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codile. A few years ago, between cation, for his wounds were not deep; Uritucu and the Mission de Abaxo, a the crocodile, like the dog, appears not negro, hearing the cries of his master, to close its jaws firmly while swimming. flew to the spot, armed with a long It is almost superfluous to add, that the knife, (macheite,) and plunged into the children of the deceased, though poor, river. He forced the crocodile, by gave the slave his freedom." putting out his eyes, to let go his prey, Upon the whole, this portion of Mr. and hide himself under the water. The Humboldt's work is equally entertainslave bore his expiring master to the ing with what has gone before, and shore, but all succour was unavailing to throws much light on Physics and Ge restore him to life. He died of suffo- ography.

Original Letters.

NO. I.

DAVID HUME. [Eleven original and unpublished letters, written by this eminent man, have been very kindly put into our hands, with permission to insert them in the Literary Gazette. They are derived from a quarter which leaves no doubt of their authenticity; and we are sure that we could hardly offer a more acceptable treat to our Readers, or one more congenial to the spirit of our publication, than these examples of the amiable temper and playful manner of the illustrious Scottish historian. Five of them are addressed to the late Baron Mure, and six of them to Dr. Adam Smith. We need scarcely say, that our copies are verbatim et lileratim.]

steddiness. The delicacy of the times Addressed to William Mure, Esq. M. P. London. does not diminish this assurance, but (This gentleman was afterwards one of the Baron only dashes it with a few fears, which of the Scotch Court of Exchequer.)

rise in me without my approbation, and I

HAVE wrote to Mr. Oswald by against my judgment. Let a strict

this post, in order to promote an in, frugality be the guardian of your virtue; timacy and friendship betwixt you. I and preserve your frugality by a close exhort you to persevere in your inten

application to business and study. tion of cultivating a friendship with Nothing wou'd so effectually throw you him. You cannot possibly find a man into the lumber and refuse of the House of more worth, of a gentler disposition, as your departure from your engage or better understanding. There are ments at this time; as a contrary beinfinite advantages attending an inti- haviour will secure your own good opirmacy with such persons; among


ion, and that of all mankind. These this is not the least, as far as I can advantages are not too dearly purchasjudge by my own experience, that I al- ed even by the loss of fortune, but it be ways derive from it an additional mo- longs to your prudence and frugality to tive to preserve my character for hon- procure them, without paying so dear a our and integrity; because I know that purchase for them. I say no more : nothing else can preserve their friend- and hope you will ascribe what I have ship. Should I give you an exhorta- said, not to the pedagogue, or even to tion of this kind, you might think me the philosopher, but to the friend. I very impertinent; though really you make profession of being such with reought to ascribe it more to my friend- gard to you ; and desire you to considship, than my diffidence. 'Tis impos- er me as such no longer, than I shall sible ever to think ourselves secure appear to be a man of honour.-Yours

, enough, where our concern is extreme Jan. 26. (Signed) D. HUNE. ly great; and, tho' I dare be confident of your good conduct as of my own,

September 16 yet you must allow me to be diffident I made a pen, dipt it in ink, and set of it, as I shou'd be of my own. When myself down in a posture of writing, I consider your disposition to virtue, before I had thought of any subject, or cultivated by letters, together with your made provision of one single thought, moderation, I cannot doubt of your by which I might entertain you. I

No. 17.

at Caldwell.

No. III.


trusted to my better genius, that he pay my respects to both. At least, I wou'd supply me in a case of such ur- hope he will so far indulge my laziness. gent necessity : but having thrice Hanc veniam petimusque damusque scratcht my head, and thrice bit my vicissim. nails, nothing presented itself, and I Did you receive my letter from Glasthrew away my pen in great indigna- gow ? Í hope it did not displease you. tion.0! thou instrument of dulness,” What are your resolutions with regard says I,“ doest thou desert me in my to that affair ? greatest necessity; and being thyself so

Remember me to your sister, Miss false a friend, hast thou a secret repug- Nancy, to Miss Dunlop, and to Mr. nance at expressing my friendship to Leechman. Tell your mother, or sisthe faithful Mure, who knows thee too ters, or whoever is most concern'd well ever to trust to thy caprices, and about the matter, that their cousin John who never takes thee in his hand with- Steuart, is in England, and, as ’tis beout reluctance. While I, miserable lieved, will return with a great fortune. wretch that I am, have put my chief

