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horizontally was smelt so strong, as to Pale suns, unfelt at distance, roll away, impede the breathing of some officers And on th' impassive ice the lightnings play ;
Eternal snows the growing mass supply, who were walking on shore.
Till the bright mountains prop th' incumbent sky; On the 5th of March 1820, the ther. As Atlas fixed, ench hoary pile appears, mometer rose to 15° at noon; and, on The gathered winter of a thousand years
Popt. the 7th, a circumstance occurred which
In the month of June 1820, Capt. filled our navigators with joy, as
as affording some promise of the approach Parry, accompanied by some of his of of Spring. This olive-branch of prom- Island to the northern shore, and re
ficers, &c. travelled across Melville ise, was no more than the thawing of turned by a different route. His rea small quantity of snow, in a favourable situation, upon the black paint the form of a Diary; and, as a com
maining observations we have put into work of the ship’s stern which exactly faced the south. But this being the panion to the · Lapland Calendar, first time that such an event had occur
given in a preceding number, we shall red for more than five months, the cir
designate this cumstance, trisling as it would have ap
The Arctic CALENDAR. peared in any other climate, proved a
Junc 8.-Some sandy ground passed matter of no small interest and satisfac- over, so full of the burrows of hares, tion to those who here witnessed it.
as to resemble a warren. Some moss
and a few short tufts of grass . seen ; On Bhering's rocks and Greenland's naked isles,
the dwarf-willow coming out in flower. 'Mongst wastes that slumber in eternal snow, And waft, across the wave's tumultuous roar,
Some sorrel began to make its apThe wolf's long howl from Oonalaska's shore ; pearance. Fond Hope can here her moonlight vigils keep, June 9.-The plumage of the cockAnd sing to charm the spirit of the deep:
grouse was still quite white, except Angel of life ! thy glittering wings explore Earth's loneliest bounds, and Ocean's wildest shore. near the tip of the tail, where the feath
ers were of a fine glossy black ; but in The vapour arising from the men's every hen that was killed a very per
ceptible alteration was apparent, even breath and the steam of their victuals from day to day, and their plumage, during meals, which had been frozen had now nearly assumed that speckled to the ship’s sides, and had remained colour, which, from its resemblance to in a solid state, beginning to thaw on the ground, is admirably adapted to the approach of the mild weather, this preserve them from being seen at the coating was scraped off, and the quan- season of incubation. tity removed filled more than one hun
June 12.-A ranunculus in full dred buckets, although it had not accu- flower in a sheltered situation. The mulated for a longer time than 4 weeks. root and three feet of the trunk of a
A smart shower of rain, a most agree- pine-tree, and part of the skeleton of a able novelty to persons so long unac- musk-ox, frozen into the ground, were customed to view water in a fluid state, seen on a lagoon in the neighbourhood fell on the 24th of May ; and rain be- of the sea. The soil here became very ing a powerful agent in dissolving ice, rich, and abounded with the finest moss, this was hailed by every one as a most together with a great deal of grass, propitious event. Notwithstanding this saxifrage, and poppy; and there were and other favourable prognostics, when evident proofs that this place was much the sea was viewed from the N. E. hill resorted to by deer, musk-oxen, and in Melville Island, it still presented the hares. same unbroken and continuous surface June 13-A musk-ox was seen feedof solid and impenetrable ice-not less ing on a spot of luxuriant pasture than from six to seven feet in thickness. ground, and, when fired at, set off at a So Zembla's rocks, the beauteous work of frost,
quick pace over the bills. The skin of Rise white in air, and glitter o'er the coast ; one which was subsequently killed has
* It is worthy of remark that no appearance of thawing took place except in the situa tion described, and, even there, upon the yellow paint the snow remained as hard as before.
