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and afterwards spent some time in travelling. In 1523, the 14th of Henry VIII., he attended the earl of Surrey to the coast of Brittany; and commanded the troops in the attack of Morlaix, which he took and burnt. For this service he was knighted on the spot by the earl. In 1529, he was sent ambassador to France, and, in 1530, to Rome on account of the king's divorce. He was gentleman of the privy chamber to Henry VIII., and to Edward VI., in the beginning of whose reign he marched with the protector against the Scots; and after the battle of Musselburgh, was made bannaret. In 1548, he was appointed chief governor of Ireland, where he married the countess of Ormond. He died soon after and was buried at Waterford. He wrote, 1. Songs and Sonnets, some of which were printed with those of the earl of Surrey, and Sir Thomas Wyat. Lond. 1565. 2. Letters written from Rome concerning the king's divorce, MS. 3. Various letters of state. 4. A dispraise of the life of a courtier, &c. Lond. 1548,8vo. from the French of Alaygri, who translated it from the Castilian language, in which it was originally written by Guevara.
RICHARD PACE, an eminent statesman and ecclesiastic, in the reign of Henry VIII. He was born at or near Winchester, about 1482. He studied some time at Queen's college, Oxford, and afterwards went to Rome in the service of doctor Christopher Bambridge. On the death of Bambridge, in 1514, Pace returned to England. Henry VIII. sent for him to his court, and employed him in affairs of great political importance. In 1515, he went on an embassy to the emperor Maximilian, in order to engage him to check the progress of the French arms in Italy. Maximilian undertook the expedition, but was unsuccessful, and therefore was obliged to make peace with the French king, Francis I.
Pace now took orders and was made dean of St. Paul's, London, and also of Exeter. He went to Rome to solicit the Popedom for Wolsey, and was next ambassador at Venice. Here he felt all the M'eight of Wolsey's jealousy; no directions were sent him for his guidance, and no remittances made, and in consequence his spirits were so affected, that he became insane. As soon as Henry was informed of this, Pace was ordered home; and by the aid of the king's physicians he was restored to the use of his senses. Henry wished to preserve him from the persecutions of Wolsey; but the cardinal was so powerful at this time, that he procured Pace's imprisonment in the Tower; where he was in captivity for two years, at which period he was liberated by the command of the king. Pace, thus degraded, and depressed in body and mind, resigned his deaneries some time before his death, and expired at Stepney, in 1532, aged 50. He was a man universally beloved, and enjoyed the friendship of Pole, Sir Thomas More, Erasmus, &c. He was the author of several works.
NICHOLAS VAUX, lord of Harrowden, Northamptonshire, distinguished himself at the battle of Stoke, near Newark, Nottinghamshire, in 1487, and was knighted. He continued a favourite at the court of Henry VIII., and attended his master in his interview with Francis I., and was raised to the rank of baron. He wrote poems called " The Paradise of Dainty Devices," and died at Northamptonshke in 1522.
