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thing above the common run of our nature, soon the left eye, and look at some distant white surface, The circumstances to be attended to in considering becomes apparent. A person or well-balanced mind, such as the ceiling of the room, first with the left eye, the comparative advantages of different kinds of artitherefore, prefers partaking of the common ways of and then with the right one. It will be found that ficial light, are, 1. Purity of colour. 2. Practical convethe world, where innocent, to indulging in such fancies, there is not much difference in its appearance as seen nience. 3. Economy. 'Oil-gas gives a very fine light, because he sees that, even though the former may by the one eye or by the other, though in general it and at one time numerous companies were formed for involve a little frivolity, it is more amiable as well as will be a very little brighter to the left eye. After manufacturing it; but the great expense of it proved more rational to subunit to that, than to set up for this darken the room, by closing the shutters; tie up a barrier to its general introduction. The gas obtained something so like a standing reproach of all mankind, the left eye again, and then with the right one look froin rosin gives fully as good a light as oil-gas. Proand that in things upon the whole indifferent. at the same object, placed on a sheet of white paper fessor Daniell took out a patent for it, and a joint
Still more strange to say, there is an inside and out- as formerly, but illuminated by a large tallow candle stock company was formed to manufacture it; but side kind of conscience. "It is a thing, as one might or oil-lamp, so that it shall be seen as distinctly as it after expending more than L.50,000 on the works, the say, in two layers. The outside conscience is the one was in day-light. Keep the right eye fixed on this design was given up, as it was found that, though for common use, when men have not only to consider object for about a minute, so as to examine it closely rosin-gas was of first-rate quality, it was too costly to something like the promptings of justice, but also and narrowly: then extinguish the candle or lamp, compete with coal-gas. some circumstances affecting their own interests or open the shutters, and uncover the left eye. When I would place the light of gas made from parrot or those of parties with which they are connected, or both eyes are now turned to the ceiling, it will appear cannel coal as next in purity, and first in convenience when they act under the influence of strong preju- somewhat dim and indistinct ; and on looking at it and economy. The light procured from the finer dices. The inside conscience is one rarely called into first with the one eye, and then with the other, the sorts of oil, especially refined sperm-oil, is the next in action, and only when either there are no lateral cir- difference will be very remarkable. To the left eye, purity, and perhaps, in some instances, even superior, cumstances to be considered, or all bewraying views which had not been exposed to the action of the arti- in this respect, to the light of gas made from parrot have been by some singular chance pushed aside. We ficial light, it will appear unchanged ;*, but to the right or cannel coal; but it is much less convenient and often wonder at the strangely bad courses taken by eye it will be very dim, and of a dark blue or purple much more costly. In burning oil for the purposes political parties, all the men as individuals being known colour. This shows that, by exposure to candle-light, of illumination, a great deal depends on the constructo us as “honourable, inost honourable men.” We the retina of the right eye has been rendered partially tion of the lamp, but the argand arrangement is by wonder at the unrighteous doings of high men of state insensible to the action of day-light.” Froin long- far the best, and is almost universally used. Next to in regard to public matters, when we kuow that they continued exposure to artificial light in this way, the the finer sorts of oil, the purest light is obtained from would not willingly do injury to any single person diminished sensibility of the retina to light becomes a wax, spermaceti, stearine, and cocoa-nut candles ; but under them. We wonder at the licence which men permanent affection, and entire blindness may follow. although the quality of their light is good, it wants will take as members of a corporation, who in their Dr Hunter then enters minutely into the morbid steadiness, the candles burn down, and all of them are private capacity would do justice to the last farthing. consequences upon the eye, or in other words the more or less liable to gutter and swill, particularly The mystery is explained by our theory of an outer diseases, produced by artificial light. The most re- where there is a varying draught of air. and an inner conscience. They think themselves as markable of these is the state in which floating films, The gas distilled from common sea-coal contains conscientious in the one case as the other; but only or muscue rolitantes, are seen on the organ of vision, much less carbon, on which it has been shown that its in the one case they are acting with the coat con- an affection which sometimes becomes very serious in illuminating power depends, than gas made from par science on their backs, and in the other with the waist- its consequences.
rot or cannel coal; it burns with a reddish-yellow coat. How much better it would be for the commu- " When one of these films is first observed, it is flanne, of great heating power, and very hurtful to the nity if public men in all instances worked in their often very difficult for the patient to be convinced eyes, and is quite unfit for in-door use, excepting in vests, we need not pause to consider.
that it is not merely some light substance floating in halls, or in public places where the eyes are not to be We must now conclude our speculations; and, as the air, and he generally makes an attempt to drive it much exerted on minute objects. This inferior kind a climax is needed in all such things, we think we away with his hand ; in doing so, he rolls the eyeball, of coal-gas is that generally used in London, and it is cannot do better than recommend to our readers to and as the film immediately disappears, he is contirmed a great pity that some of the metropolitan gas combe generally on their guard against the Outside,* which in his belief that what he saw was nothing more than panies do not use a better coal, the greater cost of they will almost invariably find to be illusive and be- perhaps a bit of cobweb or a particle of soot. After which would be compensated by the gas made from it traying, and to look only to that within, “which some time he begins to doubt the correctness of this being much more generally employed in private houses passeth show.”
supposition, by the frequent recurrence of the symp- than at present. [In Edinburgh, gas is made from
tom, and by finding that the cobweb is seen by no one fine cannel coal, and is therefore burnt in the apartTHE INFLUENCE OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHT film is really caused by some defect in the eye itself, sive odour or smoke.]
but himself. At last he is quite convinced that the ments of private houses, without creating either offenON VISION.+
by observing its motions ; for so long as the eye is The light of common coarse oil-lamps and tallow We have recently been favoured with a short trea- kept stationary, the tilm remains stationary also, but candles is of very inferior quality. The lamps hare tise, by Dr James Hunter, surgeon to the Eye Dis- the moment the eye is moved, it flies off in an opposite the advantage of maintaining the source of the light pensary of Edinburgh, on the subject indicated above, direction. When the eyeball is slowly rolled upwards at one elevation, and the size of the flame does not one of very considerable interest to mankind. It is to the light, the film gradually sinks downwards, and vary so much as in tallow candles, particularly the impossible for people living in a state of civilised so- if, just as it appears to be going out of sight, the eye coarser kinds; for in them not only is the colour of ciety to avoid the extensive use artificial light, by be suddenly directed downwards, that instant the film their light highly injurious, but from the constant which is to be understood every species of light ex- flies away upwards, and is seen no more at that time. flickering and variation of its intensity according to cepting that derived from the sun and the heavenly At first these muscæ volitantes are perceived only at the state of the wicks, they are quite unfitted for the bodies; and hence the importance of inquiring how far intervals, often of some days, and generally are most illumination of minute objects on which the eyes are and in what manner such light is injurious, and to common the day after the eyes have more than usually to be much employed. what extent the effects resulting from it may be pre- been excited in working by artificial light. Their All things considered, I think that the light of gas vented or remedied. We do not propose here to review duration is very transitory, and they seldom continue made from parrot or cannel coal is the best adapted the whole question, but only, by a few extracts, to visible for more than a few seconds at a time. They for general purposes : the great recommendations are call attention to Dr Hunter's treatise, where the sub- are not often seen when looking at a coloured object, its purity and equability, its admitting of being so ject is handled in a very able and satisfactory manner. particularly if its colour be of a red or orange huo ; | easily placed in any position, the facility of increas
