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verb? “Ile that goes for wool may come back shorn;" It was not long ere they passed the line of Raymon's the Catholic from the Orangeman. The very beasts in and such was doomed to be the fate of the Moors on castle, and came upon the traces of the Moors. The those days shall have laws to protect them. Those days this occasion. Don Raymon was as discreet as bold. horses of the latter had performed a long journey from shall be days of great light. "Men shall plough without His first act, on seeing the Moors, was to put his bugle Jaën in the morning, and were far from being so fresh horses "(steam plough), they shall spin without hands to his lips, and sound the signal of recal to the other as those of the Christians. Don Martin pressed the (power-loom); they shall calculate by whcels (Babbage's him, he bade them prepare for the attack, but at the ascended every spot of rising ground with the speed telegraph). One machine shall print in one hour many division of his band. Then, turning to those with latter to their full speed.lle was ever in front, and machine); the sun shall engrave for them (the Daguersame time, like a prudent man, he cried, “ Mark the of lightning, scanning the hurizon for the first glimpse thousand books, each of which shall take a man many leader of the infidels ; take him alive! His cloak of of the foe. "On! on! he cried, exultingly, at length; days to read ; a man may buy a book for a penny; for scarlet, with its gay gold fringes, and his diamonded “I behold the enemies of our faith !" The intelli

a penny he may send it to the ends of the empire. They scimitar, speak of riches. We must have a sweeping gence inspired the pursuers with new zeal. They now shall read the rocks instead of a book (geology), and deransom from him.”

saw in the distance a cloud of dust, and occasionally cipher the history of beings which lived and died ere While his men attacked without delay the rest of the gleam of bright weapons struck by the rays of the man existed. In the heavens new stars shall be disthe Moors, Don Raymon, who never desired others to sun. Slowly but progressively they drew nearer to covered : some, sisters of the earth ; some, brothers of do what he could do for himself, rode sword in hand the flying Moors. But, alas? the sun was rapidly the sun (the planets, five in number, discovered since against the leader of the enemy. The latter defended sinking towards the horizon. If the night set in the American war; and the double stars by Sir William Aimself bravely, but seeing his companions cut down before the encounter, the Moors would inevitably find Herschel); and of all the colours of the rainbow. In those one by one around him, he turned his bridle-rein, and a secure refuge in the mountains.

days, likewise, they shall read the Pyramids (Young's betook himself to flight. The speed and freshness of Oh, our Lady !" cried the anxious Don Martin, mouth of the Niger and the Magnetic Pole: the way to

and Champollion's discoveries). They shall find out the his horse would have saved him, had not the other " leave not a young Christian maiden in the hands of every thing shall have been discovered but the

way to be half of the Spanish party, on hearing the signal call, these infidels ?".

happy.--Phonix (Edinburgh newspaper). Let us liope made a circuit of the hill, and so met and seized the As he spoke, he pressed on his companions to fresh that in time the way to be happy shall also be discovered. Meor in his flight. With his captive, and the spoils speed. But the Arab coursers, with their outstretched

SIMPLE PLEASURES TJIE BEST. of the rest of the enemy, the Christian chief made his necks, seemed to swallow the space before them, and

When the inordinate hopes of youth, which provoke way back, with all due haste, to his own territory. although the distance between the parties was always their own disappointment, have been sobered down by

Don Raymon de Penalba was not wrong in his diminishing, the chase was still continued. When longer experience and inore extended views, when the supposition that the Moor was a man of wealth and at length the Christians came almost within spear keen contentions and eager rivalries which employed our distinction. Almoreb, as he was named, was a youth length of the Moors, the sun nearly touched the riper years have expired or been abandoned--when we of the highest rank and greatest possessions in the horizon, rendering it a matter of great doubt if the have seen, year after year, the objects of our fiercest hoskingdom of Jaën. His ransom was fixed by Penalba encounter, when it did take place, would be effectual tility and of our fondest affections lie down together in at 1500 maravedis of gold, and whilst they were waited in the rescue of Bibiana.

the hallowed peace of the grave-when ordinary pleafor, the Moor was taken by his captor to the castle “Oh, our Lady !” exclaimed Don Martin in tones sures and amusements begin to be insipid, and the gay where Donna Bibiana usually resided. Almoreb saw of agonised entreaty, “ Nostra Segnora, Ten du dia! derision which seasoned them to appear flat and impor