THOMAS HOWARD, earl of Surrey, and duke of Norfolk, an eminent commander in the reign of Henry VIII., was born about 1473. He was brought up to arms by his valiant father, the earl of Surrey; and soon after the accession of Henry VIII., was decorated by the knighthood of the garter. He assisted his brother Sir Edward, in his attack against Sir Andrew Barton, a Scotch pirate, who in 1511, spread terror on the English coast. He next embarked for Guienne with the marquis of Dorset, and ably contributed to the conquest of Navarre by the arms of Ferdinand. Raised to the honour of high admiral, he displayed his valour in the field, and ensured the defeat of the Scotch at Flodden-field, where James IV. was slain. He afterwards went to Ireland as viceroy, and after two years he returned to lead a fleet against the French. These services were rewarded by the king, who created him earl of Surrey, and restored his father to the dukedom of Norfolk, but his popularity was transitory. The great reputation, property, and influence of the duke of Norfolk, began to excite the jealousy of Henry VIII., who was sensible of his own approaching end, and probably feared the authority of so potent a family, during a minority of the crown. As past services stood for nothing in the mind of this unfeeling tyrant, he resolved to sacrifice the duke and his eldest son,, the gallant earl of Surrey, to his suspicions. Nothing could be more frivolous than the accusations brought against them. They had quartered the arms of Edward the Confessor upon their scutcheon, as their ancestors had done before them, without ever being questioned for it. The duke who had the misfortune of living on bad terms with his wife, and who was also betrayed by his mistress, had used some expressions in private conversation concerning the king's bad state of health; and the probable disorders in the kingdom in case of his death. On such slight grounds, they were both arrested, December 1546, and confined in the Tower. The earl was attainted and executed. The duke, notwithstanding his submissive behaviour and pathetic remonstrances, was attainted in the house of lords, without trial or evidence, and the bill of attainder was passed through both the houses. The king, though expiring, seemed to have nothing so much at heart as that the duke should not escape him, and ordered him to be executed on January 29, 1547, but dying himself the night before, the order was suspended. He was, however, excepted by the regency of Edward VI. from the general pardon issued at his accession, and was kept in prison during the whole of that reign. One of the first acts of queen Mary, on her accession, in 1553, was the liberation of the duke of Norfolk, and other state prisoners of that party. He was restored to his title and possessions without any pardon, his attainder being regarded as null and invalid. He was immediately admitted to confidence, and sat as high steward at the trial of the duke of Northumberland. Upon the rebellion of Sir Thomas Wyat, in 1554, the duke of Norfolk raised a body of horse and foot, and marched against him. After that insurrection was suppressed, he retired to his seat in Norfolk, where he died in August, 1554, having passed his eightieth year.
EDWARD HOWARD, a brave English admiral, younger brother to Thomas Howard. The honour of knighthood was conferred on him, about 1494, for his services, and he was afterwards placed at the head of a fleet to attack and destroy the French ships which infested the English coast. He defeated the enemy's fleet off Brest, but the following year 1514, he was killed in boarding Pregant, the French admiral's ship.
THOMAS PARR, or OLD PARR, a remarkable Englishman, who lived in the reign of ten kings and queens. He was born in 1483, and was the son of John Parr, a husbandman of Winnington, in the parish of Alderbury, Salop. Following the profession of his father, he laboured hard, and lived on coarse fare. Being taken up to London by the earl of Arundel, the journey proved fatal to him. Owing to the alteration in his diet, to the change of the air, and his general mode of life, he lived but a very short time; though one Robert Samber says, in his work, entitled "Long Livers," that Parr lived sixteen years after his presentation to Charles II. He was buried in Westminster Abbey. After his death his body was opened; and an account was drawn up by the celebrated Dr. Harvey, of which the following is an extract. "He had a large heart, not fungous, but sticking to his ribs, and distended with blood; a lividness in his face, as he had a difficulty in breathing a little before his death, and a long lasting warmth in his arm-pits and breast after it; which sign, together with others, were so evident in his body, as they used to be in those that die with suffocation. His heart was large, thick, fibrous, and fat; the blood in the heart blackish and diluted; the cartilages of the sternum not more long than in others, but flexile and soft. His viscera were sound and strong, especially the stomach; and he used to eat often by night and day, though contented with old cheese, milk, coarse bread, small beer and whey; and which is more remarkable, that he eat at midnight a little before he died. His kidneys were covered with fat, and pretty sound; only on the interior surface were found some aqueous or serous abscesses, whereof one was near the bigness of a