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Cajctano. He drew up notes upon Pliny's Natural History, which he did not live to publish. He probably did not long survive the year 1558, in which he addressed a petition to the council of Brescia in favour of his family, several members of which appear to been engaged in the cultivation of letters.
JAMES ANTIQUARIUS, a learned Italian, was born in Perugia, and studied under Campanus, whose works he published in 1495. He became chief minister to the dukes of Milan, and pope Alexander VI. conferred some rich benefices upon him. He died in 1512. There are only some Latin letters, and an oration of his in print.
BOLESLAS DE HASSENSTEIN, BARON DE LOBKOWITZ, a Bohemian nobleman and man of letters. After travelling into various countries, and bearing arms with reputation, he embraced the ecclesiastical state, andwas employed in public affairs. He died in 1510. His Latin poems were printed at Prague in 1563, and 1570.
JOHN STANBRIDGE, an eminent schoolmaster, a native of Heyford in Northamptonshire, was educated at Winchester school, and New college, Oxford. He was author of several elementary books which were introduced in most of the principal schools of that time. He was very poor, yet was possessed of a cheerful spirit. His life extended beyond 1522. This John Stanbridge had a kinsman, Warton says a brother, Thomas Stanbridge, a noted schoolmaster of Banbury in Oxfordshire, and the tutor of Sir Thomas Pope. He died in 1422.
JOHN REUCHILIN, or CAPNIO, a learned German, born at Pforzheim, in 1450, who contributed much to the restoration of letters in Europe. He went to Paris with the bishop of Utrecht, where he studied grammar under John De Lapide, rhetoric under Gaguinus, Greek under Tiphernus, and Hebrew under Wesselus. He became Dr. of Philosophy at Basil in 1749, and LL.D. at Orleans, where he taught Greek, and published a Grammar, Lexicon, and Vocabularies, in that language. He next went to Rome, where Hermolaus Barbaras persuaded him to change his name to Capnio, which in Greek means the same as Reuchlin in German, i. e. smoke. He was made ambassador to Frederic III., who granted him many favours, but after that emperor's death he was banished, and went to Worms, where the elector palatine employed him to defend his cause at Rome, where he made a celebrated oration before the Pope on the rights of the German princes and churches. He revived the study of Hebrew, and died in 1522, in the 68th year of his age. His private character was eminently distinguished by probity, modesty, benevolence, candour, and urbanity. For his assiduous and successful attempts towards the revival of learning, his name is deserving of being remembered with gratitude by posterity.
ANTONIO MANCINELLI, an Italian writer, a native of Veletu, was born in 1452, and died in 1506. He is said to have had his hands cut off, and his tongue plucked out by order of Pope Alexander VI., but it is fabulous. He wrote— 1. " Silva vitas suae," and other Latin poems. 2. Epigrams. 3. Notes on Classic Authors.
PHILIP BEROALDO, the elder, descended from a noble family in Bologna, was born in that city, in 1453. When but nineteen years of age, he was made public professor of the belles lettres in his native city. Thence he went to read lectures successively at Parma, Milan, and Paris. Returning to Bologna, he resumed his scholastic labours, and attained such reputation, that he had 600 hearers at a time. To the study of polite literature, he added those of philosophy, medicine, and jurisprudence; and several honourable employments and commissions were conferred upon him by his country. In the midst of these various occupations, he retained a joyous and convivial disposition, and even indulged to excess in certain pleasures, till, in compliance with his mother's desire, he entered into the matrix monial state, in 1498, and afterwards passed a regular life. His good humour kept him tolerably free from literary squabbles, and he lived on good terms with most of the men of learning of his age. He died in 1505, having only reached his fifty-second year; a short period for the multiplicity of his literary labours. There is scarcely a Latin writer of eminence on whom he did not write notes or commentaries, which are more abundant in erudition, than remarkable for elegant taste and sound criticism. His commentary on the "Golden Ass of Apuleius," printed in 1501, is a complete specimen of his manner; and he rendered that work so familiar to him, that its phraseology infected his whole style. He likewise published a great number of his own orations, letters, poems, and other works, a collection of which was printed at Basil, in 1513. Many of his observations on authors are contained in Grater's Thesaurus Criticus, tome I.
