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After the few fire operation

OUR LADY TY 11,'. :,

A LEGEND OR WAS

Footstep. “ This venerated memorial is five feet seven

came through the keeper's body? We inches in length, two feet seven inches in breadth, much about the attachment of these create and the very slight resemblance which it has to the keepers,

but Major Forbes says that there shape of a foot is given by a margin

of plaster coloured the old hunting elephants that have set i 54
to resemble the rock. A temple built of wood sur-employed about them at one time or asko
mounts the rock, and is retained in its exalted situa- In the course of an excursion, Major Potto se
tion by strong iron chains.” Of course there is a with a pretended conjuror, who was placed it as
priest's house here ; the thing would be incomplete an awkward predicament. “We had, unload ,
without such an appendage. The peak is in itself a himself, inspired his neighbours with a belief that we
very extraordinary natural object, leaving altogether had the power of bringing rain by performing series
out of view the sacred foot-mark. The ascent is not ceremonies and then baile, aprendis hin Garmed er noen som har
dangerous pathed to in crease olie in einemerit. The appeares noe approaching heavy rains, he been ingresso

With the usual daring of the British soldier, Major posed on the people, candereape de los derable profities
Forbes frequently prosecuted the chase of wild ele; until at last their eagerness of belief ontrunning his home alone se

of , his
leopards, are abundant in Ceylon. Seeing that single tion, but nearly cost him his life. It was urged by road, bangla

wild elephant, it may well be , in by all, that as believed that the scene which took place at the killing no doubt of his ability to call down rain when necescause de la ang later in Ceylone Wiko ne per a took talent showed here reised and the required them at there larly marked, such as A, the elephant, B, a party of rain in sufficient quantities ; that, if he did so, he was the Guards ; and, after all, a return was given of the to be liberally rewarded; but, on the contrary, if he he may probably *** Autoren We may well believe, we say, that all this would appear sary supply, he should be tormented with thorns

, the main othebeabit to a

more the following :-“In an extremely thick dark copse

, nishments on various occasions, he at last made up months during winter, he will see very ridiculous to a sportsman familiar with scenes like or beat into compliance. Having suffered severe pu- tired of the task forces et matted

with thorny creeping plants, two elephants had his mind no longer to be a responsible agent for the nearly as well as before." taken shelter. Creeping in on my breast for a few weather, and loudly and constantly denied having feet, I could distinguish the legs of a very large ele- any authority in the matter. This, although deemed phant, whose head was concealed by the foliage ; but to be a false excuse, proved a sufficient protection to another and smaller one was sufficiently visible to allot heheiducing several reasons

, this hieason

, the people, WHOEVER, passes at the present tan ovale se seing the colica (native attendants) close to the edge horing a patience from a long continuede drought bably behold, if the model impedom and I want get la en el termed for helt scene intimiglie en gehele verse terminer lost ha king station chitectural beauty and timely situated in content ready to basket out and face bloeipe teda che rest that floud.compeller to various probioticon, bietetiche le cui nous chapelteshibiting the trace it was only for I immediately felt the tangled mass of vegetation sont some of his followers to bring the conjuror to the chapely the passen by many also observe the vertimonene pressing forward upon me,

while the big elephant village where water was most required : it was while various edemonaments, bearing the nearly detaced stood uttering that fearful , shrill, trumpet-like squeal me, and, making his escape, threw hai mself sta may not moreover

, that the chapel was dedicated 10 Our Lady with which these animals generally accompany fchein tection. In the court house for presents termed that Tendudia, and he will still hear the peasant making companion ; for it did not follow the coolies, who ran every appearance of a continuance of the same dry orisons to the Virgin, under

that particular design almost over ine. I had a rifle, carrying a ball of two that it was no fault of his that no rain was forthcom- probable that the traveller will exclaim, “ Our Lady round shapeless legs within my reach, and its head then gravely proceeded to prove to me by many oaths slightly, with the language of Spain, it is furthermore ouncos weight, in my hand ; this I raised perpendicu ing. I had some difficulty in protecting this old

im Stop-the-day! [such being the meaning of the term resting on the ground, pulled the trigger. The shot his village, which was situated on one of the highest Tendudia); what an odd phrase to tack to the name of took effect ; the animal staggered back eight or ten inhabited parts of the district ; and I have no doubt the Virgin !". And if he be so fortunate as to meet paces towards the dead one, while, by violent exer- the people thought, not that they had been the in- with some of the older peasants of the district, whose tions, I disentangled myself from my most uncom- fatuated dupes of a rogue, but that I was imposed memories are stored with the traditions of the past, fortable position.” The sportsman had no further upon by a churlish wizard.” trouble with the mortally wounded animal.

His

We learn from the work before us, as well as from he will in all likelihood hear the following legend of position, however , was one of awful risk, because it is other sources, that Ceylon is at present one

of the most bygone age, in explanation of what has caused his

surprise. impossible to tell whether an elephant's strength will flourishing of our eastern possessions. Being a crown In the thirteenth century, the Moors occupied a relatos several instances of fatal accidents from the and obligations to which the company-governed con- great portion of the kingdom of Spain, and were fierceness of wounded elephants.

tinent of India is subject. In fact, it is a compara- engaged in continual contests with the Christian gentleman was crushed to death in an instant by an tively free country, and is rapidly improving both in natives. “Oh, brave times !” says an old chronicler of slephant, and two of his friends, on attacking the same its social and physical condition. Although greatly these wars," when every knight of the cross was brave animal, would certainly have perished also, but for an opposed by local prejudice, we are glad to know that as his sword, and true as its Toledan steel ; and when accident. The creature charged, and came up to them, juvenile education, accompanied by a knowledge of to contend with the infidel was to win either the laurel when they had barely time to run a few feet aside. the English language, is making considerable progress of victory, or the palm of martyrdom! Oh, brave Happily they both went to the left, and the elephant -and what more is required in the first instance to times ! when every lady was beautiful as the day, and passed them, to their great surprise. It was after render its people intelligent and happy ?

gave to her own true knight the encouragement of her wards discovered that one of their shots had destroyed Though we have been indebted for the matter of smiles, and the aid of her prayers !” of all the ladies the vision of the right eye. This accident saved their this article to the work of Major Forbes, yet our to whom the chronicler might here allude, none could lives.

desire to make our account of Ceylon of a general be more lovely than Donna Bibiana, daughter and The extent to which the natives carry their daring character has prevented us from giving a sufficient only child of Don Raymon de Penalba, a gentleman in attacking wild elephants, is extraordinary. When specimen of the actual style of the writer, and we of the kingdom of Toledo. Donna Bibiana, at the a kraal, or enclosed space for catching these animals, shall probably return, therefore, to these volumes on date of our story, was very young. She had large, soft, is formed, and a herd has been driven into it, the another occasion.

blue eyes, dark tresses, a sweet and smiling mouth, hunters pass backwards and forwards with great bold

with an elegant figure, and feet so small that it was ness, effecting the operation of noosing. Partly pro

a miracle how even her slender figure moved about on tected by tame decoy elephants, they prick the feet of

