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in summer the Sea was frozen over between the North-west Magnetic Pole, evidently the Russian and American coasts. This situated within the Earth, and in a site very shews, that whatever may be the result of nearly under the sea-surface moved over by the present attempt to the East or West of the Discovery-ships. For centuries have Southampton Island, there cannot remain ingenious philosophers been conjecturing the slightest hope of effecting the passage the existence of one or more MagneticPoles, through Behring's Straits. In foriner state- in endeavouring to reduce visible effects to ments, there was some reason to suppose
causes, and to form theories, if not demonthat the passage would be achieved through strable, at least plausible. At length, to the the Polar Basin, considerably to the North- honour of the Britsh Nation, the first in arts, ward of the parallel of the new discoveries, arms, and philanthropy, all doubt and unwith the disadvantage of a longer run than certainty are happily removed; and by proby the usual course. If, however, the North- ceeding on scientific principles, through the west Passage can be made along the North medium of accurate experiments, the comCoast of America, as now attempting, cer- plete establishment of a theory of the Magtainly the run to India, and especially to netic Variation is now attainable. The conChina, will be shorter ; but in such case, tinued course of experiments formerly recthe risk, hazard, and danger would be con ommended to be made in a situation contigstantly inminent. Ships so situated would uous to the Magnetic Pole will not be practibe liable to be crushed to pieces by icebergs; cable in that situation, on account of a would be frequently rendered immoveable strength of attraction downwards, so great by sudden and continued congelations of the there as to turn the needle nearly into a conice; would at a certain time of the year be tinuation of that Pole, an effect shown to enveloped in darkness ; or would always demonstration, by experiments made by have the greater part of their crews disabled means of powerful magnets acting on comby intensity of cold, and undergoing the mon needles. It is fortunate that the requiamputation of limbs mortified by the stop- site series of experiments cannot be efficientpage of the current of life.
ly made near the site of the newly-discovIf commerce is to derive benefit from any ered Pole, as the intensity of the cold there new or additional productions to be yielded would render a continuance of life nearly by these unexplored seas,islands,and coasts, impossible. It is evident that the Discovery. it is evident that the Hyperborean Coast it- ships crossed a meridian under which this self, and not ships, must be the medium of Pole, and the North Pole of the Earth, beprocuring such advantage. It is probable came in one and the same vertical plane. that sledges may travel along the ice on Here, of course, there would be no variathis coast, or at various stations on it, such tion, as the needle would be acted on by both as Mackenzie's River, or Copper-mine River Poles in a line, or in conjunction with its po(provided wood is found on, or can be float- sition. On the parallel of latitude 60°, such ed down to, the coast), stout small vessels line of no variation must be found by trial might be constructed for the purpose of pro- made by scientific, persevering, and skilful ceeding Northward among (as yet undis- men, to be employed for this very important covered) islands, in favourable seasons. But purpose. These men must travel Westward this is under a supposition that incurred ex from Hudson's Bay, till they, by accurate pence would be more than defrayed by com- magnetic obscrvations, find themselves in mercial returns.
this requisite situation". Here, then,a build. Having premised this much, I come now ing for their accommodation should be erecto the most important object of this paper, ted; and a smaller one,devoid of iron, must and paramount to every other consideration cover a meridian accurately laid off, accordattached to the subject. If no other advan- ing to a process described in my papers on tage arose from the present Voyages than this subject, in the Philosophical Transacthe recent discovery of a North-west Mag. tions. Such an instrument as is used at our netic Pole, that alone is so valuable to Sci- Society's rooms must be applied to this meence in establishing, in process of time, a ridian, as that is superior in construction to sure theory of the Magnetic Variation, so that used by me for similar purposes, on Suindispensable for nautical purposes, that the matra, and St. Helena. The primary and best thanks of the country are due to the direct object in view, is to ascertain by three admiralty for the efficient manner in which daily observations, the decrease of variation, these Voyages have been directed. Ingiv- under the meridian, in order to arrive ultiing such requisite efficacy, the talents, mately at the law of movement of the Northknowledge, and general information of that West Magnetic Pole, either round the Terable and useful character, Mr. Barrow, have restrial Pole, on a parallel of latitude, or been essentially subservient.
