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Lyons, he at last retired to Grenoble where he died, 1535, in his 49th year. He lived and died in the Romish church, according to Bayle, though others suppose that he favoured the cause of Luther. Of this celebrated reformer he speaks with harshness, sometimes even with contempt, and only once with respect in the 19th chapter of his apology. He opposed the divorce of Henry VIII. from queen Catharine, and ridiculed his contemporaries, whose religious opinions yielded to the gold and to the lust of a tyrant. The most celebrated of his writings were, his Treatise on the Excellence of Women, which recommended him to the favour of Margaret; his Commentary on St. Paul's Epistles, written in England ; his Occult Philosophy, and his key to it; a Dissertation on Original Sin; his Letters, &c. His great learning probably procured him in these ages of darkness the fame of magician and astrologer, and hence his enemies have been fond of recording his frequent intercourse with departed spirits.
JOHN BAPTIST RAMUSIO, an Italian writer, was a native of Venice, and born in 1486. He became secretary to the council of ten, and was employed in several embassies. He died at Padua in 1557. He compiled a valuable work, entitled “Raccolta delle Navigazioni ede Viaggi,” in 3 vols. folio.
VITUS AMERBACH, a native of Wedinguen in Bavaria ; he studied law, philosophy, and divinity, at Wittemberg, where he professed himself a disciple of Luther, but on returning to bis own country, he avowed himself a Roman catholic, and was chosen professor of philosophy at Ingoldstadt, where he died in 1557, at the age of 70. He translated into Latin the orations of Isocrates and Demosthenes; the treatise of St. Chrysostom on Providence, and that of Epiphanius on the catholic faith. He published also commentaries on Cicero's offices, on the poems of Pythagoras and Phocylides, on the Tristia of Ovid, and Horace, “ De arte poetica.” He had a considerable talent for poetry, and left various epigrams, epitaphs, &c.
HENRY LORIT, a learned critic, born in 1488, at Clairs, in Switzerland, and hence surnamed Gilareanus. He was intimate with Erasmus. His writings are numerous, but chiefly on the classics. He died in 1563.
ACHILLES BOCCHI, an Italian scholar, was a native of Bologna, and born in 1488 of a noble family. He became imperial orator at Rome, and was created a chevalier, with the title of count Palatine. At Bologna he was professor of Greek and Latin, rhetoric and poetry. He founded an academy named from himself, Bocchiale and Eunatena. He also established a printing office in his palace, and published several elegant editions of valuable works. The senate of Bologna appointed him historiographer, and employed bim in writing the history of their city. He died there in 1562. His works
a man geographras and these
are-1. Apologia in Plautum, 4to. 2. Carmina in laudem, Jo. Bapt. Pii., 4to. 3. Symbolicarum quæstionum de universo genere, quas serio ludebat, &c. 4to. 4. Latin Poems in Gruter's “ Deliciæ poetarum Latinorum,” and others in MS.
SEBASTIAN MUNSTER, a learned German writer, born at Ingleheim, in 1489. He became a Cordelier, but having embraced Luther's sentiments, he quitted that order in 1529, and retired to Heidelberg, and afterwards to Basil, where he became professor of Hebrew, and taught with reputation. He was a man of great candour, devoid of ambition; and so well skilled in geography, mathematics, and the Hebrew, that he was called the Esdras and the Strabo of Germany. His Latin translation of the Bible is esteemed. He was the first who wrote à Chaldee grammar and lexicon; he also published a Treatise on Cosmography, and several other works. He died of the plague at Basil in 1552, aged 63. He published a Latin version of the Bible, from the Hebrew, with notes; also a “ Universal Cosmography," folio; a Treatise on Dialling; a Latin Translation of Josephus; and several mathematical works.
ROMULUS AMASCO, an eminent scholar, son of Gregory Amasco, Latin professor at Venice. He was born at Udina in 1489; his father and uncle laid the foundation, but he finished his studies at Padua. In 1508 he commenced teaching the Belles Lettres in Padua, but the war, occasioned by the league at Cambray, obliged him to leave the place. He then taught at Bologna, married, had children, and gained such great respect that he was admitted to the citizenship. In 1543, he was invited to Rome by pope Paul III. and his nephew cardinal Alexander Farnese; and was employed in various political embassies to the emperor, the German princes, and the king of Poland ; and in 1550, after he became a widower, pope Julius III. appointed him secretary of the briefs. He died in 1552. He translated into Latin, 1. Xenophon's Cyrus, folio. 2. Pausanias, 4to.; and he published a volume of Latin speeches delivered by him on various occasions.