hen's egg, with a yellowish matter in it, having made a roundish cavity, impressed on the kidney; whence some thought it came that, a little before his death, a suppression of urine had befallen him; though others were of opinion, that his urine was suppressed upon the regurgitation of all the serosity into his lungs. Not the least ^appearance was there of any stony matter, either in the kidneys or bladder. His bowels were also sound, a little whitish without. His spleen very little, hardly equalling the bigness of one kidney. In short, all his inward parts appeared so healthy, that if he had not changed his diet and air, he might perhaps, have lived a good while longer. The cause of his death was imputed chiefly to the change of food and air; forasmuch as coming out of a clear, thin, and free air, he came into the thick air of London; and, after a constant plain and homely country diet, he was taken into a splendid family, where he was fed high, and drank plentifully of the best wines, whereupon the natural functions of the parts of his body were overcharged, his lungs obstructed, and the habit of the whole body quite disordered; upon which there could not but ensue a dissolution. His brain was sound, entire, and firm; and though he had not the use of his eyes, nor much of his memory, several years before he died, yet he had his hearing and apprehension very well; and was able, even to the 130th year of his age, to do any husbandman's work, even thrashing of corn." The following summary of his life, is from Oldyss' MS. notes on Fuller's Worthies. "Old Parr was born 1483; lived at home until 1500, aet. 17, when he went out to service. 1518, set. 35 returned home from his master. 1522, set. 39, spent four years on the remainder of his father's lease. 1543, set. 60, ended the first lease he renewed of Mr. Porter. 1563, set. 80, married Jane, daughter of John Taylor, a maiden; by whom he had a son and a daughter, who both died very young. 1564', set. 81, ended the second lease which he renewed of Mr. John Porter. 1585, set. 102, ended the third lease which he had renewed of Mr. Hugh Porter. 1588, set. 105, did penance in Alderbury church for having commerce with Katharine Milby, by which she became
Eregnant. 1595, set. 112, he buried his wife Jane, after they ad lived 32 years together. 1605, set. 122, having lived 10 years a widower, he married Jane, widow of Anthony Adda, daughter of John Loyd of Gilsells, in Montgomeryshire, who survived him. He died in 1635, set. 152 and 9 months, after they had lived together 30 years, and after 50 years' possession of his last lease." VOL. IV. N
SIR THOMAS AUDLEY, descended of an ancient family in Essex, was born in 1488; and, having the advantage of an university education, was taken notice of by Henry VIII., and appointed speaker of the House of Commons in 1529. Having pleased the king in this station, he promoted him farther next year; and in 1532, appointed him lord keeper of the Great Seal, on the resignation of the famous Sir Thomas More. In 1533, he made him Lord Chancellor, with suitable emoluments. But in 1535, Audley did an act, for which no royal honours or emoluments could compensate; for he sat in judgment, and pronounced sentence of death upon Sir Thomas More, as guilty of high treason, in refusing to acknowledge the king's supremacy in the church! Upon receiving sentence, Sir Thomas More said " he had studied the subject for seven years, but could find no authority for a layman being head of the church," to which Audley gave this decisive answer, "Sir, will you be reckoned wiser, or of a better conscience than all the bishops, the nobility, and the whole kingdom?" For these and the like services, however, Henry created Audley a baron and a knight of the garter in 1538. He died on the 10th day of April, 1544. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Grey, marquis of Dorset, by whom he had two daughters, Margaret and Mary; Mary died unmarried, and Margaret became his sole heir. She married first, lord Henry Dudley, a younger son of the duke of Northumberland, who being slain at the battle of St. Quintin's, in Picardy, in 1557, she married a second time, Thomas, duke of Norfolk, to whom she was also a second wife, and had by him a son, Thomas, who by act of Parliament, in the 27th of Elizabeth, was restored in blood; and in the 39th of the same reign, summoned to parliament by his grandfather's title, as baron of Walden.
JOHN WINSCHOMB, a famous English clothier, tl^e most eminent in England under Henry VIII. He had 100 looms constantly employed; and let out a troop of his men to the battle of Flodden-field.
SIR WILLIAM MOLYNEUX, flourished in the reign of Henry VIII., and distinguished himself by his bravery in the battle of Flodden-field. He was a great enemy to idleness ; he would have every body about him employed; saying, " he had rather they should be busy, though doing nothing to the purpose, at the charge of his purse, than that they should be idle, doing nothing at all, at the charge of their own precious time." When he was dying, he gave this advice to his son; "let the underwood grow, the tenants are the support of a family, and the commonalty are the strength of a kingdom. Improve this fairly, but force not violently, either your bounds or rents above your forefathers." What different advice would a modern father give in this age, and in similar circumstances.