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was then staying, with almost queenly pomp, at Windsor-castle, and there the ceremony took place which made her a peeress of the realm. “The king, attended by the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, the French ambassador, and many peers, besides the privy council, went on Sunday Sept. 1st, to the state apartment in Windsor-castle, called by some “the chamber of salutation,’ and by others ‘the presence-chamber,’ and seated himself in the chair of state. To this room Anne Boleyn was conducted by a great train of courtiers and the nobility, both lords and ladies. First entered Garter king-at-arms, bearing the king's patent of nobility. After Garter came the lady Mary, daughter to the duke of Norfolk and cousin-german to Anne Boleyn, carrying on her left arm a robe of state, made of crimson velvet furred with ermine, and in her right hand a coronet of gold. She was followed by Anne Boleyn herself, with her hair loose hanging about her shoulders, attired in her inner garment, called a surcoat, of crimson velvet, lined with ermine also, and with short sleeves: she walked between Elizabeth countess of Rutland, and Dorothy countess of Sussex, and she was followed by many noble gentlewomen. While she approached the king's royal seat, she thrice made her obeisance; and when she arrived before him, she kneeled. The charter having been presented to the king, he delivered it to his secretary Gardiner, who read it aloud; and when he came to the words mantille inductionem, the king took the robe of state from the lady Mary, and put it on Anne Boleyn's shoulders; and at the words circuli aurei, the lady Mary handed him the coronet, which he placed on the brow of the new-made marchioness. When the charter was read he presented it to her, together with another that secured to her a pension of 1000l. per annum during her life, for maintaining that dignity. She then gave the king humble thanks, and with the coronet on her head, and invested with the robe, she retired, the trumpets sounding most melodiously as she departed from the presence-chamber. A largess was cried on her gift to Garter king-at-arms of 8l., and to his officers of 1ll.; while Henry gave a largess of 5l. on the occasion.” * Milles' Catalogue of Honour, p. 42. Vol. II. 8 S
The sum of 30l. 16s. 10d. was paid from the royal privypurse for the materials of which Anne Boleyn's robes were made for her investiture as marchioness of Pembroke.” Henry presented her with some miniatures by Holbein, magnificently set in jewels, as ornaments for her person. The unpublished MSS. in the Chapter-house, Westminster, bear record of a costly donation of gold, silver, and parcel-gilt plate, presented by the king to Anne Boleyn on this occasion, to the value of 1188l. 11s. 10d. The articles in this curious inventory consist of cups, flagons, bowls, trenchers, goblets with covers, having the royal arms on shields; spoons, salts, chandeliers, and a chafing-dish. She had an establishment which outvied that of the sister and nieces of the king. She had a trainbearer, three ladies of the bedchamber, and four maids of honour, all of them daughters of barons or knights; three gentlemen in waiting; six officers, all knights or barons; and more than thirty domestics. In most of the royal architecture which was under progress during the divorce, and while Anne Boleyn was beloved by the king, their initial cyphers were introduced, entwined with a true-lover's knot. This is still to be seen at Cambridge, where the choir of King's college is separated from the ante-chapel by a screen, added in the year 1534, in which are these cyphers and knot, besides the arms of England empaled with those of Boleyn.”
Just before the visit Henry made to France in company with Anne Boleyn as marchioness of Pembroke, cardinal du Bellai, ambassador from Francis I., thus describes their proceedings:–“I am alone every day with the king when we
* Privy-purse Expenses; sir H. Nicolas.
* The achievement of queen Anne Boleyn stands neatly carved on the large wood screen as you go up to the choir in King's-college chapel, Cambridge, being quarterly France and England, empaling quarterly of six pieces; l. gules, three lions passant, gardant, or, on a label of three points, azure, and fleurs-de-lys of the second, Lancaster; 2. azure, seme of flowers-de-luce, or, a label of three points, gules, Angoulême; 3. gules, a lion passant, gardant, or. These three augmentations were given her by Henry VIII. when he created her marchiones of Pembroke. Rochford, Brotherton, and Warren follow those of Butler of Ormond.—Camden's Remains, p. 217. “It is a singular fact,” observes sir H. Nicolas, “that when Henry VIII. granted armorial ensigns to Anne Boleyn, then marchioness of Pembroke, he took especial care to show her royal and illustrious descent through the Howards, by introducing the arms of Thomas of Brotherton, son of Edward I., and of the Warrens, earls of Surrey, from the Howard shield.”