The following simple experiment is proposed by Dr but they are much more frequently observed when ing or diminishing its intensity as required, and its Hunter, as a mode by which any one may convince the eyes are turned to a white surface, such as a sheet cleanliness, safety, and great economy." himself of the comparatively hurtful nature of arti- of paper, the ceiling of a room, or a light cloud in the Dr Hunter conceives, that, in burning every kind ficial light :-“ Tie up the left eye, and with the other sky; and a misty day in summer, when the sun's of gas, the argand lamp is not only the least likely to look steadily and closely, for about a minute, at some light is strong, and much diffused by the atmospheric injure the eyesight, but the most economical form of very small object placed on a sheet of white paper, and vapours, is by far the most favourable time for their using the article. He concludes his reflections apon strongly illuminated with ordinary day-light, but not appearance. "In the first stages of the disease, the dark the choice of artificial light by remarking that, where exposed to the direct rays of the sun : then uncover tilms are not often seen by artificial light, at least in “ the sight is much employed on fine work by gas
cases where the insensibility of the retina is either light, advantage should be taken, during any tempo* of the propriety of looking below the surface to find the real entirely or chiefly occasioned by its injurious action. rary interruption or interval, of the great facility characters of men as distinguished from their pretensions, we But when the eye looks at the flame of a candle or with which the intensity of the light may be instantly have not for a long time met a more engaging illustration than the following, which we find in a recent newspaper :
lamp, either with or without the intervention of a diminished, so as to afford an occasional short period “ WHO is The Poor Man's FRIEND?-It is easy to assume
shade of obscured glass, there very frequently is a of rest to the eyes, and allow the exhausted retina to the title of · A friend to the Poor.' I know a man who pos- curious appearance, as if a number of very minute and recover its tone.”. The effect of such a temporary resessed slaves, who violently opposed the abolition of slavery, and transparent globules, resembling drops of oil on the pose is decidedly beneficial; and cold-bathing, at such who defends the slave-trade itself, but who, for motives best surface of water, and connected with each other like the intervals, is recommended by Dr Hunter as an addiknown to himself, has taken upon himself the title of Poor Man's links of a chain, were floating slowly through the air, in tional preventive of bad effects. new poor-law, and the persecutor of the guardians of the union in the same way as the dark films observed in day-light.” In artificial light, the blue rays are deficient, and the which he resides. I know a inan who delights in war and blood- Amaurosis, or nervous blindness, is another disease red and yellow rays in excess. In this simple fact, acshed-who, even in time of peace, can neither think, speak, nor liable to be produced by artificial light. But, in place cording to the author of the treatise before us, we write, but to fight his battles over again-- he would not shed a tear of following Dr Hunter into the minutia of these dis- find the true cause of the injurious action of artificial or of their widows and orphans left behind ; on the contrary, he cases, and their mode of treatment, we believe it will light. Accordingly, his plans for the prevention of would be glad, for the sake of employment, and the increase of be more satisfactory to general readers to present that injury, through mechanical aids and contrivances, his income, if war again broke out, although it might not coase them with his views on the “ Choice of Artificial have one and all of them a distinct and philosophical till millions of poor men had fallen victims to the senseless quar: Light,” and the comparative advantages and disad- reference to these causes of mischief. We shall allow rel; yet, strange to say, he also has added to his military title that of « Poor Man's Friend ! vantages of each.
him to describe the first of these contrivances in his labourer will work, who himself informed me that he was under “ It is only (says our author) when the eyes are own words, though we must refer to his treatise for the necessity of mowing his own lawn, and digging his own gar- exerted on minute objects, that artificial light is so the figures with which he illustrates this branch of den, because,' said he, when I apply to those rascally labourers, although in the evening they promise to come to work
very injurious. In public places the light is not his subject. for me, yet in the morning they are sure to disappoint me. This always so strong as to injure the eyes by its direct “ For the improvement, by optical means, of the was a curious phenomenon, and
I inquired into its cause, and action, and it proves hurtful chiefly by the quantity naturally bad colour of artificial light, on which its found that he was a hard master, celebrnted for grinding the poor, of carbonic acid that is produced by the combustion injurious action so much depends, two different mealways bating down their wages, and stipulating for a less sum of the light-giving materials ; besides, as in such | thods may be employed. than that for which they could afford to work, and for this he was odious in their sight. llappily, however, for him, the new poore places the sight is not constantly employed on one 1. The addition, by reflection, of the blue rays that law passed, and caused excitement in the place, and he came forth object, the bad effects of the peculiar colour of the are deficient. as the · Poor Man's Friend ! I know a man who paid our distant light are often counteracted by the variety of tints 2. The subtraction, by absorption, of the red and poor, and who for five years professed to pay 39. 60. a-week to a retlected from the walls and furniture. But in read- yellow rays that are in excess. widow at Bristol, but who had kept back 2s. a-week all that time, ing, writing, sewing, type-setting, and other occupa
In the first of these methods, the light that passes thus robbing the parish and the poor of L.25, as was proved by tions requiring the severe, long-continued, and nightly upwards is to be deprived of its red and yellow rays by were examining into the cases of all the poor upon the list, this exertion of the eyes, the light
requires to be of consi- some blue intercepting surface, to reflect downwards man exclaimed loudly against the cruelty of diminishing the pay derable defining power ; and to obtain this, it must be the few remaining blue rays, which, mingling with the of poor vidous at a distance, or of causing them to come and give placed very near the eyes, which it injures by its heat- reddish-yellow coloured light, proceeding directly from accidentally come, it appeared that she was a young and hearty ing effect as well as by its bad colour.
the flame, shall form a compound light of a white woman, who had been married again the preceding four years to
colour, from the primary rays contained in it being a respectable mason of Bristol.”- The Rev. T. Spencer of Bath.
* Sometimes it is of a pale reddish or yellowish-white colour, nearly in the same proportions to each other as in ..Laing and Forbes, Edinburgh. 1840. when seen by the left eye.
daylight. In the second method, the direct light
I know a man, for whom no
emanating from the flame is to be passed through which he had received so much kindness, and for every to Arthur the soft full blue eyes, light hair, and beau-
I will begin by describing the first, or the reflective and Ilarriet, only smiled at it as a passing jest. of the engagement of Harriet, she was not without
power, and gave him the opportunity of gaining their placed in her father's hands a letter in which Arthur The reflectors may be made of any convenient ma- esteem, and so ensuring the future exercise of their at length tenderly and respectfully entreated her to terial, such as silk, tinted paper, or painted metal. interest in his favour. Possessed of a good person, complete his happiness, and to come to him under the The silk reflectors are the most elegant, but they engaging manners, and abilities well developed by care of the bearer of the letter, who had gone to Engare more expensive, and apt to be injured by the education, young Carey was indeed calculated to make land for a single month's stay, and was about to return heat ; those made of stiff paper or bristol board are his way rapidly in society. Before two years passed, immediately to India. Arthur had hoped to come to cheap, easily made, and answer very well ; but the he had raised himself from the subordinate position in England in person for his bride, but he afterwards most durable, and perhaps the best, are made of tin- which he had commenced his Indian career, to a situ- found this impracticable, without serious detriment plate or sheet-brass, bronzed on the outside, and ation seldom held by one so young, and was already in to his interests. The bearer of the letter was a Colonel painted of a light sky-blue on the inside. No pigment the enjoyment of an income much above his wants. Monson, a gentleman far advanced in years, who had answers so well for giving the necessary tint to the The prospects, also, which he had of further promo-promised to take care of Harriet (Arthur said) as a reflecting surface, as a mixture of ultra-marine and tion, were excellent, provided he pursued the same father would have done. Mr Shirley and his wife, prussian blue. When a light blue-coloured reflector active and industrious line of conduct which he had and indeed their whole family, had been so long accusis placed over an ordinary flame, the effect is very entered upon at his starting.
