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Literary Gazette.
TRAVELS IN PALESTINE. BY J. S. BUCKINGHAM, ESQ.

THE
THE next objects of Mr. Bucking- and sometimes the forcibly pulling off

ham's research were the cisterns the turbans of those who might have of Solomon,and Ain Kareem, the birth- forgotten to uncover their heads, preplace of John the Baptist. From this sented altogether a scene of such conlatter place he proceeded to Jerusalem, fusion, that, added to the rike of suffowhere, having arrived five minutes af- cation in so impure an atmosphere, it ter sunset, he was compelled to wait drove us out rapidly to make room for before the gates of the city, until a for- others.” mal application had heen made to the The next day being the Sabbath of governor to admit him. The first the Jews, the travellers went early in morning after his arrival, he visited the the morning to attend the service of Latin Convent, the house of Uriah, the Jewish Synagogue. the pool of Bathsheba, and the palace Arriving at the spot, which was in of David; in the street beyond which a low, obscure street, near the centre of was shown the place said to be that at the town, we descended by a flight of which Christ appeared to Mary Mag. steps into a grotto. On getting down dalen and the other Mary, after his re- into this, we found it to be a large suite surrection, when he cried to them “ All of subterranean rooms, lighted by small hail !” and they held him by the feet windows from above, around the sides, and worshipped him.

and near the roof. On January 26th, 1816, Mr. Buck “ The whole place was divided into ingham, accompanied by Mr. Bankes, seven or eight smaller rooms, in the investigated the tomb of Christ. centre of each was raised a square en

closure, open above at the sides; and “ Our stay in the sepulchre itself,” here stood the priest who read the sersays he,

was very short : the small. vice. The female worshippers were ness of the aperture of entrance; the above, looking down on the congregaconfined space within, hung round with tion through a skreen of lattice-work. crimson damask, and ornamented with The men were below, all seated on silver lamps and paintings; the hurry benches, and every one had a white and bustle occasioned by the worship- serge cloth, striped with blue at the pers searching for their shoes left at ends, thrown over his head; at the the door, as every one went in bare- front corners of this cloth were two foot; the struggles to be the first to long cords, and around two of the edges get near ēnðugh to kiss the marble, of it were fringes with threads.

2Y ATHENEUM VOL. 10.

“After some time passed in reading service, which consisted chiefly in and responses, we went into the cen- reading, and had to press through nartral rooms, which were both of them row ranks of the worshippers. We longer than the outer ones; and at the were at length accosted in Italian by end of these were curtains for the veil an old Rabbi, who called himself Moof the temple. In the principal room hallim Zachereas, and told us that he this veil was of purple cloth worked was the banker of the governor, and with gold ; and on its centre were the the chief of the Jews here. He said two tables of the law in Hebrew, near- that he had left Leghorn at the age of ly in the same form as we have them in 15, against the wish of his friends, to English in our churches.

end his days in Jerusalem, and that he “ The priest who officiated had, had remained here ever since, being during this last week, arrived here from now nearly 60 years of age; from him Amsterdam. The book from which we learned the chief particulars of the he read rested on a piece of crimson worship already described, and he told velvet, worked with İlebrew letters of us that the service was the same in all gold; after an apparent weeping on the separate divisions of the synathe part of the people, who covered gogue." their faces with the white head-cloth, Having closed his excursions to the and moved to and fro as if distressed holy places round Jerusalem, Mr. for the loss of something, a man walked Buckingham presents us with a retroround the synagogue crying with a loud spective view of the city, which is ilvoice, and changing the first word only lustrated by a very well executed plan, at every subsequent exclamation. This having been preceded by an excellent we learnt was the sum offered for the map of ancient Jerusalem and its divisight of the Tozat, or Scriptures. Ad- sions. vances were then made by individuals From the estimate given by Mr. of the audience, and repeated by the Buckingham it would appear that the crier, until either a sufficient or some fixed residents of the boly city, one balf specified sum was raised.

of whom are Mohammedans, are about “ The priest then made a loud shout, eight thousand; but that the continual and all the people joined; when some influx of strangers from all countries, of the elders drew aside the veil of the augments the population from ten to temple, and opening a recess like that fifteen thousand, according to the seaof a sanctum sanctorum, took from son of the year. From Christmas ta thence a cabinet, highly ornamented Easter is the period in which Jerusawith silver. In this were two rollslem is most frequented. containing the book of the law on trade is carried on, and but few manuparchment, rolled round a small pillar tures, religion being almost the only in the centre, which, on being turned, business which brings men of opposite exposed the writing on the roll succes- quarters together here ; there is much sively to view. On the top of this roll less bustle than would be produced in was fixed two silver censers with small a trading town, by a smaller number of bells, and it was carried round the as- inhabitants. The military force kept sembly, when each of the congregation up here is comparatively small, contouched the writing with the cords atsisting only of about 1000 soldiers, inthe front corners of his head-cloth, af- cluding horse and foot. ter placing these cords to his lips, then In this part of the work Mr. Bucke across his

eyes. The cabinet was fol- ingham has introduced some very in lowed by a boy bearing four silver cen- teresting discussions on the hill of Sion; sers with bells on a stand, and after the received opinion that the cemeteevery one had touched it, it was placed ries of the ancients were universally on the altar, in the central sanctuary, excluded from the precincts of their before the priest.