been stuffed, and deposited in the Brit- some of the sorrel to be in flower ; a ish Museum. This extraordinary ani- plant with a lilac-coloured flower, havmal somewhat resembles the Bonassus, ing a very sweet smell (supposed to be lately exhibited in London. The musk- a draba),was also observed to be pushox furnished 421 pounds of beef, which ing out its blossoms about this time, was served to the crews as usual, in but none of these plants were so forlieu of their salt provisions, and was ward as the saxifrage. Among the much relished, notwithstanding its very sea-birds observed in the Arctic regions strong musky flavour. The meat was the following are enumerated in a poremarkably fat. The total quantity of etical address to the feathered tribe, game obtained on Melville Island dur- inserted in the North Georgia Gazette: ing their stay of nearly twelve months, awks, dovekies, looms, mallemukes, was as follows ; 3 musk-oxen, 24 deer, tern, kittiwakes, ice-gulls, and the glau68 hares, 53 geese, 59 ducks, and 144 cous gull, king of the Hyperborean ptarmigans, or grouse ; affording 3,706 main, and little inferior in size to an pounds of meat.
eagle. One or two mice were caught, turn June 14.–The first rein-deer seen ing brown about the belly and head, from the ships this day. and the back of a dark grey colour. In An interesting anecdote of the docilevery part of the island these little ani- ity of the rein-deer is given by Capt. mals were occasionally seen : one of Parry, as witnessed on his visit
to Melthem being pursued, finding no hole ville island. The babits of this useful near, and escape impossible, set himself animal are fully known from our interagainst a stone, as if in defence; and course with other countries. bit the man's finger when he took him.
From the observations made on Their rein-deer form their riches. These their tents board the ships in Winter Harbour, Their robes, their beds, and all their
homely wealth during Capt. Parry's absence, we seleci Supply, their wholesome fare, and cheerful copa
Obsequious at their call, the docile tribe the following facts illustrative of the Yield to the sled their necks, and whirl them swift natural history of the Arctic regions. O'er hill and dale, heap'd into one expanse
June 2.- The first red phalarope Of marbled snow as far as eye can sweep, (p. platyrinchos) and also the first with a blue crust ofice unbounded, glazed. flock of buntings appeared.
June 3.-A fock of 12 king-ducks, We now conclude our extracts from together with a single raven, an arctic Capt. Parry's interesting book, which gull, and some golden plovers seen. we have made with a view rather to
June 5.–Flocks of ducks and geese stimulate, than gratify curiosity ; trustseen almost daily, for six weeks from ing that many of our readers will recur this time.
to the volume itself for additional gratiJune 9.—The first seal was seen ly- fication. As this indefatigable man has ing upon the ice, near the mouth of the before this (Sept. 1821) probably harbour, and having a hole close to him made further discoveries in the Arctic as usual : like the bear in autumn, no regions, which may add further to the more than one of these animals was science and the fame of his country, we ever observed at the same time. About sincerely offer up our aspirations for this time, several mosquitoes (culex the entire success of his adventurous pipiens) were caught; but, as in Hud- undertaking; at the same time conson's Bay and other cold countries,they vinced, that, whatever may be the renever attempted to bite, or annoy in sult of Captain Parry's discoveries, any way. The buds of the saxifraga there can be but one opinion of his oppositifolia, and of the dwarf willoro, zeal and abilities. were observed to be opening out, and
TRAVELS IN PALESTINE, BY J. S. BUCKINGHAM.
FROM Soof, a village near the ruins This street was fifteen paces, or about
of Geraza, the travellers set out on thirty feet in breadth, from pillar to the morning of February 2nd, and, con- pillar ; as it had a colonade of the Ionic tinuing their route in a north-westerly and Corinthian orders, at intervals, direction, arrived at Aidoone. From lining its avenues on each side, as at Aidoone they passed on to . Erbeed, the ruins at Geraza. The street was where they saw an octagonal tower, paved throughout with fine squared probably of Saracen origin, and a re- blocks of the black volcanic stone, and servoir of water resembling the pools of this pavement was still so perfect that Solomon near Jerusalem, though not the ruts of carriage-wheels were to be quite so large. They reached, a short seen in it of different breadths, and time before sun-set, a small hamlet, about an inch in depth, as at the ruins called Bahraha, where they passed the of Pompeii in Italy, night. Here they discovered some cu “ The first edifice which presented rious relics of antiquity, and among oth- itself, on entering at the eastern gate, ers a sarcophagus of black porous stone, was a theatre on the left, the scene and of a basaltic or volcanic nature. front of which was entirely destroyed,
The village of Bahraha does not con- but its benches were still remaining, tain more than fifty houses, and is gov- and it faced towards the north. Still erned by a Sheikh, who acknowledges farther on were appearances of an lonic the authority of the Pacha of Damas- temple, the colonnade of the street becus.
ing continued; and at about the centre The next day the travellers proceed- of its length, a range of Corinthian coled on their journey, and passing through umns on pedestals marked the site of a several hainlets, arrived about three grand edifice on the left; not a column hours after noon at Oorn Kais, on the now remained erect, but the plan could site of the ancient Gamala, whose ruins be distinctly traced. they alighted to examine.
