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of temper, and a degree of imprudence even, which came well-nigh occasioning the most serious trouble. Arriving at Constantinople the second time, in a 90 gun steamship (contrary to the treaties of the Porte with foreign powers), he demanded certain things in behalf of the Latin Christians who visit the "Holy Places." The affrighted government of Turkey yielded. Instantly Russia intervened, and made new demands for the Greek Christians; and Turkey yielded in turn to her; for she did not dare to refuse. This led France to reiterate her demands, to the astounded and, we may add, confounded Porte. Reschid Pasha, the Grand Vizier, knew not which way to turn. He had made engagements to France and Russia which were utterly irreconcilable. Fortunately the Emperor of France recalled M. de Lavalette, and sent M. de la Cour, a man of prudence and moderation, who pursued a conciliatory course, and effected an arrangement of the difficulty. In this affair Russia, on the whole, came off victorious. Much credit is due to Louis Napoleon, who had succeeded Louis Philippe, as ruler of France. It is probable also, that the influence of England was not without avail in the case, through her excellent embassador, Sir Stafford Canning*. We know not upon what principle the difficulty respecting the "Holy Places" was arranged in all cases, but we suppose that it was mainly on that of equal occupancy, but at different hours of the days, and probably also on that of alternation.
by the emperor. Prince Menschicoff arrived at Constantinople on the 28th of February, 1853, and on the 16th of March he presented to the Porte his first communication, in which the ministers of the Sultan are charged with having violated the firmans issued in favor of the Greeks, of having wounded the religious convictions of the emperor, and of having been wanting in respect to his person. It concluded with asking an effectual redress of these grievances, and an arrangement which would put an end to the dissatisfaction of the Greek subjects of the Sultan, and give them sure guarantees for the future. The Porte was alarmed by this note, and Col. Rose, the English Chargé d'Affaires (in the absence of Lord Stratford) summoned the British fleet in the Mediterranean to approach the waters of the Dardanelles. On the 19th of April, Prince Menschicoff addressed a note to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, in which he stated in rather arrogant and unusual terms, that he was instructed to demand: "1. A firman concerning the key of the Church of Bethlehem, the Silver Star, and the possession of certain Sanctuaries; 2. An order for the repair of the Dome and other parts of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre; and 3. A Sened, or convention, guaranteeing the strict status quo of the privileges of the Catholic Greco-Russian Faith of the Eastern Church, and of the sanctuaries which are in the possession of that Faith, exclusively or in participation with other sects at Jerusalem."
These demands were substantially granted, through the influence of Lord Stratford and M. de la Cour, the embassadors of England and France, who had returned to Constantinople some days before. The firmans were delivered to Prince Menschicoff on the 5th of May; and though the convention referred to in the latter part of the prince's note had not been conceded or even discussed, it was hoped that there would be no difficulty in arranging everything amicably. This was the state of the case on the morning of the day just named. But that evening, Prince Menschicoff sent another note to the minister of Foreign Affairs, which was of the nature of an ultimatum. It demanded the immediate conclusion of a Sened,-or convention, having the force of a treaty. A draft of such a convention accompanied
But however that may be, the affair was settled peacefully, happily, to the joy of all good men; for many fears had been entertained lest war between Russia and Turkey, involving France, if not other countries, might grow out of it. This was the state of things at the commencement of last year. Alas, the prospect soon became overcast by clouds of doubt and fear. Difficulty sprang up suddenly, -from another and distinct cause. To the surprise of all the world, the Emperor of Russia sent down to Constantinople Prince Menschicoff, one of his ministers, with a large suite, or staff rather, of officers civil and military, in a war steamer. The high position which this extraordinary embassador occupied in the government of Russia shows the estimation in which the mission was held
* Now Lord Stratford de Redcliffe.
+ This Star had been stolen, and the Latin Christians charged the Greeks with having committed the theft! This happened a few years since, and was one of the causes of trouble.
the note, which the Porte was required to agree to, without negotiation! and only five days were allowed for the consideration of the matter.