cities, &c.; in which, to say nothing or “We had been suffered to go through his apparently minute acquaintance every part of the synagogue during the with the Scriptures, he displays con

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siderable learning and ingenuity. We steps, from the common level of the quote his observations on the disputed church, which is equal with that of the site of Calvary :

street without ; and beside this you de“The place called Golgotha, and scend from the level of the church translated the place of a skull," has by thirty steps into the chapel of St. been, by all writers, supposed to have Helena, and by eleven more steps to been without the precincts of the an- the place where it was supposed that cient Jerusalem; but there is no posi- the Cross, the Crown of Thorns, and tive authority that I am aware of for the Head of the Spear were found, after such a position. It has been thought, laying buried in this place upwards of first, that, as a place of execution, it 300 years." would be held defiling; and next, as a

On the 28th, their preparations for place of burial, that it could not have the prosecution of their journey being been included within the walls. We completed, Mr. Buckingham, accomare at least assured that the tomb in panied by Mr. Bankes, his Albanian which Jesus was laid was near to the interpreter, and two Arab guides, left place of his crucifixion : Now in the Jerusalem for Jericho. For the conplace where he was crucified, there was venience of travelling, they arrayed a garden, and in the garden a new sepul- themselves in the costume of the counchre, wherein yet was never man laid, try, Mr. Buckingham as a Syrian Arab, there laid they Jesus therefore, because and Mr. Bankes as a Turkish soldier. of the Jews preparation-day, for the The guides wore their own garb of sepulchre was NIGH AT HAND.' It is Bedouins of the desert. As they were fair to presume, that a respectable Jew, unable to hire animals to carry their like Joseph of Arimathea, would hard- baggage, each person took charge of ly have a garden, and in the garden a whatever portion belonged to himself. new sepulchre newly hewn in the rock, They took with them bread, dates, toin a place that was defiled by being bacco, and coffee, and a supply of corn one of common execution; and I think for their horses, with a leathern bottle the very circumstance of these being of water suspended from each saddle. there, is sufficient to induce a belief, The road from Jerusalem to the Jorthat it was not a place commonly de- dan, abounding as it does in the wildvoted to so ignominious a purpose. est scenery of nature, ravines, cliffs All the gospels represent Jesus as be- and precipices mingling in awful and ing hurried away by the multitude, wonderful confusion, is the most danwho seized indiscriminately upon one gerous about Palestine. of the crowd to bear his cross, And aspect of the scenery,” says Mr. B. “ is when they were come to a place called sufficient, on the one hand, to tempt to Calvary, or Golgotha, there they cru- robbery and murder, and, on the other, cified him between two thieves. None to occasion a dread of it in those who of them, however, speak of it either as pass that way.” After a walk of about being a place of public execution, but six hours, they arrived at Jericho ; but leave one to infer, that it was an unoc so entirely abandoned was this once cupied place, just pitched on for the important city, that there was not a purpose as they passed.

tree or shrub observed upon its site. " Some persons whose ideas of Cal. The ruins appeared to cover near a vary had led them to expect a hill as square mile, but were too indistinct to large as the Mount of Olives, or Mount enable the travellers to form any plan Sion, have been disappointed at find- of them. Passing on about four miles in ing the rock shown for it to be so low an easterly direction, they came to the and small. But on what authority is village of Riblah, on the banks of the it called a Mount? and of which Jordan. They saw nothing of importdifferent sizes and elevations is that ance in this place. The only objects term affixed ? The present is a rock, pointed out to them were a modern the summit of which is ascended to by square tower of Mohanimedan work, a steep flight of eighteen or twenty which they pretend was the house of

66 The very

6

Zaccheus, and an old tree, up which he very full and copious account. Their is said to have climbed, in order to ob- situation during their sojourn here was tain a sight of Jesus as he passed. particularly dangerous, owing to the

The next day the travellers passed jealous suspicion of the scattered inthe Jordan.

habitants, who seem to have been im“ The stream (says Mr. B.) appear- pressed with an idea that the treasures ed to us to be little more than twenty- supposed to have been buried beneath five yards in breadth, and was so shal- the ruins of Jerash were the objects of low in this part as to be easily fordable the travellers' researches. The folby our horses. The banks were thick- lowing description of this city, viewed ly lined with tall rushes, oleanders, and from a steep hill in the vicinity, is given a few willows; the stream was exceed- by Mr. Buckingham :ingly rapid ; the water tolerably clear, “ The city, standing itself upon a from its flowing over a bed of pebbles; rising ground, seemed, from this point and, as we drank of the stream while of view, to be seated in the hollow of a our horses were watering, we found it grand and deep valley, encircled on all pure and sweet to the taste.

sides by lofty mountains, now covered “ From the distance which we had with verdure, and having part of its come from Jericho northward, it seem- own plain below in actual cultivation. ed probable that we had crossed the Near, on the summit of the southern river pretty nearly at the same ford as hill which bounded the view in that that which was passed over by the Is- quarter, stood the modern village of raelites on their first entering the pro- Aioode, having a central tower and mised land.

