« ZurückWeiter »
An act was passed by Congress in 1838, to prevent immediately after the sale. How much for them ? “ I do not joke. I nevare joke ; je n'entends pas steam-boat disasters, such as have been above enume- Give them a start at something. How much ?" The raillerie. Sare, roulez tous have de kindness to give me rated ; but the act is exceedingly defective, an so far auctioneer looked around ; there were no bidders. At back de money dat I pay !" as it goes, its provisions are nearly inoperative, because, last he caught the eye of Monsieur Poopoo.“ Did Certainly not.” as we are told, it would be imprudent for magistrates, you say one hundred, sir? Beautiful lots--valuable “Den vill you be so good as to take de East-river constables, or other functionaries, to risk their popu- water privileges—shall I say one hundred for you ?" off de top of my lot ?" larity at elections by putting the law in execution. “ Orii, monsieur ; I will give you von hundred dollar “ That's your business, sir, not mine. This very strange state of things is alluded to in a a-piece, for de lot vid de valuable vatare privalege ; “ Den I make von mauvaise affaire-yon gran mis work quoted by the reviewer. c'est ca.
take !” “ In our poculiar form of government, where almost Only one hundred a-piece for these sixty valuable “I hope not. I don't think you have thrown away all officers are elective, even to the constable, no officer lots-only one hundred-going -going — going - your money in the land." is willing to risk his own popularity by the enforce- gone !"
"No, sare ; but I have trow it away in de ritare ** ment of an unpopular law. Thereby it is that our Monsieur Poopoo was the fortunate possessor. The “That's not my fault.” laws are so little enforced ; that hundreds of our most auctioneer congratulated him—the sale closed--and “Yes, sare, but it is your fault. You're von rer valuable citizens are deprived of life against all law, the company dispersed.
gran rascal to swindle me out of de l'argent." because it would be against the interests of trade for an “ Pardonnez moi, monsieur," said Poopoo, as the auc- “ Hollo, old Poopoo, you grow personal; and if you inquest to examine too closely into the causes of such tioneer descended his pedestal, “ you shall excusez moi can't keep a civil tongue in your head, you must go fatal consequences, or to institute legal proceedings to if I shall go to cotre bureau, your counting-house, ver out of my office." bring the perpetrators to justice. If half the citizens of quick to make every ting sure wid respec to de lot vid “Vare shall I go to, eh ?” this country should get blown up, and if it should be de valuable vatare privalege. Von leetle bird in de “ To the devil, for aught I care, you foolish old likely to affect injuriously the trade and commerce of hand be vorth two in de tree, c'est trai–eh ?” Frenchman ?" said the auctioneer, waxing warm. the other half, by bringing to justice the guilty, no “ Certainly, sir.”
“But, sare, I vill not go to de devil to oblige you !" elective officer would risk his popularity by executing u Vell, den, allons."
replied the Frenchman, waxing warmer. “ You chest the law, without some alternative which should weigh And the gentlemen repaired to the counting-house, me out of all de dollar dat I make in Chatham Street; stronger on his mind than the loss of office; and per- where the six thousand dollars were paid, and the but I vill not go to de devil for all dat. I vill go and haps an appointed officer would find it a rather danger- deeds of the property delivered. Monsieur Poopoo drown myself, tout de suite, right avay.” ous business to execute an unpopular law during an put these carefully in his pocket, and as he was about “ You couldn't make a better use of your water excitement, unaided by numbers, which he seldom has taking his leave, the auctioneer made him a present privileges, old boy !" at command.”
of the lithographic outline of the lots, which was a “Ah, miséricorde ! je suis abimé. I am ruin! I am
very liberal thing on his part, considering the map done up! I am break all into ten tousan leetle pieces ! THE LITTLE FRENCHMAN AND HIS
was a beautiful specimen of that glorious art. Poopoo I am von lame duck, and I shall vaddle aeross de gran TOWN LOTS.
could not admire it sufficiently. There were his sixty ocean for Paris, vish is de only valuable ratare priva
lots as uniform as possible, and his little grey eyes lege dat is left me á present !" [By G. P. Morris-From the New York Mirror.] sparkled like diamonds as they wandered from one Poor Poopoo was as good as his word. He sailed in How much real comfort every one might enjoy, if he end of the spacious sheet to the other.
the next packet, and arrived in Paris almost as penniwould be contented with the lot in which heaven has Poopoo's heart was as light as a feather, and he less as the day he left it. cast him, and how much trouble would be avoided if snapped his fingers in the very wantonness of joy as Should any one feel disposed to doubt the veritable people would only " let well alone !" A moderate in- he repaired to Delmonico's, and ordered the first good circumstances here recorded, let him cross the Eastdependence, quietly and honestly procured, is certainly French dinner that had gladdened his senses since his river to the Wallabout, and farmer J will row every way preferable even to immense possessions arrival in America.
him out to the very place where the poor Frenchman's achieved by the wear and tear of mind and body so After having discussed his repast, and washed it lots still remain under water ! necessary to procure them. Yet there are very few down with a bottle of choice old claret, he resolved individuals, let them be doing ever so well in the world, upon a visit to Long Island to view his purchase. He who are not always straining every nerve to do better, consequently immediately hired a horse and gig, crossed
BOO DHISM. and this is one of the many causes why failures in the Brooklyn ferry, and drove along the margin of the HITHERTO we have possessed little or no knowledge business so frequently oecur among us. The present river to the Wallabout, the location in question. generation seem unwilling to “realise” by slow and Our friend, however, was not a little perplexed to Brahminism in Hindustan ; and Christian missionaries
of any religion prevalent in the East, except that of sure degrees, but choose rather to set their whole find his property. Every thing on the map was as being consequently ignorant of what they had to conhopes upon
a single cast, which either makes or mars fair and even as possible, while all the grounds about tend with in their respective fields of enterprise, a them for ever! He used to keep a small toy-store in Chatham, near into the land, which seemed to have no business there. Gentle reader, do you remember Monsieur Poopoo ? and there was an arm of the Last-river running quité very serious obstacle was placed in the way of their
success. There need, however, be no longer any ig. the corner of Pearl Street. You must recollect him, This puzzled the Frenchman exceedingly; and, being of Boodh, which prevails over an extensive region in
norance on the subject. Boodhism, or the religion of course. He lived there for many years, and was a stranger in those parts, he called to a farmer in an Asia, and numbers more adherents than any other reone of the most polite and accommodating of shop adjacent field, keepers. When a juvenile, you have bought tops and
« Mon ami, are you acquaint vid dis part of de coun- luminous manner' by Mr Howard Malcom, in his
ligion in the world, has been lately described in a most marbles of him a thousand times. To be sure you try-eh ?". have ; and seen his vinegar-visage lighted up with a “Yes, I was born here, and know every inch of it.” dible authority we make the following abridged state
Travels in the Burman Empire,* and from this eresmile as you paid him the coppers ; and you have
“ Ah, c'est bien, dat vill do," and the Frenchman got ment :laughed at his little straight queue and his dimity out of the gig, tied the horse, and produced his lithobreeches, and all the other oddities that made up the graphic map.
“ Boodhism is probably at this time, and has been for every day apparel of my little Frenchman. Åh, I “ Den maybe you vill have de kindness to show me many centuries, the most prevalent form of religion perceive you recollect him now.
de sixty lot vich I have bought, vid de valuable vatare upon earth. Half of the population of China, Lao, Well, then, there lived Monsieur Poopoo ever since privalege ?"
Cochin-China, and Ceylon; all of Camboja, Siam, Burhe came from “ dear, delightful Paris," as he used to The farmer glanced his eye over the paper.
mah, Thibet, Tartary, and Loo-Choo ; and a great call the city of his nativity--there he took in the “Yes, sir, with pleasure ; if you will be good enough part of Japan, and most of the other islands of the pennies for his kickshaws--there he laid aside five to get into my boat, I wil roro you out to them !"
southern seas, are of this faith. thousand dollars against a rainy day—there he was as “ Vat you say, sare ?"
