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His countenance was then immoveable, events, not uninteresting or incurious ; except a vague smile, which his lips and it is perhaps consoling, in our utter assumed at random, to mislead any one hopelessness of arriving at any thing who might wish to observe the external like a knowledge of the internal fabric signs of what was passing within." of our species, to have observed some
Mr. Ellis, who afterwards saw him thing of a conformity of appearance in at St. Helena, says that “his elocution all great men, and hence to have gone was rapid, but clear and forcible, and some way towards establishing certain that both his manner and language sur- external indications of the most promipassed his expectations. The charac- nent features of the mind. The conter of his countenance was rather intel- clusions of physiologists upon this sublectual than commanding, and the chief ject, if not to be received with perfect peculiarity is in the mouth, the upper confidence, are at least too respectable lip apparently changing in expression to be treated with levity; and, judging with the variety and succession of ideas. of Napoleon Bonaparte according to I was most struck, he observes, with the imaginary standard tut has been the unsubdued ease of his behaviour: laid down, he certainly appears to have he could not have been freer from em- been cast in the mould of a hero. barrassment and depression in the ze Ile was of the stamp of Cæsar, of nith of his power at the Tuileries." Alexander, of Mahomet, of Cromwell. ·
Some allowance must be made for The beautiful head, the ample foreall this. On viewing the stupendous head, the muscular form, the bilious effects produced by high talents, aided temperament—all indicated strength by a fortuitous combination of circum- and loftiness of mind, daring ambition, stances, the judgment becomes lost in and inflexibility of purpose; and of wonder and admiration. The mortal him it may be said, in the words of assumes the God--the most trivial ac- Livy, as applied to Cato Major, “ In tions are pregnant with fatality--the illo viro tantum robur et corporis et sports of childhood, and the freaks of animi fuit, ut quocunque loco natus youth, are found to have contained the esset, fortunam sibi facturus videretur.' latent seeds of future greatness; and Heroes, from first to last, seem to biography becomes enveloped in fable have been compounded of nearly the and romance. The same may be said of same ingredients. The grand requithe external man—the outward mould- site, the main-spring of action, appears work of Nature: the tenement of clay to be a consciousness of a superiority is found io have been stamped with the over other men, and a vehement desire sure marks of the profound mind that to display that superiority. This dishas displayed itselt. We fancy we play must be variously modified by could have discovered the great Napo- time and opportunity, and in proporleon in the lieutenant of engineers. " It tion as it is seconded by good fortune is probable, that in all ages, a certain or opposed by difficulties; but under conformation of face and person, has similar circumstances it is probable that been considered as the indication of in- it would produce nearly similar effects, tellectual superiority. We naturally Cæsar's expression, that he would yield at first to some such impression, rather be the first man in a village, than though it may be afterwards altered, or the second man in Rome,” is in effect even altogether effaced. But in the but an echo of the sentiment that is utpresent age of scientific research we go tered by Milton's Satan, when he exmuch farther. We do not leave unat- claims : “ Better to reign in flell than tempted those mysteries of Nature serve in Heaven.” So that the same which seem denied to human investiga- spirit seems necessary to a Cæsar or a tion ; we would enter the temple where Satan—the monarch of the Tuileries, she works in secret, trace the unreveal- or the demon of Pandemonium. ed sympathies between soul and mat It is the peculiar misfortune of societer, and unravel the whole machinery ty that we admire those exploits winich of man. Idle and unprofitable as these are rather dazzling than userl, and researches may be, they are, at all that a nation should aim at being great
and splendid rather than being happy. immense army, he reflected that not Creatures of education, we imbibe in one of such a multitude would survive early youth the spirit of romance and a hundred years. And yet we do not chivalry : that which is in fact a ne- find that Xerxes desisted from his idle cessary evil, is presented under the im- attempts to enslave Greece. In fact, posing form of “ glorious circum- the kindlier feelings of humanity seem stance;" Homer does more than phi- incompatible with such a calling. losophy and Christianity can ido; Where blood is to be poured out as and in time we roam about like mortals water, and human life is as grass bein the enchanted abode of the fairies, fore the sickle, the edge of sensibility with unanointed eyes, mistaking for must be blunted, and the best feelings solid gold, for delicious dainties, that of our nature are uptorn.