otherwise in a straight line, within the earth, When your Number for January was pub- "and between two points in its parallel of polished, it was not distinctly known, that sition. This motion will be so slow, as 'to among the Georgian Islands, the movement of a balanced needle became so weak and * From the supposed posilion of the Magsluggish as to be nearly annihilated ; that is netic Pole, it might nol be necessary to proto say, the magnetic action of the real North ceed inland, Westward, abore fire degrees, Pole of the Earth became as nothing com or 150 miles, about the parallel of 60° North pared to the strong and direct attraction of latitude.
require a series of years to arrive at the cannot trace to any satisfactory cause. I proper scientific conclusions deducible from am in habits of collecting facts which may, such requisite expériments. It may be again aided by the observations of others, lead at urged, that such a magnetic movement is some future period to legitimate conclucompatible with the supposed solidity of the sions. I try all bodies of iron by means of earth. I refer to my former statement on a sensitive magnet, and find in them prothis part of the subject, and such philoso- perties not generally understood. I find phers as are Christians (and the most able that a good magnet will equally, as by elechave been suc!), I refer to St. Paul's Epis. tricity or galvanisins, impart polarity to tle to the Ephesians, chap. iv. verse 9. It needles, by mere juxta-posilion. I have renbeing highly probable, from close consider- dered magnetic three pieces of wire situated ations of the variation in South latitude, in a semi-circular form,opposite to the poles that the South-east end of the new pole has of a powerful magnet. All bars standa corresponding movement round the Southing or fixed perpendicularly (such as all pole of the earth, I would strongly recom- iron railings in streets,) are magnetic; mend that a similar series of experiments the North pole being at the bottom, and the be made on the South side of New Shetland, South at the top. The bottom or lower parts which I conjecture to be a continuation of of all common chinney-grates are North, the Southern Thule, in longitude 30° West, while the tops are South poles. The iron and 60° South latitude. Similar observa- handles of pumps are magnetic ; the farthest tions ought to be made on the Island of out-end being a North, while the end nearest Desolation in latitude 490 South, and longi- to the pump is a South pole. Large weightude 700 East; and also in North latitude, ing weights possess polarity ; as also all on Spitzbergen and Nova Zembla.
iron bars for sale in shops. Royal patronage and munificence could It is a curious fact, that the uppermost not be more nobly applied, than in pursuits part or top of the iron round a carriageso honourable to man, and beneficial to hu- wheel attracts the North end of a magnet, man happiness. Monarchs or men thus and is consequently a South pole, while the occupied, might legitimately say,“ Tentanda lower part of the same iron in contact with ria est, qua me quoque, possim, lollere humo, the ground, attracts the South end of the victorque rirum (rerum) rolitare per ora.” needle, and is therefore a North pole. Turn
If in time it became ascertained that the the same wheel round half a circle, and these N. W. and S. E. magnetic poles had a regu- poles will immediately become rerersed. lar movement round the poles of the globe,
I mention these few out of many experithe variation and all its anomalies would be ments, in order to induce others to assist in accounted for, and other magnetic pheno- ascertaining facts, with a view to establishing mena, equally surprising and unaccounta what is now wanting,-a sure Magnetic The ble, would be reduced to a certain theory.- ory: Yours, ac. John MacDONALD. As things are, we observe effects which we July 12, 1821.
By Maj. Parlby. From thy coach of orient pearl,
With thee bring a heavenly guest, From thy amber halls arise ;
Modesty in russet vest, Thy banner, Constancy, unfurl,
Gently leading young Desire Serene as cloudless summer skies.