6 Before we departed we were taken • After devoting (says Buckingham) to see one of the ancient Roman tombs, about an hour to the ruins of Gamala, now used as a carpenter's shop, the ocand traversing them on foot in every cupier being employed in constructing direction, we were enabled to perceive a rude plough, and in fixing the irons to that the city formed nearly a square; one of those long Syrian goads, which its greatest length being from east to serve to spur the animal with one end west, which we found to measure one and clear the plough of clods with the thousand six hundred and seventy pa- other. On examining the size and ces, of about two feet each, or just half weight of this iron at the foot, Mauna mile, and its breadth perhaps one- drell's conjecture struck me as a very fourth less. The upper part of the judicious one, that it might have been city stood on a level spot on the sum- with such a weapon Shamgar made the mit of the hill, and appears to have prodigious slaughter related of him in been walled all around the acclivities of the Book of Judges. that hill, being on all sides exceedingly “ From this tomb we went to a still steep, and having appearances of ruin- more perfect one, which was entirely ed buildings, even on their steepest cleared, and now used as a private parts. The eastern gate of entrance dwelling. Though the females of the has its portals still remaining, and was family were within we were allowed to near the northern wall. From hence enter, and descended by a flight of three a noble street ran through the whole steps, there being either a cistern or a length of the city, extending the num- deep sepulchre on the right of this deber of paces mentioned, as it was along scent. The portals and architrave this that the measurement was taken. were here perfectly exposed ; the ornia
ments of the latter were a wreath and contain more than five hundred sepaopen flowers; the door also was divid- rate dwellings, from the manner in ed by a studded bar and pannelled, and which they are placed. There are two the ring of the knocker remained, gates visible from without, one near the though the knocker itself had been southern, and the other in the western broken off. The door, which was of wall, the latter of which is in one of the same size and thickness as those the round towers, and is the only one described, traversed easily on its hinges, now open; there are appearances also as we were permitted to open and close of the town having been surrounded by it at pleasure. On examining it close- a ditch, but this is now filled up with ly, all that has before been said on the cultivatable soil. mode of fixing and of fastening it was 66 To the northward of the town is confirmed, as we could here see eve- the road we passed over on our journey ry part of the construction more per- the day before ; to the southward the fectly.
ruins of the ancient city, and a hot “ The tomb was about eight feet in bath, still frequented, as well as the height on the inside, as there was a burying-ground of the Mahomedans and descent of a steep step from the stone Jews ; on the east the broad expanse threshold to the floor. Its size was of the lake stretches over to the oppoabout twelve paces square, but no light site shore ; and on the west it has a was received into it except by the small space of plain fit for cultivation, door; we could not see whether there from whence the land rises into the was an inner chamber, as in some of lofty hills which almost overhang the the others. A perfect sarcophagus town. still remained within, and this was “ The interior presents but few obnow used by the family as a chestjects of interest beside the ordinary for corn and other provisions, so that habitations, which are small and mean. this violated sepulchre of the dead had There is a mosque with a dome and thus become a secure, a cool, and a minaret now frequented, and another convenient retreat to the living of a dif- with an octangular tower in ruins. The ferent race."