walls, and forming the retreat of the “ Ascending on the east side of the husbandmen, who till the grounds in Jordan, we met large flocks of camels, the valley beneath. The circular comostly of a whitish colour, and all of lonnade, the avenues of Corinthian them young and never yet burthened, pillars forming the principal street, the as our guides assured us, though the southern gate of entrance, the naumawhole number of those we saw could chia, and the triumphal arch beyond it, not have fallen short of a thousand. the theatres, the temples, the aqueThese were being driven down to the ducts, the baths, and all the assemblage Jordan to drink, chiefly under the care of noble buildings which presented their of young men and damsels. Among vestiges to the view, seemed to indicate them many of the young ones were a city built only for luxury, for splenclothed around their bodies with cover- dour, and for pleasure ; although it ings of hair teat-cloth, while the elder was a mere colonial town in a foreign females had their udders bound up in province, distant from the capital of bags, tied by cords crossing over the the great empire to which it belonged, loins; and the males walked with two and scarcely known in sacred or proof the legs tied.”

fane history. Wishing to take a more After travelling onward in a north- accurate survey of the ancient Geraza easterly direction, and passing the than they had hitherto been enabled to night in the camp of a tribe of friendly accomplish, the two travellers returned Bedouins, they arrived at the village of privately to that city for the purpose, Boorza, which appeared to contain thus avoiding the interruptions to which from forty to fifty dwellings of stone. they would have been liable from the This place is supposed to have been suspicious character of the neighbourthe Bozer mentioned in the Sacred ing people. Writings. On their journey from “The city occupied nearly a square hence, they were joined by a troop of of somewhat less than two English Bedouins, in whose camp they spent miles in circumference, and the greatthe night. Early the next morning est length, from the ruined arched they proceeded through a rich and building on the south of the first enbeautiful country, to the ruins of Ge- trance to the small temple on the north rash, the Geraza of the ancients,) of side of the opposite one, is about 500 which Mr. Buckingham has given a feet, as measured by paces, or nearly

an English mile. The general direc " The main street is intersected by tion of this square is, with its sides, two other streets which cross it at rightnearly towards the four cardinal points; angles and extend through the whole but no one of these sides are perfect, breadth of the western portion of the probably from the inequality of the city, the point of intersection in each ground along which they run. being ornamented with a public square.

“ The city stood on the facing slopes From each of these intersections to of two opposite hills, with a narrow but their respectively nearest gate, the ornot deep valley between them, through der of architecture that prevailed was which ran a clear stream of water Jonic; but in the central place between springing from fountains near the cen- these intersections, and including a tre of the town.

length equal to half that of the whole “ The eastern hill, though rather city, the predominant order was Corinmore extensive in its surface than the thian. western one, rises with a steeper slope, “ In the centre, or nearly so, of the and is consequently not so well fitted central space, was a noble palace, profor building on. We found it covered bably the residence of the governor, with shapeless heaps of rubbish, evi- with a beautiful Corinthian temple in dently the wreck of houses ; but as front, and another more ruined one beneither columns nor other vestiges of hind in right-lines with it, and the semiornamental buildings were to be seen circular recess of a still more highlyamong these, we concluded that this finished temple beside it. portion of the city was chiefly inhabi 6 Just within the southern gate of ted by the lower orders of the people. entrance was a peripteral temple, a cir

“ The whole surface of the western cular colonnade, and a theatre; and is covered with temples, theatres, co- just within the northern gate of enlonnades, and ornamental architecture, trance was also a theatre, a temple, and and was, no doubt, occupied by the a military guard -house. Both the prinmore dignified and noble of the citi- cipal streets extending the whole length

The general plan of the whole of the city, and those which crossed it was evidently the work of one founder, through its whole breadth,were lined by and must have been sketched out be- avenues of columns, extending, in one fore the Roman city, as we now see it unbroken range on each side, and asin ruins, began to be built.

cended to by steps.”

zens.

(European Magazine.)

THE DEVILS OF LOUDUN.

IN
N the beginning of the sixteenth cen- and the second was produced by his

tury, a bloody tragedy was played devotion to the fair sex, and a noin the small town of Loudun, in France, torious turn for gallantry; habits it to contemplate which at this day, makes must be confessed neither honourable men blush to be of the same species to, nor consistent with the sacerdotal with the actors in it.

character, but which would have been Urbain Grandier was the curate of more justly punished by milder inflicSt. Pierre du Marche in this town; he tions, than the cruel tortures by which had been educated at the College of he was deprived of existence. Jesuits at Bourdeaux, and their influ He was of a tall and handsome perence had procured him this benefice. son, which, with a vanity from which He was so unfortunate as to draw upon even priests are not usually exempt, himself the envy of several of the he was fond of displaying to the best Churchmen of the neighbourhood, and advantage; for this purpose he always the ill will of some of the principal per- vore his clerical habit in the street. suns of the town. His talents and He possessed a strong mind, and an good fortune were the cause of the first, acute genius, bis eloquence was of a

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