Capons may be trained to perform the office of nurses them so firmly, though so lightly. Besides, she was the wild ones, and on the legs being lifted, throw to young poultry, which they will

execute in a better extremely good and charitable to the poor, though she nooses dexterously round them. The noosed elephant manner than even the mothers of the chicks. To those was far from being rich. As in duty bound, she destarts off, but is speedily brought to its knees, the hun- who attempt artificial incubation, this is a matter of tested the Moors very cordially, and in short had all the ter having given the other end of the rope several turns some consequence, for no hen will readily nurse any qualities of a pious and accomplished beauty of the day. round a tree. Major Forbes

says he has seen men, sta- chickens but those which she has hatched; whereas, the No, Donna Bibiana, or rather her father, was not tioned on trees, actually descend on the backs of wild capon is an ever-ready nurse. In order to induce capons overburdened with riches. Don Raymon, in fact, elephants to dislodge them from the spot. When it is to take charge of chickens, Baptista Porta, an Italian depended very much upon his sword for subsistence. remembered that the animals are in an excited state, writer, suggests that the skin of their

breast should be Like a bold warrior, and a good subject of his soveand that the hunter who comes within fair reach is imitated with nettles, so that they become anxious to reign, he had spent all his days in battling with the sure either to be crushed to death by their trunks, or chicks which are put to them. But this is a barbarous and had often enriched himself with their spoils, only

allay the itchiness by sitting and rubbing upon the young Moors, who were no very distant neighbours of his, to be spiked by their tusks, the coolness of the native and far from certain mode of training. Others recomnoosers appears very wonderful. On one occasion mend

to inake the capon drunk with oat pickles steeped to be impoverished again. by their reprisals. But (says Major Forbes), “ an unlucky hunter was seized in brandy,

believing that the capon in his intoxicated though this sort of work left Don Raymon sometime by an elephant's trunk. Fortunately, I regained my condition will fancy himself a hen, and so take charge of in poorish circumstances, such was never very long the gun, and still more fortunately, considering the hurry the chicks which crowd around him. This, however, is case; for when his coffers were empty, he always called in which I fired, the ball passed through the animal's a fully more vicious plan of education-not that it causes out his attendants, and led them once more against head without injuring the man, who was released the capon to acquire tippling habits, but because the the infidels. At the close of the year 1240, Don Rayfrom & gripe so severe that it had already forced blood animal, when tipsy, will most

likely trample upon and kill mon set forth on one of these knightly expeditions. He from his mouth and nostrils.” Our author does not the young family consigned to his care. The best mode was accompanied by ten of his men, and with them conceive the elephant to be nearly so sagacious as is of training seems to be that mentioned by Mr Rannie, he crossed the Guadalquivir, directing his course tocommonly

supposed, but allows that it occasionally in his volume on the Habits of Birds, in the Library of wards the Moorish province of Jaën. When he reached exhibits peculiar cunning." In 1829, one of the hunt- Entertaining Knowledge. He quotes the proceedings of the country of the enemy, he separated his warriors, ing elephants at Matale, having shown symptoms of Reaumur, the naturalist. a capricious irritable temper, was in consequence se

Réaumur, he observes, “ having been convinced that sending five one way, and going himself in another cared to a tree near the stables ; next day,

as the under
the care of the woman who
had the charge of the this, when suddenly, on rounding the corner of a hill

, such empirical practices were useless, pnt three capons direction with the remainder. He had scarcely done keeper was standing barely within reach, the brute poultry-yard at the Chateau de Vaujour ; and as she he found himself in front of half a dozen well-apsuddenly seized him at the moment another elephant proceeded on a regular and

rational plan of tuition, put pointed Moors, who were apparently making their way was passing, and pressed the unfortunate man against in force not for a single night or day, but continued for towards the demesnes

of the Christians with much tho this animals front, until one of the thick blunt tusks several days in succession, they caine out of her school same intentions as his own. But what says the pro

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In one case a

TRAINING OF CAPONS FOR NURSES TO POULTRY.

When the rebellion broke out in 1745, Metcalf's | the glass, the gentleman remarked to the landlord that with the prejudices of caste. Excepting the royal stirring spirit led him to join the English army as a his guide had surely taken drink since his arrival.“ Ione, the highest caste in the island is that of musician, and he remained

with them up till the vic- judge so," added he, “ from the appearance of his the land-cultivators, including the chiets and great tory of Culloden. He then returned home, but not eyes.” “ Eyes ! bless you, sir, don't you know that families. Trades-people and labourers form another ; until he had formed a plan of future employment from he is blind | “Blind 1” cried the traveller ; "blind! but it would be tiresome and fruitless to enter into what he had learned for we can scarcely say observed gracious heavens !” “ Yes, sir, he is blind as a stone !" details on this point, as each caste has many sub-in Scotland. He adopted the idea that a number Metcalf was called in, and his late companion, yet divisions, the limits of which are so strongly marked of the cotton and worsted manufactures of the north trembling with agitation, exclaimed,“ Had I known that even the individual branches cannot intermarry. would sell well in England, and accordingly he made your condition, sir, I would not have ventured with The lowest caste, the Rhodias, were for ages so utterly one or two journeys back to Scotland for these stuffs, you for a hundred pounds!” “ And I,” said Metcalf, despised and so cruelly treated, that they could not which he disposed of in Yorkshire. Among a thou-* would not have lost my way for a thousand !" live in common houses, or own land, or approach a sand articles, he knew exactly what each cost him, The nicety of touch which Metcalf had acquired temple ; and, lastly, they could be killed by any one from a peculiar mode of marking. Still this trafficking was very wonderful. He could play at cards with no with impunity. The British have done much to abodid not prove suitable for a permanent line of life, and other guide; and when persons were by on whom he lish this detestable prejudice. There existed no small in 1751 he commenced driving a stage-waggon, twice could depend, he frequently played for serious stakes, degree of learning among the Cingalese, but it was a-week in summer and once in winter, between York and won, through the advantage of his uncommon almost entirely confined to the Buddhist priesthood. and Knaresborough. This employment apparently memory." "Even when no friend was near him, it would The community at large were very ignorant. drew his attention to the subject of roads, and fixed have been very difficult for an opponent to have taken After this general account of Ceylon, we turn with him in the pursuit which finally gained him his chief unfair advantage, such was his acuteness of ear and pleasure to the details of Major Forbes's interesting celebrity, and proved a source of no slight advantage powers of observation. One occasion is mentioned work, which combines adventure very pleasantly with to his country. During his leisure hours he had where he won eighteen guineas from strangers at elaborate information, the fruit of many years' expestudied mensuration in a way peculiar to himself, and cards.

rience and observation. He landed on the island in when certain of the girth and length of any piece of In the summer of 1788, Mr Metcalf lost his wife, the autumn of 1826, and continued there for several timber, could reduce its contents to feet and inches, who had brought him four children. He had before succeeding years, during which time he visited almost or could bring the dimensions of any building into this realised a handsome sum by his road and bridge every locality on its surface, possessed of any interest yards and feet. In short, he had formed for himself contracts, but he lost considerably in his old days by or importance. The ancient city of Kandy, long accurate and practical modes of mensuration. At this some cotton speculations into which he was led by the capital of the island, and standing very nearly time it chanced that a new piece of road, about three his enterprising spirit. In 1792, he gave up his ex- in its centre, is described by him as of considerable miles long, was wanted between Fearnsby and Min- tensi 'e engagements, and settled at Sposforth, near extent, judiciously planned, and situated on an anskip. Being well acquainted with the locality, he pro- Wetherby, in his native county. Here, having retained gular piece of ground, with the base resting on two posed to contract for it, and his offer was accepted. as much of his fortune as to secure a comfortable in- large artificial lakes. Describing a part of the enThe materials for the road were to be taken from one dependence, he spent his latter days in happy ease, in virons, Major Forbes says, “ The course of the rapid quarry, and there, with his wonted activity, he erected the bosom of his family. He died in the year 1802. Mahavilla-ganga winds below; the green hills and temporary houses, hired horses, fixed racks and man

forest-clad mountains, rising to a height of upwards of gers, and set the work a-going with great spirit. He

six thousand feet, lie beyond ; and this, with clumps completed the road much sooner than was expected

