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rest of his days a painter of animals, or plaisance for the mere mortals who rather of two species of animals—bears came to see him ; on the contrary, he and cats. But the latter were more received him with very undisguised ill peculiarly his favourite studies. He humour. Besides, the sombre expres. painted them in water-colours, in every sion of his countenance was quite repossible attitude, either alone or in pulsive, so that it very rarely happened groups, with a truth and nature that that any one was tempted to repeat his have, perhaps, never been surpassed. visit. Indeed, Nature, for the most

His masterly sketches might have part, had been such a niggard to him been justly termed 6 striking portraits of personal and mental attractions, that of cats.” He caught and depicted ev- it was this peculiar talent alone that ery evanescent shade and expression of threw any interest around him. their demure and wily physiognomy The most severe affliction that Mind he pourtrayed, with inexhaustible va- probably ever experienced, was caused riety, the graceful attitudes and fantas- by the general massacre of the cats, in tic tricks of the kittens gamboling with consequence of an order in 1809 from the mother cat—he represented, with the police of Bern, a madness having the most eye-beguiling fidelity, the manifested itself amongst these animals, glossy fur of their coats ; in a word, The · mothers felt not more an

painted by Mind appeared to guish ai the cruel order of Herod for frisk about, and purr upon the paper. the murder of the first-born of Judah, An able French painter, who never than did Mind upon this latter occasion. passed through Switzerland without He succeeded, however, in saving his purchasing some of Mind's paintings, dear Minette from the bloody proscrip called him the Raphael of Cats. Most tion ; but his sorrow for the untimely of the sovereigns and persons of dis- death of eight hundred cats immolated tinction who travelled into Switzerland upon the altar of public safety, was were anxious to secure specimens of overwhelming; and, like Rachel weepMind's cats' portraits ; and they occu- ing for her children, he was not to be py at present a distinguished place in comforted. the portfolios of the amateurs of paint The second attachment which shared, ing. Indeed, it is said, that they have though in a minor degree, the empire of preserved more than one valuable col- his affections with the cats, was for the lection from the Vandal teeth of rats bears. His favourite walk was around and mice. If this circumstance were the inclosure in which the magistrates well authenticated, it would merit being of Bern"keep some of those animals, placed alongside the anecdote told of who, as every one knows, figure in the the celebrated Grecian painter Zeuxis, arms of the republic. Mind was so whose fruit-piece tempted the birds to well known to them (not to the magispeck at it. It would have been extra- trates, but the bears,) that the moment ordinary if Mind had not succeeded in he appeared, they hastened to meet this branch of the art, for the animals him with open mouths, certain of rehe undertook to represent were the ob- ceiving from his hands the accustomed jects of his tenderest affection, and his bread and fruit. constant and only companions. While In the winter evenings, when Mind at work, his favourite cat was almost could neither paint nor pay his usual continually by his side; he seemed visits to the bears, he still continued to even to carry on a conversation with occupy himself with his favourite aniher. Sometimes she lay upon his mals, by carving chesnuts into the forms knees, while two or three kittens were of bears and cats : and these pretty tri : perched upon his shoulders ; and in fles, executed with astonishing skill and this position he has been known to re- accuracy, were eagerly sought after main for several hours immovable as a throughout Switzerland. statue, fearing, by the slightest motion, Thus passed forty years of his life, to disturb the repose of his friends. during which he had scarcely any comHe had by no means the same com- munion with his fellow men, except

when disposing of the productions of row were pleasantly parodied, and aphis talent. After his death, which plied to him :took place in 1814, the verses of Ca

“Lugete o feles, ursique lugete, tullus upon the death of Lesbia's spar Mortuus est vobis amicus."


“ With equal pace, impartial fate

Knocks at the palace, as the cottage gate," THE ravages of death in the Royal Tower by order of their unnatural un

Family of England have, within cle, Richard, Duke of Gloucester; and the last few years, been too numerous that cruel usurper was himself slain in and too striking, to require any intro- the battle of Bosworth Field. By his duction to give interest to the following death the race of the Plantagenet kings historical memoranda of this important became extinct, after having been in subject, and we therefore proceed at possession of the Throne for 330 years. once to present our readers with the re- Last of all, Charles I. the unfortunate sult of our enquiries, without farther victim of party violence and ungovernpreface.