When the contents of this note were made known to the English and French embassadors, they dispatched, each, a war steamer that night, bearing the news to their respective governments. The demands made in the proposed Sened or convention were two, which we give in a literal translation from the original French :
"1st. There shall be no changes made in the rights, privileges, and immunities which the Churches, the Institutions of Piety, and the Orthodox Clergy (of the Greek Church) have enjoyed; or are in possession of ab antiquo, in the States of the Sublime Ottoman Porte, which has been pleased to grant them for ever, on the base of the statu quo, which exists this day.
"2d. The rights and advantages which may be conceded by the Ottoman Government in future, to other Christian sects (cultes), by treaties, conventions, or special grants, shall be considered as belonging also to the Orthodox Church."
These demands were deemed by the Turkish Government, under the advice of England and France, it is believed, to be wholly inadmissible; and Prince Menschicoff was so informed on the 10th of May. On the 21st of that month the prince left Constantinople. At the moment of his departure, he sent a final note to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, in which he reiterated the demands of his master in stronger terms, requiring even that if at any time any advantages should be granted by special favor to the foreign legations accredited to the Sublime Porte, these advantages should also be accorded to the Orthodox (alias Greek) Church in the Turkish dominions. According to this demand the Porte could grant no special permission for religious services in connection with any of the foreign legations, which would not equally, and of right, belong to the Greek Church. On the 31st of May, Count Nesselrode, the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs, addressed a note to the Porte, in which the threat was made, that in a few weeks the Russian troops would receive orders to cross the Ottoman frontier, not to make war, but to obtain a material guarantee as a security for the rights claimed by the emperor, unless the Turkish Government would promptly accept, without any change
whatever, the note delivered by Prince Menschicoff before his departure.
We have in these few paragraphs given as full a notice of the cause of the present war between Russia and Turkey, as the nature of this article either demands or allows. It cannot be denied that the conduct of Russia in this affair, has been summary, overbearing, and insolent, especially in the second stages of it. Even in the first, the discussions concerning the sacred places, the emperor resorted to the extraordinary course of addressing an autograph letter to the Sultan, in which he charged the Turkish Government with acting in bad faith. And in the second stage, Prince Menschicoff's conduct at Constantinople was outrageous, in refusing to call on the Minister (Fuad Effendi) of Foreign Affairs, and insisting on a personal interview with the Sultan; and this, contrary to the usages of the court, on Friday, the Mussulman's Sabbath. This gave great offence to the Sultan and his ministers.
Of subsequent negotiations we need not say much. The Sultan, contemplating the storm that was gathering and preparing to burst on his country, invoked the interposition of France and England, and they endeavored to induce Austria and Prussia to join them in sustaining the cause of the weak against the strong. Russia invaded and took possession of the trans-Danubian Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia. At first, the pretext was the desire to have a material guarantee" that Turkey would comply with her demands; afterwards the ordering of their respective fleets to the waters of Constantinople, by England and France, was the pretext for this high-handed measure. Indeed, the entire diplomatic correspondence of Russia, including the proclamations, even of the emperor addressed to his own people, during the summer and autumn of 1853, is degraded and disgraced by an unparalleled amount of base shuffling, insupportable arrogance, unworthy dissimulation, and open and downright falsehood. In this respect, the contrast between it and that of Lord Clarendon, M. Drouyn de L'huys, and Reschid Pasha, the three ministers of England, France, and Turkey, for Foreign Affairs, is very remarkable. The four powers made many efforts, through their embassadors at Vienna, to prevent resort to the sword; but it was all in vain. At one time the desired object seemed to be on
the point of being accomplished. But Turkey would only engage to allow the Orthodox (Greek) Church* to participate in the advantages accorded to other Christian communions, also subjects of the Porte. Just here turned the whole difficulty.