FORBES'S CEYLON.*

of palmyra, tufts of cocoa-nut trees, and every variety by the trustees, and in every way to their satisfaction. CEYLON is an island in the Southern Ocean, lying off the of forest foliage,” constitute the scenery close around

Thus commenced the most remarkable portion of promontory of Hindustan, extending to two hundred Kandy. The chief native buildings are the temples of this man's life. Metcalf soon undertook other road and seventy miles in length, with an average breadth Buddha, of which the town contains several, and two contracts, and, strange to say, succeeded in laying of one hundred miles, and a superficial area of 25,000 colleges for the ordination of the Buddhist priests. down good lines where others were hopeless of success. square miles. It is situated between 6 and 10 degrees of There are also temples to the gods Nata, Vishnu, In Yorkshire, Lancashire, Cheshire, and Derbyshire, north latitude, and between 80 and 82 degrees of east Katagramma, and others, whom the Cingalese wor during a period of nearly forty years, he pursued the longitude. Though situated so near to the equinoctial ship as well as Buddha. They sacrifice, likewise, to employment of road-making

and bridge-building, being line, it enjoys a comparatively moderate clímate, its demons, a red cock being the usual offering on such by far the most noted and esteemed follower of such small extent permitting the sea-breezes to traverse it occasions. Major Forbes observes, that the doctrines occupations in those parts. The large bridge at entirely, and some of its mountainous ranges being of of the Buddhist religion are certainly unexceptionable Borough-bridge, and various others, might be named such an elevation as to supply the general surface with in many points, the fundamental maxim being as folas proofs of his abilities and success. An anecdote is abundance of moisture. The island contains no na- lows : “ Abstain from all sin, acquire all virtue, retold, which will exhibit the ingenious way in which he tural lakes, but its rivers and rills are innumerable, press thine own heart.” But these lessons are greatly overcame difficulties which staggered other surveyors. and the early inhabitants had built many artificial neglected in practice, and the actual religion consists Among the numerous roads for which he contracted, reservoirs of great size, which have ever been of the but of vile idolatries. For example, the author of the was one on the Manchester line, between Blackmoor highest benefit. The population is now believed to work before us witnessed a magnificent festival at and Standish-Foot. The original surveyor took the amount to 1,400,000. Rice, coffee, cocoa-nuts, with Kandy, in honour of Buddha's tooth, a relic supposed new line over deep marshes, which, in the opinion of cinnamon and various other spices, form the staple to have been saved from the funeral pile of the god. the trustees and all concerned, seemed only passable produce of the Cingalese country. The sugar-cane has This relic, which is merely a piece of discoloured by cutting or digging the earth till a solid bottom was also been cultivated of late years, and pearl-fishing is ivory, nearly two inches in length, and one inch in found. This plan appeared to Metcalf tedious and one of the most lucrative occupations on the coasts. diameter at the base, has for twenty-four hundred expensive, and he attempted to prove to the trustees From native records in the Pali language, a tongue years been an object of veneration ; and though the that such was the case ; but they were fixed in their bearing apparently the same relation to the vernacu- enemies of the Buddhists repeatedly endeavoured to original views, and only permitted the blind road-lar Cingalese that Sanscrit does to Hindostanee, a destroy it, it always came out of the danger in a maker to follow his own way, on condition that he pretty full account has been obtained of the history of triumphant and miraculous way. It was thrown into should afterwards execute their plan if his own failed. Ceylon. A list of the kings, with an accompanying a pit of burning charcoal, and burst out unscathed, Metcalf began to his task. The worst part of the line narrative of their chief acts, has been drawn up, emitting rays that “illumined the universe." It was on Standish Common, where a deep bog existed, extending over a period of not less than twenty-four was buried deep in the earth, and reappeared in which it seemed impossible to cut a road through. centuries, or from about the year 543 before Christ the centre of a golden lotus. It was placed on Metcalf set his men to work in cutting a line, and till the present time. In all, one hundred and sixty- an anvil to be destroyed, and sunk into the solid draining off the water, as far as that was possible. So five sovereigns are found on this list. Like other iron till the peril was over. Such are the sort of little progress, however, was at first made, that every eastern nations, the Cingalese can neither be said to tales told of the tooth. It is now kept in a temple body laughed at the poor blind man, who, it was have been civilised nor barbarous during the period in attached to the old palace of the Kandian kings, thought, would have given up the task in despair, had question, though they certainly retrograded rather being laid on a silver altar, and enclosed in six he had his eyes like other people. Nevertheless, he than advanced latterly. They built extraordinary and cases of gold, ornamented with rubies and precious proceeded unweariedly, until he had levelled the bog magnificent edifices; but these, with striking though stones, besides other valuable appendages. In the across, and he then ordered his men to collect heather not uncommon inconsistency, were

chiefly devoted to brilliant pageantry of the festival, the rich altar and or ling, and bind it in round bundles which they could the rites of a savage and contemptible idolatry. Till resplendent ornaments of the relic, the great size and span with their hands. These bundles were laid down after the middle of the eighteenth century, the Cinga: elegant decorations of the temporary buildings, the close together on the cut line, and successive bundles lese, though previously visited by Portuguese and peculiar and picturesque dresses of the chiefs, the laid over them again, after which they were covered Dutch traders and settlers, maintained their indepen- majestic elephants, and dense

mass of people, threw and pressed down with stones and gravel

. The issue dence without difficulty: About 1780, however, the an air of imposing grandeur over the spectacle. The was, that this portion of the road, when completed, islanders quarrelled with the Indo-British powers, Dalada (as they call the tooth) was exhibited, and

the was so remarkably firm and good, that it needed no and hostilities then commenced, which continued with offerings continued for three successive days. The repairs for twelve years, while other parts required little intermission down to the year 1815, when the offerings consisted of things the most heterogeneous ; frequent repairs. Even in winter it was perfectly dry. native king, a cruel despot, whose intolerable conduct gold chains and gold ornaments ; gold, silver, and

It was Metcalf's custom, in making purchases of precipitated the subjugation of his country, was copper coins, of all denominations; cloths, priests' wood, hay, or stones, to span the articles with his dethroned, and the island added to the dominions of vestments, flowers, sugar, areka-nuts, betel-leaves." arms, and then calculate the amount mentally. Hav- Britain, as what is termed a crown colony, with the The plate illustrative of this festival, given by Major ing learned the height, he could tell with great accu- consent of a large proportion of the inhabitants. The Forbes, presents us with a scene which perhaps excels racy what number of square yards were contained in Cingalese, in short, underwent the fate which inevitably in grandeur any thing ever imagined by poet or paina stack of grain, of any value between one and five follows the struggles of barbarism with civilisation. ter, unless it be some one of the conceptions of Martin. hundred pounds. His memory was astonishing, and Since 1815, Ceylon has been ruled by successive Bri- The Dalada ranks highest among the visible objects it was no doubt principally by this faculty that he tish governors, the present one being Mr Stewart of Cingalese worship; but very little inferior is the was enabled to traverse so many towns, and ride along Mackenzie of Seaforth.

