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great uneasiness. When he had settled the government of that country, he returned to Spain, where the celebrated Ximenes, archbishop of Toledo, had been preparing men's minds in his favour. He was restored to his authority in Castile, and conducted himself with so much wisdom and prudence that no opposition was thenceforth made to his administration, except such as proceeded from the turbulence of some of the nobility, which he soon suppressed. In 1508, the city of Oran in Barbary, with its district, was annexed to the crown of Castile, through the patriotic exertions of Ximenes. Soon after Ferdinand engaged the young king of England, Henry VIII., in a league against France; persuaded him to send an army for the recovery of Guienne; and by means of the diversion occasioned by that measure, he seized upon the kingdom of Navarre, expelled its lawful sovereign, John d' Albert, and annexed it to the Spanish dominions. In the midst of his success, jealousy of his grandson Charles preyed upon his mind; he looked forward to the time when that prince would deprive him of the regency of Castile, and the aversion he therefore conceived against him, made him desirous of breaking that mass of power which he had contributed to raise. His young wife had borne him a son, who died in infancy. Ardently desirous of another heir, he used means to give temporary vigour to his enfeebled constitution, which tended farther to exhaust it. He fell into a state of bodily languor, which did not relax his attention to*public affairs, but sharpened his habitual jealousy of power. "Unwilling," says Robertson, " even at the approach of death, to admit a thought of relinquishing any part of his authority, he removed continually from place to place, in order to fly from his distemper, or to forget it. Though his strength declined every day, none of his attendants durst mention his condition, nor would he mention it himself; nor would he admit his father confessor, who thought such silence criminal, into his presence. At length the danger became too imminent to be concealed. He received the intimation with fortitude, and was persuaded by his counsellors to revoke by a new will the injustice he had done to Charles, in bequeathing the regency of his kingdoms to his younger grandson Ferdinand. He died on a journey at the village of Madrigalejo, January 23, 1516, aged 64. He left his daughter Joanna, heiress of all his dominions, and after her, his grandson Charles. No prince of his time acquired so high a reputation for policy and the arts of government as Ferdinand the Catholic. At the same time, no one was so notorious for profound dissimulation, and disregard of the most sacred engagements. An Italian prince said of him, "Before I reckon upon his promises, I would have him swear by some God in whom he believes." Probably, however he was not a disbeliever in his religion, but, like many others, found means to satisfy himself under the breach of its obligations. He made his perfidy a matter of boast, and once, when his ambassadors told him that Lewis XII. complained of being twice overreached by him, " Twice," said he," the drunkard lies, I have cheated him more than ten times." He practised, however, many better arts of governing than these, and displayed towards his own subjects much moderation and equity, with the wisdom of an enlightened prince. He was beloved by the lower classes, whom he protected from being oppressed by the nobles; and he, with Henry VII., of England, set the first examples of securing the public tranquillity, by curbing the turbulence and breaking the power of the feudal nobility. In temper, he was cold, reserved, and unfeeling; not more severe than occasions demanded, but little susceptible of gratitude or attachment. He is justly looked upon as the founder of the Spanish greatness, but good fortune concurred with policy in his aggrandizement.