I say not a word of Mr. Ilutcheson, confidence in thee; and relinquishing for fear you shculd think I intend to the sword, the gown, the cassock, and run the whole circle of my West-counthe toilette, have trusted to thee alone try acquaintance, and to make you a for my fortune and my fame. Begone! bearer of a great many formal compliavaunt! Return to the goose from ments. But I remember you all very whence thou camest. With her thou kindly, and desire to be remember'd wast of some use, while thou convey- by you, and to be spoke of sometimes, edst her thro’ the etherial regions. And —and to be wrote to.. why, alas ! when pluckt from her wing,

(Addressed) Wm. Mure, of Caldwell, Esq. and put into my hand, dost thou not recognize some similitude betwixt it, and thy native soil, and render me the I am surprised you should find fault service, in aiding the flights of my with my letter. For my part, I esteem heavy imagination."

it the best I ever wrote. There is Tbus accus’d, the pen erected itself neither barbarism, solecism, æquiupon its point, placed itself betwixt my voque, redundancy, nor transgression of fingers and my thumb, and mov?d it- one single rule of grammar or rhetoric, self to and fro upon this paper, to in- thro’ the whole. The words were form you of the story, complain to you chosen with an exact propriety to the of my injustice, and desire your good sense, and the sense was full of mascuoffices to the reconciling such ancient line strength and energy. In short, it friends.

comes up fully to the Duke of BuckingBut not to speak nonsense any long- ham's description of fine Writing. Exer, (by which, however, I am glad I act propriety of words and thought. have already fill’d a page of paper,) I This is more than what can be said of arrived here about three weeks ago : am most compositions. But I shall not be in good health; and very deeply im- redundant in the praise of brevity, tho' merst in books and study. Tell your much might be said on that subject. sister, Miss Betty, (after having made her To conclude all, I shall venture to my compliments,) that I am as grave as affirm, that my last letter will be equal she imagines a philosopher should be : in bulk to all the orations you shall delaugb only once a fortnight : sigh ten- liver, during the two first sessions of derly once a week: but look sullen eve- Parliament. For, let all the letters of ry moment. In short, none of Ovid's my epistle be regularly divided, they Metamorphoses ever show'd so abso- will be found equivalent to a dozen of Jute a change from a human creature, No’s and as many Ay's. There will into a beast; I mean, from a gallant be found a No for the Triennial Bill, into a philosopher.

for the Pension Bill, for the Bill about I doubt not but you see my Lord regulating Elections, for the Bill of Glasgow very often; and therefore I Pains and Penalties against L. Orford, shall suppose, when I write to one, I &c. There will also be found Ay for

Nov. 14th.

at Caldwell.

No. IV.

the Standing Army, for Votes of Credit, tion, upon so short an acquaintance, I for the Approbation of Treaties, &c. must be beholden to your good offices, for As to the last No I mentioned, with preserving me in her memory; because regard to Lord Orford, I beg it of I suspect mightily that she is apt to foryou as a particular favour. For, hav- get and overlook those who can aspire ing publish d to all Britain my senti- no higher than the relation I first menments on that affair, it will be thought tion'd. by all Britain, that I have no influence This I think is enough in all conon you, is your sentiments be not con- science. I see you are tir'd with my for nable to mine. Besides, as you are long letter, and begin to yawn. What! my disciple in religion and morals, why can nothing satisfy you, and must you shou d you not be so in Politics ? I en- grumble at every thing. I hope this is treat you to get the Bill about Witches a good prognostic of your being a parepealed, and to move for some new triot. Bill to secure the Christian Religion, by (Addressed) To Wm. Mure, of Caldwell, Esq. burning Deists, Socinians, Moralists, and Hutchinsonians.