And here we cannot but think there was something deeper than what meets the eye. That Turkey should deny to Russia all right to interfere in what concerns the internal administration of her affairs, was legitimate enough. But we are not able to see why, if the Turkish Government allows France and Austria to interfere in behalf of the Roman Catholic or Latin Christians † residing in her dominions, as she certainly has done, she should not allow Russia to interfere to the same extent, in behalf of the members of the Greek Church, in similar circumstances. And if the Porte grants special immunities and privileges to communities, convents, &c., of Latin or other Christians, who are not her subjects, we do not see that Russia is to be blamed for demanding that these same immunities and privileges should be granted to Greek Christians who are subjects of the Porte, and tenfold more numerous than its Latin subjects. This point France has fully comprehended; and here, we think we see her hand, and that of Rome, too. France knows, and the Pope knows, that if the Sultan should grant what Russia has demanded, there would be an end for ever to all "special favors," in behalf of the Roman Catholic Church in the Turkish dominions! Hence the promptitude and zeal with which France espoused the cause of the Sublime Porte
in this affair. Hence, too, the zeal in behalf of the cause of Turkey, manifested by the Roman Catholic archbishops of Paris, Lyons, Quebec, and their dioceses in all parts of the world. They call it a "Holy war," a war against a "Schismatical Church," in their mandemens or circulars to their clergy, in which they exhort them to pray for its success. The Pope is, doubtless, pleased to see Protestant England engaged in that war, by the side of Roman Catholic France; and would be still better pleased if he could see Prussia, Sweden, and every other protestant country engaged in weakening, if not destroying, a schismatical church and nation, who have no sympathy with Rome.
Well, at length Turkey declared war against Russia; and certainly her achievements in the valley of the Danube have been worthy of her ancient renown. In Asia she has been less fortunate. After months of negotiation and delay, England and France also declared war against Russia; but up to this time their deeds are far from corresponding to the hopes to which their preparations and their promises gave rise. After the unfortunate affair at Sinope, the combined fleet took possession of the Black Sea; but with the exception of an attack on Odessa, and some less important places, it has done nothing worthy of note.
There are five things which ought to be done, and must one day be done, if Russia is to be disarmed of her tremendous power to do evil by influences from without. 1. The reëstablishment of Poland, with something like her ancient limits-giving her a population of
* It is remarkable that Count Nesselrode repeatedly asserts in his correspondence, that all the rights and privileges claimed by Russia, in behalf of the Greek Church in Turkey, are fully guaranteed by previous treaties, particularly those of Kainardjii and Adrianople. Then why demand a sened or convention, sanetioned by a new treaty, unless it be to seek occasion for a quarrel with Turkey? It is worthy of remark, that in the treaty of Kainardjii, the Porte engages to protect the Christian (not the Greek) religion and its churches; and permitted the Russian embassador to make a plea in behalf of a specified Greek Church, and its attendants. The treaty of Adrianople (1829) merely confirms the articles of the previous treaty. No mention is made of the Greek, or any particular community or sect.
One of the most remarkable things in Menschicoff's first communications with the Porte, when envoyextraordinary at Constantinople, was the fact of his employing the expression, "privileges of the Catholic Greco-Russian Faith,” to designate the Greek Church in Turkey-thus seeking in a covert way, to identify that church with Russia, a country with which it has no real connection, and never had.
† Much was said in France as well as in England against the recent demand of Russia, în regard to the Christians of the Greek Faith. It was pronounced to be a demand for a protectorate, and utterly inconsistent with the rights of an independent State. The demand was declared to be outrageous, and wholly inadmissible. Be it so. We have no doubt that it was inconsistent with all proper independence of the Turkish Government. But it differed in nothing from what France and Austria have demanded in regard to Roman Catholics residing in Turkey. The proof of this was furnished even in the midst of the discussions in question. It was thus:-The Turkish Government ordered the subjects of the King of Greece, residing as merchants, artisans, &c., in Constantinople, and we believe other cities of the empire, to quit the country, on account of their supposed complicity with the recent Greek insurrection in Epirus, Thessaly, and other parts. But what did the French embassador at Constantinople (Baron Baraguay d'Hilliers) do in the case? He instantly, and with threats, demanded that "Greek Catholics," that is Greeks who were members of the Roman Catholic Church, should not be included in this peremptory and ruinous order. Here was a protectorate with a witness, as Sir Stratford de Redcliffe justly maintained. And what was the result? Baraguay d'Hilliers was recalled by the Emperor of France to be punished, by being appointed to command the French troops sent to the Baltic, and with the bâton of a Marshal of France! And the "Catholic Greeks" have remained undisturbed at Constantinople.