HERNANDEZ DE CORDOVA GONSALVO, an eminent Spanish commander, distinguished by the title of the Great Captain, was born in 1443. He was the son of Peter Hernandez de Cordova, lord cf Aguilar, and of Elvira de Herrera. He signalized himself in a war against Portugal, and under the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella served in the conquest of Granada. Ferdinand having formed a design of supplanting Frederic, king of Naples, and making a partition of the country with Lewis XII. of France, Gonsalvo was employed to execute this project. He was completely successful. The two partitioning powers soon quarrelled with each other; the French expelled the Spaniards, and Gonsalvo was obliged to retire with his troops to Barletta, destitute of money, provisions, and ammunition. Having received a supply of the latter from the Venetians, he attacked and defeated the French, and on May 14, 1503, entered Naples in triumph. Ferdinand doubtful of the'event, had negociated a treaty with Lewis confirming their former partition; but upon the intelligence of the great success of Gonsalvo, he refused to ratify it. Lewis made great efforts to retrieve his affairs, but the Spanish general at length, obliged the French entirely to evacuate the kingdom of Naples. His eminent services were rewarded with the constableshipof that kingdom, and the dukedoms of Terranova, St. Angelo, and other estates, and he remained there in high honour and authority. But Ferdinand, whose own want of faith, led him to suspect treachery in others, became apprehensive that he entertained a design of keeping Naples for himself, and he sent leters of recall to Gonsalvo, which the general repeatedly eluded upon different pretexts. The king atlength, determined to go thither in person, and in 1506, accompanied by his queen he sailed for Italy with a large fleet, and was met at Genoa by Gonsalvo. They entered Naples together in apparent harmony, and the additional dukedom of Sessa was conferred on the great captain. In the following year, however, the king on leaving Naples, took him away with him. They had an interview at Savona with Lewis XII., who showed his esteem for Gonsalvo, by decorating him with a gold chain taken from his own neck, and causing him to sup at the same table with himself. The republic of Venice likewise made several rich presents, together with a decree written in letters of gold, by which the great council constituted him a noble Venetian. He sent the presents to Ferdinand, keeping only the decree, for the purpose, he said, "of showing his rival Alonzo de Silva that he was as good a gentleman as himself." On arriving in Spain he was commanded to retire to his own estate in Granada, where he died in 1515, at the age of seventytwo. The great captain was a firm disciplinarian, a great master of the art of war, but not distinguished for generosity of sentiment.
PETER NAVARRE, an officer of eminence particularly celebrated for his dexterity in directing and springing mines. He was born at Biscay, of low extraction. He was first a sailor, but afterwards went into Italy, where he became footman to the cardinal of Arragon. He afterwards enlisted as a soldier in the Houstine army; and having served there for some time, went to sea again, and distinguished himself by his courage. Gen. Gonsalvo de Cordone employed him in the war against Naples, and made him a captain. Having contributed greatly to the taking of that city by springing a mine, the emperor rewarded him with the earldom of Alveto, in that kingdom, and gave him the title of count of Navarre. Having the command of a naval expedition against the Moors in Africa, he was at first very successful, and took Ocan, Tripoli, and some other places; but being afterwards ship-wrecked on the island of Gebes, the great heats and the Moorish cavalry destroyed a part of his army. He was equally unfortunate in Italy; he was taken prisoner at the battle of Ravenna, in 1512, and languished in France for two years. Finding that the king of Spain, who had been prejudiced against him, would do nothing for his ransom, he went into the service of Francis I., who gave him the command of twenty companies of infantry. He distinguished himself in several successful expeditions, until 1522, when having been sent to the relief of the Genoese, he was taken by the imperialists. They conducted him to Naples, where he remained a prisoner for three years in the castle of CEuf. He was released by the treaty of Madrid, and fought at the siege of Naples under Lautrec in 1528; but being again made prisoner at the retreat from Aversa, he was sent a second time to the castle of GSuf. Here the prince of Orange having,
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by order of the emperor, caused several persons of the Angeoine faction to be beheaded, our hero would undoubtedly have suffered the same fate, if the governor, feeling for the misfortunes of so great a man, had not saved him. He died a natural death; but some pretend that he was strangled in his bed, having arrived at a very advanced age.
Paul Jove and Philip Thomasini have written his life. The last informs us, that he was of a tall size, had a swarthy countenance, black eyes, beard, and hair.
JOHN GONSALVEZ DE OVIEDO, born at Madrid about 1478, was sent by Ferdinand V. to the island of Haiti, now St. Domingo, as intendant and inspector-general of the trade of the New World, and on his return to Spain published Summario de la Historia general y natural de las Indies Occidentales.
