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February. Winds, howl not so long and loud ; sible is displayed an astonishing inNor with your vengeance arm the snow; stance of the benevolence and foreBear hence eacb heavy-loaded cloud,

knowledge of the Deity !-It is almost And let the twinkling star-beams glow.

a general law of nature, that bodies in THIS month has frequently a most losing their caloric, or matter of heat,

wintry aspect ; the ground is gen- become heavier ; but to this law, waerally covered with snow; the rivers ter is most admirably an exception : are frozen ; and the cold is intense. passing from fluidity to a state of soBut February is sometimes character- lidity in ice, it loses its heat, yet beized by mild weather, as in some re comes lighter! But for this deviation cent seasons; this circumstance is thus in the order of Divine appointment, alluded to by Mason, in a Sonnet on the arctic and temperate regions of our his Birth-Day, Feb. 23 :

globe could not be inhabited by beings

constituted as we are. In a hard winIn the long course of seventy years and one, Oft have I known on this my Datal day,

ter the surface of the water freezes to a Hoar frost and sweeping snow prolong their sway, depth proportionate to the severity of The wild winds whistle, and the forests groan ;

the season, but a considerable portion But now Spring's smile has veil'd stern Winter's

of the element retains its fluidity and frown; And now the birds on every budding spray

warmth, which on returning spring, in Chaunt orisons, as to the month of May.

conjunction with the atmosphere, gives The severe weather usually experi

out a portion of its heat to the ice, and

dissolves it. Did ice become heavier enced in February breaks up with a sudden thaw, accompanied by wind than water, upon the surface freezing,

it would sink to the bottom, and expose and rain; torrents of water pour from the hills, and the snow is completely again, and sink likewise ; and thus a

a fresh surface, which would freeze dissolved. Ice breaks from the banks of pools ed until the whole body of the water

constant Auid surface would be presentand streams, and floats, a sign of relenting frost and a milder temperature: lakes, rivers, and waters of the greater

became congealed, and all the gulphs, we pass it by ; it swims away with the

portion of Europe, Asia, and America, current, and is lost :

would become a dense body of ice, in A moment seen, then gone for ever.!

which nothing could live, and which In this apparently simple circumstance the suns of no summer could reduce to of ice floating on the water, the great fluidity : the earth would be chilled, mass of mankind are perhaps little sen- and become a sterile body. From the 2S

ATHENEUM VOh. 10.

1

little we are permitted to know of crea- 'Tis Pleasant, by the cheerful hearth to hear
tion,and which is measured out to man, And pause at times, and feel that we are safe ;
from age to age, what wonderful love Then listen to the perilous tale again,
and omniscience do we find! These And, with an eager and suspended soul,
bright gleams of wisdom, and peeps Woo terror to delight us.-But to bear
into the secrets of divine lore, should The roaring of the raging elements ;
render us blind and fatuous creatures, Avail not ;–10 look mund, and only see

To know all human skill, all human strength,
very humble, and very grateful. The The mountain-wave incumbent with its weiglit
common air we breathe, had it been of bursting waters, o'er the reeling harks,
compounded otherwise than it is would This is indeed, a dread and awful thing!
be the destruction, not the support of Of such an hour, doth never hear the storm

And he who hath endured the horror, once, animal life : had it not been transpa. Howl round his home, but he remembers it, rent and elastic, the senses of seeing and And thinks upon the suffering mariner! hearing would have been useless to us ;

Southey. and the analogy of reason teaches us to Feb. 15-was anciently the Luperbelieve every portion of creation filled calia, or Festival of Pan. It was usual with the same prescience, aptitude, and first to sacrifice two goats and a dog, mercy. We cannot conceive the joys and to touch with a bloody knife the of a future state, but we can compre- foreheads of two illustrious youths, who hend nothing to be so ecstatic as the were always obliged to smile when they free developement and contemplation were touched. The blood was wiped of Divine wisdom.

away with soft wool dipped in milk. Ofó a clear frosty day' often experi- After this, the skins of the victims were enced in February, the following beau- cut into thongs with which whips were tiful picture is drawn by the poet : made for the youths, who ran about the

streets lashing every one they met. It From sunward rocks the icicle's faint drop, By lonely river-side, is heard, at times,

was celebrated at Rome, notwithstand. To break the silence derp; for now the stream

ing its scandalous indecencies, till near Is mute, or faintly gurgles far brlow

500 years after the birth of Christ, Its frozen ceiling : silent stands the mill,

when it was abolished by Pope Gelasus. The wheel immoveable, and shod with ice.