able fanaticism, perished on the scaffold, It is a remarkable fact that the three January 30th, 1649. The deaths of the Williams, Kings of England, all died in other Kings of England were natural, consequence of accidents which befel though some were hastened by various them whilst on horseback. The death causes. Thus Henry I. died of a surfeit of William the Conqueror was occasion- occasioned by eating stewed lampreys;. ed by an injury which he received dur- -Stephen, of the iliac passion, and an ing his French expedition, to recover bemorrhoidal complaint ;-Henry II. the revolted Dukedom of Normandy. of grief for the unnatural rebellion of In leaping his horse over a ditch at the his children ;-John of anguish and dissiege of Mantes, he struck his protube- appointment at the loss of his dominrant stomach against the pomel of the ions ;-Ilenry III. oppressed by care, saddle, by which a mortification was and the infirmities of old age, after a produced, and his death shortly follow- long reign of fifty-six years ;-Edward ed. William Rufus was accidentally I. and his grandson Edward III. of a killed, whilst hunting in the New For- dysentery ;-Henry IV. in a fit ;est, by an arrow from the hand of Wal- Henry V. of a fistula ;-Edward IV. of ter Tyrrel; and William III. in riding a quartian ague ;-Henry VII. and his near Hampton Court, met with a vio- grandson Edward VI. of consumption; lent fall from his horse, by which his Henry VIII. of corpulence and a collar bone was broken; and his con- complication of diseases ;--Queen Mary stitution being weak, a fever succeeded, of a dropsy ;-Queen Elizabeth of deep which soon terminated fatally. Of the melancholy, caused, it is said, by grief twenty-nine other princes who have for the Earl of Essex, to whose execureigned over this kingdom since the tion she had unwillingly consented ;conquest, twenty two have died natu- James I. of a tertian ague;-Charles II. ral, and seven by violent, deaths. The of apoplexy ;-James II. a fugitive in three Richards, two of the Edwards, France ;-Queen Mary, consort of one of the Henry's, and one of the William III. of he small-pox; -Queen Charles's, came to an untimely end. Anne of apoplexy ;-George I. of indiRichard died of a wound received at gestion accasioned by eating melons ;the siege of Chalus,-Edward II. was and George II. from the bursting of a barbarously murdered in Berkeley Cas- blood vessel. tle, and his great grandson Richard II. Several princes of the blood-royal at in Pontefract Castle,–Henry VI. was different periods, also came to violent, or assassinated in prison by command of untimely deaths. Robert Duke of NorEdward IV.-Edward V. and his in- mandy, eldest son of the Conqueror, fant brother were smothered in the died in Cardiff Castle, where he had

been a captive for eight and twenty nated in his way to Palestine by Simon years. His son, Prince William, Earl and Guy, sons of the rebellious Montof Flanders, after many ineffectual en- fort, Earl of Leicester. In the reign of deavours to establish his right to the Edward II. the Earl of Lancaster

, bis English Crown during the reign of cousin-german, was executed for high Henry I. died of a wound received at treason; and the Duke of Gloucester

, the siege of Alost. His natural brother, the King's nephew, was killed in the Richard, was killed by a stag whilst battle of Bannockburn. The Earl of hunting in the New Forest, and what is Kent, half-brother of Edward II. was very remarkable, Richard, the second beheaded through the intrigues of Morson of the Conqueror, was killed in a timer and Isabella, in the beginning of similar manner at the same place. the reign of Edward III. Of the five Which two accidental deaths occurring sons of this monarch, Edward Prince of about the same time as the fatal event Wales, called the Black Prince, from which befel William Rufus, caused it to the colour of his armour, died of a conbe remarked by the English nation, that sumption in 1375; Lionel of Antwerp, as the Conqueror bad been guilty of Duke of Clarence, died in Italy in 1368, extreme violence in expelling so many soon after his second marriage; John of of his subjects to make room for the Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, in 1399; New Forest, the just vengeance of Edmund of Langley, Duke of York, in heaven was signalized in the same place 1401; and Thomas of Woodstock, by the slaughter of his posterity. Prince Duke of Gloucester, was suffocated with William, ihe only legitimate son of pillows, by order of Richard II. in 1397. Henry I. was drowned off the Recul- In that King's reign, Roger Earl of vers, on his return from Normandy; and March, grandson of Lionel Duke of the Comtess of Perche, and Richard, Clarence, by his daughter Philippa, two of Henry's natural children, perish- who had been Viceroy of Ireland, was ed in the same shipwreck. Another also slain during a revolt in an engage natural son, Robert Earl of Gloucester, ment with the insurgents.