DIEGO D' ALMAGRO, a Spanish commander, of mean descent, who accompanied Pizarro in the expedition against Peru in 1525. He is accused of having had a share in the murder of Atahualpa the inca. In 1535 he took Cuzco, the capital of Chili, and reserved the plunder for himself, which giving offence to Pizarro's brothers, who were there, he made them prisoners, and a civil war ensued. For some time Almagro's party experienced great success, but at length he was taken prisoner, after an obstinate battle. He was kept in confinement several months, and was then brought to his trial, and condemned to be strangled, which he underwent with fortitude in 1538, aged 75.
Almagro was a more amiable, though less able man than his rival. He was brave, open hearted, liberal, unsuspicious, and well formed to gain the attachment of military adventurers, by whom he was generally beloved. He is also said to have acquired the confidence and affection of the poor Indians, who looked to him for protection against the stern and unfeeling Pizarro. His son Diego endeavoured to revenge his father's death, but failed in the attempt, and was beheaded by De Castro in 1542.
FRANCIS PIZARRO, the conqueror of Peru, celebrated rather for his abilities than for his virtues, his glory being tarnished by the cruelties which he practised towards those whom he had conquered. He was the illegitimate son of a gentleman, by a very low woman, and apparently destined by his ungenerous parent not to rise above the condition of his mother, being put to the mean employment of keeping hogs. The genius of young Pizarro disdained this low occupation. He enlisted as a soldier, served some time in Italy, and then embarked for America, which offered at that period a strong allurement to every active adventurer. Distinguished by his utter disdain of every hardship and danger, he was soon regarded, though so illiterate that ne was unable to read, as a man formed for command; and being settled in Panama, where the Spanish emigrants had found their sanguine expectations wholly disappointed, he united in 1524, with Diego de Almagro, another military adventurer, and Hernando Lucque, a priest, to prosecute discoveries to the eastward of that settlement. This attempt had frequently been made, but had failed through the inability of the persons concerned in it; it had now fallen into such hands as were calculated to make it successful, and their confederacy was sanctioned by the governor of Panama. The enterprise was begun in a very humble manner. Pizarro set sail with a single vessel, and from universal ignorance of the climate, at the very worst season of the year, in November, when the periodical winds were precisely against his course. He had no success, nor was his colleague, Almagro, who followed, more fortunate. After undergoing extreme hardships, and obtaining only a glimpse of a better country, the utmost they could, do was to establish themselves in an island near the coast. Nothing could deter Pizarro from his enterprise; the refusal of further sanction from the governor, the desertion of all his associates, except thirteen, all was in vain. He remained with his small band, till, in spite of all obstacles, they obtained another vessel, with some reinforcements. They set sail again in 1526, and on the twentieth day after their departure, discovered the fertile coast of Peru. They were too weak to attempt the invasion of an empire so populous, and Pizarro contented himself with carrying back, by means of an amicable intercourse, such specimens of the wealth and civilization of the country as might invite others to accede to the enterprise. Unable to bring the governor of Panama to adopt his views, he returned to Spain, and explaining to that court the magnitude of the object, obtained every grant of authority he could wish, but no other assistance; and, being left to his own resources, could have effected nothing had he not been assisted with money by Cortez, just then returned from Mexico. It was February, 1531, before he and his associates were again able to sail from Panama, on their great undertaking; and then their whole armament consisted of three small vessels and 180 soldiers, thirtysix of whom were horse-men. After subduing the island of Puna in the bay of Guayquil, he reached Tumbez, where he received a reinforcement. Further to the south he established the first Spanish colony in Peru, to which he gave the name of St. Michael. When they landed in Peru, as they had the imprudence to attack the natives, instead of conciliating them, they were at first exposed to famine; and several other calamities. Pizarro, however, had the good fortune to enter Peru when the forces of the empire were divided by an obstinate civil war between Huascar the legitimate monarch, and Atahualpa, commonly called Atabalipa, his half-brother.