which, in reality, is but tinsel, and frip In turning over the pages of history, • pery, and dirt.
it will be difficult to assign any place 'These conclusions are obvious in to Napoleon amongst those who are our closets, but they come too late to gone, or to say to what class he counteract the effects of education; we eriy belongs. Though very dissimilar seliom reduce them to practice, but in many respects, some strong features move along through life in this, as in of resemblance may be traced between many other respects, with our conduct him and our own Cromwell. Both one way and our argument the other. were of extreme vigour and reach of Virgil's trumpeter never wants a suc- capacity ; of the same bold and entercessor who is equally fortunate in his prising disposition which enabled them trade" Ore ciere viros, martemque to take advantage of the commotions accendere cantu,"—of rousing fools and political disturbances of the times. and making slaughter.
Both had the “ animus vastus," an The writers of the day have been ambition which knew no bounds—both loud in their invectives against Napo- grasped at that which fortune seemed leon, for the selfishness and the utter to have placed far beyond their reach, disregard of life which he manifested and both were successful. In Napoin common with all lovers of war. leon we discover something of the insoWithout seeking to extenuate his faults lence of prosperity, the intoxication of or eulogize his merits, we may observe, success which led to the commission of that he perhaps endeavoured to elevate political errors; while Cromwell mainhimself above the rest of mankind by tained, throughout his public life, a stifling all feelings which he partook in greater equability of mind, a steadiness common with them. lle affected to of purpose that was not to be diverted be a man apart from his fellow-crea- either by dificulties, or the security of tures, turning the passions of men to triumph. If the former was immodethe completion of his own purposes, rate in prosperity, the latter was less but himself beyond their control. Ac- able to withstand the glooms of desponcordingly we do not hear that he wept dency. The one displayed a greater at the bloody field of Borodino, or that versatility of genius: he lived in times he sympathised with the sufferers at when the arts flourished, and he reignMoscow. He looked upon these events ed over a lively and ingenious people, with the cold eye of a political calcula- who were as interested in the success tor, to whom the loss of an army was of an opera as of a campaign ;-while as an error in his arithmetical process. Cromwell's was the iron age of EngIt would have been in better taste, no land, he was nurtured in fanaticism, doubt, to have deplored the extinction and lived amid strife and bloodshed. of 300,000 fellow beings in the horri- Their understanding of the religious ble campaign in Russia, than to have was certainly different, but both availexclaimed, while rubbing his hands ed themselves of the prevailing spirit over the fire on his way homewards, of the times: it is probable that
aposo this is pleasanter than Moscow." leon would have whined his way into But Xerxes wept when, viewing his popularity in the days of Charies the
First, and that Cromwell would have happily serves to counteract the evils been a Philosopher in the days of Louis which might otherwise result to manthe Sixteenth.' Neither of these extra- kind from the perversion of superior ordinary personages exhibited in very talents—from the wantonness of ambiearly youth any signs of those high en- tion, and the freaks of power. In dowments which have given them to fine, what Lord Clarendon had said “ everlasting fame* ;" nor did the ge- of Cromwell may be justly applied to nius of either seem fitted for the ele- the individual who has been the subgant occupations of literature, though ject of these remarks. “He was one Cromwell occasionally indulged him- of those men-quos vituperare ne iniself in barbarous verses, and Napoleon mici quidem possunt, nisi ut simul lauwas a reader of Ossian. They might dent; for he could never have done have said with Themistocles, the Athe- half that mischief without great parts of nian, who, being desired to play upon courage, industry, and judgment. He a lute, replied, “ that he could not fid- must have had a wonderful understanddle, but yet he could make a small ing in the natures and humours of men, town a great city.” The arts of ad- and as great a dexterity in applying dress and conciliation, which were them, who, from a private and obscure used with such success by Bonaparte, birth (though of good family) without were not known to Cromwell. Tlume interest or estate, alliance or friendsays of him, that " he knew how to ship, could raise himself to such a find out and engage in his interests ev- height, and compound and knead such ery man possessed of those talents opposite and contradictory tempers, which any particular employment de- humours, and interests, into a consismanded; that the general behaviour tence, that contributed to his designs and deportment of this man, who had and their destruction ; while himself been raised from a very private sta- grew insensibly powerful enough to tion, was such as might befit the great- cut off those by whom he had climbed, est monarch ; that he maintained a in the instant they had projected to dedignity without either affectation or molish their own building. What was ostentation; and supported with all said of Cinna may be justly said of strangers that high idea with which his him—ausum eum, quæ nemo auderet great exploits and prodigious fortune bonus; perfecisse quæ a nullo nisi forhad impressed them." In both these tissimo perfici possent—he attempted men is discoverable that mixture of those things which no man durst have great and little, that spice of human ventured on, and achieved those in frailty, with which Nature counterbal- which none but a valiant and great man ances her choicest gifts, and which could have succeeded.”
