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a subterraneous back way, and, taking his immense treasure with him, stole away as secretly as he could. His flight however was soon discovered; and he was so closely pursued, that to amuse, as he hoped, the enemy, he caused a great deal of his money, plate, jewels, &c. to be scattered all the way, thinking they would not fail to stop their pursuit to gather it up. This stratagem, however, failed through the vigilance of the Spanish commander, who being at the head of the pursuers, obliged them to march on, till he was come up close to him on the banks of the Huexda, about 8 leagues from Tremecen. Barbarossa had just crossed the river with his vanguard, when the Spaniards came up with his rear on the other side, and cut them all off'; and then crossing the water, overtook him at a small distance from it. Here a bloody engagement ensued in which the Turks fought like lions; but, being at length overpowered by numbers, they were all cut to pieces, and Barbarossa among the rest, in the 44th year of his age, four years after he had raised himself to the royal title of Tigel of the adjacent country ; and two years after he had acquired possession of Tremecen. His head was carried to Tremecen, on the point of a spear; and Abuchen-Men proclaimed king, to the joy of all the inhabitants. A few days after, the king of Fez appeared at the head of 20,000 horse, near the field of battle; but hearing of Barbarossa's defeat and death, marched off with all possible speed.

HAYRADIN BARBAROSSA, the younger brother of the preceding. On the death of his brother Aruch, he assumed the sceptre at Algiers with equal abilities, but with better fortune; for the Spaniards, sufficiently employed in Europe, giving him no disturbance, he regulated the interior police of his kingdom with great prudence, carried on his naval operations with vigour, and extended his conquests to the continent of Africa. But perceiving that the Moors and Arabs submitted to his government with the utmost impatience, and being afraid that his continual depredations would one day draw upon him the arms of the Christians, he put his dominions under the protection of the grand Signior, and received from him a body of Turkish soldiers, sufficient for his security against his domestic, as well as his foreign enemies. At last, the fame of his exploits daily increasing, Solyman, the Turkish emperor, offered him the command of his fleet, as the only person whose valour and skill entitled him to command against the famous Andrew Doria. Proud of this distinction, Barbarossa repaired to Constantinople; and with a wonderful versatility of mind, mingling the arts of a courtier with the boldness of a Corsair, gained the entire confidence both of the Sultan and his Vizir. To them he communicated a scheme he had formed of making himself master of Tunis, the most flourishing kingdom of that time, on the coast of Africa; which being approved of, they gave him whatever he demanded for carrying it into execution. He obtained it in a manner similar to that by which his brother gained Algiers; but was driven from it by Charles V., in 1536. After this he ravaged several parts of Italy, and reduced Yemen in Arabia Felix, to the Turkish government. He died in 1547, aged 80. With the ferocity of a Turk and a corsair, Barbarossa possessed some generous sentiments, and obtained a character for honour and fidelity to his engagements.

GERMANY.

