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nuptials, and the residence of the youthful pair; but after the cession of this mportant town had been guaranteed by Richard II., the king of France contrived to break the marriage, by inducing the heir of Alençon to offer to marry the princess with a smaller dower than the heir of Lancaster was to have received with her.” Marie was espoused to John of Alençon, June 26th, 1396, and a peculiar animosity always subsisted between her husband and the defrauded Henry of Monmouth. The heir of Bretagne was married to Joanna of France the same year. The espousals were solemnized at the hôtel de St. Pol by the archbishop of Rouen, in the presence of the king and queen of France, the queen of Sicily, the duke and duchess of Bretagne, and the dukes of Berri and Burgundy. The duke of Bretagne undertook a voyage to England, in 1398, to induce king Richard to restore to him the earldom of Richmond, which had been granted by Richard I. to his first queen, Anne of Bohemia, and after her death to Jane of Bretagne, the sister of the duke, who was married to Raoul Basset, an English knight. Richard restored the earldom to the duke, and gave him an acquittance of all his debts to him; and the duke did the same by him at Windsor, 23rd of April, 1398. “It was time,” says Dom Morice, with some naïveté, “that these princes should settle their accounts together, for the one was on the point of deposition, the other of death.” It was in the following year that Joanna first became acquainted with her second husband, Henry of Bolingbroke, during the period of his banishment from his native land. Henry was not only one of the most accomplished warriors and statesmen of the age in which he lived, but remarkable for his fine person and graceful manners. He was a widower” at that time, "Actes de Bretagne. * His deceased wife was Mary de Bohun, daughter and co-heiress of the earl of Hereford, hereditary constable of England. She was great-grand-daughter to oward I. and Eleanora of Castile, and the richest heiress in England, excepting her sister, who was married to Henry's uncle, Gloucester. She had possessions to the amount of forty thousand nobles per annum, arising from several earldoms and baronies. She was devoted to a conventual life by her interested brother-inand the vindictive jealousy of his cousin, Richard II. of England, had exerted itself successfully to break the matrimonial engagements into which he was about to enter with the lady Marie of Berri, the daughter of Charles VI.'s uncle. This princess was cousin-german to Joanna, and in all probability beloved by Henry, if we may form conclusions from the peculiar bitterness with which he ever recurred to Richard's arbitrary interference for the prevention of this marriage.
law, who had her in wardship, but evaded that destiny by marrying Henry of Lancaster, who, by the contrivance of her aunt, carried her off from Pleshy, and
Charles VI. of France, though he entertained a personal friendship for Henry, whom he regarded as an ill-treated man, had requested him to withdraw from his court, as his residence there was displeasing to king Richard. The duke of Burgundy, willing to please Richard, would not allow Henry to pass through his dominions, and attempted to have him arrested on his road to Boulogne.' Henry took refuge in the territories of Bretagne, but, aware of the close family connexion of the duke with Richard II., he rested at Blois, and sent one of his knights to Wannes to ascertain whether John the Valiant was disposed to receive him at his court. John was piqued at the mistrust implied by Henry’s caution; for, says Froissart, “he was much attached to him, having always loved the duke of Lancaster, his father, better than the other sons of Edward III. “Why,” said he to the knight, ‘ has our nephew stopped on the road? It is foolish; for there is no knight whom I would so gladly see in Bretagne as my fair nephew the earl of Derby. Let him come and find a hearty welcome.’” When the earl of Derby received this message, he immediately set forward for the dominions of the duke of Bretagne. The duke” met the earl at Nantes, and received him and his company with great joy. It was on this occasion married her, 1384. She died in the bloom of life in 1394, leaving six infants; namely, the renowned Henry V., Thomas duke of Clarence, John duke of Bedford, regent of France, and Humphrey duke of Gloucester, protector of England, Blanche, married to the count Palatine, and Philippa to Eric king of Denmark, the unworthy heir of Margaret Waldemar. It was from Mary Bohun that Henry derived his title of duke of Hereford. Though her decease happened so many years before his elevation to the royal dignity, he caused masses to be said for the repose of her soul, under the title of queen Mary, by the monks of Sionabbey, which he founded after he came to the throne of England.
" Michelet's History of France, vol. iv. p 20.
that Henry first saw, and, if the chronicles of Bretagne may be relied on, conceived that esteem for the duchess Joanna, which afterwards induced him to become a suitor for her hand. We find he was accustomed to call the duke of Bretagne “his good uncle;” in memory of his first marriage with Mary of England; and it is very probable that, in accordance with the manners of those times, he addressed the duchess Joanna, per courtesy, by the title of aunt. The archbishop of Canterbury accompanied Henry to the court of Bretagne incognito, having just arrived from England with an invitation to him from the Londoners and some of the nobles attached to his party, urging him to invade England, for the ostensible purpose of claiming his inheritance, the duchy of Lancaster. Henry asked the duke of Bretagne's advice. “Fair nephew,” replied the duke, “the straightest road is the surest and best: I would have you trust the Londoners. They are powerful, and will compel king Richard, who, I understand, has treated you unjustly, to do as they please. I will assist you with vessels, men-at-arms, and cross-bows. You shall be conveyed to the shores of England in my ships, and my people shall defend you from any perils you may encounter on the voyage.” Whether Henry of Lancaster was indebted to the good offices of the duchess Joanna for this favourable reply from the duke, history has not recorded. But as John the Valiant had hitherto been the fast friend, and, as far as his disaffected nobles would permit, the faithful ally of his royal brother-inlaw, Richard II., and now that his suzerain, Charles VI. of France, was united in the closest bonds of amity with that prince, and the young heir of Bretagne was espoused to the sister of his queen, it must have been some very powerful influence, scarcely less indeed than the eloquence of a bosom counsellor, that could have induced him to furnish Richard's mortal foe with the means of invading England. The purveyances of “aspiring Lancaster” were, however, prepared at Vannes, and the duke of Bretagne came thither with his guest when all things were ready for his departure.” Henry *Froissart. * Ibid. * Ibid.
