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However well it may be inade to suit the conve- part with the bushel of grain, he will prefer taking it ber, was now totally unsupplied ; and money was even nience of particular circles or classes of men, it is im- from C at that price, as the more convenient way of frequently wanting to defray the daily expenses of the possible that any kind of paper money could be the getting it. Moreover, C may have already procured board of a monarch who was master of Mexico and universal money of the world. As a fit instrument as much of the metal as the wants of the community Peru! The household of the queen-mother, which for this purpose, it was necessary that something should demand ; and if B, or any of the others, were to obtain had hitherto been maintained at its full establishment, be found which should bear to every person to whom more of it, they might have to dispose of it again as a now began to feel the effects of the general destitution. it might be offered, unequivocal evidence of its being surplus commodity. Let C take another piece of The rations provided for her domestics were withheld ; a representative of value. A slight consideration will the gold and offer it to A for a leg of matton. A and on lodging their complaints at court, they were show that this could only be attained through the knows that B has got a piece of gold, the value of an- told, with a sort of Cervantic humour, that the royal medium of some commodity, which cannot be brought other leg, which В will be in want of. In the same coffers were now all standing open, and they might into existence without a certain uniform amount of manner D comes into the market for another part of come to supply themselves." trouble or labour being spent on its production. Gold the sheep, and so it is disposed of, A possessing not the This example is adduced, not only as a memorable is the substance which possesses this quality beyond commodities he wants in return, but the means of instance of the pernicious consequences of the fallacy all others hitherto known to exist ; and therefore it procuring them. Here we have a circulating medium in question, but as an illustration of how far misunderhas been, by the consent of the greater part of the in miniature.

standings with regard to what seem very simple princivilised world, fixed upon as the principal standard of Now, it will at once attract the reader's attention, ciples in this part of the science of political economy, value. The peculiarities of this metal are, that it is that though the community have thus obtained a very may be productive of most direful evils. It is not extremely durable, and so the amount of it in exist- convenient article, they are not the richer from hav- here maintained that the possession of much gold is ence is not likely at any time to suffer a sudden defal- ing obtained the gold; in fact, they are poorer, for an indication of national poverty--on the contrary, it cation ; it is met with in small quantities, and is pro- they have parted with a coat to obtain it; they have, is, like all other expensive commodities, generally the duced by a very laborious process, affording but little in fact, purchased a convenience. To á misunder concomitant of wealth. It may be strictly necessary, profit to the worker ; it is thus not likely to have its standing regarding this apparently very simple cir- to a very large extent, for the uses of a rich trading amount suddenly increased.

cumstance, much human misery may be attributed. nation ; Britain at the present moment, though her It is a very natural feeling, that of all the rich pos- It has too often been the feeling of communities, that, bullion circulating medium bears but a small proporsessions which the bountiful lap of nature spreads if they possessed gold, they possessed riches, and not tion to her paper moncy, probably employs more of forth for human enjoyment, the most to be coveted a mere article for facilitating commerce---an article the precious metals than Spain ever possessed; but, would be a mine of gold. Unfortunately, this view which, from its uses in this respect, is itself a commo- then, she uses them, and pays for their use, because has not been confined to schoolboy visions ; it has in- dity. The most startling illustration of this fallacy she wants them, not because they are called gold and toxicated many an adventurous capitalist, who has is to be found in the history of Spain. Before the silver. Rich nations, too, like rich individuals, can ruined himself by the search for gold. There is working of the gold mines in their American posses- afford to employ a considerable quantity of the presomething that renders men delirious in the very sions, the Spaniards were a rich and prosperous com- cious metals for ornamental purposes, sacrificing a word, and no mania has made more victims than that mercial people ; but when they began to find gold, portion of their wealth in this, as in other articles of working gold mines. Now, the very reason why they thought they had got at their hand that for of luxury. It is calculated by Mr Jacob that the gold possesses its value as a medium of exchange, is which they formerly laboured, and that, like a poor quantity thus consumed annually in Europe costs because the manufacture of it is an unprofitable industrious man who has unexpectedly succeeded to 1.5,612,711, of which England alone uses to the extent trade. Look a moment at the production of another an estate, they need now work no longer. To prevent of L.2,457,221. metal-iron ; from 1824 to 1826, pig-iron sold as high their riches from disappearing, the law prohibited the We believe that the fallacy we have been above as L.13 a-ton; in 1832, it fell to between L.4 and L.5 exportation of the precious metals, and thus effec- attempting to expose, is now pretty well understood a-ton. Here we see that the demand for the article tually shut the door against the only way in which in its broader aspect ; but such misapprehensions, raised its price to the first-mentioned sum ; while it they could be made sources of wealth--exportation as when they have once caught hold of the popular mind, continued at that price, enormous fortunes were doubt an article of commerce. In that view, and in that are not eradicated at once, and we fear that many less made in the trade ; then came competition, and alone, was there any advantage in the possession of fibres of the one in question are still pretty toughly the price sank to its natural level, or perhaps lower. gold ; and even had it been employed in the most ad- rooted in society. It is still common to hold the docWere there such fluctuations in the value of gold, it vantageous manner, it would not have been so profit- trine, that a trade between two nations, in which the is needless to say how useless it would be as a general able as many other means of employing capital and one gives bullion for the commodities of the other, measure of value.

labour ; for, as already remarked, the peculiarity cannot be profitable to the former. Such a trade has, Perhaps the manner in which money is presumed which makes gold so useful as a measure of value, is, we believe, never yet been exhibited on any very exto have come into use, may be illustrated by the fol- that the labour expended in producing it bears só tensive scale ; but were it to come into existence, a lowing supposed case. Let there be a community constant a ratio to the quantity realised, that but little consideration will show that there is no reason consisting of four individuals, A, B, C, and D; A small profits are made from its production.

for presuming that it would be more disadvantageous possesses so many sheep, B so many quarters of grain, The manner in which the Spaniards became ac- to either party, than any other sort of trade. Gold C has clothing, and D has house-furniture. A wishes quainted with the treasures of their transatlantic is simply a commodity—a commodity which we imto have some of B's corn, and is ready to give an equi- possessions tended to nourish the hallucination. They port: and if we can export it profitably, why not do valent in mutton ; but then he does not want so much found a considerable quantity of gold in the possession so? If the country in question will take nothing as the value of a whole sheep, nor does B want to ob- of the natives, of which they speedily took possession. from us but gold, then it is either worth our while to tain so much mutton. Then there is D, who also They found also a considerable quantity of native buy gold for the purpose of sending to it, or it is not. wants both corn and mutton, but not so much of gold in the streams. Thus, by an accidental circum- If it is not worth while, then the trade will not be either as he would give a coat for ; while the sheep- stance, such as that of finding a hidden treasure, they carried on at all. If it is worth while, then the trade owner in want of a table would willingly give a sheep, became possessed of money without working for it. is on the whole a profitable one. If we import sugar or the equivalent of a sheep, for one, but the furniture They did not reflect that, if this lasted, gold would from the Spanish settlement of Manilla, and export it dealer cannot consume so much butcher meat at a cease to be the representative of value which it was, to Germany, this is called “ the carrying trade," and sitting, and would prefer having a shoulder of mutton, and would be of no further service in commerce than quite correctly ; but it seems to be thought that if we along with a peck of corn, in exchange for his commo- as an extremely beautiful material for manufactures, import gold from South America, we must keep our dity. Thus complicated and inextricable would be which would "Auctuate in value with the tide of hands upon it, otherwise we shall be ruined. It is the intercourse in the barter system, even in such a fashion. When they could procure the mineral only commonly said that we can only establish a profitable small community as we have imagined. What is by the result of hard labour, they still had the same trade when we pay in our own manufactures. Now, wanted to put an end to the evil is, some substance preposterous feeling that they were possessed not of paying in gold is, after all, indirectly paying with our for a portion of which A will give a sheep, because he the means of making riches, but of riches itself, and own manufactures, for (except the comparatively knows that for a proportional piece B will give any dearly did they pay the penalty. While starvation trifling quantity that may have been taken in war) given quantity of grain, C a coat, and so forth. desolated the land, and the highest grandees could there is not an ounce of bullion in the country that