Boodh is a general term for divmity, and not the
ha happy as a lark—and there, in all human probability,
name of any particular god. Th been innu
"My friend,” said the farmer, “this section of Long he would have been to this very day, a respected and Island has recently been bought up by the speculators merable Boodhs, in different ages, among different substantial citizen, had he been willing to let well of New York, and laid out for a great city; but the worlds, but in no world more than five, and in some alone.” But Monsieur Poopoo had heard strange principal street is only visible at low tide. When this not any. In this world there have been four Boodhs, stories about the prodigious rise in real estate, and part of the East-river is filled up, it will be just there. namely, Kan-ka-than, Gau-na-göng, Ka-tha-pa, and having understood that most of his neighbours had Your lots, as you will perceive, are beyond it, and Gaudama. One is yet to come, namely, Aree-mabecome suddenly rich by speculating in lots, he in are nou all under water."
day-eh. stantly became dissatisfied with his own lot, forthwith At first the Frenchman was incredulous. He could
It has often been supposed that Boodhism resembles determined to shut up shop, turn every thing into not believe his senses. As the facts, however, gradu- Brahminism or Hinduism, which is a great mistake. cash, and set about making money in earnest. No ally broke upon him, he looked at the sky—the river No two systems can be more opposite, or bear less sooner said than done ; and our quondam storekeeper -the farmer-and then he turned away and gazed at evidence of being derived from each other. Brah
minism has incarnations, but Boodhism admits of a few days afterwards attended a most extensive sale them all over again. There was his ground, sure of real estate, at the Merchants' Exchange.
enough; but then it could not be perceived, for there none, for it has no permanent god. That has a host There was the auctioneer, with his beautiful and was a river flowing over it! He drew a box from his of idols; this only one.. That enjoins bloody saeriinviting lithographic maps--all the lots as smooth, and waistcoat pocket, opened it, with an emphatic knock fices; this forbids all killing. That requires atrocious square, and enticingly laid out as possible--and there upon the lid, took a pineh of snuff, and restored it to self-tortures ; this inculcates fewer austerities than were the speculators—and there, in the midst of them, huis waistcoat pocket as before. Poopoo was evidently even Popery. That makes lying, theft, and other stood Monsieur Poopoo.
in trouble, having a thoughts which often lie too deep vices, sometimes commendable, and describes the gods . Here they are, gentlemen,” said he of the hammer; for tears ;” and as his grief was also too big for words, as excelling in these enormities; this never confounds "the most valuable lots ever offered for sale. Give me he untied his horse, jumped into
the gig, and returned right and wrong, and never excuses any sin. That
makes absorption into deity the supreme good ; this a bid for them ?"
to the auctioneer in all possible haste. “One hundred each,” said a bystander.
It was near night when he arrived at the auction annihilation. In fine, I know of no important resemn
blance. “One hundred !" said the auctioneer ; “scarcely room-his horse in a foam and himself in a fury. The
Boodhism inculcates no principle of caste, which is enough to pay for the maps. One hundred-going, auctioneer was leaning back in his chair, with his legs fifty-gone!, Mr H., they are yours. A noble pur- stuck out of a low window, quietly smoking a cigar a striking difference from what prevails among the chase. You'll sell those same lots in less than a fort- after the labours of the day, and humming the music lindus, and from this and other causes it is believed night for fifty thousand dollars' profit !" from the last new opera.
to be much more ancient as a religious faith than Monsieur Poopoo pricked up his ears at this, and “ Monsieur, I have much plaisir to fin you chez tous, minism grew out of Boodhism, and gained power and
Brahminism. The probability seems to be, that Brahwas lost in astonishment. This was a much easier at home.” way of accumulating riches than selling toys in Chat- " Ah, Poopoo ! glad to see you. Take a seat, old numbers in Hindustan till the close of the first cen
tury of the Christian era, when the Brahmins wers ham Street, and he determined to buy, and mend his boy." fortune without delay.
« But I shall not take de seat, sare."
able to commence that persecution of which their own The auctioneer proceeded in his sale. Other parcels “No-why, what's the matter ?"
records speak, and which drove out the teachers of were offered and disposed of, and all the purchasers Oh, beaucoup de matter. I have been to see de Boodhism into Farther India, whence it extended into
China. were promised immense advantages for their enter- gran lot dat you sell me to-day.” prise. At last came a more valuable parcel than all “ Well, sir, I hope you like your purchase ?"
The most extraordinary peculiarity of Boodhism is the rest. The company pressed around the stand, and “ No, monsieur, but I do not like it at all.”
the want of any existing God. Adoration or respect Monsieur Poopoo did the same.
“ I'm sorry for it ; but there is no ground for your is merely paid to the image of Gaudama, who was a god
at a foriner period, but is now annihilated, or entered “ I now offer you, gentlemen, these magnificent lots, complaint.” delightfully situated on Long Island, with valuable “ No, sare ; dere is no ground at all —de ground is into annihilation. Gaudama was the son of a king, water privileges. Property in fee-title unexception- all vatare.". ahle-terms of sale, cash deeds ready for delivery “ You joke."
* People's Editions : published by W. and R. Chambers.
and born about 626 years before the commencement has been already said. The last is more deserving of are distinguished rules for preserving man from wickedof our era. He had previously lived in four hundred notice, embracing, as it does, the whole system of ness.' millions of worlds, and passed through innumerable morals.
Pagodas are innumerable. In the inhabited parts conditions in each. In this world he had been almost Merit consists in avoiding sins, and performing there is scarcely a mountain peak, bluff bank, or swellevery sort of worm, fly, fowl, fish, or animal, and in virtues, and the degree of it is the sole hope of the ing hill, without one of these structures upon it. Those almost every grade and condition of human life. Har- Boodhist. The sins which are to be avoided are de- of Pegu and Siam are all formed upon one model, ing in the course of these transitions attained immense scribed in a moral code, consisting of five principal though the cornices and decorations are according to merit, he at length was born son of the above-named and positive laws:-1. Thou shalt not kill. 2. Thou the builder's taste. In general they are entirely solid, king. The moment he was born, he jumped upon his shalt not steal. 3. Thou shalt not commit adultery. having neither door nor window, and contain a deposit feet, and, spreading out his arms, exclaimed, “ Now 4. Thou shalt not lie. 5. Thou shalt not drink any of money, or some supposed relic of Gaudama. From am I the noblest of men! This is the last time I shall intoxicating liquor. These are explained and branched the base they narrow rapidly to about mid-way, and ever be born!" His height, when grown up, was nine out, so as to include all sins of the same kind, under then rise with a long spire surmounted with the sacred cubits. His ears were so beautifully long, as to hang each head. The first of these laws is extended to all tee. Some of those around Ava, and especially those upon his shoulders; his hands reached to his knees; killing, even that of animals for food. The very reli- at Paghan, are less tapering, and more resembling his fingers were of equal length; and with his tongue gious will not kill vermin. War and capital punish- temples, he could touch the end of his nose! All which are ments are considered forbidden by the first law. Zayats are not exclusively religious buildings. Some considered irrefragable proofs of his divinity:
Sins are divided into three classes :- 1. Those of are intended to contain idols, and some are for the acWhen in this state his mind was enlarged, so that the body; such as killing, theft, &c. 2. Those of the commodation of worshippers and travellers, and for he remembered his former conditions and existences. tongue; as falsehood, discord, harsh language, idle town-halls. The majority contain no idols, and are Of these he rehearsed many to his followers. Five talk, &c. 3. Those of the mind; as pride, covetous- intended only to afford shelter for worshippers and hundred and fifty of these narratives have been pre-ness, envy, heretical thoughts, adoring false gods, &c. travellers. Some of these are mere sheds, open on all served, one relating his life and adventures as a deer, The sacred books pourtray strongly the evils of pride, sides ; but in almost all cases they are built in a far another as a monkey, elephant, fowl, &c. &c. The anger, covetousness, and inordinate appetites. "Men more durable and costly manner than dwelling-houses. collection is called Dzat, and forms a very considerable are urged to avoid excessive perfumes, ornaments, Every village has a zayat, where the stranger may part of the sacred books. These legends are a fruitful laughter, vain joy, strong drink, smoking opium, wan- repose or stay for many days, if he please ; and many source of designs for Burman paintings. Of these I dering about the streets in the night, excessive fond, a time I found them a comfortable lodging-place. Like purchased several, which do but bring out into visible ness for amusements, frequenting bad company, and the chultries of Hindustan, they are of unspeakable absurdity the system they would illustrate.
