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queen Mary, who admired him for his erudition. The bent of his genius lay towards mathematics, astronomy, and astrology, and he enjoyed the friendship of Record. Several of his MSS. are in the Bodleian library.

JOHN STOFLER, a German mathematician. He taught mathematics at Tubingen, and published several books, with great reputation; but, being addicted to astrology, he sunk his fame, as Nathaniel Brassey Halked, Esq., did in our own day, by predicting a great deluge to happen in 1524, which excited a general terror all over Europe. He lived to see himself laughed at, by the failure of his prophecy, and died in 1531.

JOHN SCHONER, a mathematician, was born at Carolostadt in 1477. He became professor of mathematics at Nuremberg, where he died in 1547. His works were printed at Nuremberg, in one volume, folio, in 1551.

JAMES ZIEGLER, a learned divine and mathematician of Suabia. He published a few works, and died in 1549.

NICHOLAS TARTAGLIA, or TARTALEA, a mathematician, was born at Brescia, in Italy, about the end of this century. He died about 1558.

JOHN BRONCHORST, of Nimeguen, where he was born in 1494, and therefore sometimes called Noviomagus, was a very eminent mathematician. He became rector of the school of Daventer, and afterwards professor of mathematics at Rostock. He died at Cologne in 1570.

FRANCIS MAUROLICO, an eminent Italian mathematician, was born in 1494, at Messina, where he became a distinguished teacher of the mathematics. He was possessed of a clear understanding, and a most excellent memory. He was appointed abbe of Santa Maria del Porto, in Sicily. The mathematicians, in those days, were generally supposed to be able to read the stars, and Francis could not resist the temptation of assuming to himself such a celestial talent. He accordingly delivered some predictions to Don Juan of Austria, for which, as he chanced to have a happy guess, he obtained the credit of being a prophet, besides considerable rewards. He died July 21,1575, at the age of eighty-one. His works are—1. The Spherics of Theodosius, fol. 2. Emendatio et restitutio Conicorum Apollonii Pergsei. 3. Archimedis monumenta omnia. 4. Euclidis Phaenomena. 5. Sinicarum rerum compendium. 6. Opuscula Mathematica. 7. Arithmeticorum, lib. duo.

ORONTIUS FINiEUS, in French Fine, professor of mathematics in the royal college at Paris, was the son of a physician, and born at Briancon, in Dauphine", in 1494. He was very skilful in mechanics; and acquired much fame by several instruments which he invented, and made with his own hands. He brought himself into notice by correcting and publishing

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Siliceu’s “Arithmetic,” and the “Margareta Philosophica.” He afterwards taught the science of mathematics, in the college of Gervais, and then at the instance of Francis I., in the new college which that prince had founded at Paris. Though he was very assiduous in the instruction of his scholars, yet he found time to write numerous tracts upon almost every branch of the mathematics. A remarkable proof of his skill in mechanics is exhibited in the clock which he invented in 1553, and of which there is a description in the Journal of Amsterdam for March 29, 1694. Yet, notwithstanding his genius, labours, and inventions, and the esteem in which he was held by numbers of persons, he could not secure himself from thatfate which so often befalls literary and scientific men. He had to struggle all his life with poverty; and at last died overwhelmed in debt, leaving a wife and six children. His children, however, found friends, who, out of respect to their father rendered them assistance. Finaeus died in 1555, aged sixty-one. Like all the other mathematicians and astronomers of that period, he was #. addicted to astrology; and had the misfortune to be a ong time confined in prison, because he had predicted some things which were not acceptable to the French court. He was one of those who vainly boasted of having found out the quadrature of the circle. His works were collected in 3 vols. folio, in 1532, 1542, and 1556, and there is an Italian edition in 4to. Venice, 1587. PETER NONIUS, in Spanish NUNEZ, a learned Portuguese, and one of the ablest mathematicians of his time, was born at Alcaza. He was preceptor to prince Henry, king Emanuel's son, and taught the mathematics in the university of Coimbra. He published several works, by which he gained at reputation. It is observed in Furetrere's dictionary, that eter Nonius, in 1530, first invented the angles of 45° made in every meridian, and that he called them rhumbs in his language, and calculated them by spherical triangles. Nonius died in 1577 aged 80. Jorge Coelho wrote the following epigram in honour of NoIllus,

Qui cupise terris arcana incognita coeli
Noscere, & ignoto pandere vela mari,
En tibi qui summum reserat sublimis Olympum
Per medios fluctus, hoc duce, tutris eris.
Haud mirum ingenii tot epos florere libello,
Nobilis egregium condidit auctor opus.
Si clarim Alcidae durat per saecula nomen
Quod coelum potuit sustinuisse humeris,
Non minor et Petri dicenda est Gloria Nonni
Cujus mens terras, aequora et astra capit.

HENRY BAERSIUS, or VEKENSTIL, a mathematician. He was a printer at Louvain.

PAINTING.

GIOVANNI MASO, called MASACCIO, an Italian painter, born in 1401, and died in 1443, aged 42. He was a disciple of Masonina da Palicale, but proved as much superior to his master, as his master was to all nis contemporaries; and is accounted the principal artist of the second or middle age of modern painters, from its revival under Cimabue. His genius was very extensive, his invention ready, and his manner of design had unusual truth and elegance. He considered painting as the art of representing nature with truth, by the aid of design and colouring; and therefore he made nature his most constant study, till he excelled in a perfect imitation of it. He is accounted the first who, from judicious observations, removed the difficulties that impeded the study and the knowledge of the art, by setting the artist an example of his own works, of that beauty which arises from a proper and an agreeable choice of attitudes and motions, and likewise from such a spirit, boldness, and relief, as appears truly just and natural. He was the first among the painters who studied to give the draperies of his figures more dignity, by omitting the multitude of small folds, so customarily practised by the preceding artists, and by designing them with greater breadth and fulness. He was also the first who endeavoured to adapt the colour of his draperies to the tint of his carnations, making the one harmonize with the other. He was uncommonly skilled in perspective, which he had learned from P. Brunelleschi. His works procured him universal approbation; but the same merit which promoted his fame, excited envy, and he died, to the regret of every lover of the art, not without strong suspicions of having been poisoned.