Suppose we set one of the members of the commu- not command so much of the produce of ordinary has not been obtained in exchange for some article nity to discover such a medium of exchange, let it be commercial industry as a glass window, every wretched produced either by our manufacturing or agricultural , the tailor. If it should occur to him that his friends dwelling glittered with mountains of plate.

industry. Let him who doubts this position try if he will receive a shell with a peculiar mark on it, in ex- “ Several grandecs,” says Mr Dunlop in his Memoirs can discover any other method by which gold can change for their commodities, he will find himself of the Reigns of Philip IV. and Charles II., “it is have found its way to this country. very much mistaken. Suppose he should offer such said, had twelve hundred dozen of silver dishes, and as A steady trade, in which gold should be given on an article to B, in exchange for a bushel of grain, B many plates ; and a nobleman was thought very ill the one hand for goods on the other, is not to be conwould laugh heartily, and say," My good fellow, I can provided who had not at least eight hundred dozen founded with those incidental and unexpected demands make just such another myself if it were of any use. of dishes, and two hundred dozen of plates. These which create what is called a drain of bullion. These So can neighbour A and neighbour D. I cannot ex- were generally ranged on enormous and lofty side- are generally occasioned by some disorder in the money pect, then, that they will give me any thing for it, so boards, to which the menials ascended by silver steps. market, the nature of which is frequently so imperI can give you nothing." By this supposition it will The sideboard of the Duke of Albuquerque had forty foctly ascertained that it becomes a subject of vehebe observed that C has been endeavouring to obtain silver ladders; and when he died in the middle of the ment party discussion. But a drain may be also something for nothing, for it is supposed that the shell seventeenth century, six weeks were fully occupied in occasioned by a country finding it unexpectedly nein question neither cost him property nor labour, at weighing and taking inventories of the gold and silver cessary to resort to some other community for a porleast equivalent in value to what he wants for it. If vessels.' At the period to which this refers, the tion of the necessaries of life, such as grain. If the he change his tactics, and offer something for which he Dutch, who were content to make their money by demand for the article were regular, it would proceed has given labour or its fruit, he will perhaps be more buying and selling the vulgar necessaries of life, were on the same torms as any other department of com. successful. Let us bring a fifth party into the field, able to lend a considerable sum to the lords of the two

When it is sudden and unexpected, however, E. He knows of a means by which, with the expen- Indies, which the possessors of bullion were unable there being no previously established circle of trade diture of a certain amount of labour, a certain quanto repay; and in another part of the work just quoted, in which the countries are included, the article as a tity of a substance called gold can be extracted from we have the following view of the ludicrous poverty single purchase must be paid for in hard cash; for the the earth. The substance is of such a nature that the which haunted a court, dreaming that it was the source scller, were he offered manufactures, or any other supply of it always preserves (with variations almost of the riches of the world :-"Money could be no commodity, would not know whether he could get imperceptible) an uniform ratio to the labour expended. longer raised for the most pressing occasions, however them disposed of or not, and would be afraid to take But what occasion has E to produce this metal which trifling might be the cost. Couriers charged with them on hand. A drain like this, removing not will neither clothe nor feed him? None whatever, urgent and important dispatches on affairs of state, merely the gold imported for the purposes of foreign unless some one who will find an use for it will give were often unable to quit Madrid, for want of the commerce, but that which we have kept for our own wherewithal to clothe and feed him for it. Let us funds necessary to defray the immediate expenses of use, may be productive of great and alarming inconsee if such an use be not to be found. Suppose now their journies. Some officers of the royal household | veniences. It is the removal of the foundation of our that C employs E to bestow as much labour as he will having waited for payment of what was due to them, circulating medium. The difference of the two cases give for a coat, in extracting for him a corresponding as long as they could, without absolutely reducing may perhaps be illustrated in the operations of an quantity of the precious metal. If C go to B with a themselves to beggary, peremptorily demanded their individual merchant. With some of his customers he portion of the gold, and offer to exchange it for a dismission, and were only retained by force and may have cross accounts; they buy fronı him, and he bushel of grain, he cannot be met with the same

All the grooms, however, belonging to the buys from them; and between them there is perhaps answer which encountered his offer of the shell. The royal stables, who had not received their rations or only a small balance to be paid in cash. There will gold is not a thing which A and D can make as they wages for two years, contrived to escape from their be persons, however, from whom he buys, who take want it, nor is it a thing for which C has not given serviee, and the horses remained for some time un- no goods from him in return, and these he must pay value. It is true that B can procure it in the same curried and unfed. A table which had been kept up in cash. Is he a loser, however, by doing so? In the manner as C did ; but if it be convenient for him to at the kivg's cost for the gentlemen of the bed-cham- , general caso, certainly not, otherwise he would not

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continue that line of business. He feels that the cash survey I discovered that the stone was found near an they had whitened his hairs, had not frozen his mehe so pays out is more than compensated by the money old Roman military road. Here, indeed, we have a mory. He revealed the appalling fact, that this great he receives from purchasers of whom he himself does light thrown on the subject, which will clear up all antique inscription meant nothing more or less than not take goods. Thus the money he puts forth in the manner of difficulty. First K, often found in inscrip- KEEP ON THIS SIDE, and that the stone inscribed with usual course of business is continually flowing back tions for C, and here standing for Calius-Æ, ædilis, these vile vernacular words had been placed, within upon him. Let, however, some unforeseen accident an officer whose business it was to see the roads kept his own recollection, in the morass, by a benevolent make an incidental demand on his purse. Suppose in proper order-P-ON-T', pontem--H, Hadriani, the cottager, who wished to preserve the passing traveller one of his warehouses is burned down, and he must same person who built the wall to prevent the inroads from danger, and whose will to do good greatly exreplace it. Here he parts with hard cash to some one of the Picts, thence called Hadrian's wall—I:S:S:I., ceeded the powers of his chisel ! who takes no goods from him in return, and with jussu, the first u, and the former part of the latter u, Was there ever a piece of solemn trifling equal to whom he cannot have a cross account; nor is the sum being obliterated-D-E, demolisit. In all, Celius ædilis, this? Never, surely, since time began. Universal he has so expended compensated by other sums re- Hadriani jussu, pontem demolisit [' Cælius the ædile, Britain shook its sides when the schoolmaster made his ceived from customers. It is, in short, a direct loss. by order of Hadrian, demolished the bridge'], when, unlucky disclosure, and it was long ere the antiquaries

by draining the morass, the bridge became unneces- could hold up their heads thereafter. A WORD UPON ANTIQUARIES.

sary.” To this there was a postscript added, stating,

that "the priory which Mr X talks of seems to have Every person remembers the famous discovery of some of the old bridge about its foundation.”

JOHN METCALF, THE BLIND ROAD the Prætorium by Jonathan Oldbuck at the Kaim of Here was old father Clemens quietly re-inurned,

SURVEYOR. Kinprunes, and the manner in which Edie Ochiltree and the priory, not precisely annihilated, but disco- The wonderful extent to which nature compensates blew into thin air the grand superstructure raised vered to be a paltry thing of yesterday, with some of the deprivation of one important faculty, by endowing thereon by the Antiquary, by revealing that the letters the very stones of the grand morass-bridge about its the rest with additional acuteness, has been frequently A. D. L. L., which Jonathan interpreted into Agricola foundation. This was the “ unkindest cut of all;" the subject of remark. The particulars related in the Dicavit Libens Lubens, meant neither less nor more not only to overthrow the theory of poor X, but to following memoir strikingly illustrate this point, and than * Aiken Drum’s Lang Ladle ;" and that the rude lug in his priory so slyly, as a fundamental proof of show to what a degree the power of habit, and the attempt at sculpture, which Monkbarns had deter

exercise of good sense and ingenuity, are capable of mined to be a representation of a “sacrificial vessel," the hostile hypothesis. But alas ! alas !

"Oh wad some power the giftie gie us,

overcoming seemingly insurmountable difficulties. was intended as an emblem of the same Mr Drum's

To see ourselves is others see us !"