Curbing with modest look his fire ; Thou, whom chaste nymphs delight to sivg, Till half-alarm'd, perchance she spy Thy hyacinthine garland bring ;
The wandering of his wauton eye, Nor leave the sacred mystic ring,
And smiling, blushing rosy red, Apt emblem of unfading spring.
On thy bosom hides her head. Wake, God of Love, smile on the fair, Wake, God of Love, protect the fair, And crown with soft delight this noble pair. And crown, with rapture crown, this noble
WRITTEN ON ARRIVING AT MADEIRA.
By William Meyrick. See at length indulgent gales
Yet, fair Isle, thy lovely shades, Gently fill our swelling sails,
Flowery groves, and tranquil glades ; Swiftly through the foamy sea,
Nor yon mountain's pride the vine, Shoots our vessel gallantly,
Parent of delicious wine, Still approaching, as she flies,
Mantling o'er its craggy side, Warmer suns and brighter skies.
Flere shall tempt me to abide ;
Still my native plains are dear,
ADDRESS TO THE MUMMY AT BELZONI'S EXHIBITION.
And thou hast walk'd about (how strange a story !)
In Thebes' streets three thousand years ago,
And Time had not begun to overthrow
Thou Joast a tongue-come-let us hear its tune;
Revisiting the glimpses of the moon,
To whom should we assign the Sphinx's fame;
Of either Pyramid that bears his name?
By oath to tell the mysteries of thy trade,
In Memnon's statue which at sun-rise play'd ?
Has hob-a-nob’d with Pharaoh, glass to glass ;
Or doft'd thine own to let Queen Dido pass,
Has any Roman soldier maul'd and knuckled,
Ere Romulus and Remus had been suckled :
Might tell us what those sightless orbs have seen,
And the great Deluge still had left it green-
Art sworn to secrecy ? then keep thy vows;
Reveal the secrets of thy prison-house ;
We have, above-ground, seen some strange mutations ;
New worlds have risen-we have lost old nations,
When the great Persian conqueror Cambyses
O’erthrew Osiris, Orus, Apis, Isis,
If the tomb's secrets may not be confess'd,
The nature of thy private life unfold :-
And tears adown that dusty cheek have rollid :-
Imperishable type of evanescence!
And standest undecaved within our presence,
If its undying guest be lost for ever?
In living virtue, that when both must sever,
had visited unexplored regions, more moralizing than enough for a vol“ Think nothing too minute for des- ume whose title is “ Sketches of India.” cription—tell us how the sun rose, how There is, says the wisest of men, a time the land looked, how the animals mov- for all things; and it could have been wished; state every idea produced on your ed, that, instead of only about one-third mind during only twenty-four hours of of these 300 pages being strictly conforthat period, when every thing had an mable to their name, the writer had penaspect different to use and wont, and cilled more and sermonized less. Still every perception was new; do not we have read his lucubrations with great wait till cusiom had enfeebled the ef- gratification, and shall now endeavour fect, and because you no longer won- to communicate a portion of it to the dered yourself, you ccased to feel what public, by extracting parts most consowas really curious : do this, and your nant to the project of rendering a “ fabook will be as admirable as Robinson miliar picture of Indian scenery and Crusoe, over every step of whose manners.” island we could wander without a The author arrived at Madras, and guide.” But it must be more easy to thus delineates the new country :advise than to execute this method : for “I landed with troops in the afterwe could not mention five examples of noon, and marched from the beach to a its being successfully completed, and station or depót thirteen miles inland. have, in the course of our intercourse For three miles we moved along amid with the most intelligent travellers, a curious talking crowd, perpetually scarcely met one from whom we did changing. We followed a fine broad not gather more interesting matter in road, with avenues of trees ; passed an hour's conversation, than in any the fort; and half a mile beyond it pasquarto volume the individual might . sed continually, for a long distance, have published.
