existed, could have had no legal pretension to supersede the son of her brother's daughter. Edward was, however, a prince of consummate talent, and possessed of the means of asserting his claims by force of arms. Charles le Mauvais, having neither the resources nor the energies of the mighty Edward of England, made no open struggle, but played a treacherous game between him and Philip of Valois, in the hope of establishing himself by his crooked policy on the disputed throne of his grandfather." His intrigues and crimes rendered the childhood of Joanna

and her brethren a season of painful vicissitudes. Joanna was contracted in the year 1380 to John, the heir of Castile, at the same time her eldest brother Charles was married to the sister of that prince. Political reasons induced Joanna's affianced bridegroom, on the death of the king his father, to break his engagement with her, and wed a princess of Arragon. Meantime, Charles le Mauvais, having embroiled himself with the regents of France, sent Joanna and her brothers, for greater security, to the castle of Breteuil, in Normandy. In the year 1381 they were captured and carried to Paris, where they were detained as hostages for their father's future conduct. Charles le Mauvais, finding his entreaties for their liberation fruitless, out of revenge suborned a person to poison both the regents. The emissary was detected and put to death, but Charles, the greater criminal of the two, was out of the reach of justice.* Joanna and her brothers might have been imperilled by the lawless conduct of their father, had they not been in the hands of generous foes, the brothers 1. H. is accused, by contemporary historians, of practising the dark mysteries

of the occult sciences in the unhallowed privacy of his own palace; and it is certain that, as a poisoner, Charles of Navarre acquired an infamous celebrity

* Mezerai. Moreri.

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