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super anatomia Mundini, 4to. 2. Isagogæ brevis in anatomiam corporis humani, cum aliquot figuris anatomicis, 4to. 3.; De Cranii fractura, 4to.

ANDREW ALFRAGO, an Italian physician and philosopher. He travelled many years in the east, and resided a considerable time at Damascus. On his return to Europe, he became professor of philosophy and medicine at Padua, where he died in 1520. He left behind him several MSS., some of which were published, among which is an history of Arabian philosophers and physicians.

JOHN MANARDI, a learned physician, was born at Ferrara in 1462. After completing his studies in the learned languages and in medicine, he was appointed medical professor at Ferrara, which post he occupied from 1482 to 1495. He then resided for some years with Gian Francesco Pico of Mirandola, to whom he was both physician and preceptor, and whom he assisted in publishing the work of the celebrated John Pico against judicial astrology. In 1513 he accepted the invitation of Ladislaus, king of Hungary, to become his physician ; and he remained in that country two years after the death of that prince. He returned to Ferrara in the beginning of 1519, and resumed his office. At an advanced age, he married a second wife, young and handsome, by which he was supposed to have shortened his days. He died at Ferrara in 1536, at the age of seventy-four; and a very honourable inscription to his memory was placed on his tomb by his widow. Manardi is termed by Haller a semi-arabist, and semigalenic, which implies an attachment to ancient doctrines, modified by modern observation. He published in 1520 “ Epistolarum Medicinalium Libri vi.,” afterwards augmented to twenty books, and several times printed, lastly, with the title of “ Curia Medici xx. Libris Epistolarum et Consultationum adumbratu,” Hanov. 1611, folio. This is a very miscellaneous collection of remarks upon the ancients, with corrections and repetitions; and cases and observations of his own practice; some of which are valuable, and shew him to have been a real improver of his art. He treats of the lues venerea as a new disease imported from America, and recommends the cure hy guaiacum in preference to mercury. He also published “In primum Arti parvæ Galeni Librum Commentarius," 1525 quarto.

WILLIAM COP, born at Basle in Switzerland, took his degree of doctor in medicine at Paris, in the year 1495, and soon became so distinguished by his superior knowledge and abilities, that Ramus, no incompetent judge, called him “ Unica. nobilium medicorum gloria.” He was physician to Lewis XII. and Francis I., and regent to the faculty of medicine of Paris. He translated the work of Paulus of Egina, De Ratione Vic,

tus, which was published at Paris in the year 1510, in 4to.; and the following year at Strasburgh; also Galen's six books, de Locis Affectis, et de Morborum Causius et Differentiis, and the prognostics of Hippocrates. He died in 1531. His son Nicholas succeeded him as regent of the university of Paris, but giving into the errors, his biographer says, of Calvinism, he was obliged to leave Paris, and to pass the latter part of his life at Basle.

BARTHOLOMEW MONTAGNANA, a native of Padua, was distinguished for medicine in the university of that city, in the middle of this century; and was succeeded by his son, of the same name, who held a still higher reputa. tion as a scholar, though he was distinguished as a practical physician. The latter left Padua and took up his residence in Venice, in the year 1508, where he practised his profession until his death, in 1525.

