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and the means of repairing the injuries they had sustained from neglect and accidents.

JAMES DE BETHENCORT, a physician at Rouen, where he practised with much reputation. He is now only known by his treatise on the venereal disease, published in the year 1527.

ANGELUS BOLOGNINI, a celebrated professor of medicine and surgery, was born in the neighbourhood of Padua, but practised and taught medicine at Bologna. At the earnest intreaty of his pupils, he says, he published in 1508,“ De cura ulcerum interiorum, et de unguentis communibus in solutione continui," 4to. which has been frequently re-printed. He was of the school of Avicenna, on whose works he commented in his lectures. He gives forms for preparing ointments with mercury, which he highly extols, and says, they cure the lues, though the salivary glands should not be affected, which, however, he admits to be desirable. The latter part of his life he spent in retirement at Padua.

GIOVANNI DA VIGO, an eminent surgeon, was a native of Genoa. In 1503, pope Julius II. invited him to Rome, and made him his first surgeon. He was also a favourite with cardinal Della Rovere, the pope's nephew, who gave him a considerable pension. His work entitled “ Practica in Arte Chirurgica copiosa," first published at Rome in 1514, fol. became extremely popular, and was frequently reprinted, both in the original and in its translations. It is a very full compendium of the art of surgery as then known and practised, containing also a system of anatomy, and of materia medica.

SYMPHORIEN CHAMPIER, was born as he informs · us in one of his numerous productions, at St. Sophorinæ, a castle in the Lyonnois, in the year 1472. Of the course of his studies we have no information, but that he early attached himself to books, and that he was versed in the works of Plato, Aristotle, and the works of the most abstruse of the writers then in vogue, as the titles of many of his works show. Champier took his degree of doctor of medicine at Pavia in the year 1515, and in 1520, he was made consul at Lyons, an honour he again enjoyed in the year 1533 on returning from Italy where he had been attending on Anthony duke of Lorrain. That he was in great credit at this time, is shown by his having for his correspondents the principal physicians and philosophers of the age, and by his having sufficient interest to found a college of physicians at Lyons, which was existing at the time of the revolution in France. He died in 1535.

JOHN CUSPINIAN, a German, born at Sweinfust, in 1473. He was first physician to the emperor Maximilian I.,

and was employed by him in several delicate negociations. He wrote several works, and died at Vienna in 1529.

DUBOIS, or as he is more commonly called, JAMES SYLVIUS, a learned and voluminous medical writer, was so attached to the ancients, and particularly to Hippocrates and Galen, the greater part of whose works he translated and edited, that he constantly opposed every thing that was novel in doctrine or practice. Hence he kept up a constant warfare with Vesalius, whose discoveries and improvements in anatomy, although obvious to the senses, he refused to admit. Sylvius was born in the diocese of Amiens, in 1478, and was educated under his brother Francis, who had so far distinguished himself by his knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages, that he was promoted to the office of principal of the college of Tournay. After remaining several years with his brother, and having been initiated in the knowledge of medicine, which he also taught to younger students, to obtain what was necessary for his maintenance, he went to Montpellier in 1529, where, by the favour of the university, and in consideration of his great learning and his age, he was immediately received bachelor, and the year following doctor in medicine. He then returned to Paris, and was appointed professor in medicine; a post which he filled with honour to himself and advantage to his pupils, to the time of his death, which happened on the 13th of January, 1555, in the seventy-sixth year of his age. His works, which were numerous and much esteemed in his time, were collected by Rene Moreau, and published in one volume folio, at Geneva, in 1635.

JEROME FRACASTORO, a most eminent Italian physician and poet, born at Verona in 1482. Two singularities are related of him; one is, that his lips adhered so closely to each other when he came into the world, that a surgeon was obliged to divide them with his knife; the other, that his mother was killed with lightning, while he, though in her arms at the very moment, escaped unhurt. He was eminently skilled in belles-lettres, and in all arts and sciences. He was a poet, a philosopher, a physician, an astronomer, and a mathematician. Pope Paul III. made use of his authority to remove the council of Trent to Bologne, under the pretext of a contagious distemper, which, as Fracastor deposed, made it no longer safe to continue at Trent. He was intimately acquainted with cardinal Bembus, Julius Scaliger, and all the great men of his time. He died of an apoplexy at Casi near Verona, in 1553; and in 1559, the town of Verona erected a statue in honour of him. He was the author of many performances, both as a poet and a physician; and he was remarkably disinterested in both these capacities; for he practised without fees, and as a poet whose usual reward is glory, no man was ever more diffident about it. Owing to this diffidence, • VOL. IV.