former of these is not far from the gate From Oorn Kais (the ancient Gama- of entrance, the latter is nearer to the la) they bent their steps towards Naza- beach. There are also two synagogues reth : they arrived on the 12th of Feb- of the Jews near the centre of the town, ruary, and left it the following day for both of them inferior to that of JerusaTiberias. Passing thro' a number of lem, though similar in design, and one small villages, without seeing any thing Christian place of worship, called the very remarkable, they journeyed along House of Peter,' near the southern
quarter, close to the water's edge. The “ The present town of Tabareeah last, which has been thought by some (Tiberias) is in the form of an irregular to be the oldest place of Christian worcrescent, and is inclosed toward the ship now extant in Palestine, is a vaultland by a wall flanked with circular ed room, thirty feet by fifteen, and pertowers. It lies nearly north and south haps fifteen in height; it stands nearly along the western edge of the lake, and east and west, having its door of enhas its eastern front opposed to the trance at the western front, and its alwater, on the bank of which it stands, tar immediately opposite in a small as some of the houses there are almost recess. Over the door is one small washed by the sea. Its southern wall window, and on each side four others, approaches almost to the beach ; but all arched and open. The masonry of the north-western angle of the northern the edifice is of an ordinary kind; the wall, being seated on a rising ground, pavement within is similar to that used recedes some little distance from thé for streets in this country, and the whole water, and thus gives an irregular form is devoid of sculpture or any other orto the enclosure. The whole does not nament that I could perceive. In a appear a mile in circuit, and cannot court without the · House of Peter,' I
3E ATHENEUM VOL. 10.
THE LAKE OF TIBERIAS.
observed, however, a block of stone, on their journey to the northward, and which were the figures of two goats and passed through the villages of Mezra, two lions or tigers coarsely executed, Tooli, Affouli, Noori, Taraheen, along but whether this ever belonged to the the plain of Esdraelon, and arrived at building itself, no one could inform me. Jeneen. The place is governed by a During my visit to this church, morn- Sheikh, who is tributary both to Acre ing mass was performed by the Abee- and Damascus. On the arrival at Sanna, at whose house we had lodged ; the hoor they were introdued to Hadjee congregation consisted of only eleven Ahmed Gerar, the chief of the place. persons, and the furniture and decord. We give the account of the interview in tions of the altar and the dress of the Buckingham's own words :
priest were exceedingly scanty and “ On being conducted to the chief, & poor.
we found him sitting on a stone bench “ The edifice is thought by the peo- in the court of his house, and surrounded ple here to have been the very house by a circle of dependants, who seemed ihat Peter inhabited, at the time of his to think themselves honoured by being being called from the boat to follow admitted, like Mordecai of old, to sit at Christ. It was, however, evidently the king's gate. All arose at our enconstructed for a place of worship, at a trance ; a carpet and cushions were period much posterior to the time of placed for me on the right hand of the the apostle whose name it bears, though master ; our horses were fed, a supper it might have been erected on the spot provided, and every mark of hospitality which tradition had marked as the site shown to us. of his more humble habitation. From « In the ardour of conversation with hence they say too it was that the boat this seemingly-estimable man, I had pushed into the lake when the miracu- quite forgotten to deliver my letter to lous draught of fishes was drawn.
him until we had finished supper. As “ The ordinary dwellings of the in- soon as he received it, a young scribe habitants are such as are commonly was called, who read the contents of seen in eastern villages, but are marked the letter aloud, and all listened and by a peculiarity which I witnessed here applauded, for it was full of the most for the first time; on the terrace of al- extravagant encomiums. It was gratimost every house, stands a small fying to me, however, to consider that square inclosure of reeds, loosely cover- such false representations of wisdom, ed with leaves. These I learned were talents, honour and wealth had no resorted to by the heads of families to share in obtaining from me the kind sleep in during the summer months, reception given to our party; and, when the heat of the nights is intolera- happily, as the utmost had already been ble from the low situation of the town, done, even such a letter could not draw and the unfrequency of cooling breezes. more from our benevolent host. At the present moment, indeed, we “ Our conversation of the evening had the thermometer at 82° in the was chiefly on the state of Europe, on -shade an hour after sun-rise and calm, the countries I had visited, and those I while on the hills it was considerably hoped to see. As the chief had him. less than at noon in the sun.
self been twice to Mecca, making the “ The whole population of Tiberias journey from Damascus, I learned from does not exceed two thousand souls, ac- him also some interesting particulars cording to the opinion of the best-in- on that route, and we talked a great formed residents. Of these about the deal about those parts of Arabia which half are Jews, many of them are from we had both seen, namely, the ports of Europe, particularly from Germany, the Hedjas. An excellent bed was Poland, and Russia, and the rest are prepared for me in a separate room, Mahommedans, exclusive of about twen- with clean sheets and cushions covered ty Christian families of the Catholic with silk, and every arrangement was communion.”
made for my comfort that I could possiAfter remaining the night in a con- bly desire." vent at Nazareth, the travellers directed Early on the morning of the 17th