THOMAS LINACRE, M.D., was born at Canterbury about 1460, and there educated under the learned William Selling; thence he removed to Oxford, and in 1484, was chosen fellow of All Souls' college. Selling being appointed ambassador from king Henry VII. to the pope, Linacre accompanied him to Rome, where he attained the highest perfection in Greek and Latin, and studied Aristotle and Galen in the original. On his return to Oxford, he was graduated, and chosen professor of medicine. He was soon after called to court by Henry VII., to attend prince Arthur as his tutor and physician. He was afterwards appointed physician to the king, and on his death, to Henry VIII. He founded two medical lectures at Oxford, and one at Cambridge; and immortalized his name by being the first founder of the college of physicians in London. Observing the wretched state of physic, he applied to Cardinal Wolsey, and obtained a patent in 1518, incorporating the physicians of London, in order to prevent illiterate and ignorant medicasters from practising the art. Dr. Linacre was the first president, and held the office as long as he lived. Their meetings were held in his own house in Knightrider-street, which house he bequeathed to the college. When he was about the age of fifty, he took it into his head to study divinity; entered into orders, and was collated, in 1509, to the rectory of Mersham; installed prebendary of Wells, in 1518 prebendary of York, and in 1519 was admitted precentor of that cathedral, which he resigned for other preferments. He died of the stone in October, 1524, aged 64; and was buried in St. Paul's. Dr. Caius, or Kay, 33 years after his death, caused a monument to be erected to his memory, with a Latin inscription, containing the outlines of his life and character. He was a man of great natural parts, a skilful physician, a profound grammarian, and one of the best

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Greek and Latin scholars of his time. Erasmus in his Epistles speaks highly of his translations from Galen, preferring them even to the original Greek.

EURICIUS CORDUS, called by Melchior Adani, Henry Urban, a physician and poet, was a native of Simmershuys in Hesse. To assist himself in the prosecution of his studies, he undertook the business of private tutor, and while thus employed, had the good fortune to attract the notice of Erasmus, but his openness of character is said to have procured him enemies among men of less liberal minds. In 1521 he went to Italy, where he attached himself in a particular manner to the study of botany; collecting and examining a number of rare plants, and diligently comparing them with the description of them left by Dioscorides.” At Ferrara he took the degree of doctor in medicine, which he afterwards taught at Erfurt and Marpurg. In 1535 he went to Bremen, where he remained until his death, in 1531. His works are-1. A Treatise on the English Sweating Sickness. 2. Butanologicon. 3. De Abusu Uroscopiæ. 4. Latin poems.

AURELIUS PHILIP THEOPHASTRUS BOMBASTUS DE HOHENHEIM PARACELSUS, a famous physician, born at Einsilden, in the canton of Schweitz. He was educated with great care by his father, who was the natural son of a prince, and made a rapid progress in the study of physic. He afterwards travelled into France, Spain, Italy, and Germany. In his return to Switzerland, he stopped at Basle, where he read lectures on physic in the German tongue. He was one of the first who made use of chemical remedies with success, by which he acquired great reputation. He gloried in destroying the method established by Galen, and thus drew upon himself the hatred of the other physicians. It is said, that he boasted of being able, by his remedies, to preserve the life of man for several ages, but he himself experienced the vanity of such boasting, by dying at Saltzburg in 1504, at thirty-seven years of age according to some, or forty-eight according to others. The best edition of his works is that of Geneva, in 1658, in 3 vols. folio.

LEWIS CORNARO, a Venetian of noble extraction, is memorable for having lived to an extreme age, the consequence of strict temperance. He was born in 1467. He appears to have been a spurious offspring of the great Cornaro family, since it is said that from a defect in his birth he was excluded from the honours and employments of the state. He possessed a large property, and married a lady of the house of Spilemberg at Udina, by whom, when both were advanced in years, he had an only daughter. In the younger part of life he lived freely, and brought himself into a bad state of health ; which he corrected by a steady adherence to regimen. This