John Metcalf was born at Knaresborough, in Yorkladle, he being one of the celebrated “ kale-suppers o' Oh would we but remember the invaluable lesson of shire, in the year 1717. His parents, though decent Fife.” More recently, the author of the Pickwick the mote and the beam! Y had scarcely produced people, were not wealthy; and the greater was conPapers has described his hero as falling into a precisely his great refutation, and his equally great discovery, sidered the misfortune, therefore, when, at the age of similar error, a certain stone, marked in a very zig-zag when lo ! there comes me in a Z, who, with due six years, while attending a district school, John was way with the name of BILL STUMPs, having caused alphabetical appropriateness, galls in turn the kibes of seized with the small-pox, and lost his eyesight in about as much speculation among the Pickwickians Mr Y. Of course Z perfectly agrees with his imme- consequence. He had been noticed previously to posas the ladle of Aiken Drum did in the case of Jonathan diate predecessor in thinking the theory of the first sess good natural talents, but it was chiefly after the Oldbuck. These stories are no doubt very amusing, riddle-solver, the unfortunate X, the “ most ridiculous loss of his vision that he began to be thought a reand particularly that of Sir Walter ; but the ori- that ever entered into the head of an antiquarian."* markable boy. Within a few months after that ginal story, that which gave rise to both of these sup- Mr Z, however, thinks little better of the second sup- event, he had taught himself to walk about his father's posititious incidents, seems to us much more amusing position, and proposes a new one. It is a bold one, doors nearly as well as before, and in a few succeeding than either. It has one great advantage over them, the boldest of all. “I have taken (says he) the most years he could readily find his way alone to any part inasmuch as it relates to a thing of real occurrence, a obvious and generally received meaning of the initials, of Knaresborough. At the same time, he was accusrecorded and authenticated fact. We hope to raise and find the solution to stand thus : Cæsaris ex edicto tomed to associate freely with boys of his own age, a smile by laying before our readers the details of the per orbem nuntiatur templum hic instauratum sacrum sibi and became noted for his skill in climbing and other affair to which we allude.

ipsi dicatum esse." This profound solution, which has juvenile amusements. He also learned to ride, and Some time in the sixth decade of last century, a á word invented for every letter in the inscription, grew so fond of that exercise, that he ventured rerudely-squared stone, with an inscription upon it, was gives us the following meaning : “ Through the edict peatedly to follow the hounds of a gentleman of the dug up on a desolate boggy heath in the county of of Cæsar, it is announced over the world that the vicinity, Mr Woodburn, who was very fond of his Northumberland. It fell into the hands of the squire temple here erected is consecrated to himself.” Hav: company in the chase. Swimming was another of of the parish, who, not being able to make any thing ing thus cut the knot, Z exclaims, “ Here we find young Metcalf's accomplishments

, and he performed of it, called in the parson to his aid, and many mi- Cæsar - after having, like Hercules, finished the feats in this department which astonished every body. nute examinations, and profound speculations, were greatest of his labours-after having extended his On one occasion, when two men were drowned in the the result. But the divine, also, was obliged finally conquests over the Britons, usually called fierce and Nidd, he was employed to dive for their bodies, and to admit that the interpretation of the inscription indomitable-erecting a temple on the limits of his succeeded in bringing up one of them. surpassed his powers. As in duty bound, however, ambition, and, flushed with victory, assuming the hohe agreed with the squire in thinking that the stone nours of a god! This is the most easy and natural neglected by Metcalf. Before he reached the age of

Music, the usual resource of the blind, was not was a treasure of antiquity, and, with the view of construction, and perfectly consonant with the concise sixteen, he had acquired such proficiency on the violin, referring it to higher authorities, took an exact copy terms in which their inscriptions were generally as to be engaged as a performer both at Knaresof the inscription, which stood as nearly as possible couched. We need no other proof to convince us of borough and at Harrowgate, where he was much liked thus

the certainty of the fact ; but, as a corroborating tes and caressed. It must be admitted that some of his K. P.O.N.T

timony, if we look into Horace, we shall find a passage favourite diversions at this period of his life were not HIS.SI.DE

evidently referring to this very circumstance- of the most commendable kind. He became fond of Such was the inscription which the parson trans

The rank of god Augustus shall obtrin,

cock-fighting, and kept a number of these creatures mitted to the Antiquarian Society, with a polite

With wild Britannia added to his reign."

under his own care. This amusement divided his request to have the opinions of the members there. We have a postscript added to this letter of Z, show- leisure time with bowling and riding. Strange to upon; Much and long did these gentlemen pondering

that he too had taken coach, or travelled post, down say, with the assistance of an accurate knowledge of over this relic, which was unanimously admitted to be to Northumberland, on this mighty errand." The the ground, and other helps, he grew very skilful at took place upon the subject, and ultimately the writ- have a much greater resemblance to the remains of an off frequently the winner.

With his earnings as a ten opinions of the more distinguished members were old temple than the trifling ruins of a bridge, espe- musical

performer, he bought a horse, and not only recorded in the archives of the

body, as well as pub- cially one which has the uncouth figure of a sword rode frequently in the hunting-field, but ran his horse pretation given in was as follows:-“On the first of the very foundation-stones of his priory, his two occasion he engaged, for a considerable stake, to ride examination of this stone (said a member who signed sharp-sighted opponents would build both a bridge his own horse three times round a circular course of a conjecture concerning

the inscription, but as the Such was the admiration, we must not omit to state, lieved that Metcalf would never be able to keep the identity of the place where it was found ought to be which the learned interpretation of Z excited

among course, large odds were taken against him; but, by materially considered, I wrote to a gentleman of the the members of the Antiquarian Society, that he was the ingenious plan of stationing persons with bells at district for information, if there were any vestiges of instantly and unanimously elected one of their num- different points, he not only kept the circle, but won antiquity, such as camps, fortifications, or the like, in ber, an honour he had not previously enjoyed.

the race. His skill in horse-flesh (as the phrase runs) the vicinage. In answer to which inquiry I was in

What a noble thing is learning! what a science was astonishing, considering that the great faculty formed that there was nothing of this kind which he that of the antiquary! Here, out of fourteen simple which determines the judgment of others was to him distant. This is indeed sufficient for our purpose, and temples, and Cæsars, called into light and

existence i the purchase and sale of horses. knew of, except the ruins of a priory about a mile letters, we find monks and priories, bridges, ædiles

, : blank. He actually made considerable profits by clears up

the matter at once. Clemens [KC] puntifex Nor let the reader think that all these discoveries At the age of twenty-one, John Metcalf was six [P:ON T] kic jacet [H:I] sanctus (S.] sercus [$.] dei were vain and profitless. Referring to his own solu- feet one inch and a half in height, and extremely (I.D.E]. The

second letter of the inscription is evi- tion, Z triumphantly points out the great historical robust in person. He was so lively in spirits, and so dently an L, and the I:D.E a transposition of dei, fact deducible therefrom. “What would a Camden quick in his motions, that few suspected his want at from the ignorance of the sculptor; the meaning, or a Hollinshed have given to have traced the foot- a casual glance. Nor durst any one presume so far altogether, being that the stone was erected to the steps of Augustus Cæsar so far as the northernmost upon his defects as to ill-use or insult him. With his memory of one Clement, a dignified brother in the parts of the Brigantes [one of the divisions of the opponent once within his grasp, he could well avenge convent. [Literally, Clement the priest here lies, a country under the Romans], or see him introducing any injury offered to him. He even protected his holy servant of God.') Nothing can be more plain the Roman temple into Britain !" The modesty, no friends against aggression, and in one instance acand easy than this.”

doubt, of Z has forbidden him to notice a still more quired the thanks of every body, by inflicting severe But though the learned X was so well satisfied with important historical fact deducible from his solution chastisement on a noted bully who had misused one his plain and easy solution, not so some of his brother of the inscription. From it the world learnt for the of his associates. Nor did his defect of vision prevent antiquaries. Observe how Y, an equally distinguished first time that Augustus Cæsar ever was in Britain.

him from being a favourite with the fair sex. Bemember of the Society, trips up the heels of his pre- A feeling of pity and remorse seizes upon us as we tween him and Miss Benson, the daughter of a redecessor "I never was so much astonished in my approach the moment

when it is incumbent upon us spectable innkeeper

at Harrowgate, a mutual affection life (says be as at the perusal of Mr X's solution of to blow up this magnificent edifice erected by X, Y, Z, sprang up, and notwithstanding that the lady's mother the inscription in question ; what a forced construc- and their

fellow antiquaries of Britain. But the an opposed the match so far as to get the banns published tion ! what a preposterous idea! .. I will grant him nalist of such important transactions must

bow to the with another, Miss Benson remained faithful to her that K is often found on monuments of antiquity in call of duty, and speak the whole

truth. The labours blind lover, and they were ultimately united in private. place of C; but how, in the name of wonder, could he of the venerable society became known ultimately to After his marriage

he continued to perform

during imagine the two following letters to be LE, which are the inhabitants of the district where the stone was every

season at Harrowgate, increasing his income by plainly Æ. But the cream of the jest is 1·D·E, a found. Among others, an old schoolmaster, there keeping a chaise or two for hire. Being indefatigable transposition of Dei !" We shall not trouble the resident, was told of all that had been said and done in his search for means of bottering the condition of - reader with the remainder of Mr Y's triumphant on the subject. Unluckily, the snows of age, though his family, he also travelled, at intervals of professional sneers at the resurrection of the holy father Clemens. Y had actually travelled down to Northumberland to examine the locality for himself , and here is the new antiquarian, though often used as pontun, is properly sin adjec- quickness and ingenuity,

that no accident ever hap*Z, by the way, affords the opportunity of remarking that markets of Leeds and Manchester. Such was lis solution which resulted therefrom. "On a personalltive, and that the right word in this case is antiquary.

pened to himself or his horses on these journeys.