FREDERIC III., emperor of Germany, son of Ernest, duke of Austria, succeeded his cousin Albert II., in the year 1440. He was now in his twenty-fifth year, and one of his first acts was to convoke a diet, for the purpose of terminating the schism, then subsisting in the papal see, but as his propositions were totally disregarded, he left the matter to the contending popes to settle as they pleased. In 1451, Frederic visited Italy in order to receive the imperial crown from the pope. This ceremony was performed with due pomp, but did not enable him to recover any of the rights of the empire which had been torn from it by various usurpers, and his visit left a very unfavourable impression of his talents on the minds of the Italians. An attempt was made to rouse him to exertion when Constantinople was taken by the Turks, but he could not be prevailed on to make any efforts in the Christian cause. He was engaged some time in domestic wars for the possession of the duchy of Austria, which on the death of Albert he obtained. In 1468 he visited Rome, held several conferences with the pope concerning means for resisting the progress of the Turks; but nothing of importance followed. Frederic was, however, very intent upon the aggrandizement of his family, and the marriage of his son Maximilian to the heiress of the rich house of Burgundy, and thus had the good fortune to be the author of the greatest accession of dominion that his race ever acquired. From this period he reposed upon Maximilian the chief weight of the government, who was soon after elected king of the Romans. Upon the death of Matthias he obtained from his son Ladislaus the restitution of Austria, and afterwards regained Tyrol from the duke of Bavaria; at length he quitted the reins of empire, and retired to Lentz, where he occupied himself in scientific studies. He died at the age of seventy-nine years, in consequence of an amputation of his leg. He was a prince of an agreeable air and majestic countenance; he was plain in his apparel, moderate in his passions, and so remarkably abstemious, that his life is said to have resembled a continual fast. From his natural aversion to war he was surnamed the "Pacific," yet the inconstancy of his temper often prompted him to embark in quarrels. He was endowed with a remarkably tenacious memory, but was destitute of courage, resolution, and generosity. He had a favourite maxim to which he had perpetual recourse, viz. "that the best remedy for irretrievable losses is oblivion."

MAXIMILIAN I., emperor of Germany, born in 1459, was son of the emperor Frederic III. His faculties opened so slowly, that at the age of ten, it was doubtful whether he was dumb or an idiot. From that time, however, he became remarkably addicted to letters, and arrived at the ready and eloquent use of the Latin, French, and Italian languages. In his twentieth year he was married to Mary, the heiress of the great house of Burgundy. Louis XL, of France, having seized part of her inheritance in the low countries, Maximilian made war against him, defeated his troops at the battle of Guinegaste, and recovered great part of the usurped territories. He also suppressed the revolts which broke out in various parts of the low countries. As he was proceeding in a career of success, he had the misfortune to lose his wife, in consequence of a fall from her horse, after she had borne him a son and a daughter. This circumstance gave a great shock to his authority in those parts, and the guardianship of the children was immediately contested with him by the States. He endeavoured to retain the government of the provinces, in which he was unpopular, through his preference to Germans in the bestowing of offices; and a civil war ensued, which was at length accommodated on the condition that he should continue tutor to his son Philip under certain restrictions. He had affianced his daughter Margaret to the Dauphin, and she was sent into France to be educated. In 1486, Maximilian was elected king of the Romans, and crowned at Aix-la-chapelle. The disorders committed by his German troops in Flanders, and suspicions of his arbitrary designs, occasioned a revolt in that country, always jealous of its rights and privileges; and upon his arrival at Bruges to meet the States-General in 1488J the inhabitants ran to arms and secured his person, at the same time imprisoning some of his counsellors and favourites, four of whom they put to death. The people of Ghent followed their example, and affairs were in great confusion, till Maximilian was liberated by a treaty. A marriage with another rich heiress, Anne of Brittany, was now the object of his ambition; and he prevailed so far with the States of that country, as to procure a solemnization of the nuptials by proxy; but having neither troops nor money to support his interest, Charles VIII., of France, robbed him of his spouse, and sent back his daughter Margaret, to whom he had been contracted when Dauphin. Maximilian, enraged at this conduct, invaded French Flanders, and took some towns; but the quarrel was terminated by the peace of Senlis in 1493. In that year, Maximilian, by the death of his father, succeeded to the imperial dignity. He immediately marched at the head of an army against the Turks who had invaded Croatia, but they retreated before he could reach them. In 1494, he married his second wife Blanche, the sister of John Galeazzo, duke of Milan, the meanness of whose origin was compensated by a large portion, of which he was in great want. This alliance engaged him in the affairs of Italy; and when Charles VIII., of France, in his rapid career, had made himself master of the kingdom of Naples, Maximilian joined in the confederacy of the Pope, the king of Spain, and several Italian powers, to oppose his arms. He also married his son Philip to the infanta Jane, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, by which the Low Countries eventually fell under the dominion of Spain. After the retreat of Charles from Italy, Maximilian in 1496, engaged in an expedition into that country, and laid siege to Leghorn; but through want of strength, and fluctuation in his counsels, he failed in his attempts, and retreated with disgrace. A war with the duke of Guelderland, in which he was next involved, was suddenly suspended on account of a quarrel with the Grisons, and their allies the Swiss, who made incursions upon his Austrian territories. He attempted to reduce this valiant people, but did not succeed, and after being defeated seven times within six months, he terminated the war, in 1500, by a treaty and arbitration. Lewis XII., of France having conquered Milan, the emperor was induced by advantageous terms to grant him the investiture of it. After the death of his son Philip in 1507, he obtained the regency of the Low Countries, of which he constituted his daughter Margaret governante. The famous league of Cambray against the Venetians took place in 1509, to which Maximilian was one of the contracting parties. His troops took Friuli and Istra, and he himself, at the head of a great army, laid siege to Padua, but was obliged to abandon the enterprise. When in the sequel Pope Julius deserted the league, and declared war against the French, Maximilian conceived the extraordinary project of deposing him and succeeding to the papacy, fie intended to bribe the cardinals with a Targe sum of borrowed money, for he had none of his own; but the scheme was only communicated to a few friends, and had no consequences. He continued for some time to act with the French, but in 1512 he was detached from their alliance by the kings of England and Arragon, and joined in a league against them. For a large subsidy he engaged to assist Henry VIII. with a body of Swiss in his invasion of France; but failing in his engagement, he came in person with a few German VOL. IV. C