I shall be in town about Christmas, Dear Mure,–I hope you do not where, if I find not Lord Glasgow, I think yourself oblig'd by saying civil shall come down early in the spring to things, to make atonement for the too the Borders of the Atlantic Ocean, and homely truths, which you told me forrejoice the Tritons and Sea-gods with merly. I will not believe so. I take the prospect of Kelburn* in a blaze. for granted, that you are equally sincere For I find, that is the only way to un- in both : Though I must own, that I settle his Lordship. But I intend to think my first Volume* a great deal use the freedom to write to himself on better than the second: the subject adthis subject, if you will tell me how to mitted of more eloquence, and of greatdirect to him. In the mean time do er nicety of reasoning, and more acute you make use of all your eloquence and distinctions. The opposition, I may argument to that purpose.

say the rage with which it was received Make my humble compliments to by the public, I must confess, did not a the ladies, and tell them, I should en- little surprise me. Whatever knowdeavour to satisfy them, if they wou'd ledge I pretend to in history, and huname the subject of the Essay they de man affairs, I had not so bad an opinsire. For my part, I know not a bet- ion of men as to expect, that candour, ter subject than themselves ; if it were disinterestedness, and humanity, cou'd not, that being accus'd of being unin- entitle me to that treatment. Yet such telligible in some of my writings, I was my fate. After a long interval, I shou'd be extremely in danger of fall- at last collected so much courage, as to ing into that fault, when I shou'd treat renew my application to the second of a subject, so little to be understood as Volume, thoʼ with infinite disgust and Women. I wou'd, therefore, rather reluctance ; that I am sensible, that in have them assign me the Deiform fund many passages of it, there are great of the Soul, the passive unions of noth- signs of that disposition, and that my ing with nothing, or any other of those usual fire does not every where appear, mystical points, which I would endeav- At other times, I excited myself, and our to clear up, and render perspicuous perhaps succeeded better. to the meanest readers.

Exul eram, requiesque mihi, non fama, petita est; Allow not Miss Dunlop to forget, Mens intenta suis, ne foret usque malis. that she has a humble servant, who has Nam simul ac mea caluerant pectora musą, the misfortune to be divided from her, Altior humano spiritus ille malo est. by the whole breadth of this island. Í I leave you to judge, whether your know she never forgets her friends; letter came in a very seasonable time. but, as I dare not pretend to that rela- I own, that I had the weakness to be

* The Earl Glasgow's house, on the coast of Renfrewshire.
+ This alludes to the first Volume of his History of the House of Stuart.

affected by it; when I found, that a time of life, these changes of habitation person, whose judgment, I very much are not agreeable, even tho’ the place valu’d could tell me, tho' I was not be better, to which one removes. asking his opinion, But I will not I am sorry, my fair cousin does not proceed any farther. The matter gave find London so agreeable as perhaps she me uneasiness at the time, tho’ without expected. She must not judge by one the least resentment : At present, the winter. It will improve against next uneasyness is gone; and all my usual winter, and appear still better the winfriendship, confirm’d by years and long ter after that. Please make my comacquaintance still remains.

pliments to her, and tell her that she Pray, whether do you pity or blame must not be discourag’d. By-the-bye, me most, with regard to this dedication Mrs. Binnie tells me that she writes of my Dissertation to my Friend, the her a very different account of matters, Poet: I am sure ) never executed any so that I find my cousin is a hypocrite. thing, which was either more elegant in

I shall make use of your criticisms, the composition, or moro generous in and wish there had been more of them. the intention : yet such an alarm seiz’d That practice of doubling the genitive some fools here, (men of very good is certainly very barbarous, and I caresense, but fools in that particular, ) that fully avoided it in the first volume ; but they assaild both him and me with the I find it so universal a practice, both in utmost violence; and engag’d us to writing and speaking, that I thought it change our intention. I wrote to Mil- better to comply with it, and have lar to suppress that dedication : two

even chang'd all the passages in the posts after I retracted that order. Can first volume in conformity to use. All any thing be more unlucky, than that, languages contain solecisms of that kind. in the interval of these four days, he

Please make my compliments to Sir should have opened his sale, and dis- Harry Erskine, and tell him that I have posed of 800 copies, without that dedi- executed what I have propos’d.— I am, cation, whence, I imagin'd, my friend dear Mure, your most affectionate friend would reap some advantage, and my

and servant, self so much honour. I have not been (Sd.) DAVID HUME. so lieartily vexed at any accident of a long time. However, I have insisted

St. David's-streel. Oct. 25th, 1775. that the dedication shall still be pub Oh! dear Baron,-you have thrown lished.

me into agonies, and almost into conI am a little uncertain what work I vulsions, by your request.