idleness. Those who aspire to nic-ban are cautioned utility in a country destitute of inns, and where every He became Boodh in the thirty-fifth year of his age, to abhor sorcery, not to credit dreams, nor be angry house has its full complement of inmates. Many and remained so forty-five years, at the end of which when abused, nor elated when approved, not to flatter zayats, especially near great cities, are truly beautiful, time, having performed all sorts of meritorious deeds, benefactors, nor to indulge in scorn or biting jests, and very costly. The ceilings and pillars are not only and promulgated excellent laws, far and wide, he ob- and most carefully to avoid enkindling strife. elaborately carved, but completely gilded, and the tained “nic-ban,” that is, entered into annihilation, The states of the mind are resolved into three classes stucco floors rival marble in hardness and polish. together with five hundred priests, by whom he had -1. When we are pleased in the possession of agree- Worship is not performed collectively, though crowds been long attended. This occurred in Hindustan, able things. 2. When we are grieved and distressed assemble at the same time on set days. Each one makes about 2380 years ago, or B. c. 546. At his death hé by evil things. 3. When neither do good things gratify his offerings and recites his prayers alone. No priests advised that, besides obeying his laws, his relics and us, nor ovil
things distress. The last is the best state, officiate ; no union of voice is attempted. On arriving image should be worshipped, and pagodas built to his and in it a man is rapidly preparing for nic-ban. In at the pagoda, or image, the worshipper walks revememory, till the developement of the next Boodh. He this there is no small resemblance to the doctrine of rently to within a convenient distance, and laying his is invariably represented in the same manner, except the Stoics, and some approach to the Christian doctrine offering on the ground, sits down behind it, on his that sometimes he is made to wear a crown, necklace, of weanedness from the world. Some of their books knees and heels, and placing the palms of his hands ornaments on his arms, &c. I have seen them of all abound in good comparisons, such as, that he who runs together, raises them to his forehead, and perhaps leans sizes, from half an inch long to seventy-five feet--of into sinful enjoyments is like a butterfly who flutters forward till his head touches the ground. This is wood, stone, brass, brick, clay, and ivory.
round a candle till it falls in ; or one who, by licking called the shoeko. He then utters his prayers in a low The next Boodh is to appear in about seven or eight honey from a knife, cuts his tongue with the edge. tone, occasionally bowing as before, and having finished, thousand years from the present time. His height There is scarcely a prohibition of the Bedagat which rises and carries forward his gift, laying it somewhere will be eighty cubits; his mouth will be five cubits is not sanctioned by our Holy Scriptures, and the near the idol or pagoda. Some proceed first to one of wide, and the length of the hairs of his eyebrows five arguments appended to them are often just and for the great bells which hang near, and strike several cubits. The precise time of his arrival is not pre- cible.
times with one of the deers' horns which always lie dicted. No laws or sayings of the first three Boodhs Merit is of three kinds :-1. Theela, or the obser- beneath. When one goes alone, this is seldom omitare extant. Those of Gaudama were transmitted by vance of all the prohibitions and precepts, and all ted. There are four set days in every lunar month tradition, till four hundred and fifty years after his duties fairly deducible from them; such as beneficence, on which the people assemble in greater numbers at decease, when they were reduced to writing in Ceylon, gentleness, integrity, lenity, forbearance, condescen- the pagodas to offer their individual prayers. These that is, A. D. 94. These are the only sacred books of sion, veneration for parents, love to mankind, &c. &c. days are at the new and full moon, and seven days the Burmans, and are all in the Pali language. They 2. Dana, or giving aims and offerings. This includes after each ; so that sometimes their Sabbath occurs are comprised in three divisions, each of which is di- feeding priests, building kyoungs, pagodas, and zayats, after seven days, and sometimes after eight. vided into distinct books, or sections. The whole is placing bells at pagodas, making public roads, tanks, Boodhist priests are not a caste or hereditary race. called the Bedagat.
and wells, planting trees for shade or fruit, keeping Any one may become a priest, and any priest may According to the Bedagat, the universe consists of pots of cool water by the way-side for the use of return to a secular life at pleasure. Thousands, in an infinite number of systems; each system consists travellers, feeding criminals, birds, animals, &c. 3. Ba- fact, return every year, without the least reproach. of a great central mountain surrounded by seas, and wana, or repeating prayers, and reading religious On becoming a priest, a yellow robe is assumed, and four great islands, each surrounded by five hundred books.
celibacy, with numerous mortifications, is enjoined. smaller ones. This earth is the southern cluster of Alms-deeds are meritorious according to the objects Their office may be called a sinecure, as they seldom islands, and we are living on the larger one. It is a on which they are bestowed, according to the following preach or perform any service, except teaching and convex plane, not a sphere ; and is divided by moun general scale :-1. Animals. 2. Common labourers, giving special religious advice. They are of different tains and navigable seas. Below its upper crust, on fishermen, &c. 3. Merchants and the upper classes, degrees of rank, and subsist entirely on the contribuwhich we live, is water twice as deep as the earth is when in necessity. 4. Priests. For alms of the first tions of the people. Their number is very great. thick. The whole is supported on a stratum of air class, the rewards are long life, beauty, strength, know- Ava, with a population of 200,000, has 20,000 priests. twice as deep as the water. Beneath is a vacuum. ledge, and prosperity, during a hundred transmigra- No false religion, ancient or modern, is comparable to The celestial regions consist of twenty-six principal tions; for those of the second class, the same during this. Its philosophy is, indeed, not exceeded in folly heavens, one above another; and the infernal regions a thousand transmigrations ; for the third, the same by any other, but its doctrines and practical piety bear of eight principal places of punishment, each sur during ten thousand; for the fourth, a vastly greater a strong resemblance to those of the Holy Scripture. rounded by sixteen smaller ones. In one of the hea- number, but indefinite, being graduated according to There is scarcely a principle or precept in the Bedagat vens, there are pleasant habitations for mortals after the degree of sanctity the particular priests may possess. which is not found in the Bible. Did the people but death; and at the king's principal residence there is Many discourses said to have been delivered by Gau- act up to its principles of peace and love, oppression an elephant of stupendous size. This animal is of dama are given in the Bedagat. In these, the duties and injury would be known no more within their immense height, and has seven heads; each head has of parents, children, husbands, wives, teachers, scholars, borders. Its deeds of merit are in all cases either seven tusks, and each tusk seven tanks. In each of masters, slaves, &c., are drawn out and urged in a really beneficial to mankind, or harmless. It has no these tanks grow seven lilies ; each lily has seven manner which would do honour to any casuist. mythology of obscene and ferocious deities, no sanguiblossoms ; each blossom has seven petals; each petal The following is part of one of these, addressed to a nary or impure observances, no self-inflicting tortures, bears up seven palaces, and in each palace are seven distinguished personage, who sought his instruction no tyrannising priesthood, no confounding of right nymphs, or wives of the king, each surrounded by 500 how to avoid evil :
and wrong, by making certain iniquities laudable in attendants. Another elephant has one great head, * Know thou, that to keep from the company of the worship. In its moral code, its descriptions of the thirty uzenas long, on which the king occasionally ignorant, and choose that of learned men, to give purity and peace of the first ages, of the shortening of rides; and thirty-two smaller heads, for the thirty-two honour to whom it is due, to choose a residence proper man's life because of his sins, &c., it seems to have royal princes. Of the principal hells, four inflict to our station, and adapted for procuring the common followed genuine traditions. In almost every respect punishment by heat, and the other four by cold. wants of life, and to maintain a prudent carriage, are it seems to be the best religion which man has ever
Not only has the universe and all its systems means to preserve a man from evil doings. The com- invented. existed from eternity, but also the souls of all the prehension of all things that are not evil
, the exact At the same time we must regard Boodhism with inhabitants, whether animals, men, or celestials. These knowledge of the duties of our station, and the observ- unmeasured reprobation, if we compare it, not with souls have from eternity been transmigrating from ance of modesty and piety in our speech, are four other false religions, but with truth. Its entire base one body to another, rising or falling in the scale of excellent modes of renouncing wickedness.