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little of his poetry is extant in comparison of what he wrote; and all his odes and epigrams, which were read in manuscript with admiration, yet being never printed, were lost. All that remain are his three books of " Siphilis, or of the French disease;" A book of Miscellaneous Poems; and two books of a poem entitled “ Joseph,” which he began towards the end of his life, but did not live to finish. He composed also a poem, called “ Alcod sive de cura canum venati corum.” His medical pieces are, “ De Sympathia Antipathia ; De contagione et contagiosis morbis ; De causis criticorum dierum; Devini temperatura, &c.” His works which are all in Latin, have been printed separately and collectively. The best edition is that of Padua, in 1735, two vols. 4to.

SEBASTIANUS AQUILANUS, or SEBASTIAN D' AQUILA, his true name not being known, an Italian physician, was a native of Aquila, a town of Abruzzo in the kingdom of Naples, professed his art in the university of Padua. He was in reputation at the time of Louis de Gonzaquez, bishop of Mantua, to whom he inscribed a book, and died in 1543. Aquilanus was a zealous defender of Galen. . MATHEW CORTI, an Italian physician, was born in 1475, at Pavia. He professed physic at his native city many years, after which he removed to Pisa, and lastly to Padua, where he gained so high a reputation, that he was invited to Rome by Clement VII. to be his physician. After that pontiff's death, he went to Bologna, and finally settled again at Pisa, where he died in 1544. He wrote Decurandis Febulus; Venæ Sectione, and other works. - PETER BRISSOT, one of the ablest physicians of his time, was born at Fontenai-le-Compte in Poitou in 1478. He studied at Paris; and, having taken his degree of M. D. bent his thoughts to the reforming of physic by destroying the precepts of Hippocrates and Galen, and exploding the maxims of the Arabians. For this purpose he publicly explained Galen's works instead of those of Avicennas, Rhasis, and Messue. He afterwards travelled to acquire the knowledge of plants ; and going to Portugal, practised physic at Ebora. His new method of bleeding in pleurisy, on the side where the pleurisy was, raised a kind of civil war among the Portuguesephysicians; it was brought to the university of Salamanca, which at last gave judgment, that the opinion ascribed to Brissot was the true doctrine of Galen. The partizans of Demys, his opponent, appealed in 1529, to the emperor, to prevent the practice, as being attended with the most destructive consequences, but Charles III., duke of Savoy happening to die at this time of a pleurisy, after having been bled on the opposite side, the prosecution dropped. He wrote an apology for his practice ; but died before it was published, in 1552; but Anthony Luccus, his friend, printed it at Paris in 1555. Renatus Moreau procured a new edition of it at Paris, in 1622, and annexed to it

PETER the life of be missione sa

a treatise, entitled “ De missione sanguinis in pleuritide," together with the life of Brissot. .

PETER DE BAYRO, a celebrated Italian physician, charitably attentive to the wants of the poor, and so successful in his practice, as to be often consulted by princes and men of rank, who munificently rewarded his services, was born at Turin, about the year 1478, and became first physician to Charles II., or according to Dict. Hist., Charles III., duke of Savoy. He died April 1, 1558. His works are-1. De pestilentia ejusque curatione per preservationum et curationum regimen, 4to. 2. Lexipyretæ perpetuæ questionis et annexorum solutio, &c. fol. 3. De medendis humani corporis malis Enchyridion, 1563, 4to.”

BENEDICT VICTORIUS, a physician, was born at Faenza, in Italy, about 1481. He was professor at Bologna, and died about 1560. He wrote De Morbo Gallico, 8vo., and some other works. Lionel Victorius, a relation of his, was also a medical professor at Bologna, and died there in 1520. He wrote on the Diseases of Children, 8vo.