tomed to look forward to the union of their daughter marked ; objects, such as the page of a book, no longer And what, does the reader think, was the purpose to with Arthur Carey, that they had no other feeling on appear of a reddish-yellow colour, but of a much which Arthur applied his first free earnings in India ? this occasion than a natural anxiety that larriet whiter and purer colour ; the light becomes delight. The following extract from a letter written by him to should perform her destined voyage in safety and comfully cool and agreeable to the eyes, and, from its Mrs Shirley, will explain the matter :-“I owe much fort. They entertained Colonel Monson for several whiteness, its defining power is much increased." to Mr Shirley, more than I can ever repay. The re- days, and were pleased to receive from him assurances
The second method of improving the colour of arti- membrance of what he did for me never leaves, nor that every possible attention would be paid to Har-
, no home on earth, for the farewell. Mir Shirley alone attended Harriet rate the heat of the light. A better plan, according when you took me in, gave me a home, and supplied and Colonel Monson to the port whence the Iris sailed. to him, is to use an argand lamp with a pale blue glass to me the place of parents. When I hear my young But the father, too, parted from his weeping girl, and chimney, and with a conical reflector of polished metal companions speaking of their fathers and mothers in then she was left alone. During the first days of the to throw down the light in a concentrated form, and Britain, I think of you, and speak of you to them, voyage she remained confined to her cabin, partly so make up for the darkening caused by the coloured with the joyous consciousness that I too have dear ones through a wish to compose her mind by solitude, and glass.
far away, who remember and love me. *** My cir- partly through the uncasy feelings incidental to a first Dr Hunter conceives that where the light is not cumstances being such as I describe, I wish so far to trip at sea. She derived, in this situation, some comabove the level of the eye, and must fall on the organ, show my gratitude for what is past. Mr Shirley fort from the attentions of Mrs Watt, a middle-aged it is necessary to use shades as a preservative, and obtained for me a settlement in life ; will he allow me lady, whom Colonel Monson had introduced to her as approves most of those which are painted interiorly to do a somewhat similar action by one of his family? the wife of an officer in his corps, who was about to with ultra-marine, worked up with mastic varnish. The money which accompanies this packet, I give him rejoin her husband at Madras, after a visit to Britain. There are many other practical lessons of great free leave to dispose of as he thinks tit; but if circum- Harriet soon saw that Mrs Captain Watt was not a value in the work from which we have made these stances permit, and he is willing to dispose of it ac- woman of refined breeding, but her society in such excerpts. We are bound to say, that this is the first cording to my liking, he will apply it to the education circumstances was nevertheless of some value. time that we have erer seen the subject under consi- of larriet. You may not remember a conversation
When Harriet first made her appearance on deck, deration treated in a philosophical way, important as
that passed between that sweet little cousin of mine she was received by Colonel Monson with a degree of it has always been to mankind.
and myself, just before I left England, when she warmth and empressement which seemed to her greatly promised to be my 'tall, great' wife. I will not con- to exceed the occasion, but she attributed this merely
ceal from you that often, often has my mind reverted to his kindly nature. However, as day after day STORY OF HARRIET SHIRLEY. since to that conversation, and that at this moment I passed away, the manner of the old colonel-for, “So, my sweet cousin, you faithfully promise to be my feel that it would be a source of the deepest pleasure to though a hale man, he was considerably beyond the little wife-don't you ?S
me, to be one day connected with you by a close and age of threescore---became more and more marked by "No, I won't be your little wife, for when you come irrevocable tie. But it will be time enough long after the same officious attentiveness, so as by degrees to back, I shall be tall like mamma or aunt Mary. I wards to think of this. Ileaven forbid that I should generate rather uneasy feelings in Harriet's mind. will be your great, tall wife.”
ever prosecute such a wish, against the future inclina- She observed, also, that Mrs Watt began to sound the “Ah, but, my pretty Harriet, you forget how long tions of either Ilarriet or you. In the mean time, I praises of the colonel, and to boast of his wealth, and of I may be away, and that I may coine home a withered, think you will not be offended at what I propose, but the magnificent establishment he maintained or could frightful-looking old man, all wrinkled, and blackened will regard this as a gift coming from a son or a maintain at Madras. Miss Shirley contented herself by the sun. What should you say to me then, Harriet? brother.”
with turning a cold ear to these remarks, and giving You will still be quite young when I am very old, It is unnecessary to quote the words of Arthur's them no answer. She could as yet scarcely believe and I am afraid, you will forget your promise to poor letter further. It is enough for our purpose to say that the suspicion which they gave rise to had any cousin Arthur."
that the Shirleys were greatly pleased, rather than serious foundation, particularly as Colonel Monson " Oh no, indeed I shall not—if mamma will let me offended, by this mark of the young man's gratitude, knew so well the purpose for which she was now love you then; I wont forget you.” and that, from this time forth, an idea perfectly in
on her way to India. But she was ere long undeThis brief conversation, so abruptly reported to the unison with that entertained by Arthur took posses- ceived. To her pain and surprise the colonel one day reader, passed between a young man of seventeen or sion of their minds. Nor did they conceal the circum- took advantage of a moment when they were left alone, eighteen, and a little girl, some eight or nine years stance from Harriet, who, whatever was the case with to make her an offer of his hand and fortune ! younger, with whose family his own was distantly Mrs Shirley, had by no means forgotten, young as she
Harriet Shirley, it has been said, was of a nature connected... Arthur Carey was the son of a thriving was, the promise to poor Arthur. She was now about rather deficient in firmness, but she could not disguise and respectable attorney in London, and had received ten years of age, and, in accordance with the wish her anger and disgust at this communication. "Is it a good education preparatory to his entrance on his expressed in the preceding letter, her father devoted possible, sir,” said she, “ that you can be aware of the father's profession. But the intimely deaths of both the money sent from India to the procuring of in- engagement which I am now going to India to fulfil, and his parents materially altered his position and pro- structions for her, of a kind which the state of his yet address me in this manner?” “ Engagement, Miss spects. Being not yet ready for a legal career, and circumstances, as well as a sense of what was due to Shirley !” replied the colonel, “ you cannot call it an having little or no means left him for the completion the rest of his family, would have otherwise forbidden engagement ! You have never seen Mr Carey-you of his studies, he might have been in a situation of him to bestow on any one of his children. At the same
cannot be attached to him.” “ You are mistaken, sir, great distress and difficulty, but for the intervention time, being a man of sense and prudence, he took care in erery respect; and I hope that, since you are now of a distant relative, Mr Shirley, who invited the not to treat the proposal of Arthur as a solemn and
aware of it, this will be the first and last time I shall youth to his house, and bestirred himself so actively binding engagement, resolving to be guided in the be addressed on such a subject.”. With these words, in his favour, as to procure him a civil appointment affair by after-circumstances.
Miss Shirley turned away, and retired to her cabin to or clerkship in the East Indies. All this was the more honourable to Mr Shirley, as he was far from transmitted to his friends a second sum for the continu. her suspicions.