tunate—when we reflect how often we have mourned and the young lady, and immediately conceived a violent Ten du dia!" passion for her. Being a bigoted follower of the pro- The legend tells that the entreaty was heard, and been comforted, what opposite opinions we have succestian maiden to fly with him at the close of bis im- usual. If you, having a strong faith in natural causes, quently the objects of our pride have proved the sources phet, however, he at first only proposed to the Chris- that the light of day did not pass away so early as sively maintained and abandoned, to what inconsistent prisonment, without speaking of any intervening were to suggest to the Spanish narrators of the tradi- of our shame, we are naturally led to recur to the days ceremony, such as is usually gone through on these tion that the evening was probably nothing more than of our childhood, and to retrace the whole of our career, occasions. Being very handsome, and having been a remarkably fine one, you would only be pitied for and that of our contemporaries, with feelings of far greatly admired by the youthful beauties of Jaën, the your scepticism. However this may be, the Moors greater humility and indulgence than those by which it gallant Moor was rather disappointed by the coldness were forced to wheel and sustain the shock of their had been accompanied; to think all vain but affection with which Donna Bibiana listened to his advances. pursuers. For nearly an hour afterwards, a bitter and honour, the simplest and cheapest pleasures the But his passion grew overy day stronger, and at length conflict was kept up, which was terminated by Don truest and most precious, and generosity of sentiment he made distinct proposals for her hand to her father. Martin Saenz passing his knightly sword through the the only mental superiority which ought either to be

The intermarriage of Moors with Christians was by body of Almoreb, after a gallant single combat, viewed wished for or admitted.Jeffrey. no means uncommon in those days, notwithstanding by the whole of both parties. The rest of the Moors

BENEFICIAL INFLUENCE OF TEA. all the hostile struggles between the two races. Don immediately surrendered, and Donna Bibiana was not

The beneficial results of the introduction of tea and Raymon was dazzled by the wealth and rank of the only recovered, but as the band of Almoreb was almost coffee have been strangely overlooked or underrated. It Moor, and being a kind father, whose anxiety to entirely composed of young men of rank who had has been, however, well described as leading to the acquire fortune had a special reference to the future joined him in his expedition, a great spoil was obtained most wonderful change that ever took place in the diet welfare of his daughter, the good knight thought through the capture and ultimate ransom of the both in a moral and physical point of view. These bevermarriage just as fair a way of attaining his aim as Moorish prisoners.

ages have the admirable advantage of affording stimulus war. He therefore very earnestly recommended to Don Raymon, to prevent any such annoying ad, without producing intoxication, or any of its evil conseDonna Bibiana the acceptance of Almoreb's pro- ventures afterwards, immediately bestowed the hand quences. Lovers of tea and coffee are, in fact, rarely posals. But the young lady was of a different way of of his daughter on Don Martin. Donna Bibiana and drinkers ; and hence the use of these beverages has benethinking, and gave a direct negative to the suit of her husband were so grateful for the event just re- fited both manners and morals. Raynal observes, that the Moor. It has been mentioned that the young corded, that, in commemoration thereof, they built a the use of tea has contributed more to the sobriety of the lady was very pious, and had a proportionate dislike chapel, and distinguished it by the name of the chapel Chinese than the severest laws, the most eloquent disof the infidels. But truth compels us to say that of Our Lady Tendudia." From that time forth the courses, or the best treatises on morality.” Tea is so she was greatly guided in her opinions on this occa- pious people of the country around paid their orisons little drunk in Germany, that it acts like medicine when sion by a distant relative of her own, a young and to Nostra Segnora under that name. Such is the taken by a native; and persons decline a cup of good handsome cavalier, by name Don Martin Saenz, whose legend attached to the ruins which the traveller may bohea, with No, I thank you ; I am quite well at preexhortations were peculiarly adverse to the wishes of see, if he chooses, near the springs of the far-famed sent.”-Hints for the Table. the Moor. Don Martin had a castle and some few Guadalquivir. There were laid, in the lapse of time, acres of land near the banks of the Azuer, and all the the mortal remains of the fair Bibiana, with many a

THE SPARROW AND THE CAGED BIRD. wishes of Donna Bibiana were bounded to the sove- Saenz of her blood and race; and there, also, were laid

FOUNDED ON AN ANECDOTE RELATED IN THE NATURALIST'S reignty of this castle, and of the heart of Don Martin. many of the name of Correa and Penalba, to whose

bla

I dote on every little bird The latter had a particular aversion to the Moors, families the chapel remained ever a spot of strong

That twitters in the sunwhich had been augmented greatly since the capture and peculiar interest.

I love them all, from having heardvelt of Almoreb. He would at once have provoked the

The simple tale of one ! Moor, it is probable, to single combat, had not the

THE PROPHET OF 1770.