Feb. 17-Ferralia, a festival, cele
The babbling rivulet, at each little slope,
Flows scantily beneath a lucid veil,

brated by the Romans, in honour of the And seems a pearly current liquefied;

dead. It continued for eleven days, While, at the shelry side, in thousand shapes during which time presents were carriFantastical, the frostwork domes uprear

ed to the graves of the deceased, marTheir tiny fabrics, gorgeously superb

riages were forbidden, and the temples With ornaments beyond the reach of art; Here vestibules of state, and colonnades ;

of the Gods were shut. It was univerThere Gothic castles, grottoes, heather fanes, sally believed that the manes of their Rise in review, and quickly disappear ;

departed friends came and hovered over Or through some fairy palace fancy roves,

their graves, and feasted upon the proAnd studs, with ruby lamps, the fretted roof;

visions that the hand of piety and afOr paints with every colour of the bow Spotless parterres, all freaked with snow-white section had procured for them. Their flowers,

punishments in the infernal regions Flowers that no archetype in Nature own;

were also suspended, and during that Or spreads the spiky crystals into fields

time they enjoyed rest and liberty. of bearded grain, rustling in autumn breeze,

Ovid thus describes the ceremonies in Storms at sea, accompanied by very

his Fasti :heavy gales of wind which continue for Upon a tile a slender offering's made, three or four days, often occur in the on which some scattered corn and salt is laid ;

Bread dipt in wine, and violets strew'd around, month of February.

Which leave upon the consecrated ground;"

Grahame.

What is here called consecrated ground, in the original is Mediâ viâ ; because anciently graves were made, and monuments to the memory of the dead were erected, by the side of the highways ; which was a good method of putting the living, as they passed by, in remembrance of their mortality.

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Let them that will, add better things than there, In continuation of the remarks on the But such will the departed ghosts appease ,

phenomena of northern climates, to be And when on altars fires begin to blaze,

found in our preceding volumes, we Let all your voices join in prayer and praise.

now add some interesting extracts relaFeb. 21-Tacita, Muta, or Lala, tive to Lapland, from Dr. Clarke's rethe goddess who presided over silence, cent volume of Travels in that country, among the Romans, had this particular

O'er rocks, seas, islands, promontories spread, day appointed for her festival ; and, if The ice-blink rears its undulated head, the various enchantments described by On which the sun, beyond th' horizon shrined, Ovid, would deliver us from slander- Hath left his richest garniture behind ; ous tongues,' malicious lies,' and the Piled on a hundred arches, ridge by ridge, tattle baskets'* of our day, we would Whose blocks of sapphire seem to mortal eye

O'er fixed and fluid, strides the Alpine bridge ; be among the first to vote for the revi- Hewn from cerulean quarries of the sky; val of this singular feast. The cere With glacier battlements, that crowd the spheres, monies are thus noted in the Fasti :

The slow creation of six thousand years,

Amidst immensity it towers sublime, To Tacita the silent rites belong,

Winter's eternal palace, built by Time : And yet the chatterer cannot hold her tongue;

All human by his touch are borne Three grains of incense, with three fingers pressed,

Down to the dost;-mountains themselves are worn Beneath the threshold of the door are placed ; With his light footsteps : but here forever grows, And then, three thrums to a black reel she ties, Amid the region of unmelting snows, With magic words, the thrums of diff'rent dyes ; A monument,—where every flake that falls While seven black beans she mumbles in her mouth, Gives adamantine firmness to the walls; A pilchard's head she sews up in a cloth;

The sun beholds no mirror in his race A slender peedle made of polished brass,

That shows a brighter image of his face
With pitch instead of wax, completes the case ; The stars, in their nocturnal vigils, rest
The case and head into the fire are thrown,

Like signal fires on its illumined crest;
And then some wine is gently poured thereon ; The gliding moon around the ramparts wheels,
What wine remains the comp'ny drink with care, And all its magic lights and shades reveals ;
But the old gossip topes the greatest share;

Beneath, the tide with idle fury raves
Now have I tied all sland'rous tongues she cries, To undermine it through a thousand waves ;
Now are we safe from all malicious lies;

Rent from its roof, though thousand fragments oft And having said ber tittle-tattle say,!

Plunge to the gulph, immoveable aloft ; With tipsy steps, she tottering reels away.