20,000,000. 2. The reëstablishment of Hungary, giving her the entire valley of the Danube to the Black Sea, which would make her population at least 25,000,000. 3. The union of all Germany, with her 42,000,000 of people, under one effective but liberal government, probably a federal republic. 4. The consolidation of Italy under one good government. 5. The bringing of the Scandinavian countries-Sweden, Finland, Denmark, and Norway-under one government, with Copenhagen for its capital. But when will the world see all these things brought about? Perhaps sooner than any one now supposes, good reader. The tendency in Europe has long been towards the reconstruction of governments on the basis of nationality-the only true exponent of which is Language.
But let us return to Russia. The present war will do nothing to diminish her territory; perhaps little or nothing to diminish her power. What, then, is to be her FUTURE? This is a great question; let us look at it.
It is clear to our minds that Russia is destined to be, perhaps for centuries, one of the great powers of the world. Indeed it is evident, we think, that her power will increase until she will be by far the strongest country, not only in Europe, but in the Old World. She is now very powerful-in fact, unconquerable. The Tartars, the Turks, the Poles, the Swedes, and the French (with the
greatest captain of twelve centuries at their head"), all failed to conquer her. And yet Russia, save in the last instance, was nothing in comparison with what she is now. Let a few facts be borne in mind.
1. Russia is a country of vast extent, as we have shown in our former article. Leaving out of view the Asiatic portion (as well as the American), as being comparatively of little account, excepting as a point d'appui in regard to central and eastern Asia, and having only something like five millions of inhabitants at present, notwithstanding its almost boundless dimensions, we must not forget that Russia in Europe embraces 2,025,000 square miles, and is much larger than all the rest of that continent; and although much of its northern, and some of its southern, and especially its southeastern portions, are incapable of sustaining a great population, the resources of the great central region-Great Russia, or Muscovy—and the western, embracing
the modern kingdom of Poland, have immense resources, which are as yet but partially developed. Even now there is a large interior trade carried on on her southern rivers (the Wolga, the Don, the Dneiper, and the Dneister), as well as on her northern (the Vistula, the Niemen, the Duna, the Neva, the Dwina, and even the far distant Petchora or Ijma, (misprinted Lima in our former article.) The head streams of several of these southern and northern rivers almost interlock on the great table lands in the centre of the country, and are, in fact, connected by a system of canals, commenced by Peter the Great. By means of these channels of commünication in the summer, and by roads in the winter, an immense quantity of products, natural and manufactured, make their way to the great cities and seaports, either directly, or through the fairs of Nishni-Novgorod (on the Wolga, 250 miles east of Moscow), and some twenty other places in the empire. The amount of business done at these fairs does not fall much short of one hundred millions of our dollars per annum, and is steadily increasing.
