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nor of the castle of St. Angelo during his whole pontificate. The third son of Peter Serbellone was called Fabricius. The fourth son was called John Anthony, who was bishop of Foligni, and then of Novara, and the first cardinal whom pope Pius IV. made in the year 1560. He was governor of several towns in the ecclesiastical state, legate of Perugia and Romagna, bishop of Ostia and Velletri, and died dean of the sacred college in the year 1591. He was a cunning politician, who had a hand in the most secret negociations of the court of Rome, under the popes Pius IV., Pius V., Gregory XIII., and Sixtus V. Being cousin to Pius IV., he easily obtained some very considerable privileges for the college of doctors at Milan. He found it more difficult to get them confirmed by Sixtus V., who had resolved to suppress them; but at last he carried his point, and even got those privileges enlarged. The last son concerned himself only with his domestic affairs. Our Serbellone had a sister called Cecilia, who was married in the year 1485, to Bernard de Medicis. From this marriage came six sons and seven daughters.
JOHN PAUL BAGLIONI, a native of Perugia, descended from a family of warriors, who had long held the regency of that city. He learned the art of war under Virgilio Orglioni, to whom he was very useful in his efforts to reinstate Peter de' Medici, at Florence. Baglioni having become almost sovereign at Perugia, was expelled from thence by Caesar Borgia, but recovered his ground there after the death of pope Alexander VI. He then became general of the Florentines and inflicted many evils on their enemies the Pisans. On some disagreement with them, he went over to the service of the Siennese, who made a present of him to pope Julius II. He served this pontiff under the duke of Urbino, and assisted in recovering Romagna from the Venetians. But upon the death of count Pitigliano, he engaged in the Venetian service and regained to the republic several places which the emperor had taken from it. In 1512 his troops were twice beaten; but he was enabled, by a reinforcement of Swiss to drive the French from the territories of Venice and Milan. Soon after his Venetian masters uniting with the French, Baglioni took Cremona and Lignago, but was repulsed at Vicenza. He defended Perugia against the general of the church, and assumed an unlimited power there; on which account pope Leo X., having enticed him to Rome, caused him to be beheaded in 1520. fie left two sons, who followed his profession, Horace and Malatesta. Horace, a brutal and violent character, was constantly in the Florentine service, and acquired much renown at the taking of Salerno. He was killed at Naples in 1528. Malatesta served the Venetians with reputation under Livian. Assisted by the duke of Urbino, he drove his relation Gentilis Baglioni from Perugia. He afterwards served the Italian allies against the emperor; and lastly defended Florence for a whole year when besieged by the imperial arms, and did not surrender till reduced to the last extremity. He died of a lingering disease in 1533.
ELEONORA GONZAGA, daughter of Francis the second, marquis of Mantua, was united to the duke of Urbino, at a very early age. She has been no less celebrated for her various qualifications, than for the conjugal attachment she displayed towards her lord, whom pope Leo X. deposed in favour cf his nephew Lorenzo de Medicis, but who after his death, had the dukedom restored. The mind of the duke of Urbino was not formed for the sustaining misfortune, and he would have sunk under its weight, but for the soothing tenderness of his wife, who at length inspired him with that fortitude and resolution, which she in so eminent a degree possessed.
JOHN JAMES marquis de Marignan, of Milan, was noticed for his valour by Francis Sforza, duke of Milan. Sforza persuaded him and another officer, to assassinate Visconti, a nobleman of Milan. After the commission of this horrid deed, the duke took measures to destroy both the assassins, that the suspicion might never attach to him. One fell, but Marignan escaped, and was made governor of Musso, which he exchanged for the service of the emperor, and the command of Marignan, of which he assumed the title. He was succesful, in 1554>, against the French troops under Strozzi, whom he defeated, and he took Sienna, where he permitted his troops to commit the most horrid cruelties. He died 1555, aged 60.