From age to age, in air, o'er sea, on land,

Its turrets heighten and its piers expand. Feb. 22-Charistia, an ancient pa

Montgomery's Icebergs of Greenland. gan feast well worth reviving in Chris At Enontekis in Lapland, during the tian times. It was celebrated with

space

of three weeks in every year, the the intention of reconciling friends minister informed Dr. Clarke, that he and relations : the head of the family is able to light his pipe by the Sun then hospitably entertained all those to at midnight with a common burning whom he was related or connected, glass ; and, when clouds do not interand, by the benevolent distribution of

vene,

he
may

continue this practice for mutual presents, it was hoped that all a longer time : but the atmosphere beanimosities would cease !

comes 'clouded as the season advances. Fly far from hence, you who polluted are,

From the church, near his house, it is Nor at this holy festival appear ;

visible above the horizon at midnight Let mothers who have used their children ill, during seven weeks in each year ; but And brothers, who a brother's blood would spill; the pleasure of this long day is dearly Let those who pry into their parents' age, And wish their exit from the mundane stage,

purchased by an almost uninterrupted Let stepdames who their husbands' children chase

night for the rest of the year ; a conFrom home, and force 'em to destructive ways,

tinual winter, in which it is difficult to Let none of these the friendly feast disgrace ; dispense with the use of candles during Or those, who for the sake of sordid gain

the space of three hours in each day. Will not from stealth or sacrilege refrain ;

The climate of Lapland, although Far, far from hence, your feet unhallowed take, Nor the sweet peace of this assembly break;

extremely frigid, is not wwwholesome. Here piously paternal gods adore,

The coldest summer was that of 1790, To day sweet Concord has the ruling power. when not a sheaf of barley or any kind

Ovid's Fasti. of grain was harvested : even in the

* Lara, afterwards Lala, from the Greek verb acne, to talk much, to babble.

August of that year, the old snow re- green colour. The last spring frost mained unmelted, and, in the same happened on the night of the 30th. month fresh snow began to fall. The June.—The earth white with snow annual depth of snow varies from 3 to on the 4th. Pasturage commenced in 4 feet English. According to an ave- the forests on the 7th. Snow and heavy rage formed upon eight years observa- hail on the 13th. The first summer tion, either rain or snow falls every 3 heat on the 16th. First thunder on or 4 days throughout the year. The the 18th ; at this time sowed the kitchclouds, especially in autumn, are very en garden. Mosquitos in vast numbers tempestuous. The appearance exhib- on the 22d. Inundations from the ited by the Aurora Borealis is beyond highest mountains on the 26th ; at this description magnificent; it serves to time the leaves of the potatoe-plants illuminate their dark skies in the long perished with cold. night of winter, but, what is most re July.-First ear of barley on the markable, this phenomenon is not con- 26th. Hay-making began on the 30th. fined to the Northern hemisphere, but The first star visible on the 31st, denothat its appearance to the South of the ting the re-approach of night. Zenith is no unccmon circumstance.t August.-First frosty night towards A LAPLAND CALENDAR.

the 17th. Harvest began on the 20th. January. The most intense cold Birch-leaves begin to turn yellow on

the 23d. took place between the 3d and the 7th. The greatest depth of snow, 1{ of a

September.-Hard frost towards the Swedish ell.

6th. Swallows disappear on the 11th. February.-Snow falling, with vio

Ground frozen, and ice upon the banks lent wind, from the 9th to the 13th.

on the 12th. First snow fell on the March.-Extreme cold from the 8th

21st,and remained upon the mountains. to the 13th.

Cattle housed on the 24th. Lakes April.— The first rook seen on the

frozen on the 26th. 15th. Several rooks made their ap- 6th. Upon the 9th, not a rook to be

October.-The river frozen on the pearance on the 23d. The

ways

became passable : wild geese begin to 22d; and the ice not firm on the 26th.

The earth again bare on the appear.

May.—The partridge (charadrius Durable frost and snow on the 27th. apricarius Linn.) and the motacilla

November.-Upon the 19th, travel(ananthe Linn.) appeared on the 5th. ling in sledges commenced. The season for travelling in sledges cold from the 16th to 22d inclusive.

December.— The greatest degree of ended on the 8th. The rivulets began The depth of the snow now equalled 1 to flow on the 9th. First rain appear. Swedish ell and 18 inches. ed on the 11th ; and at the same time the lumme (colymbus lumme) made its

The NORWEGIAN. appearance. The ice began to break When doubtful twilight dins the Polar noon, up on the 14th. Swallows appeared And rayı, reflected from the mountains, glow, on the 15th.