When other two years passed away, Arthur Carey reflect with pain on this disagreeable confirmation of being a wealthy man, and had a sufficient family of ation of Harriet's education. He had gained another Alas! well would it have been for the peace of poor his own to provide for, without expending his interest step in the career to which he had devoted himself, Harriet, had the firmness which she had shown on or means in behalf of one who had but very remote and his emoluments were now still more considerable, this occasion characterised her conduct perinanently! claims upon him,
enabling him to increase the amount of his inclosure Colonel Monson was not deterred from his purpose Arthur Carey passed the period intervening be- to Mr Shirley. During the succeeding six years he by what had passed. He repeated his addresses in the tween his appointment and his departure at the house repeated these transmissions of money every second most pertinacious manner, till the peace of the young of Mr Shirley, where he received so much kindness as year, being always, as he told his friends, better and lady was completely overturned. When she avoided touched his heart warmly and lastingly. It was at better able to do so, from his advances in his profes- his sight, he made his subservient friend, Mrs Watt, this time that the conversation already recorded took sion. In the interval, Harriet Shirley had sprung urge his suit on the poor girl, till she was driven to place between him and his little cousin, as he called up into a beautiful and accomplished woman." And a state of despair. She had no friend beside her, no her, Harriet Shirley. It would be ridiculous to say what were her feelings now, the reader may ask, with one to give her counsel, no one to free her from this that the dialogue was a serious one, though perhaps regard to this somewhat remarkable engagement with persecution. Among other modes of annoyance, Mrs the child, in lier youthful simplicity, was perfectly in Arthur Carey? The truth is, that for several years Watt declared that the colonel would certainly destroy earnest, and though Arthur felt at the time, in his she had corresponded regularly with him, and by de- himself, if she continued to treat him with cruelty. heart of hearts, that it would be delightful at some grees their letters had become those of declared and This last argument had a direful effect on Harriet's future period to connect himself with the family from attached lorers. Miniatures had been exchanged, and mind. Her terrors were excited; she was kept in a
state of perpetual alarm, and sleep became a stranger in various principles connected with their profession, “ so far as it is connected with manufacture, it appears to her pillow. At length, when the vessel cast anchor and in soine degree analogous to our Schools of to me to exhibit the true principle on which a school at the Cape of Good Hop Miss Shirley's fears and Arts or Mechanics’ Institutions. The Prussian go- of design ought to be constituted, whether it confine distress were brought to a climax, by the cry, one vernment appears to be more desirous of cultivating itself to one branch of industry, or extend its operamorning, of "a man overboard !". Mrs Watt rushed the national taste by means of general instruction, tions over the whole field of ornamented manufacture. to her side. It was the colonel, she said ; he had at than of rearing a mere body of designers, although that By the account I have given of it, the instruction will last thrown himself overboard, as he had threatened object is not neglected. The higher academies of art be observed to be twofold ; one part relating to the to do. In reality, Miss Shirley soon afterwards saw produce specimens of ornamental designs, which are general study of art, and the other to the process of him brought on deck, just rescued from the waters in dispersed among manufacturers, to guide them in the manufacture to which art is to be applied; the latter time to save his life. We shall draw a veil over the arrangement of their patterns. The system seems naturally giving rise to what constitutes the ultimate particulars of the scene that followed. Impelled by well adapted to a community in the infancy of intelli- purpose of the school; namely, the practice of the persecution and terror, Miss Shirley became the wife gence and social privileges, and forms a solid founda- particular species of design which is adapted to the of Colonel Monson at Cape Town, on the day on which tion for future fame in all branches of the fine arts. reproductive capabilities of the fabric. Thus it will the event happened which has now been related. In Bavaria, the cultivation of every kind of orna- be seen that the elements of the education of an in
llad Harriet Shirley known at the time that mental and useful art receives the most liberal encou- dustrial artist, which in the German system are ciColonel Monson, before he threw himself overboard, ragement. The plan of public instruction which has vided among two or three separate schools, are here had paid two men liberally to stand in readiness to been devised by his present majesty, consists of six to be found united in one ; that is to say, the relation pick him up, this sad affair might have ended other sections, embracing - Purely scientific education; of ornamental design to taste, and the principles of wise. She did know of this mean and villanous Purely popular education ; Agricultural, combined fine art, and its practical relation to manufacture, artifice ere long afterwards, for the coarse and base with scientific education ; Technical or Industrial, equally form the business of the school of Lyons.", agent of the colonel, Mrs Watt, scrupled not to avow combined with scientific studies; and Technical, com- The kind of instruction given at this school makes that the scheme was of her suggestion, and one in bined with popular instruction. Each of the six sec- the study of the more elevated branches of art so which she prided herself in proportion to its success. tions commences in an elementary grade, and, accord- common or of easy access, that there is much less preWe cannot describe what were Harriets feelings on ing to its nature and purpose, finds its termination in tension about French than English artists, for what learning this, nor shall we attempt to depict her suffer- some one of the superior steps. In all the sections of many can do is of comparatively small esteem. It is ings on the remainder of the voyage between the Cape instruction, and in every grade, the study of art occu- considered no degradation in an artist to adopt pattern. and Madras. Let us hasten to the close of our story; pies a prominent place. It is considered to be the drawing as a profession, because this pursuit is every
Arthur Carey waited and watched for the arrival duty of all schoolmasters, and of all public officers of whit as respectable as that of portrait or any other of the Iris at Madras, with an eagerness and anxiety the districts where the schools are, to encourage pupils, kind of painting, and is probably as well remunerated. not to be described. As the appointed time drew particularly those who show talent, to apply them- “ The business of the pattern-designer and utter near, his longings increased in ardour. Every leisure selves to drawing of various kinds, and to explain to en carte (putter of the design on the card) both in the moment was spent in scanning the sea in the offing their parents its importance. In the Polytechnic same person, does not cease with the mere production with his glass. On the very day which he had cal schools, which are of a high grade, the course of in- of a drawing on paper; he also superintends its being culated upon, a ship—the Iris — did appear. Ar-struction in drawing and designing is very complete, set up and worked in the loom ; and thus he is enthar lost not a moment in flying to the harbour. and on the soundest principles of exact science. Much abled to correct, to retouch (if I may be allowed the He threw himself into a boat, and was rowed to the is done to improve the general taste, by the constant expression), and to finish his design. So complete is vessel's side. With a heart beating with a thousand exhibition of the finest models of art, both in painting the co-operation between the designer and the patternfond anticipations, he sprang upon deck. In an in- and sculpture. Nuremberg and Munich abound in weaver, that both may be said to be engaged about stant, out of all the throng there, his eye selected a the finest monuments of taste and industrial art. one object; the latter being an instrument in the well-known face. It was one pale as death... Arthur As respects the general cultivation of taste, and hands of the former to accomplish a work of art, rushed forward. “Miss Shirley ! Harriet !” he ex- the advancement in scientific and artistic knowledge, towards the production of which the labours of the claimed, as with open arms he made his way to both the Prussian and Bavarian routine of instruction designer really tend, a pattern wrought in silk, and wards her; but at the sound of her name she cast is unexceptionable, but each fails in producing a body not one sketched on paper. her eye hurriedly upon him, and, turning away, fell of individuals who are closely identified with that There is no circumstance, indeed, in France, conin a half-fainting state upon the bulwark of the ship. class of manufacturers of goods who require ornamental nected with the application of design, not merely to “Stop, sir,” cried Colonel Monson, whom Arthur now patterns. In France, the routine of instruction in art the silk manufacture, but to every branch of industry, saw as he reached Harriet's side ; “ this lady is not is more perfect than in other continental countries, that deserves more especial notice than the high estinor Miss Shirley! She is my wife !"
as it includes that most important branch which bears mation in which industrial artists are held, and the free The averted looks of Harriet had partly alarmed directly on the designing of patterns for manufac- and unrestrained exercise of their judgment and taste, the young man, and Colonel Monson's words now turers. Of the various schools, elementary and acade- which is consequently allowed to them in all matters came upon him with the effect of a stroke of light- mic, for cultivating pupils for the higher branches of over which their peculiar abilities ought properly to ning. The shock was more than his mind could bear. art, it is unnecessary to extract any account, and we give them control. So entire is the confidence which He reeled, and fell upon the deck. When he was shall confine ourselves to that class of seminaries the Lyonese manufacturer roposes in his designer, raised and taken away, reason had fled for ever! which we should call Schools of Design.
that I have been assured by the head of one of the This is an “ower true tale.” Harriet yet lives, and The principal school of this kind is at Lyons, the principal houses there, that in many cases he did not indeed is still a young woman; but she old in seat of the silk manufacture. All the students who see the patterns till they were produced in silk, being misery -- a wretched, broken-hearted creature. The enter the school commence as if they intended to quite satisfied that in every natter where taste was man whom she really loved, though she was weak become artists in the higher sense of the word, and it concerned, the artist must know better than he. Ia enough to permit herself to be betrayed into wedlock is not till they have completed their exercises in the short, a French pattern-designer is looked upon in his with another, is an inmate of an asylum for the drawing and painting of the human figure from the sphere precisely in the same light as a professor of fiue insane.
antique and the living model, that they are called art.
