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set with precious stones. In short, as addition was made to the ornaments of I said before, the scene might well have the wall. Little recesses spotted its appeared an Eastern poet's dream, or lower range, taking the shape of botsome magic vision, in the wonderful tles, flaggons, goblets, and other useful tales of an Arabian night.

vessels, all equally indispensable, in “ When we drew near, I found the those days, at a Persian feast. Very netire front of the building open to the different from the temperance which garden ; the roof being sustained by a now presides there; and how directly double range of columns, the height the reverse of the abstemiousness and of which measured eleven Persian its effects, that marked the board of the yards (a Persian yard being forty-four great Cyrus! inches); hence they rose upwards of 6 Six pictures of a very large size, forty feet. Each column shoots up occupy the walls of this banqueting. from the united backs of four lions, of chamber, from the ceiling, to within white marble; and the shafts of the eight or ten feet of the floor. Four of columns rising from these extraordinary these represent royal entertainments, bases, were covered with arabasque given to different embassadors during patterns, and foliages, in looking-glass the reigns of Shah Abbas the First, gilding, and painting ; some twisting alius, the Great; and of Shah Thamas, spirally; others winding in golden or Tamasp, as it is sometimes written. wreathis, or running into lozenges, stars, The two other pictures are battle piecconnecting circles, and I know not es. Every one of these different subwhat intricacies of fancy and ingenious jects are portrayed with the most scruworkmanship. This ceiling was e- pulous exactness, as far as the still life qually iris-hued, with flowers, fruits, could be copyed. The golden vases, birds, butterflies, and even couching ti- and other vessels in the banqueting gers, in gold, silver, and painting, a scenes, with the musical instruments, midst hundreds of intermingling com- and every detail in the dresses of the partments of glittering mirrors. At persons present, are painted with an some distance, within this open cham- almost flemish precision. Wine (the ber, are two more pillars of similar peculiar bane of the Sefi race) appears taste to the range ; and from their cap- the great vehicle of enjoyment at these itals springs a spacious arch, forming feasts; an air of carouse being in all the entrance to a vast interior saloon; the figures, and the goblets disposed in which all the caprices and labors and with the most anacreontic profusion. cost of Eastern magnificence, have The guests are also entertained with a been lavished to an incredible prodi- variety of dancing girls. whose attitudes gality. The pillars, the walls, the ceil- and costumes sufficiently show the seing, might be a study for ages, for design- cond vice of the times, and explain the ers in these gorgeous labyrinthine or- countries whence they come. naments. The floors of both apart 6. The warlike pictures are defined ments were covered with the richest with equal nicety; the trappings of the carpets, of the era in which the build- horses, the arms of the heroes, and ing was constructed, the age of Shah even to the blood-red wounds of the Abbas, and were as fresh as if just laid combatants. One of the battles redown; there needs no other proof of presents the troops of the valiant Shah the purity of the climate. From one Tamasp the First the son of Shah angle of the interior chamber, two low Ismail, the beginner of the Sefi dynasfolding-doors opened into a very spa- ty) engaging the troops of Sultan Solis cious and lofty hall, the sides of which . The Persian king is depicted in were hung with pictures of various di- the act of cleaving a grim Janisary mensions, most of them descriptive of from head to saddle bow,' and the convivial scenes; and the doors, and weapon having nearly reached the last pannels of the room near the floor, be- point of its aim, the artist has marked ing also emblazoned with the same mer- its dreadful journey down the body of ry-making subjects, fully declared the the man, with a long red streak, followpurpose of the place. But a very odding the royal blade. But, nevertheless,

man.

the indivisible Turk continued to sit of the several nations assembled at the bolt upright, firm in his stirrups, and as feasts, or engaged in the battles. Large life-like in visage, as the most conquer- turbans, full mustachios, and smoothing hero in the piece.

shaven chins, were then the fashion in “Ridiculous as the execution of these Persia; which has now given place to pictures may be in some respects, they the high, narrow, black cap of sheepare invaluable as registers of the man- skin, and the long bushy beard; the ners of the times, of the general as- latter appendage having been a cospect of the persons they are designed tume of the empire many years before. to commemorate, and of the costumes

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July 1, 1821.