However well it may be inade to suit the conve- part with the bushel of grain, he will prefer taking it ber, was now totally unsupplied ; and money was even nience of particular circles or classes of men, it is im- from C at that price, as the more convenient way of frequently wanting to defray the daily expenses of the possible that any kind of paper money could be the getting it. Moreover, C may have already procured board of a monarch who was master of Mexico and universal money of the world. As a fit instrument as much of the metal as the wants of the community Peru! The household of the queen-mother, which for this purpose, it was necessary that something should demand ; and if B, or any of the others, were to obtain had hitherto been maintained at its full establishment, be found which should bear to every person to whom more of it, they might have to dispose of it again as a now began to feel the effects of the general destitution. it might be offered, unequivocal evidence of its being surplus commodity. Let C take another piece of The rations provided for her domestics were withheld ; a representative of value. A slight consideration will the gold and offer it to A for a leg of mutton. A and on lodging their complaints at court, they were show that this could only be attained through the knows that B has got a piece of gold, the value of an- told, with a sort of Cervantic humour, that the royal medium of some commodity, which cannot be brought other leg, which В will be in want of. In the same coffers were now all standing open, and they might into existence without a certain uniform amount of manner D comes into the market for another part of come to supply themselves." trouble or labour being spent on its production. Gold the sleep, and so it is disposed of, A possessing not the This example is adduced, not only as a memorable is the substance which possesses this quality beyond commodities he wants in return, but the means of instance of the pernicious consequences of the fallacy all others hitherto known to exist ; and therefore it procuring them. Here we have a circulating medium in question, but as an illustration of how far misunder has been, by the consent of the greater part of the in miniature.

standings with regard to what seem very simple princivilised world, fixed upon as the principal standard of Now, it will at once attract the reader's attention, ciples in this part of the science of political economy, value. The peculiarities of this metal are, that it is that though the community have thus obtained a very may be productive of most direful evils

. It is not extremely durable, and so the amount of it in exist convenient article, they are not the richer from hav- here maintained that the possession of much gold is ence is not likely at any time to suffer a sudden defal- ing obtained the gold; in fact, they are poorer, for an indication of national poverty-on the contrary, it cation ; it is met with in small quantities, and is pro- they have parted with a coat to obtain it; they have, is, like all other expensive commodities, generally the duced by a very laborious process, affording but little in fact, purchased a convenience. To a misunder- concomitant of wealth. It may be strictly necessary, profit to the worker; it is thus not likely to have its standing regarding this apparently very simple cir- to a very large extent, for the uses of a rich trading amount suddenly increased.

cumstance, much human misery may be attributed. nation ; Britain at the present moment, though her It is a very natural feeling, that of all the rich pos- It has too often been the feeling of communities, that, bullion circulating medium bears but a small proporsessions which the bountiful lap of nature spreads if they possessed gold, they possessed riches, and not tion to her paper money, probably employs more of forth for human enjoyment, the most to be coveted a mere article for facilitating commerce-an article the precious metals than Spain ever possessed ; but, would be a mine of gold. Unfortunately, this view which, from its uses in this respect, is itself a commo- then, she uses them, and pays for their use, because has not been confined to schoolboy visions ; it has in- dity. The most startling illustration of this fallacy she wants them, not because they are called gold and toxicated many an adventurous capitalist, who has is to be found in the history of Spain. Before the silver. Rich nations, too, like rich individuals, can ruined himself by the search for gold. There is working of the gold mines in their American posses- afford to employ a considerable quantity of the presomething that renders men delirious in the very sions, the Spaniards were a rich and prosperous com- cious metals' for ornamental purposes, sacrificing a word, and no mania has made more victims than that mercial people ; but when they began to find gold, portion of their wealth in this, as in other articles of working gold mines. Now, the very reason why they thought they had got at their hand that for of luxury. It is calculated by Mr Jacob that the gold possesses its value as a medium of exchange, is which they formerly laboured, and that, like a poor quantity thus consumed annually in Europe costs because the manufacture of it is an unprofitable industrious man who has unexpectedly succeeded to L.5,612,711, of which England alone uses to the extent trade. Look a moment at the production of another an estate, they need now work no longer. To prevent of L.2,457,221. metal-iron ; from 1824 to 1826, pig-iron sold as high their riches from disappearing, the law prohibited the We believe that the fallacy we have been above as L.13 a-ton; in 1832, it fell to between L.4 and 1.5 exportation of the precious metals, and thus effec attempting to expose, is now pretty well understood a-ton. Here we see that the demand for the article tually shut the door against the only way in which in its broader aspect; but such misapprehensions, raised its price to the first-mentioned sum ; while it they could be made sources of wealth-exportation as when they have once caught hold of the popular mind, continued at that price, enormous fortunes were doubt- an article of commerce. In that view, and in that are not eradicated at once, and we fear that many less made in the trade; then came competition, and alone, was there any advantage in the possession of fibres of the one in question are still pretty toughly the price sank to its natural level, or perhaps lower. gold ; and even had it been employed in the most ad- rooted in society. It is still common to hold the docWere there such fluctuations in the value of gold, it vantageous manner, it would not have been so profit- trine, that a trade between two nations, in which the is needless to say how useless it would be as a general able as many other means of employing capital and one gives bullion for the commodities of the other, measure of value.

labour ; for, as already remarked, the peculiarity cannot be profitable to the former. Such a trade has, Perhaps the manner in which money is presumed which makes gold so useful as a measure of value, is, we believe, never yet been exhibited on any very exto have come into use, may be illustrated by the fol- that the labour expended in producing it bears 80 tensive scale ; but were it to come into existence, a lowing supposed case. Let there be a community constant a ratio to the quantity realised, that but little consideration will show that there is no reason consisting of four individuals, A, B, C, and D; A small profits are made from its production.

for presuming that it would be more disavantageous possesses so many sheep, B so many quarters of grain, The manner in which the Spaniards became ac- to either party, than any other sort of trade. Gold C has clothing, and D has house-furniture. A wishes quainted with the treasures of their transatlantic is simply a commodity—a commodity which we imto liave some of B's corn, and is ready to give an equi- possessions tended to nourish the hallucination. They port: and if we can export it profitably, why not do valent in mutton ; but then he does not want so much found a considerable quantity of gold in the possession so? If the country in question will take nothing as the value of a whole sheep, nor does B want to ob- of the natives, of which they speedily took possession. from us but gold, then it is either worth our while to tain so much mutton. Then there is D, who also They found also a considerable quantity of native buy gold for the purpose of sending to it, or it is not. wants both corn and mutton, but not so much of gold in the streams. Thus, by an accidental circum- If it is not worth while, then the trade will not be either as he would give a coat for ; while the sheep- stance, such as that of finding a hidden treasure, they carried on at all. If it is worth while, then the trade owner in want of a table would willingly give a sheep, became possessed of money without working for it. is on the whole a profitable one. If we import sugar or the equivalent of a sheep, for one, but the furniture | They did not reflect that, if this lasted, gold would from the Spanish settlement of Manilla, and export it dealer cannot consume so much butcher meat at a cease to be the representative of value which it was, to Germany, this is called “the carrying trade," and sitting, and would prefer having a shoulder of mutton, and would be of no further service in commerce than quite correctly; but it seems to be thought that if we along with a peck of corn, in exchange for his commo- as an extremely beautiful material for manufactures, import gold from South America, we must keep our dity. Thus complicated and inextricable would be which would fluctuate in value with the tide of hands upon it, otherwise we shall be ruined. It is the intercourse in the barter system, even in such a fashion. When they could procure the mineral only commonly said that we can only establish a profitable small community as we have imagined. What is by the result of hard labour, they still had the same trade when we pay in our own manufactures. Now, wanted to put an end to the evil is, some substance preposterous feeling that they were possessed not of paying in gold is, after all, indirectly paying with our for a portion of which A will give a sheep, because he the means of making riches, but of riches itself, and own manufactures, for (except the comparatively knows that for a proportional piece B will give any dearly did they pay the penalty. While starvation trifling quantity that may have been taken in war) given quantity of grain, C a coat, and so forth. desolated the land, and the highest grandees could there is not an ounce of bullion in the country that