gateways leading to large garden houThese reflections will show that we ses in spacious compounds, until at are favourable to works of the class length we left the signs of the presidennow before us; but, in the present case, cy behind us. With the exception of a the plan has more of our approbation few followers in employ, or seeking it, than the mode in which it has been fil- the crowds dropped off, and we pursuled up. There is, however, much of ed our march unmolested. No,-1 what we like, though rather overlaid shall never forget the sweet and strange with recollections and comments. The sensations which, as I went peacefully
forward, the new objects in nature ex- bans, ear-rings of gold or with emerald cited in my bosom. The rich, broad- drops, and large silver signet rings on leaved plantain ; the gracefully droop- their fingers, crowded round each chair, ing bamboo; the cocoa nut, with that and watched our e ery glance to anticmat-like looking binding for every ipate our wishes. Curries, vegetables, branch : the branches themselves wave and fruits all new to us, were tasted ing with a feathery motion in the wind; and pronounced upon ; and, after a the bare lofty trunk and fan-leaf of the meal, of which every one seemed to tall palm; the slender and elegant partake with grateful good-humour, stem of the areca; the large aloes ; we lay down for the night. One aitenthe prickly pear; the stately banian, dant brought a small carpet, another a with its earth-seeking and reproductive mat, others again a sheet or counterdrop-branches ; and among them birds, pane, till all were provided with someall strange in plumage and in note, save thing ; and thus closed our first eventhe parroquet (at home, the lady's ing in India. pet-bird in a gilded cage,) here spread “ The morning-scene was very ludiing his bright green wings in happy crous. Here a barber, uncalled for, fearless flight, and giving
his natural was shaving a man as he still lay dozand untaught scream. These, and ing; there another was cracking the more than I can name, were the novel- joints of a man half-dressed; here ties we looked upon.
My dream of were two servants, one pouring water anticipation realized gave me a delight on, the other washing, a Saheb's which found no expression in words. hands. In spite of my efforts to preI felt grateful that I had been led and vent them, two well-dressed men were permitted to see India; I wondered at washing my feet; and near me was a my own ignorance, and at the poverty lad dexterously putting on the clothes of my imagination, when I reflected of a sleepy brother officer, as if he had how much the realities around me dif- been an infant under his care." fered from what my fancy had painted Soon after his arrival in India, our them. How some things surpassed, countryman went with his company and some fell short of my foolish ex- from Madras to Bellary. pectations; and yet how natural, how " Marching in this country is certaineasy all appeared! All so fitted and ly pleasant, altho' perhaps you rise too adapted by the hand of the bountiful early for comfort. An hour before and wise Creator, that, other than they day-break you mount your horse ; and, were, they had deformed instead of travelling at an easy pace, reach your decking the face of nature. It was ground before the sun has any power ; late and dark when we reached Poona- and find a small tent pitched with breakmallee; and during the latter part of fast ready on the table. Your large our march we had heavy rain. We tent follows with couch' and baggage, found no fellow-countryman to wel- carried by bullocks and coolies; and, come us, but the mess-room was open before nine o'clock, you may be dressed and lighted, a table laid, and a crowd and employed with your books, pen, or of smart, roguish-looking natives seem- pencil. Mats, made of the fragrant ed waiting our arrival to seek service. roots of the Cuscus grass, are hung be
“ Drenched to the skin, without fore the doors of your tent to windchanges of linen, or any bedding, we ward, and, being constantly wetted, adsat down to the repast provided ; and mit, during the hottest winds, a cool, reit would have been difficult to have freshing air. found in India, perhaps, at that moment,
6 Three o'clock is the common hour a more cheerful party than ours. of dinner; and in the evening you ride,
“ Four or five clean-looking natives, or stroll out on foot, as inclination in white dresses, with red or white tur- leads. If your habits are those of a
• The banian-tree throws out lībres from its extreinc branches, which taking root in the earth, again become parent stems; and in this manner, not unirequently, produces a frove of great extent and singular beauty.