was conveyed by three of the duke's vessels of war, freighted with men-at-arms and cross-bows. This royal adventurer, the banished Lancaster, was the first person who gave to the myosotis arvensis, or ‘forget-me-not,’ its emblematic and poetic meaning, by uniting it, at the period of his exile, on his collar of SS, with the initial letter of his mot, or watchword, Souveignevous de moy;” thus rendering it the symbol of remembrance, and, like the subsequent fatal roses of York, Lancaster, and Stuart, the lily of Bourbon, and the violet of Napoleon, an historical flower. Poets and lovers have adopted the sentiment which makes the blue myosotis plead the cause of the absent by the eloquence of its popular name, ‘forget-me-not;’ but few indeed of those who, at parting, exchange this simple touching appeal to memory are aware of the fact, that it was first used as such by a royal Plantagenet prince, who was, perhaps, indebted to the agency of this mystic blossom for the crown of England.” We know not if Henry of Lancaster presented a myosotis to the duchess of Bretagne at his departure from the court of Wannes, but he afforded a convincing proof that his fair hostess was not forgotten by him, when a proper season arrived for claiming her remembrance.
The assistance rendered by the duke of Bretagne to the future husband of his consort, was not the last important action of his life. He was at that time in declining health, and had once more involved himself in disputes with Clisson and his party. Clisson's daughter Margaret, countess de Penthièvres, being a woman of an ambitious and daring spirit, was perpetually urging her husband and father to set up the rival title of the house of Blois to the duchy of Bretagne, and is accused by Alain Bouchard, and other of the Breton chroniclers, of having hastened the death of John the Valiant by poison or sorcery. The duke was carefully attended by Joanna in his dying illness. By a codicil to his last will and testament, which he had made during his late visit to England, he confirms “her dower and all his former gifts to his beloved companion, the duchess Joanna,” whom, with his eldest son, John count de Montfort, the bishop of Nantes, and his cousin the lord Montauban, he nominates his executors. The document concludes with these words —
| yout. Regal Heraldry, p. 42. Anstis' Order of the Garter, vol. ii. P.
* There is the following entry in the wardrobe Computus of Henry earl of li
Derby: “Propondere unius collarii facticum esses SS de floribus de Soviegne-rous & so
de moy, pendere et amoill,” weighing eight ounces. Computus Gardrobi Hen. de Lancaster, Com, Derby, dea? 20, Ric. II.-Retrospective Review, p. 507.
“In the absence of others, and in the presence of our said companion the duchess, this codicil is signed 26th day of October, 1399. Dictated by our said lord the duke from his sick bed, and given under his seal in the castle tower, near Nantes, about the hour of vespers, in the presence of the duchess, Giles, a knight, master Robert Brocherol, and Joanna Chesnel, wife of Guidones de Rupeforte. Written by J. de Ripa, notary, at the castle of Nantes.”
On the 1st of November, 1399, the duke breathed his last; and Joanna, having been appointed by him as regent for their eldest son, the young duke, with the entire care of his person, assumed the reins of government in his name.” Her first public act, after the funeral of her deceased lord had been solemnized in the cathedral-church of Nantes, was a public reconciliation with sir Oliver Clisson, with his son-in-law, count de Penthièvres, and the rest of the disaffected nobles who had been at open variance with her deceased lord." She employed the prelates, and some of the most prudent of the nobles of Bretagne, to mediate this pacification; and after many journeys and much negotiation, concessions were made on both sides, and Clisson, with the rest of the malcontents, swore to obey the widowed duchess during the minority of their young duke, her son. This treaty was signed and sealed at the castle of Blein, January 1, 1400." Clisson's power in the duchy was so great, owing to his vast possessions there, his great popularity, and his influence as constable of France, that he might have been a most formidable enemy to the Foung duke, if the duchess-regent had not succeeded in contiating him." "In the year 1395, a very rich addition to the dower of Joanna was assigned *the duke, her husband.-Chron. de Bretagne, Dom Morice. * Preuves Historiques. *Actes de Bretagne.
"Chron. de Bretagne. Preuves Hist. * Actes de Bretagne.
‘Alain Bouchard gives a very interesting account of Clisson's conduct, when oted by his daughter Marguerite, the wife of the rival claimant of the duchy,
**troy the infant family of the late duke, when the death of that prince had their destinies in a great measure in his hands. Marguerite, having heard