Suppose we set one of the members of the commu- not command so much of the produce of ordinary has not been obtained in exchange for some article nity to discover such a medium of exchange, let it be commercial industry as a glass window, every wretched produced either by our manufacturing or agricultural , the tailor. If it should occur to him that his friends dwelling glittered with mountains of plate.

industry. Let him who doubts this position try if he will receive a shell with a peculiar mark on it, in ex- “ Several grandeos,” says Mr Dunlop in his Memoirs can discover any other method by which gold can change for their commodíties, he will find himself of the Reigns of Philip IV. and Charles II., “it is have found its way to this country. very much mistaken. Suppose he should offer such said, had twelve hundred dozen of silver dishes, and as A steady trade, in which gold should be given on an article to B, in exchange for a bushel of grain, B many plates ; and a nobleman was thought very ill the one hand for goods on the other, is not to be conwould laugh heartily, and say, My good fellow, I can provided who had not at least eight hundred dozen founded with those incidental and unexpected demands make just such another myself if it were of any use. of dishes, and two hundred dozen of plates. These which create what is called a drain of bullion. These So can neighbour A and neighbour D. I cannot ex- were generally ranged on enormous and lofty side- are generally occasioned by some disorder in the money pect, then, that they will give me any thing for it, so boards, to which the menials ascended by silver steps. market, the nature of which is frequently so imperI can give you nothing.”. By this supposition it will | The sideboard of the Duke of Albuquerque had forty foctly ascertained that it becomes a subject of vehebe observed that C has been endeavouring to obtain silver ladders ; and when he died in the middle of the ment party discussion. But a drain may be also something for nothing, for it is supposed that the shell seventeenth century, six weeks were fully occupied in occasioned by a country finding it unexpectedly nein question neither cost him property nor labour, at weighing and taking inventories of the gold and silver cessary to resort to some other community for a porleast equivalent in value to what he wants for it. If vessels. At the period to which this refers, the tion of the necessaries of life, such as grain. If the he change his tactics, and offer something for which he Dutch, who were content to make their money by demand for the article were regular, it would proceed has given labour or its fruit, he will perhaps be more buying and selling the vulgar necessaries of life, were on the same torms as any other department of comsuccessful. Let us bring a fifth party into the field, able to lend a considerable sum to the lords of the two merce. When it is sudden and unexpected, however, E. He knows of a means by which, with the expen- Indies, which the possessors of bullion were unable there being no previously established circle of trade diture of a certain amount of labour, a certain quan- to repay; and in another part of the work just quoted, in which the countries are included, the article as a tity of a substance called gold can be extracted from we have the following view of the ludicrous poverty single purchase must be paid for in hard cash; for the the earth. The substance is of such a nature that the which haunted a court, dreaming that it was the source seller, were he offered manufactures, or any other supply of it always preserves (with variations almost of the riches of the world : Money could be no commodity, would not know whether he could get imperceptible) an uniform ratio to the labour expended. longer raised for the most pressing occasions, however them disposed of or not, and would be afraid to take But what occasion has E to produce this metal which trifling might be the cost. Couriers charged with them on hand. A drain like this, removing not will neither clothe nor feed him ? None whatever, urgent and important dispatches on affairs of state, merely the gold imported for the purposes of foreign unless some one who will find an use for it will give were often unable to quit Madrid, for want of the commerce, but that which we have kept for our own wherewithal to clothe and feed him for it. Let us funds necessary to defray the immediate expenses of use, may be productive of great and alarming inconsee if such an use be not to be found. Suppose now their journies. Some officers of the royal household veniences. It is the removal of the foundation of our that C employs E to bestow as much labour as he will having waited for payment of what was due to them, circulating medium. The difference of the two cases give for a coat, in extracting for him a corresponding as long as they could, without absolutely reducing may perhaps be illustrated in the operations of an quantity of the precious metal. If C go to B with a themselves to beggary, peremptorily demanded their individual merchant. With some of his customers he portion of the gold, and offer to exchange it for a dismission, and were only retained by force and may have cross accounts; they buy from him, and he bushel of grain, he cannot be met with the same answer which encountered his offer of the shell. The royal stables, who had not received their rations or only a small balance to be paid in cash. There will

menaces. All the grooms, however, belonging to the buys from them; and between them there is perhaps gold is not a thing which A and D can make as they wages for two years, contrived to escape from their be persons, however, from whom he buys, who take want it, nor is it a thing for which C has not given service, and the horses remained for some time un- no goods from him in return, and these he must pay value. "It is true that B can procure it in the same curried and unfed. A table which had been kept up in cash. Is he a loser, however, by doing so? In the manner as C did ; but if it be convenient for him to | at the king's cost for the gentlemen of the bed-cham- | general case, certainly not, otherwise he would not

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continue that line of business. Ile feels that the cash survey I discovered that the stone was found near an they had whitened his hairs, had not frozen his mehe so pays out is inore than compensated by the money old Roman militury road. Here, indeed, we have a mory. He revealed the appalling fact, that this great he receives from purchasers of whom he himself does light thrown on the subject, which will clear up all antique inscription meant nothing more or less than not take goods. Thus the money he puts forth in the manner of difficulty. First K, often found in inscrip- KEEP ON THIS SIDE, and that the stone inscribed with usual course of business is continually flowing back tions for c, and here standing for Calius—Æ, ædilis

, these vile vernacular words had been placed, within upon him. Let, however, some unforeseen accident an officer whose business it was to see the roads kept his own recollection, in the morass, by a benevolent make an incidental demand on his purse. Suppose in proper order—PHO·NT', pontem—H, Hadriani, the cottager, who wished to preserve the passing traveller one of his warehouses is burned down, and he must same person who built the wall to prevent the inroads from danger, and whose will to do good greatly exreplace it. Here he parts with hard cash to some one of the Picts, thence called Hadrian's wall—I:S:S-I, ceeded the powers of his chisel ! who takes no goods from him in return, and with jussu, the first u, and the former part of the latter u, Was there ever a piece of solemn trifling equal to whom he cannot have a cross account; nor is the sum being obliterated—D-E, demolisit. In all, Celius ædilis, this?. Never, surely, since time began. Universal he has so expended comrensated by other sums re- Hadriani jussu, pontem demolisit ['Cælius the ædile, Britain shook its sides when the schoolmaster made his ceived from customers. It is, in short, a direct loss. by order of Hadrian, demolished the bridge'], when, unlucky disclosure, and it was long ere the antiquaries

by draining the morass, the bridge became unneces- could hold up their heads thereafter. A WORD UPON ANTIQUARIES.

sary.” To this there was a postscript added, stating,

that " the priory which Mr X talks of seems to have Every person remembers the famous discovery of some of the old bridge about its foundation.”