2. The population of Russia in Europe may be safely stated to be sixty-three millions at the present time, and that of the entire empire at seventy millions. No other government in Europe has in one country, or in many contiguous countries, so large a number of souls under its sway. And yet the population of Russia must, in the lapse of half a century, much exceed one hundred millions, for it now increases at the rate of one and a half per cent. annually. In the early and middle centuries of the Christian era, it was not possible that the population of Russia could be either great or increase rapidly. The inhabitants were but very partially civilized, and many of them pursued a nomadic life, which is inconsistent with rapid increase. The various tribes of men that roamed over its vast plains were often at war with each other; and, as if that were not enough, the incursions of Asiatic hordes on the one hand, and the invasions of the Lithuanians, the Poles, and the Swedes on the other, attended often by wide-spread and long-continued desolations-villages and towns sacked and destroyed, and human beings, as well as herds and flocks, swept awayoften concurred to complete the picture of misery. It was not possible that the population of the country should in
crease. In the early part of the eighteenth century, Peter the Great caused the first census to be taken. It included little more than Great Russia, or Muscovy, which then had only nine millions of people; now it has thirty-four or thirty-five millions.-The increase of the entire empire is gradual but steady; that of the European part may be said to be rapid, and increasingly so. And what must the population of that country be one hundred years hence? What will it be, in all probability, two hundred years hence? It would be a very low estimate to say that it will be two or three hundred millions. Certainly, the country is abundantly capable of sustaining three or four times its present population.
variations and differences formed among these and smaller portions of the race are dialects. Hence the inhabitants of Muscovy and all Central Russia converses with readiness with the Sclavonic races in Poland, in Bohemia, in Moravia, in Hungary, and in the northern parts of Turkey, and in Northern Asia, even to the mouths of the Amour. Fifty-six or fiftyeight millions, out of seventy millions of the population of Russia, speaking the same language! What a fact! and what a mighty bearing it must have on the destinies of that nation and of Europe! Never has the Old World seen anything like it, out of China,-if indeed that country constitutes an exception. In our own great country there is a parallel to it. The English language is evidently destined to be the common language spoken over our vast country, and possibly, one day, that of the entire of North America. At all events, so far as the United States and the countries north of them are concerned, the English language will unquestionably absorb every other language which may come in its way. So will it be with the Sclavonic language in Russia. In process of time the other languages and dialects of that great empire will be merged in it. The true policy of the government will concur with other and obvious causes to bring about this result.
Compared with Russia, what are the prospects of the other countries of Europe? Probably every one is increasing in population, some of them slowly, and some of them with considerable rapidity. But can France, and Germany, and England, and Spain, and Italy, and the Scandinavian countries be expected to have any such increase as Russia must long continue to have? When will they see their respective populations doubled? And if they should see that fact, how will they stand individually considered, in this respect, in comparison with Russia?
3. But what is most of all worthy of remark is the fact that Russia is evidently destined to attain vast power through the homogeneousness of her population. Even now, this state of things is apparent and striking. The great and dominant portion of her inhabitants belong to Sclavonic race. That race is estimated to embrace eighty millions of souls, of whom fifty-six or fifty-eight millions live in Russia. The Sclavi of Russia in Europe constitute the great trunk of that race. Muscovy may be considered the home, or birth-place rather, of that race. There the language is spoken in its native simplicity and purity,—even in many cases, by the peasants and other laboring people.
This subject has been well treated by Count A. de Gurowski in his able and invaluable work entitled RUSSIA AS IT Is.* According to this excellent authority, the Sclavi of Russia have little or no difficulty in conversing with any of the branches of the great Sclavic family, a fact which shows that they speak the "mother tongue" of the race, and that
But, what a bearing this great fact, we repeat it, must have on the destinies of Russia, and perhaps of Europe entire! Nothing can be more natural than that the offshoots of the Sclavonic stem, where they are numerous enough to constitute a decided majority of the population, should, in process of time, be absorbed into the great race residing in Russia. Should that be the case, the limits of Russia may extend still further to the west and southwest; especially if it should prove true that the small remnants of former nations and tribes still existing between the great Sclavonic race in Russia and the Teutonic race in Germany, have a greater affinity, through the medium of language, or religion, with the former than with the latter. However this may be, it is easy to see an amazing expansion or growth rather of the Sclavic race in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. The day must come when the Sclavi will have an overshadowing influence in the Eastern Hemisphere, especially in the northern portions of it. Shall that in
* Published a few months ago by D. Appleton & Co.