You ask shall next undertake : for I do not care what seems reasonable, what seems a to be long idle. I think you seem to mere trifle; yet am I so unfit for it, that approve of my going forward, and I am it is almost impossible for me to comsensible, that the subject is much more ply. You are much fitter yourself. interesting to us, and even will be so to That address, by which you gain’d imposterity, than any other I cou'd choose: mortal honour, was done altogether withbut can I hope, that there are materials out my knowledge, I mean that after the for composing a just and sure history suppression of the late rebellion. Here of it? I am afraid not. However, I is Lord Home teizing me for an address shall examine the matter. I fancy it from the Merse; and I have constantly will be requisite for me to take a jour- refus d liim. Besides, I am an Amerney to London, and settle there for ican in my principles, and wish we some time, in order to gather such ma- would let them alone to govern or misterials as are not to be found in print. govern themselves, as they think propBut if I should go backwards, and write er: the affair is of no consequence, or the History of England from the acces- of little consequence to us. If the coun: sion of Henry the 7th,-I might remain ty of Renfrew think it indispensably where I am ; and I own to you, at my necessary for them to interpose in pub

No, V.

+ John Home, author of Douglas, &c. at that time under the displeasure of the more zealous Ministers of the Church of Scotland.

lic matters, I wish they wou'd advise the favour to ask of you. Dr. Trail

, the king first to punish those insolent ras- professor of divinity, is dead, and knows cals in London and Middlesex, who now whether there be any truth in all daily insult him and the whole legisla- those doctrines, which he taught while ture, before he think of America. Ask alive. Dr. Wight is a candidate for him, how he can expect that a form of the chair. I know you wish bim well

, government will maintain an authority and will favour him: but will you do it at 3000 miles distance, when it cannot with sufficient zeal ? I wish you would make itself be respected, or even be exert yourself. He is a sensible, good treated with common decency at home. humoured, gentleman-like fellow, and Tell him, that Lord North, tho’ in ap- as sound and orthodox as you could pearance a worthy gentleman, has not wish. If you can engage the principal a head for these great operations, and in his interests, it will be great point thatiffifty thousand men and twenty mil- gain'd. Wight is much connected with lions of money were intrusted to such a all our friends here, whom I know you lukewarm General as Gage, they never wish to oblige. could produce any effect. These are You are to be at Hamilton, I hear, objects worthy of the respectable coun- some day next week. Tell me the ty of Renfrew, not mauling the poor day ; I will meet you at Cultness, that unfortunate Americans in the other is, weather, health, and humour serv. hemisphere.

ing. Your's,

D. H. In return for thus sketching out to (Addressed) To the Hon. Baron Mure, you the object of an address, I have a at Caldwell, near Glasgow,

Original Voyages.

The Sandwich Islands.- A Patriot or Run-

off his guard, and answered, that he away Ship:- History of ils change of Mas. had been sent on shore with thirteen

ters, Piracies, and Plundering. others, at Valparaiso. When I learned A BOUT the middle of May

, the Co- this, I went to the chief, named Bokee, hee. A few days after May 20th, cumstance; he had them immediately 1818, one of the King's vessels made brought to the fort, where an examinaher appearance that island, and tion took place, in the course of which informed us that a patriot ship, called it came out, that the ship, Santa Rosa, the Santa Rosa, had arrived from the alias Checka Boca, alias Liberty, had coast of Peru, under the command of been fitted out at the River Plate, under Captain Turner, from whom Tamea- the command of Captain Turner, and mah had purchased the ship and cargo, had sailed round Cape Horn, to cruise for 6000 peekles of sandal wood. It against the Spaniards in the North struck me very forcibly, that she must and South Pacific; on going round be some ship with which the crew had the Horn there were some symptoms run away, or they could not afford to of mutiny; the men would not allow sell her for 6000 peekles, as she had a punishment to be inflicted, and Captain very valuable cargo of dry goods on Turner threatened hard that he would board, and a great deal of money, which punish them severely, when the ship was, however, shared among the crew. arrived at Valparaiso. When they had The people went on shore after they fine weather they were in the habit of had made their bargain, and three of exercising the guns, and on Sunday, the them came down to Woahoo in the 27th of July, 1817, having just secured King's vessel. I got into conversation them, the man at the mast-head, called with one of them, who was half intoxi- out A sail, ho!' the people ran to cated, and after inquiring into the par- their quarters, and one of the officers ticulars of their cruise, I asked him what went aloft with the glass to look for the they had done with their former Cap- vessel ; when the crew loaded the guns, tain ? By this question he was thrown and turned them aft, at the same time

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