JOIIN METCALF, TIIE BLIND ROAD the Prætorium by Jonathan Oldbuck at the Kaim of Here was old father Clemens quietly re-inurned,

SURVEYOR. Kinprunes, and the manner in which Edie Ochiltree and the priory, not precisely annihilated, but disco- The wonderful extent to which nature compensates blew into thin air the grand superstructure raised vered to be a paltry thing of yesterday, with some of the deprivation of one important faculty, by endowing thereon by the Antiquary, by revealing that the letters the very stones

of the grand morass-bridge

about its the rest with additional acuteness, has been frequently A. D. L. L., which Jonathan interpreted into Agricola foundation. This was the “ unkindest cut of all;" the subject of remark. The particulars related in the Dicavit Libens Lubens, meant neither less nor more not only to overthrow the theory of poor x, but to following memoir strikingly illustrate this point, and than “ Aiken Drum’s Lang Ladle;" and that the rude lug in his priory so slyly, as a fundamental proof of show to what a degree the power of habit, and the attempt at sculpture, which Monkbarns had deter; the hostile hypothesis. But alas ! alas !

exercise of good sense and ingenuity, are capable of inined to be a representation of a “sacrificial vessel,”

“Oh wad some power the giftie gie us,

overcoming seemingly insurmountable difficulties. was intended as an emblem of the same Mr Drum's

To see ourselves as others see ns!"

John Metcalf was born at Knaresborough, in Yorkladle, he being one of the celebrated “ kale-suppers o' Oh would we but remember the invaluable lesson of shire, in the year 1717. His parents, though decent Fife.” More recently, the author of the Pickwick the mote and the beam! Y had scarcely produced people, were not wealthy; and the greater was conPapers has described his hero as falling into a precisely his great refutation, and his equally great discovery, sidered the misfortune, therefore, when, at the age of similar error, a certain stone, marked in a very zig-zag when lo ! there “comes me in a Z, who, with due six years, while attending a district school, John was way with the name of BILL STUMPs, having caused alphabetical appropriateness, galls in turn the kibes of seized with the small-pox, and lost his eyesight in about as much speculation among the Pickwickians Mr Y. Of course Z perfectly agrees with his imme- consequence. He had been noticed previously to posas the ladle of Aiken Drum did in the case of Jonathan diate predecessor in thinking the theory of the first sess good natural talents, but it was chiefly after the Oldbuck. These stories are no doubt very amusing, riddle-solver, the unfortunate X, the “ most ridiculous loss of his vision that he began to be thought a reand particularly that of Sir Walter ; but the ori- that ever entered into the head of an antiquarian."* markable boy. Within a few months after that ginal story, that which gave rise to both of these sup- Mr Z, however, thinks little better of the second sup- event, he had taught himself to walk about his father's posititious incidents, seems to us much more amusing position, and proposes a new one. It is a bold one, doors nearly as well as before, and in a few succeeding than either. It has one great advantage over them, the boldest of all. “I have taken (says he) the most years he could readily find his way alone to any part inasmuch as it relates to a thing of real occurrence, a obvious and generally received meaning of the initials, of Knaresborough. At the same time, he was accusrecorded and authenticated fact. We hope to raise and find the solution to stand thus : Cæsaris ex edicto tomed to associate freely with boys of his own age, a smile by laying before our readers the details of the per orbem nuntiatur templum hic instauratum sacrum sibi and became noted for his skill in climbing and other affair to which we allude.

ipsi dicatum esse." This profound solution, which has juvenile amusements. He also learned to ride, and Some time in the sixth decade of last century, a

a word invented for every letter in the inscription, grew so fond of that exercise, that he ventured rerudely-squared stone, with an inscription upon it, was gives us the following meaning : “ Through the edict peatedly to follow the hounds of a gentleman of the dug up on a desolate boggy heath in the county of of Cæsar, it is announced over the world that the vicinity, Mr Woodburn, who was very fond of his Northumberland. It fell into the hands of the squire temple here erected is consecrated to himself.” Hav: company in the chase. Swimming was another of of the parish, who, not being able to make any thing ing thus cut the knot, Z exclaims, “ Here we find young Metcalf's accomplishments, and he performed of it, called in the parson to his aid, and many mi- Cæsar - after having, like Hercules, finished the feats in this department which astonished every body. nute examinations, and profound speculations, were greatest of his labours -- after having extended his On one occasion, when two men were drowned in the the result. But the divine, also, was obliged finally conquests over the Britons, usually called fierce and Nidd, he was employed to dive for their bodies, and to admit that the interpretation of the inscription indomitable-erecting a temple on the limits of his succeeded in bringing up one of them. surpassed his powers. . As in duty bound, however, ambition, and, flushed with victory, assuming the ho- Music, the usual resource of the blind, was not he agreed with the squire in thinking that the stone nours of a god! This is the most easy and natural neglected by Metcalf. Before he reached the age of was a treasure of antiquity, and, with the view of construction, and perfectly consonant with the concise sixteen, he had acquired such proficiency on the violin, referring it to higher authorities, took an exact copy terms in which their inscriptions were generally as to be engaged as a performer both at Knaresof the inscription, which stood as nearly as possible couched. We need no other proof to convince us of borough and at Harrowgate, where he was much liked thus :

the certainty of the fact; but, as a corroborating tes- and caressed. It must be admitted that some of his K. P.O.N.T

timony, if we look into Horace, we shall find a passage favourite diversions at this period of his life were not HIS.SI.D.E

evidently referring to this very circumstance- of the most commendable kind. He became fond of Such was the inscription which the parson trans

The rank of god Augustus shall obtain,

cock-fighting, and kept a number of these creatures mitted to the Antiquarian Society, with a polite

With wild Britannia added to his reign."

under his own care. This amusement divided his request to have the opinions of the members there. We have a postscript added to this letter of Z, show- leisure time with bowling and riding: Strange to upon... Much and long did these gentlemen ponder ing that he too had taken coach, or travelled post, down say, with the assistance of an accurate knowledge of over this relic, which was unanimously admitted to be to Northumberland, on this mighty errand. The the ground, and other helps, he grew very skilful at of great antiquity. Many were the debates which stones (he says) which Mr Y mentions in the priory bowls, and could

judge of distances so well as to come took place upon the subject, and ultimately the writ- have a much greater resemblance to the remains of an

off frequently the winner. With his earnings as a ten opinions of the more distinguished members were old temple than the trifling ruins of a bridge, espe- musical

performer, he bought a horse, and not only recorded in the archives of the body, as well as pub- cially one which has the uncouth figure of a sword rode frequently in the hunting field, but ran his horse lished in the Magazines of the time. The first inter- upon it.” Poor X! Little did he imagine, that, out for small plates at York and elsewhere. On one pretation given in was as follows:-“On the first of the very foundation-stones of his priory, his two occasion he engaged, for a considerable stake, to ride examination of this stone (said a member who signed sharp-sighted opponents would build both a bridge his own horse three times round a circular course of a himself X), I was not able to form any satisfactory and a temple, to the annihilation of his hypothesis. mile in length against another party. As it was beconjecture concerning the inscription but as the Such was the admiration, we must not

omit to state, lieved that Metcalf would never be able to keep the identity of the place where it was found ought to be which the learned interpretation of Z excited

among course, large odds were taken against him; but, by materially considered, I wrote to a gentleman of the the members of the Antiquarian Society, that he was

the ingenious plan of stationing persons with bells at district for information, if there were any restiges of instantly and unanimously elected one of their num- different points, he not only kept the circle, but

won antiquity, such as camps, fortifications, or the like, in ber, an honour he had not previously enjoyed.

the race. His skill in horse-flesh (as the phrase runs) the vicinage. In answer to which inquiry I was in

What a noble thing is learning! what a science

was astonishing, considering that the great faculty formed that there was nothing of this kind which he that of the antiquary ! Here, out of fourteen simple which determines the judgment of others was to him knew of, except the ruins of a priory about a mile letters, we find monks and priories, bridges, ædiles, a blank. He actually made considerable profits by distant. This is indeed sufficient for our purpose

, and temples, and Cæsars, called into light and existence the purchase and sale of horses. clears

up.

the matter at once. Clemens [K. EE] puntifex Nor let the reader think that all these discoveries At the age of twenty-one, John Metcalf was six [P·O·N·T) kic jacet (H:I] sanctus (S.) serrus (S.] 'dei

were vain and profitless. Referring to his own solu- feet ono inch and a half in height, and extremely (1:D:E]. The second letter of the inscription is evi- tion, Z triumphantly points out the great historical robust in person. He was so lively in spirits, and so dently an L, and the 1·D·E a transposition of dei, fact deducible therefrom. « What would a Camden quick in his motions, that few suspected his want at from the ignorance of the sculptor; the meaning, or a Hollinshed have given to have traced the foot

a casual glance. Nor durst any one presume so far altogether, being that the stone was erected to the steps of Augustus Cæsar so far as the northernmost upon his defects as to ill-use or insult him. With his memory of one Clement, a dignified brother in the parts of the Brigantes (one of the divisions of the opponent once within his grasp, he could well avenge convent. (Literally, Clement the priest here lies, a country under the Romans], or see him introducing any injury offered to him. He even protected his holy servant of God.') Nothing can be more plain the Roman temple into Britain !" The modesty, no friends against aggression, and in one instance acand easy than this.”