upon to decide whether their future pursuits shall I am quite persuaded that if there is one cause more CONTINENTAL SCHOOLS OF DESIGN. tend towards design for industry, or the production powerful than another which has contributed to retard, In consequence of the superior taste which is displayed of works of fine art. This circumstance, among others, or which now presents an obstacle to the progress of in the ornamental designs in silk and other fabrics of individuals in France are frequently engaged in both which pattern-designers occupy-position in which
taste in British manufacture, it is the degraded position short time ago deputed William Dyce, Esq. to make pursuits. The order of study embraces an elementary their talents find no scope for developement, and a personal inquiry into the state of Schools of Design class for principles No. 1 and 2, in which shadowing their taste and judgment as artists are set at nought. in Prussia, Bavaria, and France, with a view to the and the use of chalks are taught, class of drawing The mechanical business of copying, altering, or improvement of artistic education in this country. from casts, classes for drawing and painting figures, dovetailing patterns, already in some shape in the Mr Dyce having performed this honourable mission, class of architecture and ornament, class for painting British or foreign market (which is all that a draftshas, at the solicitation of the House of Commons, laid flowers in distemper and oil, classes of engraving and man is now called upon to do), is neither lucrative, his Report before the President of the Board of Trade, sculpture, and classes de la mise en carte, or the art nor does it hold out the very smallest prospect of that and it is now published as a parliamentary paper, for of putting patterns on the cards for the Jacquard kind of reputation and applause which French designers general information. We propose to give an abridged loom. The student of design for silk is occupied one individually enjoy, and which every one knows is the view of Mr Dyce's narrative and observations. year in the study of ancient ornament, arabesques, most powerful motive for exertion with young artists;
In Prussia, the elementary and ulterior instruction &c., during which he is exercised also in designing the consequence is, that if a youth of natural ability of artists forins a considerable department of the ge- original compositions. The class of flower painting thinks he has any prospect whatever of succeeding in neral education established throughout the country. lasts for two years, and the class of the theory of the higher walks of art, he will rather take his chance Every encouragement is given to the children of the manufacture an indefinite period. The same students in this than submit to the thankless drudgery to which poor and middle classes to cultivate a taste for draw- are frequently, and indeed generally, in the two latter he is exposed as a pattern draftsman. ing, founded on the best models and the instruction at the same time, as the two together constitute
In Lyons, the commercial value of taste is reckoned of masters. There are two principal elementary strictly the study of design for silk. The school is
so high, that when a young man displays remarkable schools, one at Berlin and the other at Dusseldorff, open from nine till two every day, from the 1st of powers, a house will admit him to a partnership, under the direction of the Royal Academies of these November till the 31st of March, and from eight till
in order completely to monopolise his services. Eren places. Besides these, there are twenty elementary
one from the 1st April till the 31st of August, when a in general einployment, a Lyonese pattern-designer schools of lesser importance in the provinces. These vacation of two months takes place. The mayor of in good practice realises as much as 10,000 franes per are open to all without restriction, and serve for the Lyons nominates the pupils, giving always a preference annum , which, considering the comparative value of instruction of candidates for the higher schools of the to the children of merchants or manufacturers who are money in Lyons and any town in Englaud, must be academies. In these public academicaldrawing-schools themselves destined to the manufacture of silk. The reckoned a sum much beyond the conceptions of rethere are taught, 1. Drawing from the antique, &c. school has ten masters or professors, and its annual muneration on the part of English manufacturers. 2. Modelling from the antique, &c. 3. Geometrical cost is 28,580 francs, of which 25,480 francs is allowed But why is this? For this obvious reason : the and architectural drawing. At the Royal Academy of by the town of Lyons, and 3100 francs by the govern- French 'manufacturer incurs little or no expense Dusseldorff, besides an elementary class of this descrip-ment.
for the purchase of foreign designs; he does not emtion on week days, there is a Sunday school after the Besides the branches of instruction given in the ploy agents to obtain, at all hazards, a pattern of termination of divine service, in which instruction is school, there are others connected with its main pur- every new article that appears in the London or given gratuitously to the poorer classes. The pupils pose taught in the same building. These are a course Paris market; he never suffers the loss (so frequent at these and similar schools are encouraged to proceed, of anatomy applied to the arts, which is given every in this country) arising from his having manufactured and receive pecuniary assistance in their study of art, Thursday from three to four, in the saloon of the the same pirated design simultaneously with three or according as they show aptitude. Specimens of their Museum of Natural History; and a course of practi- four other houses; and therefore it is that he can work are forwarded to Berlin, and those who have cal geometry on Sunday, at one o'clock. The latter is afford to pay his artist highly. Though the sum he distinguished themselves are rewarded with prizes, or, conducted with open doors. Besides the school and thus expends may appear large, the outlay on patterns in remarkable cases, they receive pensions, to enable these public lectures, there is a museum of pictures, in France is not greater than it is in England, if inthem to pursue their study at the metropolis. The antiquities, and casts of ancient sculpture, which is deed it be so great. But the difference is this, that expenses of the schools are defrayed partly by the always open to the students, and to the public on the money which in France is paid directly to the government, and partly by universal and local subscrip- Sunday and Thursday; a museum of natural history, artist, is in England frittered away on expedients for tion.
and a library, are also accessible at certain times to superseding the employment of original designers ;Besides this class of schools, there are two institu- the pupils of the school.
expedients which, if law and honesty are to be taken tions at Berlin, the Gewerb Institut and the Bau « On a review of the method of instruction adopted into account, cannot be reckoned other than illegitiAcademie, both intended for instructing mechanics in the school of Lyons," says Mr Dyce in his Report, mate, and which, if prudence, must, I fear, be thought
Beneath these lobster-patties; patient here,
Here was indeed a man fit to be a chef de cuisine, very short-sighted, because the great bulk of patterns
Fixed as a statue, skim, incessant skim.
as the French impressively call a culinary professor of executed in England according to the present system,
Steep well this small glociscus in its sauce, must inevitably want the stamp of novelty and origi
And boil that sea-dog in a cullender;
the highest order. But more recent days have not
been without his equals. “ Two shall be named, pre
This eel requires more salt and marjorum; nality, which is not only the great characteristic of
Roast well that piece of kid on either side the French, but is really the advantage which the
eminently great,” Ude and Carème.
Equal; that sweet-bread boil not overmach."
tache Ude, a Frenchman by birth, was “cook to the 'Tis thus, my friend, I make the concert play.
unfortunate Louis XVI. of France, subsequently to assistance and judgment of highly educated artists."
And then no useless dish my table crowds;
the Earl of Sefton, and, finally, steward to the Duke
of York," as he himself tells us in his great work,
As in a concert instruments resound,
entitled the “ French Cook.” The high value which with manufacturing industry, with the view of render- Some of the great Greek cooks, of the cast of the he set upon his art may be partly gathered from the ing the studies of the pupils more practical ; but we preceding gentleman, carried their art to such perfec accredited story, that he left the service of the Earl of should doubt whether this will have any powerful tion that they were able to serve up a whole pig, boiled Sefton, because that nobleman's eldest son, Lord Molyeffect in improving the patterns of our various manu- on one side, and roasted on the other; and stuffed besides, neux, was said" to have put salt into a soup of his (the factures. In this country, generally, the public taste though without visible mark of the knife upon it. The cook's) composition.”. “Cookery is an art (says Monis defective, and there lies the foundation of our poor inventor of this feat was cruel enough to keep the pro- sieur Úde) which requires much time, intelligence, and patterns in all branches of art. Improve taste by in- cess secret for a whole year; at length it was revealed, activity, to be acquired in perfection. Music, dancing, troducing elementary drawing into all our schools, let that he had bled the animal to death by a very small fencing, painting, and mechanics in general, possess there be a free and constant exhibition of works of art, wound under the shoulder, by which he had also ex- professors under twenty years of age, whereas in the and let encouragement be given to artists and designers tracted the entrails piecemeal ; that he had forced the first line of cooking, pre-eminenco never occurs under according to merit, without regard to rank or party in- stuffing down the throat; and that by means of barley thirty. We see daily at concerts and academies, young terest, and we shall have little to fear for the improve- paste he had prevented the roasting on one side, having men and women who display the greatest abilities; ment of our more elegant class of manufactures. In boiled it afterwards. It is said also of these Greek but in our line nothing but the most consummaté England, fashion is often led by very vulgar circum- cooks, that, by their saltings, picklings, and fryings, experience can elevate a man to the rank of chief prostances, and the designer, instead of improving upon, they could actually make a turnip pass for any kind of fessor. What science demands more study than cookery? has to follow the taste, however absurd. In France, fish or flesh they chose !