is false. It is built, not on love to God, nor even love existence and enjoyment, according to the degree of By ministering a proper support to parents, wife, to man, but on personal merit. It is a system of merit at each birth. This rise or fall is not ordered and family, by purity and honesty in every action, by religion without a God. It is literally atheism. Inby any intelligent judge, but is decided by immutable alms-deeds, by observing the divine precepts, and by stead of a Heavenly Father forgiving sin, and filiai fate. In passing through these various forms of exist- succouring relations, we may be preserved from evil. service from a pure heart, as the effect of love, it preence, the amount of sorrow endured by each soul is By such a freedom from faults, that not even the in- sents nothing to love, for its Deity is dead ; nothing incalculable. The Bedagat declares that the tears ferior part of our nature manifests any affection for as the ultimate object of action but self; and nothing shed by any one soul, in its various changes from eter- them, by abstinence from all intoxicating drink, by for man's highest and holiest ambition but annihilanity, are so numerous, that the ocean is but a drop in the continual practice of works of piety, by showing tion. comparison ! Existence and sorrow are declared to respectfulness, humility, and sobriety before all
, and The system of merit corrupts and perverts to evii be necessary concomitants, and therefore the chief gratitude to our benefactors; and, finally, by listening the very precepts whose prototypes are found in the end of man" is to finish this eternal round of changes, often to the preaching of the word of God, we over- Bible, and causes an injurious effect on the heart, and be annihilated.
come evil inclinations, and keep ourselves far from sin. from the very duties which have a salutary effect on The great doctrines of this faith are five, namely, Docility in receiving the admonitions of good men, society. Thus, to say nothing of its doctrines of eter1. The eternal existence of the universe, and all beings. frequent visits to priests, spiritual conferences on the nal transmigration and of uncontrollable fate, we may 2. Metempsychosis. 3. Nic-ban, or annihilation. 4. divine laws, patience, frugality, modesty, the literal see, in this single doctrine of merit, the utter destrucThe appearance, at distant periods, of beings who obtain observance of the law, keeping before our
eyes the tion of all excellence. It leaves no place for holiness, deifickbon and subsequent annihilation. 5. The ob- four states into which living creatures pass after death, for every thing is done for the single purpose of ob tzining of merit. Of the first four of these, enough and meditation on the happy ropose of nic-ban-these taining advantage. Sympathy, tenderness, and all
benevolence, would become extinct under such a sys- divided races less distinct than their languages. The his farm rent free for his life, on condition that he did tem, had not Jehovah planted their rudiments in the same phenomenon is exlıibited on a still greater scale in not pound any more deer.--Serope's Deer-Stalking. human constitution. If his neighbour's boat be upset, China. That country is divided into many natural pro
MATHEWS AND THE IRISH BEGGAR. or his house on fire, why should the Boodhist assist? vinces by the water-sheds of its river-basins; each of He supposes such events to be the unavoidable conse- these provinces has its own dialect and separate inte
Mr Mathews had a great dislike to carry money about quences of demerit in a former existence; and if this class, are obliged to communicate with the people in the On one occasion, while in Wales, on arriving at Briton
rests; and the agents of government, and the literary him, and this often exposed him to trifling annoyances, suffering be averted, there must be another of equal vernacular tongue of the latter ; but every where carry Ferry on horseback, having ridden on in advance of his magnitude. He eren fears, that by his interfering to on their intercourse with one another by means of the friends, he was obliged to wait their arrival, not having a prevent or assuage his neighbour's calamity, he is re- language of Kiangnan, the seat of the Imperial court single shilling to pay the ferryman:-“Just at this mo sisting established fate, and bringing evil on his own
under the last native dynasty. India, under the domi- ment an Irish beggar, in the most miserable plight, came head.
nion of the Moguls and the British, is another instance ; up, and poured forth all that lamentable cant of alleged The same doctrine of merit destroys gratitude, and almost every other country exhibits something of destitution which it is their vocation to impress upon the either to God or man. If he is well off, it is because the same kind, varying, of course, with different modify- tinder-hearted, and which seldom fails to draw forth sparks he deserves to be so. If you do him a kindness, he can- ing circumstances.
of compassion. My husband, however, assured the appli
cant (who declared he was 'making his way back to ould not be persuaded that you have any other object or
Ireland without bit or sip for days together, and that a reason than to get merit, and feels that he compen
LINES ON A DEAD SOLDIER.
halfpenny itself would be a treasure to him') that he had sates your generosity by furnishing the occasion. If the kindness be uncommon, he always suspects you of
Wreck of a warrior pass'd away,
not even a farthing to offer him. It was'in vain; the Thou form without a name!
wretched, almost naked creature, still importuned him. sinister designs. In asking a favour, at least of an
Which thought and felt but yesterday,
At last he was told by him he supplicated, with some equal, he does it peremptorily, and often haughtily, on
And dreamt of future fame.
impatience at the tiresome and senseless perseverance, the presumption that you will embrace the opportu
Stripped of thy garments, who shall guess
after this explanation, that so far from being able to nity of getting merit; and when his request is granted,
Thy rank, thy lineage, and race?
bestow alms, he was himself, at that moment, in a situaretires without the slightest expression of gratitude.
If haughty chieftain holding sway,
tion to require assistance; actually, cold and damp as it
Or lowlier destined to obey ! Boodhism allows evil to be balanced with good, by a
was (November), compelled to remain at the water's edge scale which reduces sin to the shadow of a trifle. To
The light of that fixed eye is set,
till some friend came up who would frank him across the sheeko to a pagoda, or offer a flower to the idol, or
And all is moveless now,
ferry. The man's quick bright eye surveyed the speaker
But passion's traces linger yet, feed the priests, or set a pot of cool water by the way
with some doubt for a second; but upon a reiteration of
And lower upon that brow: side, is supposed to cancel a multitude of sins. The
Expression has not yet wax'd weak,
Mr Mathews's assurance that he was detained against his building of a kyoung or pagoda will outweigh enor
The lips seom e'en in act to speak,
will for want of a shilling, adding, that he was lame and mous crimes, and secure prosperity for ages to come.
And clenched the cold and lifeless hand,
unable to walk home from the other side of the ferry, or Vice is thus robbed of its terrors, for it can be over
As if it grasped the battle brand.
otherwise, he might leave his horse behind him as security, balanced by easy virtues.
Though from that head, late towering high,
the beggar's face brightened up, and he exclaimed, Then,
your honour, I'll lend you the money! It's all true,
The waving plume is torn, May the favoured ones of our happy land be in
And low in dust that form doth lie,
eagerly interrupted the man; “it's all true; I'm as poor as duced to discharge their duty to these benighted mil
Dishonour'd and forlorn,
I said I was-divil the lie's in it. I'm begging my way back lions !"