ANTHONY DE GUEVARA, a learned Spaniard, a native of the province of Ataba. He was brought up at the Spanish court, and became preacher and historiographer to Charles V. He was a very indifferent writer, and took the liberty to falsify whatever he pleased, and to publish as facts the reveries of his own fancy. When called to account for his conduct in this respect, he asserted by way of excuse, that no history, excepting the Holy Scripture, was worthy of any credit. Along with the emperor's retinue he visited a great part of Europe, and was created bishop of Guadix, in the kingdom of Granada, and then bishop of Mondonedo, in Galicia. He died about 1544. He was the author of several
invite that he warried, had to leave the occasio
works in Spanish, the most celebrated of which is his “ Dial of Princes, or life of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus,” which has been translated into all the languages of Europe. Among Guevara's works must be ranked his “ Epistles," which some persons have so much admired that they have called them Golden Epistles. Mr. Hayley, however, remarks, that if we may judge of his personal character from his “Letters,” he appears to have been an amiable man. In one he gently reproves a female relation, for intemperate grief on the death of a lap-dog; and in another he draws the character of a true friend, with inimitable energy of sentiment and expression. One of Guevara's sayings," that heaven is filled with those that have done good works, and hell with those that have resolved to do them,” has been, under various forms of expression, ascribed to other writers.
JOHN MATTHEW GIBERTI, of Palermo, obtained fa. vour at the court of Leo X., and Clement VII., and became governor of Tivoli, and bishop of Verona. He was, in 1527, one of the hostages delivered to the Imperialists, and according to the prejudices of those times, he was treated even with cruelty. When set at liberty he retired to his diocese; but returned to Rome, at the invitation of Paul II., and established in his own house a Greek press, and thus enabled learned men to publish some editions of the writings of the fathers. He died in 1543.
CHRYSOSTOM JAVELLO, a learned Italian Dominican of this period, who taught philosophy and theology at Bologna, and died about 1540. He wrote treatises on philosophy, politics, and Christian economy; also, notes on Pomponatius, and other works, printed in 3 vols., folio.
FRANCIS VATABLÚS, a learned Frenchman, whose family name was Gastlebled. He was a native of Gamache in Picardy ; and became regius professor of Hebrew in the university at Paris; where his lectures were attended by many learned Jews. Some of his scholars having taken notes of his observations on the Scriptures, communicated them to Robert Stephens, who printed them with Leo Juda's Version of the Bible, in 1541. The doctors of the Sorbonne condemned these notes; but those of Salamanca caused them to be reprinted. Vatablus died in 1517.
ADRIAN BARLAND, a learned Dutch critic, was professor of eloquence at Louvain. He published notes on Terence, Virgil, Pliny the younger, and Menander; an abridgment of Universal History; the Chronicle of the duke of Brabant; “ De Literatis urbis Romæ Principibus,” &c. He died at Louvain, in 1542
BEN JOSEPH JACHAIA, a learned Portuguese rabbi, born at Lisbon. He was the author of many works, particularly a paraphrase on Daniel's Prophecy, wherein he promised liis brethren a speedy restoration to their ancient inheritance. He died in 1539.
CONRAD GOCLENIUS, a learned German author, born in Westphalia, in 1486. He wrote notes on Cicero de Officiis, a translation of Lucian's Hermotimus, &c. He died in 1539.
CHRISTOPHER DE LONGUEIL, a learned writer, born at Malines, in 1490. He was much in favour with several princes. He was employed by pope Leo X., to write against Luther. He wrote also Commentaries on Pliny's Book of Plants; and Observations on the Civil Law. He died in 1522.