amount of veneration bestowed on a mountain of a so many roads. While in York, on one occasion, a The aboriginal people of Ceylon were the Veddahs, remarkable character termed Adam's Peak, which is friend of his, the landlord of the George Inn, asked a tribe who yet live in a rude state in some districts situated in the interior of the island, and was visited him as a personal favour to guide a gentleman towards of it. The name of Cingalese, or Singhalese, was de- by our author. “ The Mahommedans believe that the Harrowgate. This place lay in Metcalf's own way, rived from Singha, the ancestor of an invading race first man, Adam, whose height was equal to a tall and he agreed to the request upon condition that his from Hindustan, by whom the dynasty of 543 B.C. was palm-tree, after having been thrown down from Parablindness was kept a secret from the gentleman. The founded. At the same era, according to the native dise, which was in the seventh heaven, alighted on pair accordingly started, both on horseback, and Met- chronicles, the great Buddha died, who was canonised as this peak, and remained standing on one foot until calf taking the lead. By a little dexterity, Metcalf the head of the old religion of the island, and in whose years of penitence

and suffering had expiated his contrived to pass some gates without leading to a sus honour were erected the majority of the numerous offence.” A mark, resembling a gigantic foot-print, picion of the truth, and finally the travellers entered temples, ruinous and entire, that are yet to be seen has suggested this story, which is of great antiquity. à forest beyond Knaresborough, where there was as in the country. The Buddhist religion is still the The Buddhists, however, assert the foot-mark to be yet no turnpike. Evening came on, and by asking prevalent native one, and this idol's relics are every that of Buddha, while the Hindoos declare it to have his companion if he saw lights in particular directions, where reverenced, as we shall have occasion after- been made by Siva in stepping over from Ceylon to Metcalf brought the journey to a safe close, though in wards to show from the work of Major Forbes. The the Continent. Hence the peak is an object of venethose days a man with all his eyes about him might Cingalese, like other oriental nations, are afflicted ration to all parties, and pilgrims visit the spot in wel have strayed from the path. On landing at the Grunby inn, the two travellers, took some warın Sports and Natural History of the Colony, and an Account of its

* Eleven Years in Ceylon. Comprising Sketches of the Field great numbers. The peak is 7420 feet high, and has

a level space on the summit enclosed by a wall. In liquor, after which Metcalf retired. Having noticed il istory and Antiquities. By Major Forbes, 78th Highlanders

the centre of this space stands an isolated granito some difficulty on the part of his companion in lifting 2 vols. Bentley, London,

stone or rock nine feet high, and on this is the Sacred Footstep. “ This venerated memorial is five feet seven

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came through the keeper's body.” We also hear very well instructed in the space of ten or twelve days. inches in length, two feet seven inches in breadth, much about the attachment of these creatures to their Her method was, neither to pluck their feathers, to sting and the very slight resemblance which it has to the keepers, but Major Forbes says that there are few of them with nettles, nor to make them drunk. She kept shape of a foot is given by a margin of plaster coloured the old hunting

elephants that have not killed people them alone for a day or two in pretty deep and rather narto resemble the rock. A temple built of wood sur employed about them at one time or another.

row buckets, darkened by a covering of boards, taking them

out two or three times a day to feed. After making the mounts the rock, and is retained in its exalted situa- In the course of an excursion, Major Forbes met tion by strong iron chains.” Of course there is a with a pretended conjuror, who was placed in rather capon in this manner wearied of solitude, she placed with priest's house here; the thing would be incomplete an awkward predicament. “He had, unluckily for advanced in growth, and gave them all their food in comwithout such an appendage. The peak is in itself a himself

, inspired his neighbours with a belief that he mon. If he ill used them, they were removed for a day very extraordinary natural object, leaving altogether had the power of bringing rain by performing certain or more, and then others were put to him. By such out of view the sacred foot-mark. The ascent is not ceremonies, and they had spread his fame over the means, varied as circumstances indicate, the capon will peculiarly difficult, though pilgrims often choose a whole district. From this, and his knowledge of the contract a habit of living amicably with two or three dangerous path, to increase their own merit. The appearance of the sky, and the various signs of coming chickens ; and the number being increased by degrees, rocks are covered with numerous inscriptions. showers or approaching heavy rains, he had long im he will at last begin to take pride in his flock, so that it

With the usual daring of the British soldier, Major posed on the people, and reaped considerable profit ; may be enlarged to any extent. Upon receiving his Forbes frequently prosecuted the chase of wild ele- until at last their eagerness of belief outrunning his liberty in these circumstances, he will sit

upon the chicks phants, which, as well as crocodiles, snakes, and powers of imposition, not only destroyed his occupa. cold, and will lead them to places where they may find leopards, are abundant in Ceylon. Seeing that single tion, but nearly cost him his life. It was urged by food, clucking like a hen to call them together when they hunters there attack the wild elephant, it may well be some one, and acquiesced in by all

, that as there was straggle. He will likewise redouble his clucking when he believed that the scene which took place at the killing no doubt of his ability to call down rain when neces- finds such dainties as a piece of bread or an earthworm, of the elephant at Exeter Change, some years ago, sary, it ought not to be left to his caprice when this which he will divide into several small portions to share caused great laughter in Ceylon. The newspapers took talent should be exercised ; and that, when required it amongst them all, and will seem delighted to see them out a plan of the scene, with the various objects regu- by a whole village, he should be obliged to furnish eat heartily of what he deprives himself of for their sake. larly marked, such as A, the elephant, B, a party of rain in sufficient quantities ; that, if he did so, he was After the few first days of training a capon, during which the Guards ; and, after all

, a return was given of the to be liberally rewarded ; but, on the contrary, if he he may probably injure or kill two or three chickens, the ammunition expended in killing an elephant in a cage. were contumacious, and refused to give the neces- task becomes easy, and when once he is taught, he will We may well believe, we say, that all this would appear sary supply, he should be tormented with thorns, retain the habit to the

end of his life, nor ever become very ridiculous to a sportsman familiar with scenes like or beat into compliance. Having suffered severe pur months during winter, he will take to it again in spring matted with thorny creeping plants, two elephants had his mind no longer to be a responsible agent for the nearly as well as before.” taken shelter. Creeping in on my breast for a few weather, and loudly and constantly denied having feet, I could distinguish the legs of a very large ele- any authority in the matter. This, although deemed

OUR LADY TENDUDIA, phant, whose head was concealed by the foliage ; but to be a falso excuse, proved a sufficient protection to

A LEGEND OF SPAIN another and smaller one was sufficiently visible to allow him during several seasons in which there was no WHOEVER passes at the present day through the of my taking a proper aim. Looking round,

and deficiency of moisture ; but, this season, the people, bounds of the ancient kingdom of Toledo, will proseeing the coolies (native attendants) close to the edge losing all patience from a long-continued drought, of the brushwood, and being myself