Yet death's dark shadow cannot hide
to my country, where I've friends; and there's a vessel The graven characters of pride,
ready, I'm tould, that sails from Swansea to-night. I've That on the lip and brow reveal
got some money, but I want more to pay my passage GEOGRAPHICAL CIRCUMSTANCES AFFECTING
The impress of the spirit's seal.
before I go, and I'm starving myself for that raison; but THE DISTRIBUTION OF RACES.
Lives there a mother to deplore
is it for me to see another worse off than mysilf, and deny [This is a brief extract from the Messrs Blacks' new and com
The son she ne'er shall see?
him relafe? Your honour's lame; now, I've got my legs prehensive geographical work, founded on the systems of Malte
Or maiden, on some distant shore,
anyhow, and that's a comfort, sure! Then, taking a Brun and Balbi, of which the first part only has as yet appeared.
To break her heart for thee?
dirty rag out of his pocket, and showing about two shilAs far as we can judge from the specimen before us, we are in
Perchance to roam a maniac there,
lings' worth of coppers, he counted out twelvepence, and clined to think that this work will be one of the most faithful,
With wild-flower wreaths to deck her hair,
proffered them to Mr Mathews, who, willing to put the and, in proportion to price, most ample works of the kind as yet
And through the weary night to wait presented to the British public.)
Thy footstops at the lonely
man's sincerity of intention to the proof, held out his hand
for the money, at the same time inquiring, "How, if I borIn casting a rapid glance over the globe, we perceive at
Long shall she linger there, in vain
row this, shall I be able to return it? My house is some once that the parts that enjoy the mildest and most equal
The evening fire shall trim,
miles on the other side of the ferry, and you say you are temperature, that most abound in rivers, and present the
And gazing on the darkening main,
in haste to proceed. I shall not be able to send a mes. longest line of sea-coast thus possessing the easy means of
Shall often call on him
senger back here for several hours, and you will then have communicating with other places, are or have been for
Oh! deaf for ever is the ear
-sailed?" Oh, thin, may be, when your honeur meets merly also the most numerously peopled, and the most
That once in listening rapture hung
another of my poor distrist countrymen, you'll pay him tlie anciently civilised. In all countries, whatever may be
Upon the music of her tongue!
twelvepenny; sure, it's the same in the end.' Mr Mathews their condition as to civilisation, it is along the gulfs, at
was affected at the poor fellow's evident sincerity; bat, the mouths, or on the banks of rivers, that we find the
Long may she dream-to wake is woe!
desirous to put the matter to the fullest test, he thanked densest population. Mankind, in their migrations and
Its tale to bid her sorrows flow,
his ragged benefactor, and wished him a safe journey back their increase, are subjected to laws as invariable as those
And hope to sigh farewell;
to his country. The man took his leave with, 'Long life that guide and control the lower animals. They spread
The heart, bereaving of its stay,
to your honour,' trudged off, and was soon out of sight. themselves in all the places that offer them the means of
Quenching the beam that cheers her way
Mathews waited till his friends arrived, then rode after subsistence, and stop where they find thesc no longer;
Along the waste of life-till she
and repaid the borrowed money with interest ; but it was and if we inquire, what is the order which they follow in
Shall lay her down and sleep like thee!
only on producing good evidence of bis prosperous contheir migrations, we find they are distributed by families, - Poems of John Malcolm.
dition, that the poor fellow could be prevailed on to take in the same manner as the waters are divided. If, for ex
it."-Memoirs of Charles Mathews. ample, in any country, we ascend from the month of a river to the sources of both the main stream and its tri
ANECDOTE OF MADAME MALIBRAN. butaries or affluents, we generally find, upon both banks, Donald M‘Kay, a farmer, who lived in a remote glen on
One evening she felt rather annoyed at the general people belonging to the
same family, speaking the same the estate of Reay, in Sutherland, received so much injury prejndice, expressed by the company then present, against language, or dialects of the same language, and having from the depredations of the forest deer, which made all English vocal compositions, the opinion being alto similar manners and customs. This fact, which seems to continual inroads upon his crops, invading him from the gether
in favour of foreig music; some even going so exist
in all countries, is most easily observed in those of west and from the north, that he at length marched off far as to assert that nothing could be good of which the Europe. Several large rivers rise in the Alps, near each to Tongue, the residence of his landlord and chief, to en
air was entirely and originally of English extraction. other, but run to the sea in different directions. If we deavour to obtain some redress. Having obtained an
Malibran in vain endeavoured to maintain that all counascend the Po and its affluents, we find on all their banks audience, Lord Reay, who probably gave little credit to tries possess, though perhaps in a less equal degree, many people of the Italian race ; if we ascend the Rhine and his tale, told him to go back and pound the deer when ancient melodies, peculiarly, their own; that nothing its affluents, we find on both banks people of the Teu- ever they trespassed in future. Donald did not presume could exceed the beauty of the Scottish, Irish, Welsh, tonic, Dutch, or German race; if we ascend the Rhone to say aught against his reception, though he was bitterly and even some of the old English airs. She then named and its affluents, we find people who speak the French vexed at having walked forty miles for nothing. On his many compositions of our best modern composers, Bishop, language ; but in the mountains, where all these river arrival at his little farm, he set his wits to work to devise Barnett, Lee, Horn, &c.; declaring her belief, that if she basins ineet, there is found a confederation of different some place for making use
of the permission which had were to produce one of Bishop's or Horn's ballads as the divisions are independent of political combinations, and of but it was not particularly
easy to pound the denizens of and Espagnolising their names, they would fuire furore. the kinds of government to which the people are subjected. the mountains. He was pretty secure for the present, in the midst of this discussion she volunteered a new Thus, those who dwell in the basin of the Rhone all speak as he had built a large barn, and kept liis crop on rafters, Spanish song, composed, as she said, by a Don Chocarthe same language, although they are distributed among out of the reach of all depredators. When the winter came
She commenced – the greatest attention prefive independent governments, namely, France, Sardinia, on, he put part of this crop very carefully into one end vailed; she touched the notes lightly, introducing varisValais, Vaud, and Geneva. The people of the Rhine are all of this barn, and barred it in with sticks and fir roots in tions on repeating the symphony, and with a serious of the Dutch race, although divided among the govern- such a manner that no beast or person could get at it. feeling, though a slight smile might be traced on her ments of France, Switzerland, Prussia, Holland, and many About the end of November, a very heavy fall of snow lips, began :others. The people of the basin of the Po belong all to came on, and the ground was wholly covered with it.
Maria trayga un caldero the Italian race, although some of them live under the The second or third night after the storm fell, the wind
De aqua, Llama levante Swiss confederation, some under Italian governments, was froin the west, and Donald spread the sheaves on the
Maria pon tu caldero and others are subjects of Austria. Diplomatic arrange- rafters, the barn door giving eastward : he then threw
Ayamos nuestro te. ments and political violence often disturb the natural the door wide open, and tied a long rope of hair to it, the She finished-the plaudits resounded, and the air was divisions of people, but this order, though often shaken, end of which he took in at the only window that was quoted as a further example how far superior foreign can hardly ever be effaced. Unity of government will be behind the dwelling-house. He took his station within talent was to English. Malibran assented to the justice found equally powerless in uniting people who are divided the window, with the end of the tether in his hand. He of their remarks, and agreed to yield still more to their by natural arrangements. Piedmont and Savoy have had not been long in this situation before he saw the argument, if the same air sung adagio should be found been for centuries subjected to the same government, and gaunt and starving animals approaching. They came equally beautiful when played presto. The parties were yet the manners, language, and interests of the inhabi- forward slowly and cautiously, stopping at intervals, and agreed; when, to the positive consternation of all pretants of these two countries, are as distinct at this day as examining every object : at length the cravings of hunger sent, and very much to the diversion of Malibran herself, before they were politically united. In like manner, in prevailed, and two hinds walked into the barn, and began the Spanish melody, which she had so divinely sung, was, Switzerland, Dutch, Italians, and French, are united under eating the corn. The stags soon followed, and some of on being played quick, instantly recognised as a popular the same federal government, yet each race preserves its them
had great difficulty in getting their antlers through English nursery song, by no means of the highest class, distinctive characteristics. In France, successive govern- the narrow door. As soon as ten had entered, Donald Shall we shock our readers when we remind them that ments have employed every possible means to give unity pulled the tether, and made the door secure. More
Maria trayga un caldero, to the diverse races subject to their authority, The blythe than before, he set off a second time for Tongue, means literally, “ Molly, put the kettle on !"-Memoirs of territory has been cut ụp into shreds ; uniform legisla- travelling as fast as his legs could carry him. On his Madame Molibran. tion, administration, and systems of education, have been arrival, he craved an audience of Lord Reay, and told in introduced into that country, and yet the desired object Gaelic that he had followed his advice, and pounded ten has not been attained. In France there are almost of his deer. " I might,” said he, as well have had a LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by W.S.