Why should we not be proud of our knowledge in as we learn, they manage these things better. “ De- One ancient epicure, by name Philoxenus, made cookery? It is the soul of festivity at all times, and sign for industry,” says Mr Dyce, " is not an ab- himself famous by habituating himself to the touch to all ages. Ilow many marriages have been the constract thing; it is not the business of the designer to and taste of water scalding hot, that he might feel the sequence of meeting at dinner! How much good produce good patterns for any possible condition of less impediment in swallowing the hottest dishes. A fortune has been the result of a good supper !" In manufacture, but, taking it as he finds it, to bring congenial spirit appeared in the Roman Apicius, who accordance with the spirit of these remarks, M. Ude his cultivated taste to bear on its improvement. It made a voyage to Africa, in a time of tempest, merely is said to have told Sir Humphry Davy one day," Ah, is the fashion of each succeeding season that he has because he had heard that the shrimps were larger Sromfredeci, de Society of de Royal Institution shall to deal with. The practice of French manufacturers there. Finding this to be a mistake, he turned his not nevare be complet till dere is one chair of cookery. in this respect seems to me worthy of being noticed. back on Africa with contempt.
Monsieur de Carème is a modern and living French It is, I believe, considered by them that fashion is We might greatly prolong our notices of ancient cook, of perhaps still higher celebrity. He is of a something more than the mere caprice of the moment; cookery and epicurism, but it is our wish to leave some house of cooks ; one of his lineal ancestors, the founder and though individuals of rank or of celebrity of some space for matters of more modern date. In casting of the family, having been cook to the convivial pope, kind may for a time give a particular bias to the mode, our eye downwards from antiquity, we light upon one Leo X.; by inventing a peculiar soup for whom, as a yet that the current of taste in the ordinary matters peculiarly prominent culinary figure, the famous dish for Lent, he got the name of Jean de Carème of life has its origin in, and takes its direction from, the Vatel, cook to the great Prince of Condé. Vatel was (Jack-a-Lent). The descendant of Jack-a-Lent is general character and habits of society. Hence they a worthy professor of his art, and profoundly sensible chef de cuisine to the millionary Baron de Rothschild. say, if we refer to the history of any past age, of its dignity and importance. His death, as recorded As he grew up, his hereditary talents gradually dewe shall find the records of its literature and its art, by Madame Sevigné, is one of the finest touches of the veloped themselves, and he became so greatly renowned and the remains of its every-day appliances of life, it would be almost cruel to say muck-) heroic, that over all Europe, that the Emperor of Russia and vaall partaking of some common character or senti- ever was perpetuated by pen or press. Louis XIV. rious other sovereigns sought his services. He accepted ment. Acting on this notion, the manufacturers of had gone to Chantilly to visit the Condé. Vatel- an offer from George IV., then regent, but remained France make it their business to discern accurately whom the acute Sevigné does not hesitate to term “a only eight months in the English prince's household, the characteristics of the under-current of feeling to man eminently distinguished for taste, and whose declaring as he left it, according to report, that "it which fashion and its changes are supposed to be due, abilities were equal to the government of a state,” not was a boorish establishment.” He certainly did not and by this means to keep pace with people's incli- to speak of a kitchen-Vatel was put upon his mettle. quit England because due honour was not paid to his nations, and even to anticipate them. We know,' “ The king (says Sevigné) arrived on Thursday night ; talents, for the great of London did not disdain to pay said one of the Lyonese manufacturers to me, 'that the walk, and the collation, which was served in a immense prices for his second-hand patties after they when the fashion of this year shall have run its course, place set apart for the purpose, and strewed with jon- had made their appearance at the regent's table. every one will have a longing for something new ; yet quils, were just as they should be. Supper was served, Employed finally by the Baron de Rothschild (brother not absolutely new, but something to which the present but there was no roast meat at one or two of the of the great London Rothschild), Carème received mode naturally tends. That something which in the tables, on account of Vatel's having been obliged to from him an allowance greater than monarchs could world of fashion is only an indefinite sentiment, in provide several dinners more than were expected. This afford. Lady Morgan, in her “ France in 1829-30,” fact, a mere predisposition, we endeavour to render pal- affected his spirits, and he was heard to say several has become the recorder of this culinary artist's pable, to give it a strongly pronounced character, and times, ' I have lost my fame! I cannot bear this merits, and the fussy reverence, but slightly hid unassign it a name.'”
disgrace! My head is quite bewildered,' said he to der a tone of exaggeration and banter, with which she
Gourville. "I have not had a wink of sleep these twelve speaks of him, is most amusing. The “immortal COOKS AND COOKERY.
nights ; I wish you would assist me in giving orders. Carème," such“ philosophers as Carème," a "man at Some acute and discriminate philosopher has defined Gourville did all he could to comfort and assist him; the head of his class,” this “ extraordinary and cele
but the failure of the roast meat (which, however, did brated person”—such are the appropriate terms which man to be a
". cooking animal.” The full force and not happen at the king's table, but at some of the other she employs in mentioning him. She was asked to accuracy of this definition may not be apparent at twenty-five), was always uppermost with him. Gour- Rothschild's to dinner. Previously to this time, “ I first sight, but a moment's consideration will satisfy ville mentioned it to the prince, who went directly to had no experience,” says she, “ of the works of Carème. any one upon the subject. We cannot call man exclusively “ speaking” animal, for the parrot and the
Vatel's apartment, and said to him, ' Every thing is I had yet to judge (in his own words) of those mestarling share with him the endowment
of articulated extremely well conducted, Vatel ; nothing could be liorations in his art, produced by the intellectual talk. We cannot term him par excellence a
more admirable than his majesty's supper.' 'Your faculties of a renowned practitioner.' I did not hear ing” animal, for the elephant and the dog, not to highness's goodness,' replied he, "overwhelms me; I am the announcement of dinner without emotion. To do speak of other creatures, exhibit well-marked degrees, tables. Not at all, said the prince ; do not perplex served, would require a knowledge of the art equal to
sensible that there was a deficiency of roast meat at two justice to the science and research of a dinner so at least, of the faculty of ratiocination. Nor can we style him a “house-building” animal, for birds inhabit fireworks did not succeed; they were covered with a delicate viands, extracted in 6 silver dews,' with che
yourself, and all will go well. Midnight came : the that which produced it. Distillations of the most tenements of their own erection, every whit as perfect thick cloud ; they cost sixteen thousand francs. At mical precision,
As little can we say that he is the only four o'clock’in the morning, Vatel went round, and * clothes-wearing" being, for, admitting that neither found every body asleep; he met one of the under formed the basis of all. Every meat preserved its own
• On tepid clouds of rising steam,' creation, make use of what may be properly called parveyors, who was just come in with only two loads natural aroma ; every vegetable its own shade of garments , there is at least one little insect, the clothes, said the man, not knowing that Vatel had dispatched sition of this dinner, men have written epic poems ;
What !' said he, is this all ? Yes, sir,' verdure. With less genius than went to the compomoth, which makes for itself a dress of wool lined other people to all the sea-ports round. Vatel waited and if crowns were distributed to cooks as to actors, with 'silk, as dexterously as any tailor, and wears it for some time ; the other purveyors did not arrive ; the wreath of Pasta or Sontag, divine as they are, as gracefully as any human exquisite.* So that, after his head grew distracted ;' he thought there was no all, the definition alluded to is by no means a joke; more fish to be had ; he flew to Gourville. “Sir,' said should have graced the brow of Carème, for this spe
never were more fairly won than the laurel which but, in reality, the most correct that could be given. he, I cannot outlive this disgrace. Gourville
laughed cimen of the intellectual perfection of an art, the stanNo animated creature but man, as far as we are
at him; Vatel, however, went to his apartment, and dard and gauge of modern civilisation ! aware, cooks its food.