Disputandi pruritus ecclsiæ scabiesro

ler exclaimed, during his residence of the Church—and who was a great in England,“ Quel ètrunge pays! enemy to religious disputes, used to put Vingt religions et que deux sauces !"

a stop to all such useless wranglings by I meet with as many different religions well-timed repartees, two of which here as in America. This is extraor- seem particularly deserving of rememdinary! for the circumstances of the brance. To a Protestant bigot, who two countries are very different. In asked him whether it was possible that America there is no established reli- a Papist could be saved, he answered, gion. The law, though it compels ev " What is that to thee? You may be ery man to contribute a certain pro- saved without knowing that. Look to portion to the support of some religious yourself.” To a Popish bigot, who teacher, leaves it to the discretion of jeeringly asked him where his religion each individual to appropriate his quota was to be found before the time of Luto whatsoever sect may please him best, ther; he immediately replied, “ Where Where such is the law, it is not sur- yours is not to be found at all-in the prising that there should be a great va- written word of God.” While there riety of doctrine. But in England, is quite as much schism, there is perwhere all must pay tithes to the parson, haps more fanaticism in England than whether they attend his preaching or in America. The mad-houses teem not, it affords an indubitable mark of with unhappy persons belonging to the earnestness and sincerity of the re- that gloomy school which seems to take ligious feeling that distinguishes this a perverse delight in racking the sense country, to see so many sects, for con- of Scripture beyond its true intent; so science-sake, supporting ministers of that, instead of sucking milk, they their own by additional voluntary con squeeze blood out of it. I heard at St. tributions. I like the notion of the Luke's, that, at the period of Joanna Quaker lady, who defended the varieties Southcott's phrenzy, there were a conof faith by asking, why there might not siderable number of her disciples adbe as many roads to Heaven as there mitted as patients. Such, however, are mansions in Heaven? So long, at are the rank weeds that will always least, aś none of them diverge out of spring up, even in the richest soils; and the great highway of Christianity, so perhaps the cause of real religion has long as they retain their Christian name, been strengthened by the exertions we need not trouble ourselves to en- which have been called into action aquire into the sirname of their sect. gainst them. One of the great wonSir Henry Wotton, who appointed it ders of the present day is the establishto be recorded on his tombstone, that ment of “ The Bible Society," the ramhe was the author of this sentence, ifications of which extend to all coun

I ATHENEUM Vol. 10.

tries. By their extraordinary efforts lish friend, who has visited three quarthe Bible has been translated into sixty- ters of the globe, called on me this three different languages, and the Apos- morning just as I was sitting out upon tles-endowed as it were afresh with my daily pilgrimage, and upon my apthe gift of tongues—have been circulat- plying to him to direct me in the selected through the most distant parts of tion of the worthiest objects of curiosthe world. There is a spirit of inquiry ity, he candidly acknowledged that, on foot which can no longer be repress- excepting Westminster Abbey, the ed, and the happiness of mankind will Tower, the British Museum, and Exedepend upon the direction which shall ter Change, which he had been taken be given to it. Ilowever great the to see as a school-boy, he had never good which this society may have a- devoted a single morning to the examchieved, it has not been without a cer- ination of London. Come then," tain alloy of evil, which was suggested said I, “ you shall accompany me toas long ago as the time of Charles the day;"_and so off we set. For the First, by a quaint old writer, whose first time in his life he saw St. Paul's; authority on such a subject ought to for though he had often looked at it have great weight. “The design may through the fog of Fleet-street, he had be good to reduce the price of the Bible never surveyed it in all its details with to so small a volume, partly to make it the attention which so noble a structure the more portable in men's pockets, deserves. St. Paul's is only second to and partly to bring down the price, so St. Peter's; and in comparing them that the poor may better compass the we must not forget what the English purchase. But know that vilis in the with justice boast of—that while it reLatin tongue, in the first sense, signifi- quired 12 architects, 19 popes, and 145 eth what is cheup; in the second sense years to complete the building of St. what is base. And thus the small price Peter's, St. Paul's was began and finof the Bible hath caused the small priz- ished in the short space of 35 years, ing of the Bible.”