The ice disappeared on Against the rising of the Winter Moon; the 17th ; the spring floods in the riv. The cold Norwegian from involving snow ers then at their height. Upon the clears his frail bark; and when the first faint ng 18th sowing began, the plains begin. Fearless be launches on his trackless way,

Shines on the billow's ice-encumbered foam, ning to look green. The last snow fell And on the stormy ocean hails his home ! on the 19th. Upon the 23d, planted When o'er his bead, upon the misty height, potatoes. Cuckoo heard on the 25th; The harsh sea-eagle rears her airy nest, and perch began to spawn.

Birché And cheers with clamours rude the boreal night, leaves began to appear on the 27th, from all the glories rushing on his eye

No thrilling raptures swell his simple breast, and the plains to exhibit an uniform The awful sweep of waves and and star-encircled sky!

seen.

1 Lieut. Chapell, in his Voyage to Hudson's Bay, says, the Aurora Borealis in the Zenith resembled, as to its shape, an umbrella, pouring down streams of light from all parts of its periphery, which fell vertically over the hemisphere in every direction.

Voyages and Travels.

Literary Gazette. BUCKINGHAM'S TRAVELS IN PALESTINE. ON the 11th of January, 1816, the' its entrance ; and we were told, that

travellers left Acre for Nazareth, one marked the spot where the Virgin where they arrived after a journey of rested, and the other where the Angel about nine hours. From the mountain stood when he appeared to Mary, exabove this town, they had a view of claiming, Hail thou, that art highly Mount Carmel and the Bay of Accho. favoured ! the Lord is with thee; bles-“ The hill (says Mr. Buckingham) sed art thou among women.' The pilwas so steep and rugged, that we were lar on the right is still perfect, but that obliged to descend it on foot; and if it on the left has a piece of its shaft browere the precipice from which the men ken out, leaving a space of about a of Nazareth threatened to cast down foot and a half between the upper and our Saviour headlong, as related by St. under fragment. The latter of these Luke, it was a station well adapted for continuing still to be supported by bethe execution of such a deed of death.” ing firmly embedded in the rock above,

The fixed inhabitants of Nazareth offers to the eyes of believing visitors, are estimated at about two thousand, according to the expression of the frifive hundred of whom are Catholic ars, ' A standing miracle of the care Christians, about three hundred Maron- which Christ takes of his Church,' as ites, and two hundred Mahomedans, they insist upon its being supported by the rest being schismatic Greeks. the hand of God alone.

“ The church of Nazareth (observes “ The grotto here, though small,and Mr. Buckingham) is built over a grotto, about eight feet in height, remains still held sacred from a belief of its being in its original roughness, the roof the scene of the Angel's announcing to being slightly arched. In the outer Mary her favour with God, and her compartment, from whence the chapel. conception and bearing of the Saviour. of Loretto is said to have been taken, On entering it, we passed over a white the roof as well as the sides have been marble pavement, ornamented in the reshaped, and plastered and ornamentcentre with a device in Mosaic ; and ed ; so that the original dimensions no descended by a fight of marble steps longer remain ; within, however, all is into a grotto beneath the body of the left in its first rude state, to perpetuate, church. In the first compartment of to future ages, the interesting fact which this subterraneous sanctuary, we were it is thought to record. told had stood the mass which consti “ Passing onward from hence, and tutes the famous chapel of Loretto, in ascending through narrow passages, Italy, and the Friars assured us, with over steps cut out of the rock, and turnall proper solemnity, that the angels ing a little to the right, we came to a appointed to the task, took out this chamber which the friars called “La mass from the rock, and flew with it, cucina della Santa Madona.' They first to Dalmatia, and afterwards to Lo- here showed us the chimney of the retto, where it now stands; and that, hearth on which Mary warmed the on measuring the mass itself, and the food of Jesus while yet an infant, and place from which it had been taken, where she baked the cakes for her husthey had been found to correspond in band's supper when he returned from every respect, neither the one by the the labours of the day. This was an voyage, nor the other by age, having apartment of the house, as they observlost or altered any part of their size ed, in which the Son of God lived so or shape.

many years in subjection to man; as 66 Proceeding farther in, we were it is believed by all, that he was brought shown a second grotto, or a continua- up from childhood to manhood in Naztion of the first, with two red granite areth. pillars, of about two feet diameter at “ The fact of Joseph and Mary hav

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