In cage that 'neath the caves was hungan 1500 golden maravedis of Don Raymon been depen- Let us suppose ourselves carried back sixty years in

When morn put forth her smiles,
A little yellow warbler

sung dent upon the safe return of the captive to his friends. the stream of time, and to live again, the youthful sub

A song of distant isles ! Therefore Don Martin contented himself with for-ject of the young king George Iu. Let us likewise ima

unto One morn, when loud his melody, tifying Bibiana by every possible means in her resolve gine that in those days the divine spirit of prophecy had

There came on idle wing to refuse the proffered suit. come upon us, unveiling to our sight the events of the

A sparrow, and, from sympathy, Having received his ransom-money, and seeing that shall be rent in twain (American war in 1776). In fifteen future. In seven years from this time the British empire

Thus seem'd to say or sing :Don Raymon would not press his daughter against years men shall rise from the earth and fly through the

"Fair captive! why this joyons lay, her wishes, Almoreb paid his captor, and withdrew to

When sad should be thy heart? air (invention of balloons, 1780). In twenty years the his own country, to meditate plans which he was not French monarchy, the oldest that ever was, and now so

- Art thinking of a happier day,

The Forgetful what thou art? long of carrying into execution. But a few weeks had fourishing, shall come to an end. A virtuous prince W Perchance, while high thy music floats, passed away, when Don Raymon received a letter, ap- (Louis XVI. 1793), not yet king, shall in twenty-three

Where ne'er thy wings may flee, parently signed by Don Pelayo Correa, Grand-Master years lay down his life on the scaffold: his wife and sister Thy spirit rises with thy notes, of the Order of St James, desiring him to come instantly shall share the same fate. In those same days, news shall

For they, at lenst, are free! to Ciudad-Real, with Don Martin Saenz, and every travel with the specd of the wind, and what was done Thy song goes forth among the treos,

And up to heaven's high done, man-at-arms whom he could command. The knight at mid-day shall be known at the farthest bounds of the

And haply bears thee o'er the seas instantly obeyed the wishes of the grand-master; but kingdom ere the setting of the sun (the Telegraph, 1794).

To thy own island home! scarcely had he left his castle, when Almoreb, at the In twenty-six years a conqueror shall arise (Bonaparte),

Poor bird ! could'st thou come forth with me, head of a hundred Moors, appeared before the place. who shall water his horses in the Nile, the Jordan, the The gates being opened by a servant whom he had store the chair of St Peter, and throw down what he had

Where all that's known of slavery

I'd lead thee to the grove, bribed during his captivity, the Moor entered, and restored (dethronement of Pius VII.) Finally, he whom

Is servitude to love ! carried off Bibiana, in spite of her tears and cries. the world could not contain, shall die'a captive on a rocky

How sweet to join our airy chase, She was placed in a litter, and without delay her island (St Helena), neither in Europe, Asia, Africa, nor

Or cower within thy nest,

Yet only bound to that one place captors took the road to Jaën.

America, but in the midst of the vast ocean: a few feet of You Because thou loved'st it best! Only one of the men left in the castle had escaped earth his empire, a willow his monument. In those days

Alas, alas! the wish is vain, the soimitars of the Moors. He immediately directed metals shall be found which float on the water and burn

Thy prison-bars are strong: his course to Ciudad-Real, and arrived just in time to under it (sodium and potassium, discovered by Sir Hum

But I will come to thce again, find Penalba stupified with the tidings that Don phry Davy). Ships shall stem the stormiest ocean without

Adieu, sweet bird of song!" Pelayo had sent no message for him. The servant sails or oars (steam-ships). Carriages shall run without

Away it flew, but day by day,

Return'd with gather'd food, cleared up the mystery. “Let us pursue the ruffians horses, with the speed of the wind (locomotive engines).

And through long months, the watchers say, instantly,” cried Don Martin Saenz, as he rushed out (The ordinary speed of the wind is 35 miles an hour; that

Went on this work of good. for his war-horse, on which he soon appeared, urging shall be conveyed from India to the mighty Babylon in a of the engines on the Great Western Railway is 39.) Men

I felt my holiest thoughts ascend, Penalba to follow him. Indeed, Don Raymon and month: from America in ten days: from one end of

Such heaven-taught love to trace, Pelayo were scarcely less eager to commence the pur, England to the other in eight hours. Bridges shall hang

And deem'd, perchance, this captive's friend, suit. Hastily gathering a band of nearly a hundred by a chain over the sea, while roads shall be made under

The Howard of its race!

Seotsman, followers, they scoured across the country in the it (the Menai Bridge and the Thames Tunnel). To those

J. H. direction of Jaën, from which, fortunately, Ciudad- days of bloodshed shall succeed days of liberty. The

LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by W.s. Real was not much farther away than Raymon's castle, Negro shall no longer be bonght or sold. The slave shall Orx, Paternoster Row; and sold by all booksellers and news though Dying at a different point of the compass. be set free. The Greek shall be freed from the Turk;

men.-Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars.

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DINBURG)

JOURNA

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF “ CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,”

“ CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,” &c.