The Dukes after bravely supporting the Empress of Surrey and Exeter, half-brothers of Matilda's pretensions to the English Richard II. were executed for high treaThrone, died suddenly of a fever in son by Henry IV. In the reign of 1147. Eustace, eldest son of Stephen, Henry V. the Earl of Cambridge, selwas cut off by a fever brought on by ond son of Edmund of Langley, the agitation of his mind, from his fears beheaded for conspiring to place the of being excluded from the succession. young Earl of March on the throne; His brother William, Earl of Boulogne and his elder brother Edward, Duke of and Surrey, died at an early age on his York, fell by the hand of the Duke return from an expedition to Toulouse d'Alençon in the battle of Agincourt. with Henry II. Prince Henry, eldest Thomas, Duke of Clarence, next brothson of that monarch, died of a dysenteryer of Henry V. was slain in an engageat Martel near Turenne. His second ment with the allied trips of France son Richard, King of England, was and Scotland, at Bauge in Anjou. slain by an arrow at the siege of Cha- John Duke of Bedford, his third brothlus; and Geoffrey, his third son, was er, who was appointed Regent of France slain in a tournament at Paris. Arthur, during the minority of Henry VI. died Duke of Brittany, Geoffrey's son, was suddenly of a fever at Rouen, and his eruelly murdered by his uncle John, in youngest brother, the Duke of Gloucesorder to prevent his succession to the ter, commonly called the good Duke throne ; and his sister Eleanor was im- Humphrey, féll a victim to the intrigues mured in a dungeon for life, also by or- of his uncle Cardinal Beaufort. ('ide der of that perfidious monarch. Řich- the Spectator, No. 210.) During the ard, King of the Romans, brother of wars of the Roses the kingdom was de Henry III. died suddenly before the luged with blood, the partizans of the departure of his nephew Edward to the two contending houses being alternately Holy Land; and his son Henry, who consigned to the scaffold by each victoaccompanied that Prince, was assassi- rious party. In the reign of Henry VI. "


Richard Duke of York* asserting his render Henry had in vain required from claim to the crown, in preference to that that Prince, died in banishment at Metz, monarch, who was of the House of in Lorraine. William de la Pole, the Lancaster, was slain at the battle of first Duke of Suffolk and grandfather of Wakefield; and his son the Earl of these Princes, was beheaded at sea inRutland afterwards murdered by Lord his way to France; but the author of Clifford in cold blood. Edward Prince this atrocious act of violence escaped of Wales, Henry's only son, was assas- detection. sinated, after the battle of Tewkesbury, Many relations of Henry VII. perishby the Dukes of Clarence and Glouces- ed in the fatal contention between the ter. The same Duke of Clarence was Houses of York and Lancaster. Sir drowned in a butt of malmsey for trea- Owen Tudor, his paternal grandfather, son against his brother Edward IV.; was beheaded by Edward IV. after the and the young Earl of Warwick his son, battle of Mortimer's-Cross. Of his after fifteen years, confinement in the maternal ancestors the Dukes of SomerTower, was beheaded by order of Hen- set, Edmund, the second Duke and ry VII. for attempting his escape. Thus grandson of John of Gaunt, was slain in fell the last male of the royal house of the first battle of St. Albans. His two Plantagenet. His only sister Margaret, sons Henry and Edmund, who succescountess of Salisbury, was cruelly be- sively inherited the title, were also both headed, with her son Lord Montácute, beheaded by Edward IV. the first sufin the reign of Henry VIII. Henryfering the punishment of martial law Courtenay, Marquess of Exeter, who after the battle of Hexham, and the was related to the King, also suffered at second after the battle of Tewkesbury. the same time. Margaret's fourth son, Arthur Prince of Wales, eldest son of Reginald Pole, the celebrated Cardinal, Henry VII. died at Ludlow in the 16th who so strongly opposed the ecclesias- year of his age, soon after his marriage tical measures of that fickle monarch, with the Infanta Catherine of Spain. died a few hours after Queen Mary, by Several princes of the blood-royal whom he was held in high estimation. fell victims to the insatiable ambition Jolm de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, ne- and bloody policy of Richard III. phew of Edward IV. by his sister Eliz- After the battle of Tewkesbury, as we abeth, Duchess of Suffolk, was slain in have before mentioned, he murdered the battle of Stoke, unsuccessfully at- with his own hand Edward Prince of tempting to dethrone Henry VII.I—his Wales, only son of Henry VI.; and he second brother Edmund Earl of Suf- is said to have assassinated that unforfolk, after a long imprisonment by or- tunate monarch himself shortly afterder of that King, was beheaded in the wards in prison. He also treacherously reign of Henry VIII.--And Sir Rich- caused to be beheaded in Pontefract ard de la Pole, his youngest brother, Castle the Earl of Rivers, brother to who had entered into the service of Elizabeth, Queen of Edward IV. and Lewis XII. France, and whose sur- her son Sir Richard Grey.t While

This Prince was descended on the mother's side from Lionel Duke of Clarence, second son of Edward III. being the son of Anne, Countess of Cambridge, daughter of that Earl of March who was killed in Ireland in the reign of Richard II. His paternal grandfather was Edmund duke of York, fourth son of Edward III. so that his right to the throne was prior to that of Henry VI.