JOHN DE MEDICIS, on account of his bravery and knowledge in military affairs, was surnamed the Invincible. He was the son of John, or Jourdain de Medicis. He first carried arms under Lawrence de Medicis against the duke of Urbino, afterwards under pope Leo X. Upon the death of Leo, he entered into the service of Francis I., which he quitted to follow the fortunes of Francis Sforza duke of Milan. When Francis I. formed an alliance with the pope and the Venetians against the emperor, he returned to his service. He was wounded in the knee at Governolo by a musket ball, and being carried to Mantua, he died Nov. 20, 1526, aged 28. He was above the middle stature, strong and nervous. His soldiers, to express their affection and concern for his loss assumed a mourning dress, and standards, which procured them the name of the black band. Cosmo the great was his only son,
SPAIN, PERU, AND MEXICO.
JOHN II., son of Henry III., was proclaimed king of Castile in 1406, at two years of age. He showed a warlike spirit, and made war with success, against the forces of Navarre and Arragon. Having made peace with these powers, he turned his arms against the Moors of Granada; and obtained great advantages over them. He died in 1454, at the age of 50.
JOHN DE PACHECO, marquis of Villena, the favourite and prime minister of Henry IV., king of Castile. By his insinuating manners and talents he obtained so great an authority, that he disposed of all places in the kingdom. Lewis XI., of France corrupted him by a pension, and he treacherously betrayed his master's interests in the peace of 1443, by agreeing to many articles prejudicial to the kingdom of Castile. Henry having discovered his treachery reproached him with it, at which he was so enraged that he actually conspired against his sovereign, and placed Alphonsus on the throne of his brother. Alphonsus displeased his minister, and fell a victim to his treachery. Pacheco caused the young king to be poisoned, and was reconciled to Henry, who continued him in his authority and favour till his death, in 1473.
ISABELLA, queen of Castile, born in 1451, was the daughter of John II. She passed the early part of her life in obscurity, without the least prospect of a crown; but the Castilians having conspired against her brother Henry IV., a weak and vicious prince, obliged him after the death of the infant Alphonso, to declare Isabella heiress to the kingdom, to the exclusion of Joanna, who passed for his daughter, but was not believed to be such. She was married in 1469 to Ferdinand, son of John II., king of Arragon; and upon the death of Henry, in 1474, they were conjointly declared king and queen of Castile. A party however, existed in favour of Joanna; and Alphonso IV., king of Portugal, entering Castile with an army, espoused her publicly, and assumed the regal titles. His defeat at the battle of Toro, in 1475, was fatal to his pretensions; and, by a peace concluded in 1479, the right of Isabella and her husband was fully acknowledged. In that year the crown of Arragon fell to Ferdinand, and thenceforth the kingdom of Castile and Arragon were inseparably united, comprising the whole of Spain not possessed by the Moors.
Isabella who was high spirited and jealous of her authority, governed Castile as the real sovereign; and her husband had the policy to concur with apparent unanimity in her measures. Religious zeal was a leading feature in her character, to which was principally owing the introduction of the inquisition into Spain, and the war undertaken for the expulsion of the Moors. The desire of propagating the christian faith in parts of the world where it was yet unknown, was likewise the chief motive of the encouragement she gave to the projects of Columbus, which was eventually the cause of such magnificent additions to the Spanish monarchy. In all these schemes, she entered with a warmth and spirit that contrasted with the coldness and caution of Ferdinand. Her merits towards the church were rewarded by the title of the Catholic, conferred by Innocent VIII., on both the royal partners and their successors in the Spanish crown. Though her reign was in general highly prosperous, yet her latter years were darkened by domestic disquiets. Her only son don John, died soon after his marriage with an Austrian princess. Her eldest daughter Joanna, married to the archduke Philip, displayed marks of a weak and disordered mind, and was treated with neglect by her husband. Isabella fell into a dropsical disorder, which carried her off, to the great regret of her subjects, in November 1504, the fiftyfourth year of her age.
