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was ignorant of his mother's conduct, flew into a violent passion with Semblancy, superintendant of the finances, peremptorily insisting on knowing what was become of the money, which he had ordered to be sent to Italy; the minister, a man of integrity and virtue, who had grown grey in the service of his country, confessed he had been obliged to pay it to the duchess of Angouleme, who had taken the consequences upon herself, but that infamous woman, sacrificing every principle of honour to avarice and revenge, had the presumption to deny the fact, and though Semblancy, in his own defence, produced her receipt, she still persisted in the denial, maintaining that the receipt was given for another sum of the same amount. Though Semblancy was justified in the eyes of his sovereign, and continued to enjoy his place a little longer, yet the vindictive Louisa soon suborned one of his clerks to accuse him of peculation; he was committed to the Bastile, tried by partial jo and at length executed on a gibbet. Her affections had ong been fixed on the duke of Bourbon, but finding her love rejected by a prince sincerely attached to his wife, her love was converted into hatred, and she prejudiced the king against him. But the death of the duchess of Bourbon, revived her former tenderness, she sacrificed her resentment to love, and offered her hand to the disconsolate duke. This being rejected with contempt, the insult was deemed irreparable: the resentment of slighted love and wounded vanity, raged with increased violence, and Bourbon was doomed to destruction by this implacable princess. A law-suit was commenced against him, to recover some possessions he held in right of his deceased wife, and the criminal judges, overawed by Louisa's authority, pronounced a sentence by which his estate was sequestered. Bourbon, inflamed by a repetition of injuries, and driven to desperation, entered into a treaty with Henry VIII. of England, and Charles V. of Germany, against the king of France. At first Francis was successful in repelling the confederate princes, which encouraged him to attempt in person the recovery of the Milanese; in vain did his mother and his wisest ministers dissuade him from it, he was determined, and leaving the duchess regent of the kingdom, he departed. After the fatal battle of Pavia, at which, after the most valorous exertions, he lost both his army and his liberty; he addressed Louisa in this laconic, but expressive note, “Madam, all is lost except our honour.” The kingdom was now reduced to a situation pregnant with dangers; the captivity of the king, the loss of a flourishing army, added to a discontent prevailing through the kingdom, seemed to threaten a general insurrection. The people murmured, the parliament complained. In this trying emergency the magnanimity of* was eminently displayed,

VOL. IV.

and that kingdom which her passions had endangered, her abilities were exerted to save; she assembled at Lyons, the princes of the blood, the governors of the provinces, and notables of the realm, who came to the generous resolution of immediately paying the ransom of the officers and soldiers taken at the battle of Pavia. The army and garrisons were recruited, and enabled to repel an attack of the Imperialists, whilst Louisa conciliated the favour of the king of England, whom she disengaged from the confederacy, and to her mediation, Francis acknowledged himself indebted for his liberty, which he recovered in March 1526, and was joyfully received by his mother and the whole nation. The terms of his liberation by the emperor were so exorbitant that he never intended to fulfil them, and the pope absolved him from his oaths. Hostilities continued, till at length, Margaret of Austria and the duchess of Angouleme met at Cambray, and settled the terms of pacification, whence the peace derived the name of the " Ladies' peace." Louisa died 1571, delivering Francis from a counsellor whose passions had frequently endangered the kingdom, which her wisdom and magnanimity had contributed to protect. Mindful of her counsel, he completed her favourite project, of annexing the duchy of Brittany to the crown.