doubt, of Z has forbidden him to notice a still more quired the thanks of every body, by inflicting severe But though the learned X was so well satisfied with important historical fact deducible from his solution chastisement on a noted bully who had misused one his plain and easy solution,

not so some of his brother of the inscription. From it the world learnt for the of his associates. Nor did his defect of vision prevent antiquaries. Observe how Y, an equally distinguished first time that Augustus Cæsar ever was in Britain.

him from being a favourite with the fair sex. Bemember of the Society, trips up the heels of his pre- A feeling of pity and remorse seizes upon us as we

tween him and Miss Benson, the daughter of a redecessor X. "I never was so much astonished in my approach the moment

when it is incumbent upon us spectable innkeeper at Harrowgate, a mutual affection life (says ho; as at the perusal of Mr X’s solution of to blow up this magnificent edifice erected by X, Y, Z, sprang up, and notwithstanding

that the lady’s mother the inscription in question ; what a forced construc- and their fellow antiquaries of Britain. But the an- opposed the match so far as to get the banns published tion ! what a preposterous idea! . . I will grant him nalist of such important transactions must

bow to the with another, Miss Benson remained faithful to her that K is often found on monuments of antiquity in call of duty, and speak the whole truth. The labours blind lover, and they were ultimately united in private. place of C; but how, in the name of wonder, coulă he of the venerable society became known ultimately to After his marriage he continued to perforın during imagine the two following letters to be LE, which are the inhabitants of the district where the stone was every season at Harrowgate, increasing his income by transposition of Dei!” We shall not trouble the resident, was told of all that had been said and done in his search for means of bettering the condition of reader with the remainder of Mr. Y's triumphant on the subject. Unluckily, the snows of age, though his family, he also travelled, at intervals of professional sneers at the resurrection of the holy father Clemens.

leisure, to the coast for fish, which he brouglit to the Y had actually travelled down to Northumberland to examine the locality for himself , and here is the new antiquarian, cenough often used apportuni, Yis property in adject quickness and ingemuity,

that no accident ever hap*Z, by the way, affords the opportunity of remarking that markets of Leeds and Manchester. Such was liis solution which resulted therefrom. “On a personal tive, and that the right word in this case is antiquary.

pened to himself or his horses on these journeys.

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some difficulty on the part of his companion in lifting History and Antiquities By Major Forbes, 78th Highlanders stone or rock nine feet high, and on this is the Sacred

When the rebellion broke out in 1745, Metcalf's the glass, the gentleman remarked to the landlord that i with the prejudices of caste. Excepting the royal
stirring spirit led him to join the English army as a his guide had surely taken drink since his arrival.“ I one, the highest caste in the island is that of
musician, and he remained with them up till the vic- judge so,” added lie," from the appearance of his the land-cultivators, including the chiets and great
tory of Culloden. He then returned home, but not eyes." “ Eyes ! bless you, sir, don't you know that familius. Trades-people and labourers foron another;
until he had formed a plan of future employment from he is blind ? “Blind 1” cried the traveller ; “blind! but it would be tiresome and fruitless to enter inte
what he had learned for we can scarcely say observed gracious heavens !” “ Yes, sir, he is blind as a stone!" details on this point, as each caste has many sub
in Scotland. He adopted the idea that a number Metcalf was called in, and his late companion, yet divisions, the limits of which are so strongly marked
of the cotton and worsted manufactures of the north trembling with agitation, exclaimed, “ Had I known that even the individual branches cannot intermarry.
would sell well in England, and accordingly he made your condition, sir, I would not have ventured with The lowest caste, the Rhodias, were for ages so utterly
one or two journeys back to Scotland for these stuffs, you for a hundred pounds !” “ And I,” said Metcalf, despised and so cruelly treated, that they could not
which he disposed of in Yorkshire. Among a thou- “ would not have lost my way for a thousand !" live in common houses, or own land, or approach :
sand articles, he knew exactly what each cost him, The nicety of touch which Metcalf had acquired temple ; and, lastly, they could be killed by any one
from a peculiar mode of marking. Still this trafficking was very wonderful. He could play at cards with no with impunity. The British have done much to abo
did not prove suitable for a permanent line of life, and other guide; and when persons were by on whom he lish this detestable prejudice. There existed no sina)
in 1751 he commenced driving a stage-waggon, twice could depend, he frequently played for serious stakes, degree of learning among the Cingalese, but it was
a-week in summer and once in winter, between York and won, through the advantage of his uncommon almost entirely contined to the Buddhist priesthood.
and Knaresborough. This employment apparently memory.' 'Even when no friend was near him, it would The community at large were very ignorant.
drew his attention to the subject of roads, and fixed have been very difficult for an opponent to have taken After this general account of Ceylon, we turn with
him in the pursuit which finally gained him his chief unfair advantage, such was his acuteness of car and pleasure to the details of Major Forbes's interesting
celebrity, and proved a source of no slight advantage powers of observation. One occasion is mentioned work, which combines adventure very pleasantly witá
to his country. During his leisure hours he had where he won eighteen guineas from strangers at elaborate information, the fruit of many years expe
studied mensuration in a way peculiar to himself, and cards.

rience and observation. He landed on the island in when certain of the girth and length of any piece of In the summer of 1788, Mr Metcalf lost his wife, the autunn of 1826, and continued there for seven! timber, could reduce its contents to feet and inches, who had brought him four children. He had before succeeding years, during which time he visited almost or could bring the dimensions of any building into this realised a handsome sum by his road and bridge every locality on its surface, possessed of any interes yards and feet. In short, he had formed for himself contracts, but he lost considerably in his old days by or importance. The ancient city of Kandy, los accurate and practical modes of mensuration. At this some cotton speculations into which he was led by the capital of the island, and standing very nearly time it chanced that a new piece of road, about three his enterprising spirit. In 1792, he gave up his ex in its centre, is described by him as of considerable miles long, was wanted between Fearnsby and Min- tensi e engagements, and settled at Sposforth, near extent, judiciously planned, and situated on an a. skip. Being well acquainted with the locality, he pro- Wetherby, in his native county. Here, having retained gular piece of ground, with the base resting on t** posed to contract for it, and his offer was accepted. as much of his fortune as to secure a comfortable in- large artificial lakes. Describing a part of the eThe materials for the road were to be taken from one dependence, he spent his latter days in happy case, in virons, Major Forbes says, “ The course of the rapa quarry, and there, with his wonted activity, he erected the bosom of his family. He died in the year

1802. Mahavilla-ganga winds below; the green hills sed temporary houses, hired horses, fixed racks and man

forest-clad mountains, rising to a height of upwards d gers, and set the work a-going with great spirit. He

six thousand feet, lie beyond ; and this, with cies

FORBES'S CEYLON.* completed the road much sooner than was expected

of palmyra, tufts of cocoa-nut trees, and every rarity by the trustees, and in every way to their satisfaction. Ceylon is an island in the Southern Ocean, lying off the of forest foliage," constitute the scenery close aroun