under one Bishop, Dr. Campton, and * * * * What a different ani- by one architect, Sir Christopher Wren, mal an Englishman is at home and a- who laid the first stone in the year broad! Abroad, be cannot move a step 1675, and lived to see the last stone of without abusing every thing and every the lantern placed by the hands of his body, while he sings an everlasting io son, in the year 1710. Wren, the son Pean in praise of Old England ; at of the architect

, in his Parentalia” home, he rails, with equal violence, at relates, that “in the beginning of the all the customs and institutions of his new works of St. Paul's, an incident own country. At home he is a lover was taken notice of by some people of liberty, and an advocate for the e as a memorable omen, when Sir Chrisqual rights of mankind; abroad, he topher in person laul set out, upon the acts, like the Roman proconsuls in their place, the dimensions of the great provincès, as if the greatest part of the dome, and fixed upon the centre, a human species were brought into the common labourer was ordered to bring world for no other purpose but to wait a flat stone from the heaps of rubbish, upon his pleasure. In lighter matters, (such as should first come to hand) to too, the distinction is equally striking. be laid for a mark and direction to the Abroad he is an indefatigable sight-seer, masons; the stone, which was immeand will not pass through the obscurest diately brought and laid down for that town without an accurate scrutiny of purpose, happened to be a piece of a every thing that a laquuis de place can grave stone, with nothing remaining of point out to his notice;--at home he the inscription but this simple word in toses entirely this thirst for informa- large capitals-RESURGAM.” This tion, and I verily believe there are ma- accidental hint suggested to Sir Chrisny Englishmen who have lived half topher the idea of the Phænix, which their lives in London, and yet know he placed on the south portico, with less of its curiosities than they do of the same word inscribed beneath it. Rome, Athens, or Thebes. An Eng Nothing seems more difficult than to

get at the dimensions of churches accu- name and honours. Why should not rately; and indeed the knowledge is the after-thought" which his son has not worth the difficulty. Scarcely any given in the “ l'arentalia," be suitably two writers agree in their compara- engraved, and occupy its proper place tive statements of St. Peter's and St. under the great dome : Paul's. Wren's “Parentalia” and Lector, si tumulum requiris, Pennant's “ London,”-both works of

Despice. authority_are directly at issue on al

Ti monumentum, most every point of admeasurement.

CIRCUMSPICE. Where then is a poor traveller to look * * * I have been much interfor the truth?

ested during my residence in London If the outside of St. Paul's is inferi- by visiting different places of educaor to St. Peter's, the inside is more so. tion. I have already explored WestAs we traversed the dreary dirty aisles, minster and the Charter-house, and I

-“every thing about them denoting a hope soon to make excursions to Eaton careless desolation," —we thought of and Harrow. the difference of care and culture which The Bell system of instruction is the Roman temple receives from its established at the Charter-house ; but Catholic guardians. The monuments however well adapted this plan may be are, with a few exceptions, a disgrace for communicating quickly and generto the church ;-mere lumps of ma- ally the first rudiments of knowledge, sonry, and fit only for the lime-kiln. it seems very ill calculated for the highOne of the exceptions is buried in the er branches of education. I have vaults below,-Dr. Donne in his shroud. heard the extraordinary success of the A short time before his death he dress. Charter-house scholars at Oxford and ed himself in that funeral habit, and Cambridge adduced to prove the adshutting his eyes like a departed per- vantages of this mode of teaching; but son, was drawn in that attitude by a I am inclined to believe this success has skilful painter; and this drawing serve been rather in spite of the system,

than ed as a pattern for the tomb. The in consequence of it, and that it may monument might be raised to the light with justice be attributed to the ability of day at a trifling expense; but it of the present masters, and to their unseems that no part of the revenues of wearied exertions to supply, by private the church are to be expended for its lessons those deficiencies which must decoration. Here too is buried the necessarily be inseparable from a sysflower of chivalry—Sir Philip Sidney; tem of mutual instruction amongst the and here you are shewn the coilin of boys themselves. But the peculiar exthe great English Admiral Nelson, the cellence of the Charter-house, in my glory of their navy;-but characters estimation, consists in its rejection of like Sidney and Nelson belong to man- corporal punishment. Will it be bekind in general ; and no inhabitant of lieved, that in the year 1821, the comany country can look without some in- mon practice in the public schools ward stirrings of emotion upon the of England, is to subject the scholars mortal remains of departed heroism. of all ages, from nine to nineteen, to Here, also, in an obscure corner of the the daily infliction of a species of chassame vaults, beneath a common flag- tisement, at which decency revolts, and stone, are interred the remains of Sir common sense is shocked. The quesChristopher Wren; and on the wall tion of the necessity of corporal punabove is an inscription written by his ishment has been often agit:ted. There son, concluding with the following are many who contend, from the mixwords, which, however, have no ap- tựre in the composition of our nature, propriateness in the dark hole where that while there is a portion of man to they are placed :

be instructed, there is something also of Lector, si monumentum requiris, the brute to be chastised. This is Circumspice.