Orr, Paternoster Row; and sold by all booksellers and news. every where two idioms, that of the country and that of hundred as ten; but I could not afford to give them
men.-Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars, seat of government, the former spoken by the mass straw, whilst I come to report the affair to your lordship.”
Complete sets of the Journal are always to be had from the of the population, and having for its natural limits the Not a little incredulous, Lord Reay dispatched two men
publishors or their agents ; also, any odd numbers to complete crests of the mountain ridges, the latter spoken out of to ascertain the truth of the matter. The deer were
sets. Persons requiring their volumes bound along with title its native country only by the agents of government and found imprisoned, and were liberated. M.Kay then pages and contents, have only to give them into the hands of any by the educated classes.' Nor are the interests of these came to terms with his chief, who very handsomely gave bookseller, with orders to that effect.
CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF “CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,”
“CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,” &c.
PRICE THREE HALFPENCE.
bour (whom she pretended in common with Mrs D. MALAGROWTHERING is a branch of a very important be performed with an appearance of frankness exart—the art of ingeniously tormenting. It derives tremely honourable to one's self. You may appear to to hate very much), that it was really wonderful how its name from Sir Mungo Malagrowther, an ancient fall in a good-humoured blundering way upon the the colonel's half-pay was made to go so far. A woScottish gentleman described, in a certain veracious subject, and keep up a good laugh all the time you man who exercised the gift in this way might rather history entitled “the Fortunes of Nigel,” as attend- converse about it. Then it looks downright, and be considered as an useful monitor or reformer than ing the court of James I. of England, where an un
maintains a character for openness, under favour of any thing else. Her object was to gratify the wish of couth visage, joined to lameness in one leg, and the
which you may in time become what is called a privi- the poetwant of three fingers of the right hand, made him a leged person, and so be able to say all kinds of dis
Oh wad some power the giftie gie us,
To see oursels as others see us ! somewhat conspicuous figure. Sir Mungo had been agreeable things at all times to any body. This mode brought up in the school of suffering, for, the king was the favourite one of Sir Mungo himself ; a fact Startled by the images reflected in her mirror, people and he having been educated together, it was his duty
which should in itself go far to recommend it to all trembled and were corrected. Undoubtedly it would to receive all the whippings due to his majesty for who rank themselves under his banner.
be for the good of mankind, if there were more perslovenly tasks and positive misdeeds, in addition to Less direct natures will generally prefer the next
sons, possessed of the same moral courage, and the all thosc chastisements incurred by his own proper mode, which chiefly consists in acquainting one's disposition to cxercise it in the same way, going about demerits ; and he had thus contracted an irritability friends with depreciatory opinions which are, or may
amongst them. of spirit which clung to him through life, and caused be supposed to be, entertained of them by others. Genuine Malagrowtherers, particularly of the gentler him to feel pleasure only in the misfortunes and fail
This mode may want some of the advantages of the sex, know another mode of using third parties with ings of his fellow-creatures. It was Sir Mungo's cus- candid plan, but it is safe and pleasant, and quite as effect. Whenever they hear of any friend you have got, tom to go about amongst his friends for the purpose effective. It calls, it is true, for a slight exercise of whether that friend be the faithful and kind associate of gratifying this propensity of his nature, his perso- dissimulation, and occasionally even a little positive of long bygone years,or only the acquaintance picked up nal deficiencies and the pity due to his poverty pro- lying; there are also people who may think it shabby at random a few weeks ago, they immediately set themtecting him in most instances from the resentment to report things said by others, and worse than shabby selves to learn all they can to his disadvantage, which which he rarely failed to inspire in every one with to invent them and lay them in the name of persons they take the first opportunity of reporting to you. whom he conversed. An amusing scene will be rem who never so much as dreamt of them. But all these This is a still safer mode than any of the preceding, membered, in which he contrived, while walking arm are matters between one's self and one's conscience ; for it is not so likely to excite sudden and high resentin arm in the most friendly way with Lord Glenvar- and if the operator chooses to disregard them, we ment as the attack upon one's self. It is, however, loch, to fill the heart of that youth with bitterness by cannot well see what title any one else has to interfere. equally tormenting in its general effect. A man may allusions to certain rumours which were flying about Besides, it is an acknowledged maxim amongst the have sufficient candour to listen quietly to a discourse respecting his lordship, as that he had become a
honourable body of tormentors, that the end sanctions calculated to set his friends in a low light-he may gamester, that he was one who gamed safely and
the means ; and as their purpose is generally the laud- listen, and even assent; but in the long-run he feels meanly for the sake of money, and much more to the able one of taking down pride, or the equally laudable himself degraded by his presumed connection with like purpose. This was a remarkably fair specimen
one of letting the wind out of vanity, or perhaps the such persons. If he is a man of nice honour, he writhes of the powers of Sir Mungo in inflicting a little torture
still more useful one of inspiring a little prudence into to hear that one whom he has invited to his house, and in a friendly way.