troops, and flattered the vanity of the English king, as well as gratified his own avarice, by serving under him for the pay of a hundred crowns a day. On the accession of Francis I., he made peace with that monarch, who thereby gained the opportunity of recovering the Milanese. His rapid successes, however, alarmed Maximilian, who made an alliance with the pope, and laid siege to Milan, but with his usual ill success; and he soon after made an accommodation with Francis. The commencement of the Reformation under Luther seemed not greatly to interest him. The solicitations of the monks, however, induced him to apply to Pope Leo X., to terminate the religious disputes by his decision, and he summoned Luther to appear with a safe conduct before the diet of Augsburg. His own cares were chiefly employed to secure the succession to the imperial crown for his grandson Charles. To this there existed the obstacle, that as he himself had never been crowned by the

Eope, he was only regarded by the Roman see as king of the Lomans, and therefore Charles could not be invested with that dignity. While he was taking measures to overcome this difficulty, he was attacked by an intermitting fever, which violent exercise and an imprudent indulgence in melons, rendered continual, and a dysentery supervening, he was carried off in January 1519, in the sixtieth year of his age. With some amiable and respectable qualities, Maximilian obtained little esteem among his contemporaries, on account of a radical inconstancy and indecision of character, and a profuseness that involved him in perpetual pecuniary embarrassments, and destroyed all dignity of character. He was beneficent and humane, and rendered an important service to Germany, by abolishing the famous secret tribunal of Westphalia. He was the author of some poems, and composed memoirs of his life.

MARGARET, daughter of Maximilian I., was betrothed to the dauphin, afterwards Charles VIII., but did not marry him. She was afterwards married to the infant of Spain, and took for her next husband, Philibert, duke of Savoy. She was governess of the Netherlands, and displayed her zeal against the Lutherans. She died 1530, aged 50.

SIGISMUND, BARON HERBESTIEN, born at Vippach, in Stirra, in 1486, entered into the imperial army in 1506, and distinguished himself by his valour against the Turks. In 1509 he was made commandant of all the Stirian cavalry, and was afterwards rewarded by the title of knight, and the dignity of court counsellor. He was ambassador to various countries, to Denmark, Poland, and Russia, and was created a privy counsellor, and president of the Austrian chamber. In 1541, he was sent as ambassador to the grand Seignior, who was at that time with his army near Buda. He had various other honourable employments entrusted to his management, and, after serving

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