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he carried to such a degree of rigour, as to allow himself no more than twelve ounces of food and fourteen of wine daily. By this means he perfectly recovered a sound state of body; and, at the same time, by the efforts of reason and philosophy, he subdued a natural propensity to anger and impatience in his temper. Some persons objected to his abstemious way of living, and urged that it was absurd in him to mortify his appetite in such a manner for the sake of being old; since all that was life, after the age of sixty-five, could not properly 'be called vita viva, sed vita mortua; not a living life, but a dead life. “Now," says he, “ to show these gentleman how much they are mistaken, I will briefly run over the satisfactions and pleasures which I myself now enjoy in this eighty-third year of my age. In the first place I am always well ; and so active withal, that I can with ease mount a horse upon a flat, and walk to the tops of very high mountains. In the next place I am always cheerful, pleasant, perfectly contented, and free from all perturbation, and every uneasy thought; I have none of that fastidium vitæ, that satiety of life, so often to be met with in persons of my age. I frequently converse with men of parts and learning, and spend much of my time in reading and writing. These things I do, just as opportunity serves, or my humour invites me; and all in my own house here at Padua, which I say is as commodious and elegant a seat as any perhaps this age can show; built by me according to the exact proportions of architecture, and so contrived as to be an equal shelter against heat and cold. I enjoy at proper intervals my gardens, of which I have many, whose borders are refreshed with streams of running water. I spend some months of the year at those Eugancan hills, where I have another commodious house with gardens and fountains ; and I visit also a seat I have in the valley, which abounds in beauties, from the many structures, woods, and rivulets that encompass it. I frequently make excursions to the neighbouring cities, for the sake of seeing my friends, and conversing with the adepts in all arts and sciences; architects, painters, statuaries, musicians, and even husbandmen. I contemplate their works, compare them with the ancients, and am always learning something, which it is agreeable to know. I take a view of palaces, gardens, antiquities, public buildings, temples, fortifications, and nothing escapes me, which can afford the least amusement to a rational mind. Nor are these pleasures blunted by the usual imperfections of great age; for I enjoy all my senses in perfect vigour; my taste so very much, that I have a better relish for the plainest food now, than I had for the choicest delicacies when formerly immersed in a life of luxury. Nay, to let you see what a portion of fire and spirit I have still left within me, know, that I have this very year written a comedy, full of innocent mirth and pleasantry; and, if a Greek poet was thought so very healthy and happy for writing a tragedy at the age of seventy-three, why should not I be thought as healthy and as happy, who have written a comedy, when I am ten years older ? In short, that no pleasure whatever may be wanting to my old age, I please myself daily with contemplating that immortality, which I think I see in the succession of my posterity. For every time I return home, I meet eleven grandchildren, all the offspring of one father and mother ; all in fine health; all, as far as I can discern, apt to learn, and of good behaviour. I am often amused by their singing ; nay, I often sing with them, because my voice is louder and clearer now than ever it was in my life before. These are the delights and comforts of my old age; from which, I presume, it appears that the life I spend, is not a dead, morose, and melancholy life, but a living, active, pleasant life, which I would not change with the most robust of those youths who indulge and riot in all the luxury of the senses, because I know them to be exposed to a thousand diseases, and a thousand kinds of death. I, on the contrary, am free from the apprehension of disease, because I have nothing for disease to feed upon; nor from the apprehension of death, because I have spent a life of reason, Besides, death, I am persuaded, is not yet near me. I know that, barring accidents, no violent disease can touch me. I must be dissolved by a gentle and gradual decay, when the radical humour is consumed like oil in a lamp, which affords no longer life to the dying taper. But such a death as this cannot happen of a sudden. To become unable to walk and reason, to become blind, deaf, and bent to the earth, from all which evils I am far enough at present, must take a considerable portion of time ; and I verily believe, that this immortal soul, which still inhabits my body with so much harmony and complacency, will not easily depart from it yet. I verily believe that I have many years to live, many years to enjoy the world and all the good that is in it; by virtue of that strict sobriety and temperance, which I have so long and so religiously observed; friend as I am to reason, but a foe to sense.” He employed his fortune in improving his estate by the draining of marshes, and erecting buildings, and in the encouragement of literature, and the arts of music, painting and sculpture. He was ninety-eight years old at the time of his death, which happened at Padua, April 26, 1566. His wife, who survived him, lived also to nearly the same age. Amongst other little performances, he left behind him a piece entitled “ De vitæ sobriæ commodis," i. e. Of the advantages of a temperate life. He also wrote “A Treatise on the Waters, &c.” in which he treats of the lagunes surrounding Venice,

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