the brains of folly, why, we should suppose that, instead allowed to dance with his daughters, is thought by Malagrowthering, however, was by no means in- of blame, they deserve some public mark of approba- many to be a black-leg. If he is simply aristocratic vented by this venerable gentleman, but is an art of tion. We recollect, for instance, being ourselves much in his feelings, he loathes the day on which he was the remotest antiquity, albeit neither Goguet nor indebted to a lady Malagrowtherer, at a time when prevailed upon by easy good nature to dine with one Beckmann makes any reference to it. We hold it youthful vanity had persuaded us that we possessed a whom he now finds to be reputed as the son of a retired likely that the population of the world was no sooner gift for the sacred art of poesy. This lady had the great ship-chandler. If he be a generous and affectionate sufficient to maintain a dialogue, than Malagrow- kindness to inform us, that a certain gentleman of her man, he is shocked to hear such sad stories of one whom thering took its rise, seeing that it has a foundation acquaintance had spoken of our verses as things which, he had long allowed himself to regard as a friend. A in human nature itself, and only requires the requisite at a maturer age, we should be ashamed to have written. mercantile person will, on the other hand, be annoyed number of persons, a Malagrowtherer and a Mala- It was a staggerer at the time, but we have since ac- to be reminded of one of his most endeared associates growtheree, to be called into exercise. Nor is this knowledged that it did us good. So also do we remember who has lately become a bankrupt under unpleasant likelihood in the least diminished by the consideration this same lady effecting some considerable reformation circumstances. One way or another, a Malagrowtherer that the first two who lived on earth were a married in the external aspect of her friend Mrs Gayflower, of any tact may easily manage, by this mode, to give pair, but quite the contrary, a civil mode of mutual by informing her of a remark which a certain gentle- a considerable amount of pain. The treat is greatly tormenting being extremely suitable to that condition man had made upon her, to the effect that she was a heightened when the poor wretch makes a miserable in life. Ever since then, Malagrowthering has been a handsome woman, but always greatly overdressed. attempt to deny the friends so much undervalued, well-known and much bepractised art, although not If this simple remark did not cause Mrs Gayflower to or speaks of them as persons whom he has only met recognised under any definite name till a comparatively lay aside a set of ostrich feathers, and put off some once or twice. To know that a real intimacy has subrecent period. We shall now proceed to consider the dozen yards of pink ribbons for three whole weeks, sistod, and to hear it thus explained away, while the various rules and modes of the art, as exemplified in may we never again take pen in hand ! Certain other twinged countenance betrays that the truth is not the practice of its greatest masters—and mistresses. persons were supposed to have been much obliged to disguised within, must be a joy which only Malagrow
Tastes differ, notoriously, in all things, and in this our friend for the hints she gave them of what was therers can fully appreciate. amongst the rest ; but it cannot be denied that it is a generally said by the public respecting their style of Malagrowthering is an art, it may be said, of nice large and most respectable section of the ancient order life. This was a point on which she was apt to give gradations. The touch on the sore heel is candid, but of St Mungo who generally prefer, in their practice, the herself rather more than the usual scope, for, not coarse. The reporting of what a third party has said comparatively candid mode of torment called touching being in flourishing circumstances herself, she thought is more refined, while equally efficacious and more safe. on the sore heel. We need scarcely explain that by it unjust that the children of affluence should en- Then come the insinuations against friends, more this is meant making allusions to painful circumstances joy themselves immoderately. It is supposed that refined still. Last, and finest policy of all, though in the past lives or present situation of one's friends, Mrs Girdwood, the rich brewer's wife, did not give perhaps too fine for all occasions, is that form of the always, of course, in a polite manner. Suppose, for any kind of party for a whole month, and that cham- | art which consists in holding up a person's real or instance, that your friend has committed some notedly pagne was banished from her husband's dinner-table supposed faults to his own inspection, by froquent imprudent or rash act in the course of his life, or at for the better part of a winter, in consequence of our reference to these faults, either abstractly, or as exany time from any cause made himself a public laugh- friend having informed them one day, that there were emplified in some third person, that person being real ing-stock, or is now suffering under some wound in- some people in the world spiteful enough to say that or imaginary as may suit the pleasure of the artist. flicted on his vanity or his fortune, all you have to do they were straining to imitate the county gentlefolk, if, for instance, a lady has a young friend whom she is to bring the conversation to that point, whatever it and that all their fine entertainments were only wishes to torment, but very covertly, so that there is, and enjoy the affected tranquillity with which he laughed at by those who attended them. So also it shall be no chance of the patient defending herself in talks of it, all the time that you know his heart is was generally believed that Mr and Mrs Dashwood an offensive way, all she has to do is to take up one burning within him. There is one great advantage laid down their britzka and two dun ponies, for no of the young lady's faults, or some fault at least at
tributed to her, and harp upon that form of human another. Or the Malagrowtherer may be simply dis- the lower orders, in Edinburgh and Glasgow, mainly error, with illustrativo examples, for half an hour at liked and avoided, which is tire more likely and gene- to destitution. The evidence which he brings forward a time, once in the morning, a second time in the and we seriously recommend it to the attention
of all shall only allude to two impressive points in his state
ral consequence. But one consolation then remains, in support of his views is strong and conclusive. We middle of the day, and a third time in the evening, regular performers, that such has been the fate of all ments, by way of convincing our readers of the jusor perhaps oftener if there be opportunity, always who have endeavoured to chastise the follies and cor- tice of the opinions already expressed here. In the taking care to keep upon hypothetical grounds, and rect the morals of mankind since the beginning of the first place, it is found by Dr Alison, from an extensive never making the least approach to a direct charge. world.
observation of the history of epidemics, that they alWhere the patient chances to be a person of fine ieel
most universally prevail with the greatest virulence ings, and considerable love of approbation, the pain
after the occurrence of some catastrophe, spreading
PHYSICAL AGENTS AFFECTING MAN. inflicted is generally very great, for not only has she
pecuniary and mental distress through the community
in which they appear. Several great epidemics have the sense of being held guilty of the fault, but she is In a recent number, some attention was devoted to raged in Ireland since 1700, each of them of nearly deprived of all power to vindicate herself by deny the consideration of those physical agencies which two years' duration. In 1740, a long and severe frost ing or extenuating, seeing that to assume the lec- exert an injurious influence on the well-being of the occurred, and was followed by a fearful epidemic. In ture as intended for her own correction would at once
poorer classes of society in large cities, and which exist 1799 and 1800, a scarcity (besides the insurrection) be to acknowledge the assumed guilt, besides implying social condition and moral habits. The want or imper- consequence. In 1816, another scarcity occurred, and
and operate independently in a great measure of their afflicted the land, and a two years' epidemic was the that her counsellor was guilty of Malagrowthering. fection of sewers, the existence of stagnant pools and this, along with the distresses attendant on the “ tranHere, also, the Malagrowtherer usually has a great ditches, accumulations of vegetable and animal refuse, sition from the war to peace,” caused another terrible additional enjoyment in witnessing the conduct of the improper state and position of slaughter-houses epidemic. In 1708, 1720, and 1731, similar events the patient under her knife. Her propositions are and burial-grounds, and the crowding together of took place, with similar consequences. Now, it is na
tural that a frost or a searcity, accompanied by agriusually so very much in accordance with established the chief causes, falling under the head just mentioned, cultural or commercial distress, should cut off many maxims, as that pride is bad, and vanity much to be des- which impair the health of those living in situations victims; but unless destitution promoted contagious pised, that they cannot be denied. A whole lecture will exposed to their influence. An attempt was also made diseases to a striking extent, why these regular, suebe so sound in its morality, that the victim must assent to show in what manner and to what extent these cessive, and long-continued epidemics ? In Edinburgh, to every word of it. The examples of the vice drawn evils were remediable. But there are other causes while commerce flourished on the deceptive basis of from imagination or from real life will be so frightful, being of the same orders of society, and, consequently, annually to the Royal Infirmary, for twenty years,
affecting to a greater extent the health and well- the war-prices, the number of fever cases admitted that every dash of the pencil must elicit a new excla- still more deserving of attention. This second class
never exceeded 130. In the three years following mation of horror from the sufferer. Thus she is made, of detrimental agencies is connected with the circum- 1816, when the war-bubble burst, they averaged 905 as it were, to sign and seal her own condemnation, and stances, habits, and modes of life of the poor in large annually. Commerce regained its balance, and up to this she usually does with so many ill-concealed twist-communities. A pretty clear line of distinction is 1825, the admissions were fewer, but during the three
years following the great failures of 1825, they rose to ings and writhings, that even the Malagrowtherer merly considered, and the one to which we propose 1173 in the twelve months. After another
interval herself, one would think, must sometimes be disposed, to devote the remainder of the present paper.
of decrease, the admissions were raised by the new though only for a moment, to relent. Relenting, In the Report of Drs Arnott and Kay upon the crisis of 1835, to 3270, on an average, in the years however, is a failing of which no true follower of Sir causes of Fever in the British Metropolis, the follow- 1836, 1837, 1838. The increase of the population Mungo is ever guilty. Patients often run under ing sources of disease, springing more or less from the
must be allowed for here, but, taking this fully into their guns to ask quarter-that is, take the occult habits of the poor, are enumerated :-1. The state of account, can any thing more strikingly exhibit the satire in good part, in the hope of being held free the lodging-houses of mendicants and vagrants, and of a great influence of depression of circumstances, or des
titution among the poor, in producing disease ? of the imputed error; but there is, to the best of our certain class of the Irish poor. 2. The crowded state of the dwelling-houses, which, in certain districts,
The first and second sources of disease, mentioned knowledge, no well-authenticated case of one of them contain several families under one roof. 3. The gross in the Report, are the “ state of the lodging houses of being spared a single pang for all their submissiveness want of cleanliness of the person, dress, and habita- mendicants and vagrants," and the “ crowded state of and good nature.