, as I imagined, which was destroying their crops, dragged the recusant bably behold, if he looks well around him, a small and ready to back out and face the expected charge of the cloud-compeller to various villages, in which he suf- ruinous chapel, exhibiting the traces of great arlarge elephant, I fired at the other, and it fell dead. fered severely for his supposed neglect. Even the chitectural beauty, and finely situated on the slope I then attempted to rise, but felt myself entangled by chief of the district had determined

on having rain of a rising eminence. Within the walls of the for I immediately felt the tangled mass of vegetation sent some of his followers to bring the conjuror to the chapel, the passer-by may also observe the vestiges of pressing forward upon me, while the big elephant village where water was most required : it was while various old monuments, bearing the nearly defaced rushed up almost close to where I lay, and there on his way there that he was fortunate enough to see names of Penalba, Saenz, and Correa. He will be told, stood uttering that fearful, shrill, trumpet-like squeal me, and, making his escape, threw himself on my pro- moreover, that the chapel was dedicated to Our Lady with which these animals generally accompany their tection. In the court-house the old man stated that Tendudia, and he will still hear the peasant making charge. I suppose it was unwilling to leave its fallen he was in terror of his life, for at present there was orisons to the Virgin, under that particular designacompanion ; for it did not follow the coolies, who ran every appearance of a continuance of the same dry off, but remained, trumpeting, and standing with its weather that had already done so much mischief ; and tion. If he be an Englishman, and acquainted, even round shapeless legs within

my reach, and its head then gravely proceeded to prove to me by many oaths slightly, with the language of Spain, it is furthermore almost over ine. I had a rifle, carrying a ball of two that it was no fault of his that no rain was forthcom- probable that the traveller will exclaim, “Our Lady ounces weight, in my hand ; this I raised perpendicu: ing. I had some difficulty in protecting this old im- Stop-the-day! (such being the meaning of the term resting on the ground, pulled the trigger. The shot his village, which was situated on one of the highest Tendudia); what an odd phrase to tack to the name of took effect; the animal staggered back eight or ten inhabited parts of the district ; and I have no doubt the Virgin !” And if he be so fortunate as to meet paces towards the dead one, while, by violent exer- the people thought, not that they had been the in- with some of the older peasants of the district, whose tions, I disentangled myself from my most uncom- fatuated dupes of a rogue, but that I was imposed memories are stored with the traditions of the past, fortable position.” The sportsman had no further upon by a churlish wizard."

he will in all likelihood hear the following legend of a trouble with the mortally wounded animal. His We learn from the work before us, as well as from position, however, was one of awful risk, because it is other sources, that

Ceylon is at present one of the most bygone age, in explanation of what has caused his impossible to tell whether an elephant's strength will flourishing of our eastern possessions. Being a crown

surprise.

In the thirteenth century, the Moors occupied a relatos several instances of fatal accidents from the and obligations to which the company-governed con- great portion of the kingdom of Spain, and were fierceness of wounded elephants. In one case a tinent of India is subject. In fact, it is a compara- engaged in continual contests with the Christian gentleman was crushed to death in an instant by an tively free country, and is rapidly improving both in natives. “Oh, brave times !" says an old chronicler of lephant, and two of his friends, on attacking the same its social and physical condition. Although greatly these wars, “when every knight of the cross was brave animal, would certainly have perished also, but for an opposed by local prejudice, we are glad to know that as his sword, and true as its Toledan steel ; and when accident. The creature charged, and came up to them, juvenile education, accompanied by a knowledge of to contend with the infidel was to win either the laurel when they had barely time to run a few feet aside. the English language, is making considerable progress of victory, or the palm of martyrdom! Oh, brave Happily they both went to the left, and the elephant --and what more is required in the first instance to times ! when every lady was beautiful as the day, and passed them, to their great surprise. It was after render its people intelligent and happy!

gave to her own true knight the encouragement of her wards discovered that one of their shots had destroyed Though we have been indebted for the matter of smiles, and the aid of her prayers !” of all the ladies the vision of the right eye. This accident saved their this article to the work of Major Forbes, yet our to whom the chronicler might here allude, none could lives.

desire to make our account of Ceylon of a general be more lovely than Donna Bibiana, daughter and The extent to which the natives carry their daring character has prevented us from giving a sufficient only child of Don Raymon de Penalba, a gentleman in attacking wild elephants, is extraordinary. When specimen of the actual style of the writer, and we of the kingdom of Toledo. Donna Bibiana, at the a kraal, or enclosed space for catching these animals, shall probably return, therefore, to these volumes on date of our story, was very young. She had large, soft, is formed, and a herd has been driven into it, the another occasion.

blue eyes, dark tresses, a sweet and smiling mouth, hunters pass backwards and forwards with great bold

with an elegant figure, and feet so small that it was ness, effecting the operation of noosing: Partly pro- TRAINING OF CAPONS FOR NURSES TO POULTRY. a miracle how even her slender figure moved about on tected by tame decoy elephants, they prick the feet of

Capons may be trained to perform the office of nurses them so firmly, though so lightly. Besides, she was the wild ones, and on the legs being lifted, throw to young poultry,

which they will execute in a better extremely good and charitable to the poor, though she nooses dexterously round them. The noosed elephant manner than even the mothers of the chicks. To those was far from being rich. As in duty bound, she de starts off, but is speedily brought to its knees, the hun- who attempt artificial incubation, this is a matter of tested the Moors very cordially, and in short had all the ter having given the other end of the rope several turns some consequence, for no hen will readily nurse any qualities of a pious and accomplished beauty of the day. round a tree. Major Forbes says he has seen men, sta- chickens but those which she has hatched; whereas, the No, Donna Bibiana, or rather her father, was not tioned on trees, actually descend on the backs of wild capon is an ever-ready nurse. In order to induce capons overburdened with riches. Don Raymon, in fact, elephants to dislodge them from the spot. When it is to take charge of chickens, Baptista Porta, an Italian depended very much upon his sword for subsistence. remembered that the animals are in an excited state, writer, suggests that the skin of their

breast should be like a bold warrior, and a good subject of his soveand that the hunter who comes within fair reach is imitated with nettles, so that they become anxious to reign, he had spent all his days in battling with the sure either to be crushed to death by their trunks, or allay the itchiness by sitting and rubbing upon the young Moors, who were no very distant

neighbours of his, to be spiked by their tusks, the coolness of the native chicks which are put to them. But this is a barbarous and had often enriched himself with their spoils, only moosers appears very, wonderful. On one occasion mend to inake the capon drunk with oat pickles steeped to be impoverished again by their reprisals

. But (says Major Forbes), “ an unlucky hunter was seized in brandy, believing that the capon in his intoxicated though this sort of work left Don Raymon sometime. by an elephant's trunk. Fortunately I regained my condition will fancy himself a hen, and so take charge of in poorish circumstances, such was never very long the gun, and still more fortunately, considering the hurry the chicks which crowd around him. This, however, is case; for when his coffers were empty, he always called in which I fired, the ball passed through the animal's a fully more vicious plan of education—not that it causes out his attendants, and led them once more against head without injuring the man, who was released the capon to acquire tippling habits, but because the the infidels. At the close of the year 1240, Don Rayfrom a gripe so severe that it had already forced blood animal, when tipsy, will most likely trample upon and kill mon set forth on one of these knightly expeditions. He from his mouth and nostrils.” Our author does not the young family consigned to his care. The best mode was accompanied by ten of his men, and with them conceive the elephant to be nearly so sagacious as is of training seems to be that mentioned by Mr Rannie, he crossed the Guadalquivir, directing his course tocommonly supposed, but allows that it occasionally in his volume on the Habits of Birds, in the Library of wards the Moorish province of Jaën. When he reached exhibits peculiar cunning." In 1829, one of the hunt- Entertaining

Knowledge. He quotes the proceedings of the country of the enemy, he separated his warriors, ing elephants at Matale, having shown symptoms of Réaumur, the naturalist. a capricious irritable temper, was in consequence se

Réaumur, he observes, “ having been convinced that sending five one way, and going himself in another cured to a tree near the stables; next day, as the under the care of the woman who had the charge of the this, when

suddenly, on rounding the corner of a hill

, such empirical practices were useless, put three capons direction with the remainder. He had scarcely done suddenly, seized him at the moment another elephant proceeded on a regular and rational plan of tuition, put pointed Moors, who were apparently making their way was passing, and pressed the unfortunate man against in force not for a single night or day, but continued for towards the demesnes of the Christians with much the this animal's front, until one of the thick blunt

tusks several days in succession, they caine out of her school same intentions as his own. But what says the pro