This great distinctive quality has been called abun- setting the hilt of his sword against the door, after two cookery depends good health ; on good health depends. dantly into exercise by mankind, at all times since
the the sword through his heart. At that instant the the whole excellence in the structure of human so
ineffectual attempts, succeeded in the third, in forcing the permanence of a good organisation ; and on these beginning of the world. It may be imagined by some people that our luxurious age is peculiarly the age of after to distribute it; they ran to his apartment,
carriers arrived with the fish ; Vatel was inquired ciety. cooks, but this is very far from being the case.
As I was seated next to Monsieur Rothschild, I Greeks and Romans carried the niceties of the culi; which
they broke it open, and found him weltering in would utter a word before !), that I was not wholly
knocked at the door, but received no answer ; upon took occasion to insinuate, after the soup (for who even by the Udes or a Carème of our day. Could either his blood. A messenger was immediately dispatched unworthy
of a place at a table served by Carême, as Y of these famous moderns entertain a higher sense of
to acquaint the prince with what had happened, who was already well acquainted, theoretically, with his the duties and dignity of a master of their art than Burgundy journey depended upon Vatel. The prince ing, he, on his side, has also relished your works,
was like a man in despair. The duke wept, for his merits. Ah, well,' said Monsieur Rothschild, laughthe Greek head cook, who thus speaks in Athenæus ? related the whole affair to his majesty with an expres- and here is a proof of it. I really blush, like Sterne's The passage is translated in D’Israeli’s Curiosities of sion of great concern: it was considered as the conse- accusing spirit, as I give in the fact; but he pointed Literature. ,*!!????$763911:27 I never enter in my kitchen, I!
quence of too nice a sense of honour ; some blamed, to a column of the most ingenious confectionery arBut sit apart, and in the cool direct;
others praised him for his courage. The king said he chitecture, on which my name was inscribed in spun Observant of whate'er may pass within,
had put off this excursion for more than five years, sugar. My name written in sugar! Ye Quarterlys The scullions' toil. I guide the mighty whole,
because he was aware that it would be attended with and Blackwoods, and thou, false and faithless WestExplore the causes, prophesy the dish.
infinite trouble, and told the prince that he ought to minster! Yo who have never traced my proscribed Tis thus I speak: “ leave, leave that ponderous ham; Keep up the fire, and lively play the flame
have had but two tables, and not have been at the name but in gall ! think of 'Lady Morgan' in sugar!
expense of so many, and declared he would never suffer All I could do under my triumphant emotion I
flattering artist, and promised, should I ever again has mans lopty by
trouble the public with my idleness, to devote a tribu- more buoyant, and his judgment more cool and co Like all benignant characters, the playful innocence tary page to his genius, and to my sense of his merits, siderate. Not only did this regimen procure him the of youth had peculiar charms for him. He thus inliterary and culinary: [The cook had written a work enjoyment of excellent health, but on two trying troduces us into his domestic evening circle :-“ Tha on his science.) Carème was sent for after coffee, and occasions it enabled him to sustain disasters which no comfort might be wanting to the fulness of my was presented to me in the vestibule of the chateau have proved fatal to many others. While a grievous years, whereby my great age may be rendered ls by his master. He was a well-bred gentleman, per- and protracted lawsuit was carried on against him by irksome, or rather the number of my enjoyments in fectly free from pedantry; and when we had mutually powerful rivals, by which his patrimonial estate was creased, I have the additional comfort of seeing a kind complimented each other on our various works, he imminently endangered, joined to the chagrin of of immortality in a succession of descendants ; for as bowed himself out, and got into his carriage, which was being deprived of his nobility through the bad conduct often as I return home, I find there before me, not one waiting to take him to Paris.”
of some of his relations, he remained cool and undis- or two, but eleven grandchildren, the oldest of them This extract forms the climax of our article. It is turbed till an honourable decision at last was given in eighteen, and the youngest two; all the offspring of impossible for us, by any further remarks or quota- his favour, whereas his brother and some other rela- one father and one mother-all blessed with the best tions, to place cooks and cookery in a more elevated tions sank under the persecution and died. On another of health-and, by what as yet appears, fond of leare
Some of the light than has been here done by Lady Morgan, who occasion, he was thrown from his carriage, and be ing, and of good parts and morals. has shown herself truly worthy of her great subject. sides being much bruised, had his leg and arm dislo- youngest I always play with; and, indeed, children So we leave the illustrious Carème to command the cated. The most serious apprehensions for his life from three to tive are only fit for play. Those abore “ aids of his staff,” to loll in “his carriage," and to were entertained by his friends and physicians, and that age I make companions of ; and as nature nas enjoy “his box at the opera," believing him to be, the most active treatment was urged upon him; but, bestowed very fine voices upon them, I amuse myeli beyond question, superlatively worthy of all these confident in his own constitution, he would not even besides with seeing and hearing them sing and play luxuries. For the straggling character, generally, of allow bleeding, or other evacuations, and by the most on various instruments. Nay, I sing myself, as I hare these our anecdotes, the reader must pardon us, for simple means recovered in a very short time. a better voice now, and a clearer and louder pipe, tha we really had no other object in view at the outset Moreover, it is known in what manner I pass my at any other period of life. Such are the recreations than to string together a few such loose illustrations time so as not to find life a burthen, seeing I can con- of my old age.” of “ man as a cooking animal.” We have merely to trive to spend every hour of it with the greatest de- Thus the good old man continued to enjoy life ti] remark in conclusion, that that definition of man light and pleasure, having frequent opportunities of he passed his hundredth year. He slept away withapplies universally. All men cook, and enjoy cookery conversing with many honourable gentlemen. Then, out disease, or pain, or agony, in the spring of 1566. the poor, as well as the employers of Udes and when I cannot enjoy their conversation, I betaké The history of John Macalpin, a Highland drorer, Carèmes
. We never shall forget the earnestness and myself to the reading of some good book. When I will form a good companion to that of Cornaro, ai gusto with which an ancient shoemaker once on a have read as much as I like, I write, endeavouring in illustrative of the effects of temperance under a severer time gave utterance to the following saying. He had this as in every thing else to be of service to others to climate, and in a different station of life from that a married a woman who had long been cook in a wealthy the utmost of my power.
the noble Italian. family, and was asked by a friend soon after the nup- At the same seasons every year I revisit some of John Macalpin was a native of Jura, one of the tials how he was pleased with his spouse. “Eh, man," the neighbouring cities, and see such of my friends Hebridian islands. He lived to the age of 119 years, says he in reply," she is a prime ane! Dashit, I be as live there, taking the greatest pleasure in their and retained all his faculties till his death, which took lieve she could make a stew out o' berd-leather, and a company and conversation, and by their means I also place in the year 1745. When a boy, he was rather hashie out o' insoles !"
enjoy the conversation of other men of parts who live of slow growth, and was affected with boils and erup
in the same place, such as architects, painters, sculp- tions of the skin. His father died and left him in TRAITS OF LONGEVITY.