JOHN LANGE, or LANGIUS, a physician of reputation, was a native of Loewenburg, in Silesia, and born in 1485. He studied with singular zeal at Leipsic, Bologna, and Pisa, in the latter of which universities he took the degree of M. D. He then practised physic at Heidelberg, where he soon acquired the esteem of the public, and was nominated first physician to four successive electors palatine, one of whom, Frederick II., he accompanied in his travels through the greater part of Europe. He lived to the age of eighty, notwithstanding his excessive use of cheese, which made a part of all his meals, asserting that physicians were mistaken in decrying, as indigestible, this his favourite nutriment. He died at Heidelberg in June, 1565.

JOHN GAINTHER, an anatomist, was born in 1487, at Andrinach. He became physician to Francis I., and professor of Greek, first at Louvain, and next at Strasburg. He died in 1574. He translated some of the works of Galen and other `authors. His own productions are, a Treatise on the Plague; and another on Pregnant Women, and Children.

JOHN BAPTIST MONTANUS, an eminent Italian physician, styled the Galen of his country. He was born at Verona, in 1488, and studied at Padua, where he displeased his father by preferring physic to law, but though deprived of his assistance, he soon made such progress, that he was promoted to the professor's chair at Padua, after having practised physic with great success in several other cities. His fame became so great, that he was invited to Paris, Florence, and Vienna, by Francis I. He received invitations from Duke Cosmo, and Charles V., but preferred his professorship at Padua, where he died of the stone, in 1551. He wrote many medical and some poetical works.

ABRAHAM DE BALMIS, a Jewish physician, born at Lecci, in the kingdom of Naples, and practised at Venice. He composed a Hebrew grammar, printed at Venice in Hebrew and Latin, by Daniel Bomberg, in the year 1523. He translated into Latin several commentaries of Averroes on Aristotle, as also some works of Avem Pace.

VETTOR TRINCAVELLI, an eminent physician, was born at Venice about 1491. He studied at Bologna and Padua, and having graduated at the latter university, he settled at Venice, where he became professor of philosophy, and acquired distinction in the practice of medicine. In 1551 he was promoted to the chair of medical professor at Padua, with a considerable stipend. He died at Venice in 1563, and was honoured with a public funeral. He was a good Greek scholar.

EDWARD WOTTON, a physician, was a native of Oxford, and born in 1492; he was educated at Magdalen college, from whence he removed to a fellowship in Corpus Christi, where he read a Greek lecture. He took his doctor's degree at Padua; and, on his return, became physician to Henry VIII. He died in 1555. Dr. Wotton published a book entitled De differentiis Animalium.

JAMES DALECHAMP, a physician in Normandy, who wrote a History of Plants, and was skilled in polite learning. He wrote Notes on Pliny's Natural History, and translated Athenæus into Latin. He practised physic at Lyons from 1552 to 1568, when he died, aged 75.

GEORGE AGRICOLA, a German physician famous for his skill in metals, was born at Glancha, in Misnia, in 1494. The discoveries which he made in the mountains of Bohemia, gave him so great a desire of investigating every thing relating to metal, that though he had engaged in the practice of physic at Joachimstall, he still prosecuted his study of fossils with great assiduity; and at length removed to Chemnitz, where he entirely devoted himself to it, and spent in pursuit of it the pension he received from Manuel, duke of Saxony, and part of his own estate; so that he reaped more reputation than profit from his labours. He wrote several pieces on this and, other subjects; and died at Chemnitz in 1555, a firm papist. In his younger years he seemed not averse to the Protestant doctrine; and he highly disapproved of the scandalous traffic of indulgences, and other corruptions of the church of Rome. But in the latter part of his life he attacked the Protestant religion; which rendered him so odious to the Lutherans, that they suffered his body to remain unburied for five days together; so that it was obliged to be removed from Chemnitz to Zeils to be interred.

JOHN FERNEL, or FERNELIUS, a physician to Henry II. of France, was born in Picardy. Being sent to Paris to study rhetoric and philosophy, he applied himself intensely to

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