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SIMPLE PLEASURES TIIE BEST.

verb? “He that goes for wool may come back shorn;" It was not long ere they passed the line of Raymon's the Catholic from the Orangeman. The very beasts in and such was doomed to be the fate of the doors on castle, and came upon the traces of the Moors. The those days shall have laws to protect them. Those days this occasion. Don Raymon was as discreet as bold. horses of the latter had performed a long journey from shall be days of great liglit. Men shall plough without His first act, on seeing the Moors, was to put his bugle Jaën in the morning, and were far from being so fresh horses (steam plough), they shall spin without hands to his lips, and sound the signal of recal to the other as those of the Christians. Don Martin pressed the (power-loom); they shall calculate by wheels ( Babbage's division of his band. Then, turning to those with latter to their full speed. He was ever in front, and machine); the sun shall engrave for them (the Daguerhim, he bade them prepare for the attack, but at the ascended every spot of rising ground with the speed telegraph). One machine shall print in one hour many same time, like a prudent man, he cried, “ Mark the of lightning, scanning the horizon for the first glimpse thousand books, each of which shall take a man many leader of the infidels ; take him alive! His cloak of of the fde. “On! on! he cried, exultingly, at length; days to read ; a man may buy a book for a penny; for scarlet, with its gay, gold fringes, and his diamonded “I behold the enemies of our faith !" The intelli- a penny he may send it to the ends of the empire. They scimitar, speak of riches. We must have a sweeping gence inspired the pursuers with new zeal. They now shall read the rocks instead of a book (geology), and deransom from him."

saw in the distance a cloud of dust, and occasionally cipher the history of beings which lived and died ere While his men attacked without delay the rest of the gleam of bright weapons struck by the rays of the man existed. In the heavens new stars shall be disthe Moors, Don Raymon, who never desired others to sun. Slowly but progressively they drew nearer to covered: some, sisters of the earth ; some, brothers of do what he could do for himself, rode sword in hand the flying Moors. But, alas ? the sun was rapidly the sun (the planets, five in number, discovered since against the leader of the enemy. The latter defended sinking towards the horizon. If the night set in the American war; and the double stars by Sir William himself bravely, but seeing his companions cut down before the encounter, the Moors would inevitably find Herschel); and of all the colours of the rainbow. In those one by one around him, he turned his bridle-rein, and a secure refuge in the mountains.

days, likewise, they shall read the Pyramids (Young's betook himself to flight. The speed and freshness of “Oh, our Lady!” cried the anxious Don Martin, and Champollion's discoveries). They shall find out the his horse would have saved him, had not the other “ leave not a young Christian maiden in the hands of mouth of the Niger and the Magnetic Pole: the way to

every thing shall have been discovered but the way to be half of the Spanish party, on hearing the signal call, these infidels ?”

happy.-Phanix (Edinburgh newspaper). Let us liope made a circuit of the hill, and so met and seized the As he spoke, he pressed on his companions to fresh that in time the way to be happy shall also be discovered. Meor in his flight. With his captive, and the spoils speed. But the Arab coursers, with their outstretched of the rest of the enemy, the Christian chief made his necks, seemed to swallow the space before them, and

When the inordinate hopes of youth, which proroke way back, with all due haste, to his own territory. although the distance between the parties was always their own disappointment, have been sobered down by

Don Raymon de Penalba was not wrong in his diminishing, the chase was still continued. When longer experience and more extended views, when the supposition that the Moor was a man of wealth and at length the Christians came almost within spear keen contentions and eager rivalries which employed our distinction. Almoreb, as he was named, was a youth length of the Moors, the sun nearly touched the riper years have expired or been abandoned-when we of the highest rank and greatest possessions in the horizon, rendering it a matter of great doubt if the have seen, year after year, the objects of our fiercest hoskingdom of Jaën. His ransom was fixed by Penalba encounter, when it did take place, would be effectual tility and of our fondest affections lie down together in at 1500 maravedis of gold, and whilst they were waited in the rescue of Bibiana.

the hallowed peace of the grave-when ordinary pleafor, the Moor was taken by his captor to the castle “Oh, our Lady !” exclaimed Don Martin in tones sures and amusements begin to be insipid, and the gay where Donna Bibiana usually resided. Almoreb saw of agonised entreaty, “ Nostra Segnora, Ten du dia! derision which seasoned them to appear flat and importhe young lady, and immediately conceived a violent Ten du dia!"

tunate--when we reflect how often we have mourned and passion for her. Being a bigoted follower of the pro- The legend tells that the entreaty was heard, and been comforted, what opposite opinions we have succesphet, however, he at first only proposed to the Chris- that the light of day did not pass away so early as

sively maintained and abandoned, to what inconsistent tian maiden to fly with him at the close of bis im- usual. If you, having a strong faith in natural causes, quently the objects of our pride have proved the sources

habits we have gradually been formed, and how freprisonment, without speaking of any intervening were to suggest to the Spanish narrators of the tradi- of our shame, we are naturally led to recur to the days ceremony, such as is usually gone through on these tion that the evening was probably nothing more than of our childhood, and to retrace the whole of our career, occasions. Being very handsome, and having been a remarkably fine one, you would only be pitied for and that of our contemporaries, with feelings of far greatly admired by the youthful beauties of Jaën, the your scepticism. However this may be, the Moors greater humility and indulgence than those by which it gallant Moor was rather disappointed by the coldness were forced to wheel and sustain the shock of their had been accompanied; to think all vain but affection with which Donna Bibiana listened to his advances. pursuers. For nearly an hour afterwards, a bitter and honour, the simplest and cheapest pleasures the But his passion grew every day stronger, and at length conflict was kept up, which was terminated by Don truest and most precious, and generosity of sentiment he made distinct proposals for her hand to her father. Martin Saenz passing his knightly sword through the the only mental superiority, which ought either to be

The intermarriage of Moors with Christians was by body of Almoreb, after a gallant single combat, viewed wished for or admitted.—Jeffrey. no means uncommon in those days, notwithstanding by the whole of both parties. The rest of the Moors

BENEFICIAL INFLUENCE OF TEA. all the hostile struggles between the two races. Don immediately surrendered, and Donna Bibiana was not

The beneficial results of the introduction of tea and Raymon was dazzled by the wealth and rank of the only recovered, but as the band of Almoreb

was almost coffee have

been strangely overlooked or underrated. It Moor, and being a kind father, whose anxiety to entirely composed of young men of rank who had has been, however, well described as leading to the acquire fortune had a special reference to the future joined him in his expedition, a great spoil was obtained most wonderful change that ever took place in the diet welfare of his daughter, the good knight thought through the capture and ultimate ransom of the both in a moral and physical point of view. These bevermarriage just as fair a way of attaining his aim as Moorish prisoners.