BENOZZO GOZZOLI, a painter; was a native of Florence, where he was born in 1401. 1 le was disciple to Fra Angelico, but successfully imitated Masaccio. He resided long at Pisa, where his best works still exist.

The Bible-histories, with which he filled one entire side of the Campo Santo at Pisa, are by Vasari styled "a terrible work, performances to intimidate a legion of painters." The inequality of the work, however, seems to betray more than one hand. Gozzoli died at Pisa in 1470, and a sepulchre, erected to his memory by the liberality of his employers, is placed near the above work, on which is inscribed an epitaph in his praise. His works were engraved by Lasinio, and published in 1805, and 1807.

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- FRANCESCO PRIMATICCIO, an Italian historical painter, born at Bologna, in 1409, and died in 1570, aged 80. He was born of a noble family, and in his youth was intended to be bred up to commercial business; but having too elevated a mind to adapt himself to that occupation, and prompted by his natural genius, he began to learn design and colouring from Innocenzio da Imola, and Bagnacavallo; and in a short time was enabled, by his incessant industry, to give manifest proofs of extraordinary talents. He then quitted his native city and went to Mantua, where he became a disciple of Julio Romano, who at that time was engaged in several grand works at the palace del Fe, being assisted by a number of young artists, who had received their instructions in his school. Primaticcio continued under Julio for six years, and under his direction became a great machinist, an artist in fresco, stucco, and every branch of classic or magnificent ornament. Primaticcio effectually established himself in the favour of his master and of the duke of Mantua, and was recommended in the strongest terms by that prince to Francis I., who took him immediately into his service, and appointed him to execute a great number of designs in fresco, and in oil. This artist was not less fortunate and successful with the king than he had been with the duke, his works were approved and admired, and he adorned Fontainbleau, and most of the royal palaces in France, with his compositions. At the same time that Primaticcio was engaged by Francis, Rosso was also retained and employed at his court, between which two painters, a violent rivalship and jealousy subsisted; and it was thought that the king, who was desirous to quiet their dissension, sent the former to Rome to purchase antiques, as that monarch had conceived the highest opinion of the taste and integrity of Primaticcio. That artist acquitted himself of his commission very happily, and in a very short time collected a hundred and twenty-five statues, busts, and mutilated figures; and procured moulds of the most celebrated statues, which were not to be purchased, such as the Laocoon, the Tiber, and Nile, the Ariadne, Cornmodus, and others, which were cast in brass. He was called from Rome to perfect a large gallery begun by Rosso, but left unfinished by the death of that master, and the king, to express his esteem for Primaticcio, and his public approbation of his merit, conferred on him the abbey of St. Martin at Troyes, with the annual income of eight thousand crowns, which he enjoyed as long as he lived.

ANDREA DEL CASTAGNO, an historical painter, was born at Castagno, in 1409; and being deprived of his parents, was employed by his uncle to attend cattle; but, having accidentally seen an ordinary painter at work in the country, he observed him for some time with surprise and attention, and afterwards made such attempts to imitate him, as astonished all who saw his productions. The extraordinary genius of Andrea became at last a common topic of discourse in Florence, and excited the curiosity of Bernadetto de Medici so far, that he sent for Andrea, and perceiving that he had promising talents, he placed him under the care of the best masters then in Florence. Andrea became particularly eminent in design, and in a few years made so great a progress, that he found as much employment as he could possibly execute. He painted only in distemper and fresco, with a manner of colouring that was not very agreeable, being rather dry and hard; till he learned the secret of painting in oil from Dominic Venetiano, who had derived his knowledge of that new discovery from Antovello da Messina. Andrea was the first of the Florentine artists, who painted in oil; but although he was in the highest degree indebted to Venetiano for the secret, yet he envied his merit so much, that, because his own works seemed to be less admired than those of Venetiano, he formed the horrid resolution of assassinating his friend and benefactor. He executed this design with the utmost ingratitude and treachery, for Venetiano at that time lived with him, and painted in partnership with him, and he stabbed him at the corner of a street so secretly, that he escaped unobserved and unsuspected to his own house, where he composedly sat down to work ; and thither Dominic was soon after conveyed, to die in the arms of his murderer. No discovery of so inhuman a transaction was made, till Andrea, through remorse of conscience, disclosed it on his death bed, in 1480. He finished several considerable works at Florence, by which he gained great reputation; but when his crime became published, his memory was held in deserved detestation. The most noted work of this master is in the hall of justice at Florence, representing the execution of the conspirators against the house of Medici.

ANTHONY of MESSINA, was the first Italian who painted in oil, about 1430. He had received the secret from Vandyke, and he was basely murdered by Andrea del Castagno, who wished to possess alone the valuable information.

THEODORE HAERLEM, a Dutch historical painter, born at Haerlem in 1410, and died in 1470, aged sixty. He was a painter of great merit for the time in which he flourished, of which he has left a competent proof in a picture of his painting at Utrecht. It is less hard and dry than most of the works of his contemporary artists, and very highly laboured in the finishing. The picture is an altar-piece, with two folding-doors, as was customary at that time ; on the inside appears the representation of Christ, and on the doors the figures of St. Peter and St. Paul, as large as life.

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