tors, musicians, and husbandmen. But what delights comfortable circumstances at the age of eighteen THERE are certain constitutions formed by nature so
me most in these journies, is the contemplation of the For some years the nature of his business led him robust, with all the animal organs so perfect, that they scenery and other beauties of the places I pass through.” into dissipated company, where he was accustomed endure to a great age, even in defiance of all rules of At the age of seventy-eight, in compliance with the to drink hard, sit up late, and lead an irregular life. regimen. They can bear both excess and privation. entreaties of his friends, he increased his allowance This he continued till he was about twenty-four
A mode of living that would be too rich and stimulat- both of solid and liquid food by the addition of four years of age, when, in leaping out of a boat, be ing for ordinary frames, only conduces to their perfect ounces daily; even this slight change he found had fell, and struck his foot against the ground. The health and vigour, while out of poor materials their such an effect upon him, that in eight days, from his contusion degenerated into an ulcer, which contivigorous digestion can concoct a wholesome nourish- usual cheerful active habits, he became peevish and nued, under neglect or bad treatment, to increase for ment, on which weaker stomachs would be thrown melancholy, so that nothing could please him, and he two years. During this period he paid no regard to into disease and atrophy. It does not follow from
was so strangely disposed, that he knew not what to his diet, eating salt meat, fish, or any thing that came this, however, that a strict regimen is useless, or that say to others, or what to do with himself. On the in the way, and drinking frequently to excess. The excess to the generality of men is not highly injurious. twelfth day he was attacked with a most violent pain consequence was, that his constitution gave way, and A happily constituted temperament may be indepen in the side, which continued for many hours, and was the ulcer continued to increase. A medical friend to dent of rules, and may resist the effects of their in- succeeded by a fever, which did not leave him for a whom he applied, in order to compel him to give over fringement; while, on the other hand, the observance month, rendering him restless and sleepless, and re- his habits of life, took him to live at his house during of rules of sobriety and moderation will have a decided ducing him to a mere skeleton. After this he at the period of cure ; and by enforcing a strict regimea and wonderful etfect on those constitutions in which tempted no further change in his usual diet, and to his patient, brought about a complete cure in the there are such weaknesses as produce the tendency to enjoyed uninterrupted good health till his death. course of three months. Macalpin, on his retum disease. Generally speaking, too, it will be found that Although he married early, he was pretty far ad- home, was so impressed with the beneficent effects ef the most perfect temperaments are less disposed to vanced in years before a child was born to him. His temperance, both for his comfort and health, that be excess or irregularities than feebler ones. There is a anxious wish for a successor to his ample possessions ever afterwards practised it, and in consequence enhappy condition of animal existence in which the en- was at last realised in the birth of a daughter. This, joyed uninterrupted good health for the remainder of joyment of health, of simple fare, and of the free air his only child, he lived to see become a matron, and his long life. As illustrative of local manners, it may of heaven, are all the stimulants necessary, while a die mother of eight sons and three daughters. It is not be uninteresting to give a detail of his mode of craving for undue excitement is too frequently the delightful to read in the treatises which he has left to living. characteristic of an irregular physical as well as men- posterity the manner in which he passed his old age. It was the custom at that time over all the Hightal constitution.
He seems to have been one of those few beings espe- lands, and especially among the common people of the The effect of regimen on health and longevity is no cially favoured by heaven, and by his practice so isles, to make but two meals a-day. They breakfasted where more strikingly exhibited than in the celebrated worthy of its favour, as if in order to show to frail about nine or ten in the morning, and supped about example of Cornaro. Previous to detailing this case, mortals what a beautiful thing a good life is even on six or seven; this last being the principal meal. Machowever, it must be remarked, that Cornaro's consti- this earth. Born in a genial climate, the possessor of alpin followed this custom; he went to bed with the tution appears to have been naturally of a peculiar an ample estate, of an active firm mind and cheerful sun, and rose with the lark. If he went out as soon kind, so that the strict regimen which he practised is temperament, a lover of his country, of his species, as he got up, and the morning appeared foggy, he genot intended to be held up as a model for all ordinary and of his God--rescued from a career of sinful folly, nerally ate a mouthful of bread, and no more till livers; his case affords, however, an instructive example he had his life extended to one hundred years, and breakfast time. His constant breakfast was bread, of the effects of diet and regimen, both on the body spent an active existence in the improvement of his butter, and cheese, or eggs, with gruel made of half and the mind, and in this view cannot be too fre- estate, in services of the community, in the pleasures water half milk. His supper was fish or flesh, for the quently appealed to.
of literature, and in the bosom of his family-an old most part boiled. The flesh was boiled with greens Lewis Cornaro was of a noble Venetian family, and man, vigorous, cheerful, and playful to the last, among or roots, the soup of which was thickened with a was born about the middle of the fifteenth century. a happy group of playful grandchildren.
little oatmeal, which he drank plentifully. His fish He appears originally to have been of an ardent, san- With all the excusable garrulity of an octogenarian, were generally boiled in as much water as simply coguine disposition, fond of pleasure and enjoyment, and he thus tells us of his habits. “ I will now give an ac- vered them ; this water was thickened into a soup of excitable passions. This temperament overhurried count of my recreations, and the relish which I find with a little meal and milk, and eaten along with all him into a career of dissipation and sensual enjoyment, at this stage of life, in order to convince the public white fish. His general rule was to rise from table which he pursued till his thirty-fifth year. 'About that the state I have now attained to is by no means with an appetite to eat more, and the liquids he used this period his constitution gave way ; pains in his death, but real life ; such a life as by many is deemed were always at least four times the quantity of the sides and stomach tormented him; symptoms of gout happy, since it abounds with all the happiness which solids. If he used harder exercise at one time than made their appearance, with irregular appetite, thirst, can be enjoyed in this world. And this testimony another, he ate a little more than usual ; but at no and a slow consuming fever. In this wretched con- they will give in the first place, because they see, and time did he go to excess, or cat of but one sort of food dition he struggled on for some time, trying the effect not without the greatest amazement, the good state at a meal. He never drank water till it was previously of medicines without any benefit, while his constitu- of health and spirits which I enjoy-how I mount my boiled, and poured over a toast of bread or a little tion sank more and more, till at last his physicians horse without any assistance or advantage of situa- oatmeal, and afterwards allowed to cool. This he declared that nothing could rescue him but“ a total tion, and how I ‘not only ascend a single flight of used for his constant drink between meals. His bread change of his mode of life, and a rigid restriction of stairs, but climb up a hill from bottom to top. Then was for the most part made of barley meal, but he his diet and regimen. Cornaro had sufficient strength how gay, pleasant, and good-humoured I am !-how also ate oat cake when the others could not be proof mind, and firmness of purpose, at last to adopt this free from every perturbation of mind, and every dis- cured. He never indulged in fermented liquors of any advice ; he restricted his diet to the simplest fare, and agreeable thought !--the plains, the hills, the rivers, kind, except on two occasions during the year, and took of this a very moderate allowance-renounced his and fountains, amid which are situated many fine these were at the terms of Whitsunday and Martinirregular dissipated life-avoided excess of heat, cold, houses and gardens. Nor am I prevented from these mas, when he went to pay his rent to the landlord, and extraordinary fatigue-took timely repose-and, enjoyments by any decay of my senses ; they being and then only very sparingly. Drams he forswore; in short, observed a strict and proper regimen. In á all, thank God, in their highest perfection, particu- but if obliged to be long in the cold, or exposed to wet, very short time he was astonished at the beneficial | larly my palate, which now relishes better the simple he took the yolk of an egg, a little honey, and a glass change which took place in his system, and in less fare I eat wherever I may be, than it formerly did the of whisky mixed together, and drank it off ; but this than a year he found his health completely restored. most delicate dishes when I led an irregular life.” He ever after most rigidly adhered to his spare diet,
was only done on very rare occasions. He used no
But his enjoyments are not all personal or selfish ; snuff or tobacco in any shape. He took a great deal which amounted to twelve ounces in all daily, and he enters warmly into the agricultural improvements of exercise, was of an active, cheerful, and intelligent consisted of bread, meat of the simplest kind, yolk of of his country-the draining of marshes, and the me- mind, free from passion, but, when roused, was by no egg, and soup, with fourteen ounces of a mild wine. lioration of the soil ; and looks with anxious solicitude means devoid of proper manly courage. In general
, On this allowance he enjoyed perfect bodily health to the completion of extensive improvements of the his manner was mild and forbearing, and free of the and vigour, and a freedom from all physical ailments. port, as likely to contribute to the commercial welfare irascibility of an excited temperament. His mind, too, seemed to share in the beneficial regi- 1 of the state, of whose interests he speaks with all the men. His passions became less irritable his spirits / warmth and ardour of a true patriot.
If at any time he felt his system in the least deranged, he had recourse to abstinenoe, and the pro