FRANCIS I., King of France, surnamed " The Great, and the restorer of learning. He was the only son of Charles duke of Orleans, constable of Angouleme, and Louisa of Savoy, and born at Cognax, September 12, 1494. He was presumptive heir to the crown, in the reign of Louis XII., who married him to his eldest daughter. At the death of that king he succeeded to the throne on Jan. 1, 1515, being then in his 21st year, of a martial figure, expert in warlike exercises, brave, and impatient to distinguish himself. Immediately after his coronation, he took the title of duke of Milan, and put himself at the head of a powerful army to assert his right to that duchy. The Swiss, who were allies to Francis Sforza the duke, opposed the king and attacked him near Marignano, but they were cut to pieces in a sanguinary contest, and about 15,000 left dead on the field. The famous Trivulzio, who had been engaged in eighteen battles, called this "The battle of the giants," and the others, " Children's play." It was on this occasion, that the king was knighted by the famous Bayard. By this victory at Marignano, Francis I., became master of the Milanese, which so alarmed pope Leo X. that he had a conference with the king at Bologna, obtained from him the abolition of the pragmatic sanction, and settled the concordat, which was confirmed in the year following, in the Lateran council. From that time the kings of France had the appointment to all consistoral benefices, and the pope received one year's income upon every change. The ambition of Francis led him to be a competitor for the Imperial crown, left vacant by the death of Maximilian in 1519; but the superior interest of Charles V. carried it against him; and the rivalry between these young and powerful monarchs kindled a long war, which proved fatal to all Europe. The French, commanded by Andrew de Foix, conquered Navarre in 1520, but very soon lost it again. They drove the English and Imperialists from Picardy, took Hesdin, Fontarabia, and several other places; but lost Milan and Tournay in 1521. The following year, Odet de Foix, viscount of Lautrec, was defeated at the bloody battle of Bicoque, which was followed by the loss of Cremona, Genoa, and a great part of Italy. Nor did their misfortunes end here. The constable of Bourbon, persecuted by the duchess of Angouleme, joined the emperor 1523, and being appointed commander of his forces in 1534, defeated admiral Bonivet's rear at the retreat of Rebec, and retook all the Milanese. He afterwards entered Provence with a powerful army, but was obliged to raise the siege of Marseilles, and retired with loss. Francis I., however, went into Italy, retook Milan, and was going to besiege Pavia; but, having imprudently detached part of his troops to send them to Naples, he was defeated by the constable de Bourbon in a bloody battle before Pavia. At this battle, fought on February 24, 1525, Francis, after displaying great personal valour, was compelled to surrender himself prisoner. The flower of his troops, and many officers of high rank and merit fell in the field, and such was the extent of the disaster, that he wrote this short billet to his mother, "Madam, all is lost but our honour!" Francis was conducted as a prisoner to Madrid, and restored the following year, after the treaty which was concluded in that city, January 14, 1526. He was exchanged for his two sons, in a boat in the midst of the stream which separates France from Spain, and instantly, upon touching his own shore, he mounted a Turkish horse, and waving his hand over his head, cried, " I am yet a king." He then rode full speed to St. John de Luz, and thence to Bayonne. The treaty which had been extorted by force, was not fulfilled; the emperor had insisted on the duchy of Burgundy, but the king declared, that he had no power to give up any province of his kingdom. Upon this the war recommenced immediately. Francis I., sent forces into Italy, under the command of Lautrec, who, at first gained considerable advantages, but afterwards perished with his army, by the plague. The defection of Doria completed the ruin of the French affairs in Italy. At length the peace of Cambray, in 1529, gave a temporary respite to the hostilities of the two rivals. By this treaty, Francis engaged to marry Eleanor of Austria, the emperor's sister; and his two sons, who had been given up as hostages, were ransomed at the king's return, for two millions in gold. In 1535, the peace was interrupted, and hostilities again commenced. Francis took Savoy, expelled the emperor from Provence, in 1536, entered into an alliance with Soliman II. emperor of the Turks; took Hesdin and several other places in 1537, and made a truce of ten years with Charles V. at Nice, 1538, which did not however long continue. The people of Ghent had rebelled against the emperor; on which he requested permission to pass through France to punish them. The request was granted on condition of conferring the investiture of the duchy of Milan upon the king's second son, the duke of Orleans. The emperor however, after being received in France with the highest honours, in 1539, was no sooner arrived into Flanders than he refused to keep his promise. This broke the truce; the war was renewed, and carried on with various success on both sides. The king's troops entered Italy, Rousillon and Luxemburgh. Francis of Bourbon, comte d' Enghien, won the battle of Cerizoles in 1544, and took Montferrat. Francis I.,