surely a wrong view of the subject, The founder of the fabric surely merit- for we find the fiercest and most uned a more conspicuous record of his fractable of the brute crcation are ta

med and taught, not by blows and vio- lished customs, than the continuance of lence, but by a patient perseverance in such a system of scholastic discipline the mild arts of persuasion. I cannot to the present time. As long as the believe that there is any human being reign of Charles the Second, the eloso much more untractable than the quent South, in a sermon composed brutes, as to be governable only by the expressly to be preached before the fear of the lash. But, however this King at a school-meeting in Westminbe, it will scarcely be denied by the ster-abbey, pours out a torrent of rewarmest advocates of the birch, that prehension on this subject, which, if the rod ought to be confined to that preaching could ever effect any thing, early age, when the child is unable to must long since have led to some reforcomprehend a better argument ; or, if mation in this particular. After doubtever resorted to afterwards, that it ing whether there may not be some should be limited to such offences as natures, in which“ austeritymust be may seem to deserve a degrading and used, he proceeds:—“ But how to do disgraceful punishment. Solomon's this discreetly, and to the benefit of memorable apothegm, which the child him who is so unhappy as to need it, may “ rue that is yet unborn," suffi- requires, in my poor opinion, a greater ciently defines the age marked out for skill, judgment, and experience, than this mode of correction, and it must the world generally imagines, and not be forgotten, that his maxim is ad- than, I am sure, most masters of schools dressed to parents, whose feelings can pretend to be masters of — I mean may fairly be touched to mitigate a too those Plagosi Orbilii, those executionliteral interpretation of his meaning. ers rather than instructors of youth ; In England, however, it is not to the persons fitter to lay about them in a age of froward infancy, nor to flagrant coach or a cart, or to discipline boys derelictions of morality, that the in- before a Spartan altar, or rather upon fliction of the rod is confined. It is it, than to have any thing to do with a the regular, orthodox, established dis- Christian school. I should give those cipline; and whole schools, from the pedagogical Jehus the same advice highest class to the lowest, are daily which the poet says Phæbus gave his and hourly stripped, exposed, and flog- son Phaëton-parcere stimulis. Stripes ged, by dozen.

So much, indeed, is and blows are the last and basest remeit taken for granted that no merit can dy, and scarce ever fit to be used but ensure an escape from all share of fla- upon such as have their brains in their gellation, that I am told, birch forms a backs; and have souls so dull and sturegular item in the yearly charge for pid, as to serve for little else but to the education of every boy who is sent keep their bodies from putrefaction. to Eton.

“Let not the punishment of the boThe consequences of persevering in dy be so managed as to make a wound this system of flogging, have been, in which shall rankle and fester in the some instances, melancholy enough. soul ; that is, let not children whom It is only a short time ago that a schol- Nature itself would bear up by an inar of Westminster, belonging to the nate generous principle of emulation, highest class, cut his throat, out of be exposed to the scorn and contempt shame at having been subjected to of their equals and emulators. For what he considered so ignominious a this is, instead of rods, to chastise them humiliation ; and though the act of with scorpions ; and it is the most disuicide was incomplete, it was quite rect way to stupefy and besot, and sufficient to indicate the effect produced make them utterly regardless of by the punishment upon the mind of themselves, and all that is praise-worthe sufferer. There has since been a thy, besides that it will leave on their more fatal catastrophe at the same sem- minds such inward regrets as are never inary ; though it is not equally certain to be qualified or worn off.” that this was connected with the same And yet such is the force of habit,

Nothing shews more strong. that in a large company, where this ly the difficulty of changing long-estab- subject was lately discussed, I could

cause.

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