ages have the admirable advantage of affording stimulus war. He therefore very earnestly recommended to Don Raymon, to prevent any such annoying ad, without producing intoxication, or any of its evil conseDonna Bibiana the acceptance of Almoreb’s pro- ventures afterwards, immediately bestowed the hand quences. Lovers of tea and coffee are, in fact, rarely posals. But the young lady was of a different way of of his daughter on Don Martin. Donna Bibiana and drinkers; and hence the use of these beverages has benethinking, and gave a direct negative to the suit of her husband were so grateful for the event just re- fited both manners and morals. Raynal observes, that the Moor. It has been mentioned that the young corded, that, in commemoration thereof, they built a the use of tea has contributed more to the sobriety of the lady, was very pious, and had a proportionate dislike chapel, and distinguished it by the name of the chapel Chinese than the severest laws, the most eloquent disof the infidels. But truth compels us to say that of Our Lady Tendudia.” From that time forth the courses, or the

best treatises on morality.” Tea is so she was greatly guided in her opinions on this occa- pious people of the country around

paid their orisons little drunk in Germany, that it acts like medicine when sion by a distant relative of her own, a young and to Nostra Segnora under that name. Such is the taken by a native; and persons decline a cup of good handsome cavalier, by name Don Martin Saenz, whose legend attached to the ruins which the traveller may bohea, with “No, I thank you ; I am quite well at preexhortations were peculiarly adverse to the wishes of see, if he chooses, near the springs of the far-famed sent." —Hints for the Table. the Moor. Don Martin had a castle and some few | Guadalquivir. There were laid, in the lapse of time,

THE SPARROW AND THE CAGED BIRD. acres of land near the banks of the Azuer, and all the the mortal remains of the fair Bibiana, with many a

FOUNDED ON AN ANECDOTE RELATED IN THE NATURALIST'S wishes of Donna Bibiana were bounded to the sove- Saenz of her blood and race; and there, also, were laid reignty of this castle, and of the heart of Don Martin. many of the name of Correa and Penalba, to whose

I dote on every little bird The latter had a particular aversion to the Moors, families the chapel remained ever a spot of strong

That twitters in the sunwhich had been augmented greatly since the capture and peculiar interest.

I love them all, from having heard of Almoreb. He would at once have provoked the

The simple tale of one! Moor, it is probable, to single combat, had not the

THE PROPHET OP 1770.

In cage that 'neath the eaves was hung 1500 golden maravedis of Don Raymon been depen- Let us suppose ourselves carried back sixty years in

When morn put forth her smiles,

A little yellow warbler sung dent upon the safe return of the captive to his friends. the stream of time, and to live again, the youthful sub

A song of distant isles ! Therefore Don Martin contented himself with for-ject of the young king George 111. Let us likewise ima

One morn, when loud his melody, tifying Bibiana by every possible means in her resolve gine that in those days the divine spirit of prophecy had

There came on idle wing to refuse the proffered suit. come upon us, unveiling to our sight the events of the

A sparrow, and, from sympathy, Having received his ransom-money, and seeing that shall be rent in twain (American war in 1776). In fifteen future." In seven years from this time the British empire

Thus seem'a to say or sing :Don Raymon would not press his daughter against years men shall rise from the earth and fly through the

“ Fair captive ! why this joyous lay, her wishes, Almoreb paid his captor, and withdrew to

When sad should be thy heart? air (invention of balloons, 1780). In twenty years the his own country, to meditate plans which he was not French monarchy, the oldest that ever was, and now so

Art thinking of a happier day,

Forgetful what thou art? long of carrying into execution. But a few weeks had flourishing, shall come to an end. A virtuous prince

Perchance, while high thy music floats, passed away, when Don Raymon received a letter, ap- (Louis XVI. 1793), not yet king, shall in twenty-three

Where ne'er thy wings may flee, parently signed by Don Pelayo Correa, Grand-Master years lay down his life on the scaffold: his wife and sister

Thy spirit rises with thy notes, of the Order of St James, desiring him to come instantly shall share the same fate. In those same days, news shall

For they, at least, are free! to Ciudad-Real, with Don Martin Saenz, and every travel with the speed of the wind, and what was done

Thy song goes forth among the trecs, man-at-arms whom he could command. The knight at mid-day shall be known at the farthest bounds of the

And up to heaven's high donie,

And haply berrs thee o'er the seas instantly obeyed the wishes of the grand-master; but kingdom ere the setting of the sun (the Telegraph, 1794).

To thy own island home! scarcely had he left his castle, when Almoreb, at the In twenty-six years a conqueror shall arise (Bonaparte),

Poor bird ! could'st thou come forth with me, to head of a hundred Moors, appeared before the place. who shall water his horses in the Nile, the Jordan, the

I'd lead thee to the grove, The gates being opened by a servant whom he had Tagus, and the Borysthenes. This conqueror shall re

Where all that's known of slavery bribed during his captivity, the Moor entered, and restored (dethronement of Pius VII.) Finally, he whom store the chair of St Peter, and throw down what he had

Is servitude to love ! carried off Bibiana, in spite of her tears and cries. the world could not contain, shall die'a captive on a rocky

How sweet to join our airy chase, She was placed in a litter, and without delay her island (St Helena), neither in Europe, Asia, Africa, nor

Or cower within thy nest,

Yet only bound to that one place captors took the road to Jaën. America, but in the midst of the vast ocean: a few feet of

Because thou loved'st it best! Only one of the men left in the castle had escaped earth his empire, a willow his monument. In those days

Alas, alas ! the wish is vain,

71,6llid the soimitars of the Moors. He immediately directed metals shall be found which float on the water and burn

Thy prison-bars are strong :

E101 his course to Ciudad-Real, and arrived just in time to under it (sodium and potassium, discovered by Sir Hum

But I will come to thce again, find Penalba stupified with the tidings that Don phry Davy). Ships shall stem the stormiest ocean without

Adiou, sweet bird of song !" Pelayo had sent no message for him. The servant sails or oars (steam-ships). Carriages shall run without

Away it flew, but day by day,

* To the other Roturn'd with gather'd food,

da to 2100 cleared up the mystery. “ Let us pursue the ruffians horses, with the speed of the wind (locomotive engines).

And through long months, the watchers say, instantly,” cried Don Martin Saenz, as he rushed out (The ordinary speed of the wind is 35 miles an hour; that

Went on this work of good. for his war-horse, on which he soon appeared, urging shall be conveyed from India to the mighty Babylon in a of the engines on the Great Western Railway is 39.) Men

I felt my holiest thoughts

ascend, czy Penalba to follow him. Indeed, Don Raymon and month: from America in ten days: from one end of

Suoh heaven-taught love to trace, gier Pelayo were scarcely less eager to commence the pur, England to the other in eight hours. Bridges shall hang

And deem'd, perchance, this captive's friend, suit.' Hastily gathering a band of nearly a hundred by a chain over the sea, while roads shall be made under

The Howard of its race! followers, they scoured across the country in the it' (the Menai Bridge and the Thames Tunnel). To those direction of Jaën, from which, fortunately, Ciudad-days of bloodshed shall succeed days of liberty. The LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by W. S. Real was not much farther away than Raymon's castle, Negro shall no longer be bought or sold. The slave shall

MAGAZINE.

Orr, Paternoster Row; and sold by all booksellers and nows though lying at a different point of the compass. be set free. The Greek shall be freed from the Turk;

men.-Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriarse

Seoleman,

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by a passing darques

tation will in every ..

that self-control hea arina, vitae

BAD TEMPER.

such an emotion in the mind as a consequence of a Bad temper, though a thing which every body in the

sense or mental faculty disagreeably affected, is as joet ve As... world either manifests in himself, or suffers from in certain as any thing in nature, and indeed takes place than by az others, is not well understood. If its physiological through the force of natural laws, as fixed in their is moet early ceram causes and nature were generally known, its powerful operation as any of those disclosed to us in experi- the proud maa bain action, as the blight of domestic happiness, might per- mental philosophy. haps be in some degree mitigated.