FERDINAND V., king of Arragon, Castile, and Leon, surnamed the The Catholic, son of John II., king of Arragon, was born in 1452. He married in 1469, the infanta Isabella of Castile, sister of king Henry IV., at whose death in 1474, he was proclaimed king, and Isabella queen of Castile and Leon. They had however to contend against the claims of the infanta Joanna, the reputed daughter of Henry, who was married to Alphonso IV., king of Portugal. A civil war ensued, in which Ferdinand completely routed the Portuguese at Tora, and a peace was concluded, by which him and his queen were left in quiet possession of their crown. On the death of his father, which happened in 1479, he succeeded to the throne of Arragon, and thenceforth the kingdoms of Arragon and those of Castile and Leon, which together comprehended all Spain, except Granada, which was still in possession of the Moors, became inseparably united. The royal pair governed in great political union, and were very attentive to the order and regulation of the extensive dominions which had fallen to them. In 1481, hostilities began with the Moors, which after a war of ten years, ended in the reduction of their kingdom of Granada, and the recovery of all Spain to the christian dominion. In this war the queen Isabella engaged with all the ardour of religious zeal; and though Ferdinand concurred in her plans with perfect harmony, yet he seems to have acted in a secondary capacity. She was the cause of the expulsion of the Jews from Spain, which soon followed the surrender of Granada. Isabella had the chief share in fitting- out Columbus for that expedition of discovery, which bestowed a new world on the crown of Spain, the cold suspicious character of Ferdinand was ill-disposed to the encouragement of so daring an adventure. In 1492, Ferdinand by means of that address in negociation for which he was so famous, obtained the cession of the countries of Roussillon and Cerdagne from Charles VIII., of France, who was impatient to attempt the conquest of Naples. This however, did not prevent Ferdinand from making war with the French after they had entered Italy; and by means of Gonsales or Gonsalvo de Cordova, called the great captain, whom he sent into Naples, he recovered that kingdom from the French. Meanwhile he was attentive to strengthen himself by foreign alliances; and in 1495, a double marriage took place between the infant don John and the archduchess Margaret; the archduke Philip and the infanta Joanna. The infanta Catherine was also married to Arthur, eldest son of Henry VII., of England. The king of Portugal soon after married the infanta Isabella; but the satisfaction arising from these alliances was damped by the death of don John, Ferdinand's only son, which was followed by that of the queen of Portugal. The conquered Moors were not long suffered to enjoy that toleration in religion for which they had stipulated. Their general conversion was undertaken, and, partly by force, partly by persuasion, in appearance effected; but insurrections soon showed how far it was from being sincere; and in conclusion, Ferdinand for a sum of money, permitted a great part of these wretched people to retire to Barbary, a measure which was injurious to the industry and population of the country. It was contrary to his inclination that in 1502, the archduke Philip, with his wife, at the desire of Isabella, visited Spain, and were solemnly acknowledged by the states of Castile as successors to the crown. Isabella's health now began to decline, and Ferdinand anticipated the loss of his authority in her dominions after her death. This happened in 1504; and though by her will she appointed Ferdinand regent of Castile during the minority of their grandson, Charles, afterwards emperor, which disposition was confirmed by the states, yet insurrections soon arose, and Philip took measures to oblige him to resign in his favour. Ferdinand through resentment demanded in marriage Joanna, the supposed daughter of Henry IV., of Castile, who had formerly been set aside in favour of Isabella; and being refused, he married Germaine de Foix, niece of Lewis XU. The Castilian nobles were disgusted at these proceedings and declared in favour of Philip and Joanna; and Ferdinand at length resigned the regency and retired to his kingdom of Arragon. He had however considerably enlarged his dominions by the acquisition of Naples; for having made a treaty with the French king, by which he agreed to divide the kingdom he pretended to defend, he afterwards employed the great captain to dispossess the French, and secure the whole island to himself. Philip did not long enjoy his power, for he died in 1506, and his wife was so affected by her loss, as to be utterly incapable of government. The regency was therefore again contested, and the competitors were the emperor Maximilian and Ferdinand. The latter was then absent in Naples, where the great power and ambition of the viceroy Gonsalvo gave him