are hunting; he chats familiarly with me, and sometimes madame Anne joins our party. Each of them are equipt with bow and arrows, which is, as you know, their mode of following the chase. Sometimes he places us both in a station to see him shoot the deer; and whenever he arrives near any house belonging to his courtiers, he alights to tell them of the feats he has performed. Madame Anne has presented me a complete set of hunting-gear, consisting of a cap, a bow and arrows, and a greyhound. I do not tell you this as a boast of the lady's favours, but to show how much king Henry prizes me as the representative of our monarch, for whatever that lady does is directed by him.” This despatch is dated from Hanwell: so is the following, which is written to intimate that king Henry much dasired that Anne Boleyn should be invited to his approaching congress with Francis I. “If our sovereign,” says Bellai, “wishes to gratify the king of England, he can do nothing better than invite madame Anne with him to Calais, and entertain her there with great respect.” The next sentence is not complimentary to the reputation of Anne Boleyn, for the ambassador adds,-" Nevertheless, it will be desirable that the king of France brings no company of ladies, (indeed there is always better cheer without them); but in case they must come, he had better bring only the queen of Navarre to Boulogne. I shall not mention with whom, or from whence, this idea originates, being pledged to secrecy, but be assured I do not write without authority. As to the queen of France," not for the world would he [Henry VIII.] meet her, for he says he would as soon see the devil as a lady in a Spanish dress.”
It was at the period between Anne Boleyn's creation as marchioness of Pembroke and her recognition as queen, that Wyatt addressed to her the following lines, in which he bids farewell to her as a lover:—
“Forget not yet the tried intent
* Eleanor of Austria, sister to Charles W., and consequently niece to Katharine of Arragon: she was the second wife of Francis I., and niece to the ill-treated
Katharine of Arragon.
Forget not yet when first began
The weary life ye know; since when
The suit, the service none tell can,
Forget not yet the great assays, strials,J
The cruel wrongs, the scornful ways,
The painful patience and delays,
Forget not, oh! forget not this,
How long ago hath been and is
The love that never meant amiss,
Forget not now thine own approved,
The which so constant hath thee loved,
Whose steadfast faith hath never moved,
Forget not yet.” The state of horticulture in England at this period may be
traced by some very interesting items in the privy-purse expenses of Henry VIII. in the summer of 1532, in which are recorded rewards paid to sundry poor women, on various days, for bringing the king presents of apples, pears, barberries, peaches, artichokes, filberts, and other fruits. His gardeners from Beaulieu, Greenwich, and Hampton bring him grapes, oranges, cucumbers, melons, cherries, strawberries, pomegramates, citrons, plums, lettuces, and, in short, almost every kind of luxury that could be supplied for the royal table in modern times. The first specimens of porcelain, or china, on record ever introduced into England, are mentioned by Henry Hut. toft, surveyor of the customs at Southampton, in a letter to Cromwell about this period, announcing the arrival of a present of novelties for king Henry VIII., consisting of the fol. lowing articles:—“Two musk cats, three little ‘munkkeys,” a marmozet; a shirt, or upper vesture, of fine cambric, wrought with white silk in every part, which is very fair for a suchlike thing; a chest of nuts of India, containing xl. which be greater than a man's fist, scocoa-nuts, of course]; and three potts of erthe payntid, called Porseland." Howbeit, the merchant saith, before they shall be presented, there shall be to every one of these things certain preparations, such as chains of gold and silver, with colours and other things according, for the furniture of the same.” These dainty chains, we think,
* Original Letters, edited by sir H. Ellis; third Series.
must have been intended for the furniture of the cats, monkeys, and marmoset. In contradistinction to queen Katharine, who was fond of those animals, Anne Boleyn expressed the greatest abhorrence of monkeys. On the 4th of October was paid, by Henry's orders, 56l. for certain silks provided for apparel for Anne, who is styled my lady marques of Pembroke, and the same day 38l. 10s. 10d. for furring the same." Probably she had her share, also, in the jewels, mercery, and millinery for which the royal privypurse accounts are charged, to the amount of more than 12,000l., at the same time. The following day, the only daughter of the sovereign receives the noble gift of 10l.” On the 13th of October, Anne, attended by the marchioness of Derby and a chosen retinue of ladies, arrived at Dover in the royal train; and early on the following morning they all embarked for Calais, where they arrived at ten in the forenoon. On the 14th, the grand-master of France sent a present of grapes and pears to the fair Boleyn. The same day Henry gave her further marks of his favour, by granting her a settlement of lands in Wales, Essex, Herts, and Somersetshire. On the 21st, they progressed with great pomp to Boulogne, to meet the French king. Henry and Francis approached each other bare-headed, and embraced. Francis was not accompanied either by his queen, his sister, or indeed by any ladies,<a mortifying circumstance to Anne Boleyn, since nothing could afford a more decided proof of the questionable light in which she was regarded at this time by her old friends at the court of France. Hall gives an elaborate account of the munificence of Henry's entertainment at Boulogne, where Francis, in the capacity of host, furnished the cheer and paid all costs.” Though Anne sojourned four days with Henry at Boulogne, the absence of the ladies of the French king's family prevented her from appearing at the festivities that were provided for her royal lover. On the 25th, she returned with the two kings to Calais, where, for the honour of his realm, our English Harry had caused preparations" to be made for * Privy-purse Expenses of Henry VIII. * Ibid. * MS. Harl, No. 303, p. 4. * Herbert. Lingard. Tytler. Turner. Hall.