June 1, 1821. without state, greets his fellow citizens AT last I have seen the humours of with open hand as his companions and
a levee, which is certainly worth equals; seeks his relaxation from the seeing for once, as presenting so remark- labours of the cabinet at the domestic able a contrast to the plain simplicity of hearth; snatches a moment from the our own chief magistrate, who stands hurry of public affairs to superintend forth only as a man among men;“ who the business of his farın, and defrays walks forth without attendants, lives all the expences of his high office with
* Cromwell's military talents were not displayed until he was forty-four years old. Bonaparte, before he was twenty-seven, besides shewing his skill at the siege of Toulon, had beaten the Parisian troops, and fought the battles of Montenotte, Millesimo, Dego, Lodi, Lønado, and Castiglione, with an army in want of every necessary, and against experienced enemies.
F ATHENNEUM Yob. 10,
a stipend of 600cl. a year !" How away; for, having no carriage, and different is the scene at Carlton Palace, having been separated from my minwith all its pomp and parade of milita- isterial mentor, I scarcely knew what ry attendance, and all the glare and to do. At last, fiercely cocking my frippery of its couri costume. I went hat on one side, like my namesake Jonunder the protection of our worthy min- athan of wild memory in his boatister, and it was about two o'clock when scene, I sallied bodily out at the great we found ourselves in the large anti- gates, and making my way through the room of the palace, which was soon crowd,--who contented themselves with thronged with bishops and judges, gen- a few good-humoured jokes at the awkerals and admirals, doctors and sur- wardness with which I wore my court geons, lawyers and authors,—all anx- habiliments--- I gained the stand of ious to bask for a moment in the rays of coaches in Cockspur-street, into one of royalty, and catch a smile of condescen- which I vanished from their gaze. sion from the great man. The mob at The next day Mr. Rasked me alevee is much like other mobs, though how I was satisfied with my reception, perhaps less good-humoured and enter- to which I made a suitable reply of actaining. Alter waiting about an hour knowledgment. " Why yes, indeed,” on the tiptoe of expectation, the folding- said he, “ I think you have reason to doors were at length thrown open, and be satisfied, for I did not think his Mathe mass began to move. Inch by inch jesty said so much to any one else.” I we fought our way, till at last I got near find there is a graduated scale of great enough to command a view of the King. exactness by which these things are He stood, as it were, in a doorway, measured with the most minute accuwith the whole of his cabinet ministers racy. “ Ilow d'ye do,” is a gracious drawn up in regular array opposite to reception; but "How d'ye do; I am him; and the intervening narrow lane, very glad to see you here,” is the very through which two persons could scarce- acme of condescension and affability. ly have passed abreast, just sufficient to To an American, who feels that he let the crowd off. I can compare the belongs to a country, the government scene to nothing so well, as to the get- of which is founded in truth and reating into the pit of the theatre, on a full son alone, such a scene as the levee night. The lord in waiting who re- presents cannot be very inviting. And reives your card, and the King your yet it cannot be denied that the estabbow,-if one may venture on so home- lishment of a court, which its train of ly a comparison,---answered to the attendant nobles, if they are, as they check and money takers; the cry of ought to be, the cream of the people, “get your card ready," would have not only uppermost in point of situabeen as appropriate on one occasion, tion, but worthiest in point of quality, as “get your money ready,” on the is not without its use. It is desirable other; and the press from behind that there should be a permanent school scarcely allowed time for a moment's of manners, such perhaps as a court pause in the royal presence. The bu- only can supply, to preserve the standsiness of presentation was begun and ard of politeness and good-breeding concluded in a moment ; the King from sinking into incivility and rudesmiled graciously, saying, “ How d’ye- ness. As long, too, as rank is reverdo, Mr. Kentucky, I am very giad to enced by fools, it will be an object with see you here,"—and I found myself in men of sense; and, much as I admire the next room before I was well aware the simple institutions of my own counthat the ceremony had commenced. It
try, I doubt whether Washington was was then that a friend who had witness- not right, when he said that the founders ed the scene, congratulated me upon of our constitution “ proceeded on too the gracious reception I had experienc- favourable a view of human nature.” ed,-a fact of which, but for his in- When a nation emerges from infancy, formation, I might have remained in there must be prizes for talents, and ignorance.