PETER GILLES, a learned and enterprising French author, born at Albi, in 1490. After studying the Latin and Greek languages, philosophy, natural history, &c., he travelled through France and Italy. In 1533, he dedicated a work to Francis I., wherein he advised that monarch to send learned men to travel into foreign countries for the improvement of science; in consequence of which the king sent Gilles into the Levant. But having 'received no remittances from France, during his journey, he was at last obliged to enlist, for subsistence, in the army of Soliman II. In another voyage he was taken by a pirate, and carried into Algiers. By the generosity of cardinal Armagnac, he obtained his liberty; after which he went to his benefactor at Rome; where he died in 1551.
BARTHOLOMEW RICCI, a learned Italian, was born at Lugo, in Romagna, in the year 1490. He studied under Amasco in Bologna, and for further improvement visited Padua and Venice. He passed some years in the house of Giovanni Cornaro, as preceptor to his son, who was afterwards a cardinal; and for some time kept a school at Ravenna. Through the recommendation of Calcaquini, he was invited, in 1539, to the court of duke Hercules II., of Ferrara, to undertake the education of the princes Alphonso and Luigi. He there acquired the affection of his pupils, and the esteem of the learned. He died at the age of 79, in the year 1569.
ORTUINUS GRATIUS, or GRAES, a learned German, was born in the bishopric of Munster. He was president of the college of Cologne, where he died May 2, 1542. His own works are obsolete ; and he is only remembered by having been the occasion of writing the “ Epistolæ Obscurorum Virorum ad Dominum Magistrum Ortuinum Gratium;" a work of exquisite humour. Erasmus is said to have been so pleased with it, as to be thrown into a violent fit of laughter, which burst an imposthume in his face. In 1750, a beautiful edition was published in 12mo, at London, dedicated to the author of the “ Tatler.”
JOHN GENES DE SEPULVEDA, a Spanish writer, born at Cordova, in 1491. He became chaplain and historiographer to the emperor Charles V.; and wrote “ A Vindication of the Cruelties of the Spaniards against the Indians ;" and other works. He died at Salamanca, in 1572.
DIEGO GRATIAN DE ALDERETE, a person of some eminence in Spanish literature, who becaine secretary to the emperor Charles V., and Philip VI., with both of whom he was in high esteem. He died about the year 1580, being 90 years of age. He was principally employed in translations from the Greek of Xenophon, Thucydides, Plutarch, Isocrates, Dio Chrysostom, &c. He also wrote a history of the taking of Africa, and left behind him many other military trea
tises in manuscript. 1 CLAUDE DE BECTOZ, daughter of a gentleman of Dau
phiné, abbess of St. Honore de Tarascon, where she was honoured with the name of Scholastica. In her early years she was of such a promising genius, that a monk, named Denis Fauchier, determined to teach her Latin, and the Belles Lettres. In a little time she made so great a progress, that she equalled the most learned men of the age. Her Latin and French poems, letters, and treatises, for acuteness and solidity have been classed with the ancient philosophers. She maintained a correspondence with many learned men in France and Italy. Francis I. was so charmed with the letters of this abbess, that he carried them about him, and showed them to the ladies of his court, as models for their imitation. He went, with queen Margaret of Navarre, to Tarascon, on purpose to hold some conversation with this literary lady. She died in 1547..
SIR THOMAS WHITE, founder of St. John's college, Oxford, was a native of Reading, in Berkshire, where he was born, in 1492. At the age of 12 years he was apprenticed 10 years to a tradesman in London. His conduct was so circumspect, during the whole of his apprenticeship, that his master, at his death, bequeathed him a legacy of one hundred pounds. With this, and the small sum left him by his father, he entered into business, and was so successful, that he soon realized a fortune, and distinguished himself by acts of munificence. In 1542, he gave to the corporation of Coventry 1,0001.; to the corporation of Bristol 2,0001: ; and to the town of Leicester 2,0001., to purchase estates, to provide for the aged poor; and to assist the young industrious tradesmen with loans. This excellent man became sheriff of London, in 1546, and lord mayor, in 1553, when he was knighted by queen Mary, for his exertions to preserve the peace of the city, during Wyatt's rebellion. Sir Thomas began the foundation of the college in 1555, and obtained a patent for it in 1557. Sir Thomas