fainetl over to his side Barbarossa, and Gustavus Vasa, king of weden; while, on the other hand, Henry VIII., of England, espoused the interests of Charles V., and took Boulogne in 1544. A peace was at last concluded with the emperor at Cressy. September 18, 1544, and with Henry VIII., June 7, 1546. A secret disease, the fruit of his licentious amours, had now been long preying upon the constitution of Francis, under which he sunk, March 31st, 1547, in his fifty-third year, at a time when he had begun to attend more seriously to his affairs, and by economy had brought his finances into a good condition. When dying, he particularly requested his son to diminish the taxes which he had been obliged to levy for defraying the expences of the war; and put it in his power to do so, for he left 400,000 crowns of gold in his coffers, with a quarter of his revenues which was then due. He left two sons and four daughters by his first consort, Claude of France. By his second queen, Eleanor, he had no issue.

The personal qualities of Francis were such as threw a kind of lustre round his character, especially contrasted with the less generous nature of his great rival, yet the circumstance of that constant rivalry with a superior in power and fortune, was the source of many meannesses in his conduct, which injured the reputation he might otherwise have acquired. His political ca

Eacity does not seem to have been of the superior order, and is numerous foibles subjected him to the constant influence of mistresses and favourites. His favourite mistress, the countess d'Estampes, enjoyed her power as publicly as any later possessor of that important post.

The encouragement, however, which Francis gave to litera

tore in his kingdom, conferred the greatest honour on his memory. The revival of polite literature in Europe was chiefly qwing to his care; he patronized the learned, founded the royal college at Paris, furnished a library at Fontainbleau at a great expence, and built several palaces, which he ornamented with pictures, statues, and costly furniture. Upon the whole, it will be admitted, that few sovereigns of his country have nude a more distinguished figure in the pages of history. He is the founder of the house of Valois, that being his title when he assumed the crown.

WILLIAM DU BELLAY, of Langei, a Frenchman of eminence. Francis I. employed him in his negociations with the German protestants; and he displayed great art in excusing to them the severities exercised against the French reformers. He himself seems to have been disinclined to persecution, for he long procured the suspension of the cruel edict against the protestants of Cabrieres and Merindol. He was made governor of Turin in 1537, and soon after, viceroy of Piedmont. Returning from that country in winter, in order to convey some important intelligence to the court of France, he was taken ill on the road, and died at St. Saphorin, between Lyons and Roane, in January, 1543. William du Bellay Mas a man of learning, and wrote several works, one of which was a "History of his own times," composed first in Latin, and translated by him into French. It was divided into ogdoades, or books of eight chapters each; but of these only a few are preserved in the works of his brother Martin du Bellay. They are written in a simple and lively manner, but are somewhat partial in favour of Francis I. He was one of the first French writers who doubted of the miraculous facts recorded by Joan of Arc.

JOHN DU BELLAY, cardinal, and younger brother of William du Bellay, was born in 1492. Francis I. employed him in a number of embassies, and rewarded him with some of the most considerable ecclesiastical preferments in France. He was bishop of Paris, when he was employed by his master to use all endeavours for procuring an accommodation between Henry VIII. of England, and the see of Rome. For this purpose he paid a visit to Henry, and thence went to the pope, from whom he obtained the delay required by Henry for defending his cause by procuration. But a courier from Henry not arriving on the day appointed, the pope, contrary to the strong remonstrances of Bellay, proceeded to the denunciation of those ecclesiastical censures, which occasioned the final separation of England from the Roman communion. Bellay continued at Rome, and in 1535, was made a cardinal by Paul III. On obtaining intelligence of the hostile designs of Charles V., he hastened back to France; and when that monarch invaded Provence, in 1536, Bellay was left by Francis as his lieutenant

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