Thus commenced the most remarkable portion of promontory of Hindustan, extending to two hundred Kandy. The chief native buildings are the temples et
this man's life. Metcalf soon undertook other road and seventy miles in length, with an average breadth Buddha, of which the town contains several, and to
contracts, and, strange to say, succeeded in laying of one hundred miles, and a superficial area of 25,000 colleges for the ordination of the Buddhist priesta
down good lines where others were hopeless of success. square miles. It is situated between 6 and 10 degrees of There are also temples to the gods Nata, Vishes
In Yorkshire, Lancashire, Cheshire, and Derbyshire, north latitude, and between 80 and 82 degrees of east Katagramma, and others, whom the Cingalese was
during a period of nearly forty years, he pursued the longitude. Though situated so near to the equinoctial ship as well as Buddha. They sacrifice, likewise, *
employment of road-making and bridge-building, being line, it enjoys a comparatively moderate cliinate, its demons, a red cock being the usual offering on seet
by far the most noted and esteemed follower of such small extent permitting the sea-breezes to traverse it occasions. Major Forbes observes, that the doctrines
occupations in those parts. The large bridge at entirely, and some of its mountainous ranges being of of the Buddhist religion are certainly unexceptionale
Borough-bridge, and various others, might be named such an elevation as to supply the general surface with in many points, the fundamental maxim being as für
as proofs of his abilities and success. An anecdote is abundance of moisture. The island contains no na lows : « Àbstain from all sin, acquire all virtue,
told, which will exhibit the ingenious way in which he tural lakes, but its rivers and rills are innumerable, press thine own heart.” But these lessons are gready
overcame difficulties which staggered other surveyors. and the early inhabitants had built many artificial neglected in practice, and the actual religion consist
Among the numerous roads for which he contracted, reservoirs of great size, which have ever been of the but of vile idolatries. For example, the author of the
was one on the Manchester line, between Blackmoor highest benefit. The population is now believed to work before us witnessed a magnificent festival a
and Standish-Foot. The original surveyor took the amount to 1,400,000. Rice, coffee, cocoa-nuts, with Kandy, in honour of Buddha's tooth, a relic supposed
new line over deep marshes, which, in the opinion of cinnamon and various other spices, form the staple to have been saved from the funeral pile of the ged.
the trustees and all concerned, seemed only passable produce of the Cingalese country. The sugar-cane has This relic, which is merely a piece of discoloured
by cutting or digging the earth till a solid bottom was also been cultivated of late years, and pearl-fishing is ivory, nearly two inches in length, and one ineh iz
found. This plan appeared to Metcalf tedious and one of the most lucrative occupations on the coasts. diameter at the base, has for twenty-four hundred
expensive, and he attempted to prove to the trustees From native records in the Pali language, a tongue years been an object of veneration ; and though the
that such was the case ; but they were fixed in their bearing apparently the same relation to the vernacu enemies of the Buddhists repeatedly endeavoured to
original views, and only permitted the blind roadlar Cingalese that Sanscrit does to Hindostanee, a destroy it, it always came out of the danger in a
maker to follow his own way, on condition that he pretty full account has been obtained of the history of triumphant and miraculous way. It was thrown into
should afterwards execute their plan if his own failed. Ceylon. A list of the kings, with an accompanying a pit of burning charcoal, and burst out unscathed,
Metcalf began to his task. The worst part of the line narrative of their chief acts, has been drawn up, emitting rays that “illumined the universe."
was on Standish Common, where a deep bog existed, extending over a period of not less than twenty-four was buried deep in the earth, and reappeared in
which it seemed impossible to cut a road through centuries, or from about the year 543 before Christ the centre of a golden lotus. It was placed on
Metcalf set his men to work in cutting a line, and till the present time. In all, one hundred and sixty- an anvil to be destroyed, and sunk into the solid
draining off the water, as far as that was possible. So five sovereigns are found on this list. Like other iron till the peril was over. Such are the sort of
little progress, however, was at first made, that every eastern nations, the Cingalese can neither be said to tales told of the tooth. It is now kept in a temple
body laughed at the poor blind man, who, it was have been civilised nor barbarous during the period in attached to the old palace of the Kandian kings
thought, would have given up the task in despair, had question, though they certainly retrograded rather being laid on a silver altar, and enclosed in six
he had his eyes like other people. Nevertheless, he than advanced latterly. They built extraordinary and cases of gold, ornamented with rubies and precious
proceeded unweariedly, until he had levelled the bog magnificent edifices; but these, with striking though stones, besides other valuable appendages. In the
across, and he then ordered his men to collect heather not uncommon inconsistency, were chiefly devoted to brilliant pageantry of the festival, the rich altar and
or ling, and bind it in round bundles which they could the rites of a savage and contemptible idolatry. Till resplendent ornaments of the relic, the great size and
span with their hands. These bundles were laid down after the middle of the eighteenth century, the Cinga- elegant decorations of the temporary buildings, the
close together on the cut line, and successive bundles lese, though previously visited by Portuguese and peculiar and picturesque dresses of the chiets, the

laid over them again, after which they were covered Dutch traders and settlers, maintained their indepen- majestic elephants, and dense mass of people, threw 1

and pressed down with stones and gravel. The issue dence without difficulty. About 1780, however, the an air of imposing grandeur over the spectacle. The was, that this portion of the road, when completed, islanders quarrelled with the Indo-British powers, Dalada (as they call the tooth) was exhibited, and the was so remarkably firm and good, that it needed no and hostilities then commenced, which continued with offerings continued for three successive days. The repairs for twelve years, while other parts require

little intermission down to the year 1815, when the offerings consisted of things the most heterogeneous; frequent repairs. Even in winter it was perfectly dry. native king, a cruel despot, whose intolerable conduct gold chains and gold ornaments ; gold, silver, and

It was Metcalf's custom, in making purchases of precipitated the subjugation of his country, was copper coins, of all denominations; cloths, priests' wood, hay, or stones, to span the articles with his dethroned, and the island added to the dominions of vestments, flowers, sugar, areka-nuts, betel-leaves." arms, and then calculate the amount mentally. Hav- Britain, as what is termed a crown colony, with the The plate illustrative of this festival, given by Major ing learned the height, he could tell with great accu

consent of a large proportion of the inhabitants. The Forbes, presents us with a scene which perhaps excel racy what number of square yards were contained in Cingalese, in short, underwent the fate which inevitably in grandeur any thing ever imagined by poet or paina stack of grain, of any value between one and five follows the struggles of barbarism with civilisation. ter, unless it be some one of the conceptions of Martin, hundred pounds. His memory was astonishing, and Since 1815, Ceylon has been ruled by successive Bri The Dalada ranks highest among the visible objects

it was no doubt principally by this faculty that he tish governors, the present one being Mr Stewart of Cingalese worship; but very little inferior is the 1 was enabled to traverse so many towns, and ride along Mackenzie of Seaforth.

amount of veneration bestowed on a mountain of a so many roads. While in York, on one occasion, å The aboriginal people of Ceylon were the Veddahs, remarkable character termed Adam's Peak, which is 1

friend of his, the landlord of the George Inn, asked a tribe who yet live in a rude state in some districts situated in the interior of the island, and was visited him as a personal favour to guide a gentleman towards of it. The name of Cingalese, or Singhalese, was de- by our author. “ The Mahommedans believe that the Harrowgate. This place lay in Nietcalf's own way, rived from Singha, the ancestor of an invading race first man, Adam, whose height was equal to a tall and he agreed to the request upon condition that his from Hindustan, by whom the dynasty of 543 B.C. was palm-tree, after having been thrown down from Parablindness was kept a secret from the gentleman. The founded. At the same era, according to the native dise, which was in the seventh heaven, alighted on pair accordingly started, both on horseback, and Met- chronicles, the great Buddha died, who was canonised as this peak, and remained standing on one toot until calf taking the lead. By a little dexterity, Metcalf the head of the old religion of the island, and in whose years of penitence and suffering had expiated his contrived to pass some gates without leading to a sus honour were erected the majority of the numerous offence.” A mark, resembling a gigantic foot-print, picion of the truth, and finally the travellers entered temples, ruinous and entire, that are yet to be seen has suggested this story, which is of great antiquity. a forest beyond knaresborough, where there was as in the country. The Buddhist religion is still the The Buddhists, however, assert the foot-mark to be yet no turnpike. Evening came on, and by asking prevalent native one, and this idol's relics are every that of Buddha, while the Hindoos declare it to have his companion if he saw lights in particular directions, where reverenced, as we shall have occasion after- been made by Siva in stepping over from Ceylon to Metcalf brought the journey to a safe close, though in wards to show from the work of Major Forbes. The the Continent. llence the peak is an object of venethose days a man with all his eyes about him inight Cingalese, like other oriental nations, are aflicted ration to all parties, and pilgrims visit the spot in well have strayed from the path. On landing at the

great numbers. The peak is 7420 feet high, and has Granby inn, the two travellers, took some warın

* Eleven Years in Ceylon. Comprising Sketches of the Field

a level space on the summit enclosed by a wall. In liquor, after which Metcalf retired. Having noticed sports and Natural History of the Colony, and an account of its

centre of space stands an granite 2

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