distinctions for wealth; and whether The next difficulty was how to get these consist of the laurel wreaths of
the ancient fashion, or the garters and July 1.-One topic at present enribands of modern times, is of little gages all thoughts, and all hands, and importance. But it is indeed impor- all tongues,—for nothing is talked of tant to those who by the practice of but the Coronation. All other subjects England are allowed to inheril honours, seem to have lost their interest, and to justify the expedience of such a law even the funeral knell of the modern by endeavouring to deserve them. For Attila has scarcely been heard amidst if they neglect this, the times are soon the clink of hammers, and the clattering approaching, when the people in all of preparation for this splendid pageant. countries will “trample coronets under In looking on at this costly magnifitheir feet that no longer sparkle with cence, an American is disposed to conthe gems of virtue, and wipe off the ar- sole himself, for the absence of such morial bearings from coach-doors,which things in his own country, by recollecthave nothing to authorise them but the ing the observation of Paine-—“ the venal nonsense of the Herald's office.” trappings of a monarchy would defray
June 20.—Excursion in the steam- the whole expense of a republic.” Still boat to Richmond. This is a delight- far be from me that wholesale spirit of ful trip; and I enjoyed it the more, ascensure, which so often induces travelit reminded me of the favourite mode lers, upon a slight and superficial surof travelling in my own country. It is, vey, to condemn customs and instituindeed, to Mr. Fulton, of New-York, tions, which have a deep foundation in that the world is indebted for the first the character of a people. Indeed it practical application of the steam-en- is impossible not to grant, that in govgine to the purpose of navigation; and ernment, as in religion, some ceremonial the nations of Europe are now gener- observations are necessary, and it is the ally adopting this summary and expedi- duty of those who regulate the respectious mode of surmounting the opposition tive rituals of each, so to order their of currents, and wind, and tide. The form and fashion, that they may really Richmond boat, though sufficiently produce their intended effect, in imcommodious, is as inferior to our A. pressing the minds of the spectators merican vessels, as the Thames is to with a higher sense of veneration for the St. Lawrence and Mississippi. For the substantial part of those institutions some miles the banks are low and flat, to which such forms are appended. and the scenery tame, though not un Thus, in considering the Coronation, interesting. The villas which meet though opinions may differ as to the your eye at every turn, give a variety proper mode and manner of conducting to the prospect, and present pleasing it, yet it is impossible not to allow that pictures of the progress of civilization in a monarchical country some such to the highest point of luxurious refine- ceremony is necessary upon the occament. There is the same kind of dif- sion of a new king. In England, parference between the banks of the Del- ticularly, it is a solemn recognition of aware and the Thames, that Jolinson the compact between king and people, has pointed out between the poetry of which was entered into at the æra of Dryden and Pope. “ The one is a na- the Revolution; by virtue of which tural field, diversified by the varied ex- the house of Hanover succeeded to the uberance of abundant vegetation,—the throne of the Stuarts. I am no disciother, a velvet lawn, shaven with the ple of that frigid philosophy that would scythe and levelled with the roller.” teach us to look unmoved at a spectacle The best points of the river are Sion like this, which has something at once House and Kew; after which you arrive gratifying and ennobling in the associat Richmond. The view of the hill from ations it awakens. The solemn repe. the river is very beautiful; but the view tition of the same rites, which have from the hill is still more rich and mag- been performed in the same place, by nificent. And yet it was of this very so many departed generations, connects scene that the Frenchman disparaging- the present times with the past, and by ly observed—“ Venlrebleu! Olez le its appeal to the imagination, embellishbois et la rivière, et c'est peu de chose.” es the realities of life with much of the