tions among certain classes of the poor. 4. The pre- the private dwelling-houses of the poor in certain disThere is a variety of the first plan, which may be valence of intemperance. 5. The habit of dwelling in tricts.". The third cause mentioned, is the “ uncleanmost properly introduced at this place. If your friend, previously deserted houses, cellars, &c. 6. Keeping pigs, liness of the poor in dress, person, and domicile." for example, has met a severe loss through simplicity &c.in dwelling-houses. 7. Indisposition to be removed Without supposing any great change in the circumor imprudence, tell him how sorry you
were to hear to the hospitals when infected with contagious disease. stances of the parties concerned, certainly these evils of it, how severe it must be upon him, and so forth. 8. The neglect of vaccination.
are capable of very considerable diminution. That Do not forget, however, in the first place, to express That this is an accurate and well-founded statement they really exist, and in a deplorable degree, is placed incredulity as to the report, and then you will have of the causes that more immediately operate in pro- by the Report beyond doubt, as regards London, and the additional satisfaction of making him confess his ducing disease among the lower orders of large com
we fear that London is at least no worse than Glasgow, error, and go over the whole recital of what evidently munities, can scarcely be denied. Yet, assuredly, Edinburgh, and some other large cities, in these points. lowers him to the dust in his own esteem. Be sure these are but the proximate or secondary causes. To Small lodging-houses of two floors frequently contain not to be sparing in your expressions of pity, for pity what is the crowded state of the lodging-houses, as
from thirty to forty people each night, and these humiliates its object, all the time that it looks so pro- well as of the private dwellings of the lower orders, people, all of the lowest description, are taken in for per and even creditable in him who professes it. There fundamentally owing? To the destitute state of those their wretched pittance, whether sick or healthy, is one variety of this department of the art which who frequent and inhabit them--to their inability to clean or dirty. Four or five beds are ranged around never fails of success. Every body has poor rela- pay for and maintain better places of abode. Again, each small close room, and three or more persons tions, and many have depraved ones. Nobody likes to destitution, if it does not directly and entirely take usually sleep in each of these beds, all perhaps strangers hear of such persons in his own case. At the same away from those subjected to it the power and means
to one another. What a scene such a house must time, it is held discreditable to disown or speak other- of being cleanly in person, dress, and dwelling, takes present by night! And yet it is a common one in wise than kindly of them. Calculating these things, away at least the spirit and anxiety to be so; they the low lodging-houses of London. The consequence the same mistress of the art who has been above have not the heart to bestir themselves for the pre- is, that during the whole year, disease, or fever, never alluded to, made it her business to learn all about the servation of this minor source of comfort and health, leaves these places.” In a small cluster of such lodghumble kinsfolk of all her friends, before whom on while suffering under the heavier inflictions of indi- ing-houses, called Mill: Lane, the attending surgeon proper occasions she would bring forward references gence and want. A starving family cannot whitewash visited, according to his own statement, “ eighty-tico to the unfortunate people in all sorts of plausible walls, or brush the dirt from rags. As to intemper-casts of fever in the year ending March last." The ways; stating that she had been applied to by one ance, it is scarcely possible for human beings, in a private dwellings of many of the poor are scarcely less for a situation, and wishing to know her character; state of destitution, to resist the temptation to drown crowded. or that she had met another one day, a very old, care in intoxication, whenever an opportunity occurs.
As to want of cleanliness in point of dress, person, infirm, and poor person, who had given her à tale The habit of dwelling in deserted houses, and of keep- and habitation, the Report gives us a melancholy of personal woes quite distressing to listen to ; or ing pigs, &c., in human habitations, is plainly referable, picture of the poor in London. Other places are perhaps it would be, that she lamented to see that in a great measure, to the same primary cause ; and even worse in this respect. The evil of uncleanliwild young cousin of yours come back once more there can be little doubt, moreover, that the unwilling- ness is a more serious one than is commonly imafrom America, to be a torment to his parents, and a ness to enter hospitals, and to have children vaccinated, gined. It was formerly mentioned, upon Dr Southvexation to the police, particularly after so much is attributable, to a considerable extent, and in the majo- wood Smith's authority, that when a portion of money had been spent on his last outfit. All this rity of cases, to that spirit of reckless negligence which atmospheric air, loaded with putrescent exhalations, she used to manage under cover of such an ear is generated by the constant pressure of the actual was analytically examined, a poison was found mixed nestly friendly manner, that no one could shake her evils of indigence, and which cannot but lead those with it, of so deadly a nature, that, when injected into off or express positive offence, while a stranger hear-exposed to them to care but little for evils that are the veins of animals, it produced fever and death. ing her for the first time would have been inclined to only possible and prospective.
Now, what do uncleanly houses contain, or what do think her a woman who took an uncommon interest All this is so clear, so obvious, that it may be said individuals uncleanly in person and dress bear about in the poor, and looked with eyes of Christian leniency we are merely stating truisms.' What then? If it with them, but the refuse of animal and vegetable on the wicked. Such, indeed, was the blandness of be admitted that destitution is a primary cause and matter?. From the walls of their habitations, and her style, that even the patient did not at the time source of those habits and circumstances from which from their own bodies, their lungs must be perpetually (in most cases) feel his wounds. Usually, it was not spring contagion and disease, does it not follow, that inhaliug that vitiated effluvium which actual experitill left to his own solitary reflections, that he disco- in considering the ways and means of preventing or
ment has shown to be a baneful poison, capable of vered how severely he had been lacerated, and became remedying these evils, we ought to keep in view, first producing, according to its degree of intensity, all aware how tremendous a power is that of the Mala- and foremost, their radical fount and spring-Poverty? varieties of fever, from the slightest species of it growtherer.
It may be said that this is an irremediable evil; and, to the fatal yellow fever of the tropics. The cleanliness The only serious drawback from the pleasures and certainly, to extirpate it altogether from society, may of individual persons, and more especially of individual advantages of Malagrowthering, is, that it does not in be impossible ; but it can scarcely be questioned that houses, is obviously of nearly as much consequence to the long-run conduce to the popularity of the adept. its extent and severity may be modified and mode- a large community, as the general cleanliness of a disIt is sure, sooner or later, to be seen through, more rated, by a proper system of social polity. If so, the trict, its courts, streets, and lanes. especially when practised frequently or systematically; establishment of such a system should ever form a The Report on the Fevers of London suggests the and some degree of resentment is the unavoidable con- leading object with all who study to improve the sana- following steps for securing the cleanliness of lodgingsoquence. This sentiment may not show itself in the tory condition of their country.
houses, and the dwellings of the poor generally. A Sasufferers at the time, either from their not then being These latter remarks were in some measure antici- natory Board of Guardians exists in that city, and the conscious of it, or because there is no opportunity of pated in a recent article, in this periodical, on the Report proposes to give to the Board sufficient powers expressing it. And the Malagrowtherer is apt, ac- subject of the general Management of the Poor, to accomplish the following enda, at the public expense: cordingly, to suppose that no more will be said or which had it in view to consider the propriety of mak--1. “To direct the removal of accumulations of filth thought about the matter. But this is in most cases ing stated provision for that class, wherever they had from houses, the yards of dwelling-houses, &c., whena great mistake. If there be a secretive mode of in- it not already. As one argument for the establish- ever two medical officers certified in writing that the flicting pain, there may also be a secretive mode of ment of such provision, it was there mentioned that state of such places was likely to prove injurious to retribution. Covert sarcasm may be met by covert Dr Alison, in his late able pamphlet upon the state of the health of the neighbourhood. 2. To cause from sarcasm. One corny toe may pay for the treading upon the poor in Scotland, traces the fevers and diseases of time to time an inspection of the lodging-houses at