FERMAN DE GUSMAN NUNEZ, was born at Valladolid, and became a knight and commendator of the order of Santiago. Notwithstanding this decision with regard to a military life, his inclination led him to letters instead of arms. With a new of pursuing literature, he went into Italy, and there studied Greek and Latin under Beroaldo, and Jovian the Greek refugee. As yet Greek learning had not found its way into Spain. D. Inigo Lopez de Mendoza is said to have profited greatly by the society of Ferman Nunez, who acted as preceptor to his son. When cardinal Ximenes founded the university of Alcala, he and Demetrius the Cretan, were appointed Greek professors; and in the famous Polyglot, which, it has been said, would immortalize the name of Ximenes better than all his actions as a statesman, the task of preparing a Latin version from the Sep^ tuagintwas entrusted to them and to Lopez de Astuniga. Nunez had retired from all the common and unworthy objects of ambition, but his pursuits as a literary man had fostered in him a love of liberty, and in the struggle which the commons of Castile made against the growing tyranny, which has since been so fatal to their country, he lent what aid he could to their efforts, and endeavoured to win the people of Alcala to their cause. A young man, to whom he had promised great pecuniary reward for his assistance, when the insurgents were suppressed, attacked him because this money could not be paid, and wounded him in the arm. The aggressor was too powerful, and the cause of the dispute of too serious a nature for Nunez to seek redress; he therefore left the university, and removed to Salamanca. Here he was appointed Greek professor, teaching Greek in the forenoon, and reading lectures upon rhetoric, and upon the natural history of Pliny. Thus passed the remainder of his life, till the year 1553, when he died, leaving his valuable library to the university of Salamanca. To him has been assigned the first place among the restorers of classical learning in Spain. He is highly celebrated by various authors. His works are—1. Annotationes in Seneca? Philosophi Opera. 2. Observationes in Pomponium Melam. 3. Observationes in loca obscura et depravata Hist. Nat. C. Plinii, folio. 4. Glosa sobTe las obras de Juan de Mena. 5. Refranes, o Proverhdos en Romance, folio.
ARIAS, or AYRES BARBOSA, a native of Aveiro, in Portugal, distinguished himself as one of the restorers of classical literature in his native country and Spain. After a university education at Salamanca, he went to Italy, and studied at Florence, tinder Angelo Politiano. He returned to Spain in 1494, and taught at Salamanca for twenty years, along with Antony de Sebrixa. Barbosa chiefly attended to the improvement of the poetical taste, and he published a small volume of Latin poems, which were commended for the harmonious structure of the verse. He was afterwards invited to the court of Portugal, to undertake the office of preceptor to the two princes, Alphonso and Henry. He exercised this employment seven years, and then retired to domestic life, in which he died at an advanced age, in 1540. His works are—1. Aratoris Presbyteri Poemade Apostolorum, 1515, folio. 2. De Prosodia, seu de re poetica, ac recte scribendi ratione, 4to. 3. Quodlib&ticae questiones. 4. Epigrammatum libellus. . .