In mature life, the senses are the same in number, ing harsh and crea soara The nursery gives us a strong hint of the real nature but the mental faculties are rather more numerous. of bad temper. It is well known to all who have had some of the sensations, usually alone called physical

, self-control of the in:
faculties have begun to act, if blessed by nature with hurt or a cut does not make the full grows mano con tepedenie invariable, and som
fortable, and not subjected to external injury of any not have

beat a stool
, after falling over it, as Elector max permit

, or the self-centered everyone wants to phrase of the occasion, good tempered. Health

and system is now much more jirritable

than in carly life constitution

, by which, wheneva sa good temper are, in fact, synonymous at that period The mental faculties, both those which perceive

and ably affected, or a disagreeable seks. of life. From this it may fairly be presumed,

that

, reason, and those which feel and prompt to action, is experienced, one particular faculty when children are peevish and fractious, they are not are in their highest activity, though not in all persons organisation, which may be described as the com in a sound and comfortable state, but in the experience alike powerful and active. Now, also, men are en

or Destructive sentiment, is called its bus nante of uneasy sensations of some kind. Often, when an gaged in the struggles which attend social life in all activity, according to the amount and every infant, usually good tempered, takes a sudden and its shapes, exposed to frequent disappointment and offence, and the degree of strength and many apparently inexplicable fit of crying, it is found on positive injury, and, therefore, more liable to have which may characterise that particular facuity is examination that a pin has taken a wrong direction in their faculties visited with disagreeable affections. individual. The manifestations of this sentabei its dress, or something troubles the stomach, or in some There is now, to be sure, the greatest bodily vigour many forms, from the extreme of physical vubezen other way the child is undergoing suffering. The and the strongest exercise of will and reason ; as also down to the sly gibe and the peevish exelametin. direct explanation of all crying and fretfulness in early the greatest disposition to act upon a square with the At first sight, it appears a thing created only

for evil; childhood is, simply—uneasy physical sensation. ordinary ways of the world, and afford

no ground for but there can be no reasonable doubt that it has been The sources or causes of fretfulness or bad temper depreciatory remark. Yet, upon the whole, there is implanted in our nature for wise ends, and, under in a child of the age indicated, are very few, because a greater chance of our appearing splenetic and irri- good regulation, would do nothing but good service. there are then only a few sensations. The child can table in manhood than in youth.

Such is the faculty which every disagrecable sensation feel a flesh wound or sore; or a derangement of the Men, it is obvious, are endowed by nature with very arouses in our minds. The opposite feeling, Benevoalimentary functions ; or a want of those appliances different degrees of general nervous irritability, some lence, is in like manner roused when any faculty is which may be ranged under the term bodily comfort ; being alive to every casual impression, like harps so agreeably affected. Hence the gracious smile which but it can feel little else. Nervous irritability, though finely strung that the passing air brings forth their in most cases follows praise, the good humour which in the constitution, is not then developed, and scarcely music ; while others appear nearly torpid, and a the bon-vivant expresses over a well-furnished table, can become the source of any unpleasant sensations. great middle class are not remarkable in either way. the kindness which a talkative man shows to a good Even the senses are as yet dormant, and therefore What is called the temperament of genius seems to be listener, and so forth. cannot become a medium for the approach of disagree- nothing but extreme nervous irritability: it was ex- It is the frequent exhibition of this malevolent able affections. We may here remark, that this limi- emplified in Tasso, Rousseau, and our own Burns and faculty which constitutes what is called bad temper. tation of the sources of uneasiness in an infant renders Byron. Great mental ability is often found apart We repeat, wherever bad temper is found, it is all prognostications of the future temper of a human from it ; but is also often found so bound up with nothing more or less than the revenge of unpleasant being from cradle manifestations, extremely liable it, that those very men who, by their delight sensations. Some men are said to be of habitual bad to error. One who is hereafter to be the victim of ful effusions, charm their fellow-creatures unto all temper; they are constantly angry, or snappish, or nervous irritability, and from other causes to be re- time, are themselves the most unhappy that live, be- peevish. In many such cases, permanent uneasiness markable for bad temper, may be a healthy, well-kept ing exposed to a thousand sources of suffering which in the bodily feelings from bad health is the cause of infant, and therefore placid. Another, who, in adult others have no experience of. Nor is this extreme the malady, for such it may be called. Often, again, it life, is to be quite the reverse, may suffer in the first irritability only born with men. It often happens that arises from the habitual dissatisfaction of some mental few months of his existence from ill health, mistreat- persons originally sound, from the long and incessant faculty ; for example, self-esteem may be in a constant ment, or some accidental sore, and therefore appear action of certain circumstances, become in time liable gangrene in consequence of some degrading or supvery ill tempered. But we are anticipating. to it. Smollett was an example. He was in early life a posedly degrading circumstances in past or present life;

As tho faculties of a child increase, as sense after cheerful and agreeable man ; but, entering upon a lite- the feeling of attachment may have been so wrung sense awakens, and one feeling after another becomes rary career, he tasked his brain so severely during a and tortured by a disappointment, that all loving active in his nature, the sources of agreeable sensa- long course of years, and was exposed to so many ex- may be declared, in the language of Amiens, “ mere tions may be said to be multiplied, for there is not one asperating annoyances of various kinds, that he at folly ;” or the hopes of life in general may have been sense, or faculty, or feeling, which is not primarily de- length became irritable to an extreme degree, though 50 blighted, that misanthropy is the consequence. To signed to be a means of giving us pleasure. There is never altogether losing the benevolent and manly be habitually under the influence of envy and jealousy, not, however, one of these senses or faculties which is feelings which so largely inspired him in his better is no uncommon condition : while such an influence not also liable to be disagreeably affected. This may be, days. In both cases, great irritability may be consi- lasts, there must be bad temper, for these are disagreeeither by its being disappointed of some object which it dered as unsoundness; only, it is in the first case the able affections of certain of the faculties. Of occadesires, or being acted upon by something the opposite to result of circumstances which have taken place before sional bad temper, or bad temper only on particular that which excites it agreeably. For example, the sense birth, and in the second, of circumstances which have points, most readers must be acquainted with examples. of taste may be disappointed of some expected or desired taken place in the course of life.

The mildest of men are found to have some little treat, or may be called upon to palate a nauseous drug; Then men are born with the senses and faculties in point in their constitution, liable to be so galled as to the desire of approbation may be thwarted in an effort every conceivable variety of power and tendency to call forth angry feelings. An honest farmer whom to become dux of the class, or subjected to the severest activity ; and, as they go on in life, those various na- we knew in early life, the most benignant and kindly mortification in a public whipping ; a boy who hoards tural proportions are further varied by the different of human beings, was never known to be angry except marbles and tops may be thwarted in a wish to collect circumstances of individuals calling, in each, different when he saw a fence broken down, or an idle herd-boy a few more, or enraged by losing at play a large por- faculties into vivid and habitual action, and leaving allowing the cattle to get amongst the corn. Another tion of what he previously possessed. In numberless others in comparative dormancy. Every one of these amiable man, who was said to be fond of the pleasures various ways, the juvenile faculties may be offended, faculties in every individual is liable to be disagreeably of the table, was considered by the working people and in each case there will be an experience of angry affected in the proportion of its natural or acquired under him as not safely approachable

, especially for feeling as the natural consequence. This feeling may activity; and what may be called the predominating any thing like a favour, during the hollow and hungry not find vent, or it may be checked by an effort of or most conspicuously active faculty, is always the hour before dinner. A third we have known, whose reflection, or from some other cause ; but the rise of most liable to be so affected. Thus, there is no per- I irritable point regarded nise arrangements in his

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