* This sovereigo was the son of Margaret Countess of Richmond, grand-daughter of the Duke of Somerset, who was the natural son of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, by Catherine Swinford. The House of Somerset was afterwards legitimated by Act of Par liament; but the right to the throne remained in the descendants of Lionel of Antwerp. The Earl of Lincoln, therefore, being descended from this latter branch, and having been declared presumptive heir to the crown by his uncle Richard III. justly conceived his claim to be preferable to that of the reigning monarch.

+ Sir John Grey, the first husband of Elizabeth, was killed in the battle of St. Albans, fighting on the side of Henry VI. The Queen herself, after suffering various fortunes during the reign of Richard III. was on a charge of conspiring to dethrone ber son in-law, Henry VII. seized and confined in the nunnery in Bermondsey, where she died, at an advanced age, neglected and forgotten.

Protector, he occasioned the Duke of death of his grandfather, was beheaded
Buckingham and Lord Hastings to be in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, for at
brought to the block; and to the num- tempting to form a matrimonial alliance
ber of his victims he soon added Ed- with Mary Queen of Scots.
.ward V. and his infant brother Richard In the reign of Edward VI.* the am-
Duke of York. The lady Anne Ne- bitious and turbulent Lord High Admi-
ville, second daughter of the famous ral Seymour was executed for conspiring
Earl of Warwick, and widow of llen- to remove his brother the Duke of Som-
ry's son, having been prevailed upon erset from the dignity of Protector. Som-
by the tyrant to espouse him, he cruelly erset soon after fell through the machina-
caused her to be taken off by poison, in tions of Dudley Duke of Northumber-
order that she might not impede his land ; and Northumberland himself be-
ambitious design of marrying his niece ing taken some years after in open rebel-
the Princess Royal. Edward Prince of lion against Mary, experienced a similar
Wales, the only son of this perfidious fate. Lady Jane Grey, grand-daughter
usurper, died at an early age at Middle- of the Duchess of Suffolk,t (youngest
ham, in Yorkshire.

sister of Henry VIII.) was, together The reign of Henry VIII. was also with her husband, Lord Guilford Dudmarked by many severe and arbitrary ley, beheaded by order of the implacaexecutions, of which some instances ble Queen Mary. The Duke of Sufhave already been mentioned. Two of folk, her father, and his brother Lord his Queens, Anne Boleyn and Cather. Thomas Grey, were executed at the ine Howard, were brought to the block, same time for being concerned in Sir -the unfortunate victims of his caprice Thomas Wyatt's rebellion. Her uncle and jealousy. Lord Rochford, the Lord Leonard Grey had been beheaded brother of Anne Boleyn, was beheaded some years before by Henry VIII. In through the arts of his wise the infamous the reign of Elizabeth, Mary Queen of Lady Rochford; and she soon after- Scots./ was executed at Fotheringay wards met with the punishment due to Castle,-a sacrifice to the jealousy and her crimes, for countenancing the gal- duplicity of her more powerful rival. lantries of Catherine Howard. Ed. Her grandson Henry Prince of Wales, ward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, (eldest son of James I.) died

the son of that nobleman who lost his life early age of seventeen of a fever, or, as under Richard III. was beheaded for some say, by poison.

Henry Duke of High Treason. His grandson, the Gloucester, youngest son of Charles I. brave and accomplished Earl of Surrey, died of the small pox in the year of the was executed on an unfounded charge Restoration, before he had attained the of the same nature : and the Duke of age of manhood. His eldest sister Norfolk would soon have followed his Mary, Princess of Orange, (mother of son's fate, had not Henry's death fortu- William III.) soon after fell a victim to nately intervened. Lord Surrey's son, the same disease; and his second sister who succeeded to the Ducal title on the Elizabeth did not long survive them, her

This nobleman was descended on the father's side, from Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester; and his mother was the daughter of Edmund Duke of Somerset, who was slain in the battle of Saint Albans.

Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond, (natural brother of this Prince,) a youth of brilliant talents and accomplishments, died at the early age of seventeen.

+ This Princess was first married to Lewis XII. of France ; but he dying soon after the celebration of their nuptials, she espoused in the second month of her widowhood, Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolk. Their daughter, Lady Frances Brandon, married Henry Grey, third Marquis of Dorset, who, on the death of his father-in-law, succeeded to the vacant dukedom of Suffolk. Their issue were Lady Jane Grey and Lady Catherine Grey, the latter of whom being divorced from Lord Herbert her first husband, and afterwards mar rying the Earl of Hertford, (son of the protector Somerset) against the consent of Queen Elizabeth, was imprisoned in the Tower, where she died after a rigorous confinement of

ll This unfortunate Princess was grand-daughter of James IV. of Scotland, who married Margaret, eldest sister of Henry VIII. Her father James V. was consequently first cousin of Elizabeth.

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nine years.

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