ERMOLAO BARBARO, the younger, grandson of Francis Barbaro, was born in 1454. In his childhood he was instructed by his uncle the bishop of Verona, and was afterwards sent to Rome, and put under the tuition of Pomponio Leto. At fourteen, he had given such proofe of his genius, that he received from the hand of the emperor Frederic, the poetic crown. At sixteen iie undertook the translation of Themistus, which he published seven years afterwards. In the school of Padua he graduated in jurisprudence and philosophy. Returning to Venice, he entered upon public life, and so diligently occupied himself in the service of the state, as almost entirely to neglect his favourite studies. He resumed them, however, after an interval of twelve years, with renewed ardour. The study of the Greek language was his particular delight; and to diffuse this branch of learning, he read lectures gratis in his own house upon Demosthenes, Theocritus, and Aristotle; his doors being open to all who chose to attend. His acquaintance was universally sought by men of letters. At 32 years of age, he was sent ambassador to the emperor Frederic, who, in addition to the honour he had conferred upon him 18 years before, now granted him that of knighthood. Deputed afterwards on an embassy from the state to Pope Innocent VIII., the pontiff created him patriarch of Aquileia. The laws of Venice forbid its ministers to receive any dignity, temporal or spiritual, from any foreign prince, without the consent of the republic. Ermolao overlooked or forgot this prohibition, and accepted the patriarchate without soliciting permission from the state. The Venetians resented this neglect, and pronounced upon him a sentence of perpetual exile. In order to prevent the execution of this sentence, he was desirous to relinquish the patriarchate, but the pope refused to accept the renunciation. From this time, Ermolao resided at Rome. He died of the plague in 1493. He left a considerable number of works. Besides the translation of ThesHstus, he translated Dioscorides, and the Dialectics of Aristotle; but his principal work is entitled "Castigationes Pliniana»," an illustration of the Natural History of Pliny, folio, 1491 and 1493; and again at Basil in 1534. Barbaro was treated with great respect by the illustrious Lorenzo de Medici, who, upon his visit to Florence, on an embassy from the republic of Venice, not only entertained him with great magnificence, but offered him the use of his villa and library for the prosecution of his studies. Hermolaus is certainly entitled to rank in the first class of learned men, at a period when classical learning was die first, and almost the sole object of attention.
iANGELUS POLITIAN, a very eminent Italian man of letrs, was born at Monte Puknano in Tuscany, in 1454. He adopted the name of Angelus Bassus. He learned Greek under Andronkus, and philosophy under Ficinius and Argyropyfas. The first work which gained him reputation, was a poem on the tournament of Julian de Medicis. The account he wrote some time after the conspiracy of the Pazzi's was very much esteemed. He wrote many other pieces which have merited approbation, but his Epistles have been most read. Politiano was placed in the chair of Greek and Latin eloquence at Florence; and in this situation he formed many scholars who became eminent in literature. Various honours and emoluments were conferred upon him. He corresponded with several sovereigns and men of rank, as well as with the principal literary characters of the age. Above all, he was honoured with the friendship and patronage of Lorenzo de Medici, who entrusted to him the education of his children, and the care of his library and museum, and assigned him a constant residence under his roof. The erudition of Politiano was of the highest class. But all his high titles to admiration and esteem were depreciated in Politiano by moral defects, which have blotted his memory, and furnished matter for severe invective to his rivals and enemies. His morals answered the homeliness of his face rather than the beauty of his genius, for Paul Jovius informs us, that "he was a man of awkward and perverse manners, of a countenance far from open and liberal, a nose remarkably large, and squinting eyes. He was crafty, satirical, and full of inward malice; for his constant practice was to sneer and ridicule the productions of other men, and never to allow any criticism, however just, upon his own." He died September 1494, at the immature age of forty. His works have often been printed.
PETER MARTYR D'ANGHIERA, an Italian man of letters, was born in 1455, at Arena, on the lake Major. In 1477, he went to Rome, where he resided ten years, and was employed as secretary by two cardinals. In 1487, he went to Spain, where he served two campaigns in the army, and then quitted it for the church. In 1501, he was sent on an important embassy to the sultan of Egypt, and while in that country, he made particular observations on the pyramids. On his return he rose into high favour at court, and Charles V. presented to him a rich abbey. He died at Granada, in 1526. His principal works are—1. Opus epistolarum, 1530, folio. 2. De rebus Oceanicis et or be novo Decades, 1536, fol. 3. De Insulis nuper inventis et incolarum moribus, 1521, fol. 4. De Legatione Babylonica. In this he gives an account of his embassy to Egypt.
NICOLO LEONICO TOMEO, an eminent man of letters, born at Venice, of an Albanian family, in 1456. He studied Greek at Florence; and in 1497, became a teacher at Padua, where he gave instructions to cardinal Pole. His favourite study was the Platonic philosophy, and he lived in seclusion from the world, solely intent on his mental pursuits. His contemporaries speak of him with esteem and honour, as being equally estimable for his moral qualities, and profound erudition. He died in 1531. He translated several of the works of Aristotle, Proclus's Commentary on the Timaeus of Plato, and other treatises of the ancient philosophers. He wrote ten dialogues on subjects philosophical and moral, a work "De varia Historia," and some Italian poems.