NUMBER 436.

SATURDAY, JUNE 6, 1840.

Price Three HALFPENCE.

BAD TEMPER.

such an emotion in the mind as a consequence of a son who is not more apt to be irritated upon one subBad temper, though a thing which every body in the sense or mental faculty disagreeably affected, is as ject or set of subjects, or by one act or set of actions, world either manifests in himself, or suffers from in certain as any thing in nature, and indeed takes place than by any other. For example, the avaricious man others, is not well understood. If its physiological through the force of natural laws, as fixed in their is most easily earaged by the fear of a loss of money ; causes and nature were generally known, its powerful operation as any of those disclosed to us in experi- the proud man by an insult or a disgrace ; the coward action, as the blight of domestic happiness, might per- mental philosophy.

by a passing danger; the benevolent man by witnesshaps be in some degree mitigated.

In mature life, the senses are the same in number, ing harsh and cruel actions. The liability to the irriThe nursery gives us a strong hint of the real nature but the mental faculties are rather more numerous. tation will in every case be modified by the acquired of bad temper. It is well known to all who have had Some of the sensations, usually alone called physical, self-control of the individual, from whatever source any charge over infants, that, before their mental are dulled a little, or can be more easily controlled : a that self-control has arisen ; but the tendency or aptifaculties have begun to act, if blessed by nature with hurt or a cut does not make the full-grown man cry, tude is invariable, and it will appear or not appear, a sound healthy constitution, fed properly, kept com- as it made the child. Hector at twenty-four would operate or not operate, just as the natural irritability fortable, and not subjected to external injury of any not have beat a stool after falling over it, as Hector may permit, or the self-control suppress and allay. kind, they are generally quiet, or, to use the ordinary at four or five might have done. But the nervous All these phenomena depend upon a law of our phrase of the occasion, good tempered. Health and system is now much more irritable than in early life. constitution, by which, whenever a faculty is disagreegood temper are, in fact, synonymous at that period The mental faculties, both those which perceive and ably affected, or a disagreeable sensation of any kind of life. From this it may fairly be presumed, that, reason, and those which feel and prompt to action, is experienced, one particular faculty of the mental when children are peevish and fractious, they are not are in their highest activity, though not in all persons organisation, which may be described as the Malevolent in a sound and comfortable state, but in the experience alike powerful and active. Now, also, men are en- or Destructive sentiment, is called into less or more of uneasy sensations of some kind. Often, when an gaged in the struggles which attend social life in all activity, according to the amount and nature of the infant, usually good tempered, takes a sudden and its shapes, exposed to frequent disappointment and offence, and the degree of strength and irritability apparently inexplicable fit of crying, it is found on positive injury, and, therefore, more liable to have which may characterise that particular faculty in the examination that a pin has taken a wrong direction in their faculties visited with disagreeable affections. individual. The manifestations of this sentiment tale its dress, or something troubles the stomach, or in some There is now, to be sure, the greatest bodily vigour many forms, from the extreme of physical violence other way the child is undergoing suffering. The and the strongest exercise of will and reason; as also down to the sly gibe and the peevish exclamation. direct explanation of all crying and fretfulness in early the greatest disposition to act upon a square with the At first sight, it appears a thing created only for evil; childhood is, simply—uneasy physical sensation. ordinary ways of the world, and afford no ground for but there can be no reasonable doubt that it has been

The sources or causes of fretfulness or bad temper depreciatory remark. Yet, upon the whole, there is implanted in our nature for wise ends, and, under in a child of the age indicated, are very few, because a greater chance of our appearing splenetic and irri- good regulation, would do nothing but good service. there are then only a few sensations. The child can table in manhood than in youth.

Such is the faculty which every disagrecable sensation feel a flesh wound or sore ; or a derangement of the Men, it is obvious, are endowed by nature with very arouses in our minds. The opposite feeling, Benevoalimentary functions; or a want of those appliances different degrees of general nervous irritability, some lenee, is in like manner roused when any faculty is which may be ranged under the term bodily comfort ; being alive to every casual impression, like harps so agreeably affected. Hence the gracious smile which but it can feel little else. Nervous irritability, though finely strung that the passing air brings forth their in most cases follows praise, the good humour which in the constitution, is not then developed, and scarcely music ; while others appear nearly torpid, and a the bon-vivant expresses over a well-furnished table, can become the source of any unpleasant sensations. great middle class are not remarkable in either way. the kindness which a talkative man shows to a good Even the senses are as yet dormant, and therefore What is called the temperament of genius seems to be listener, and so forth. cannot become a medium for the approach of disagree nothing but extreme nervous irritability : it was ex- It is the frequent exhibition of this malevolent able affections. We may here remark, that this limi- emplified in Tasso, Rousseau, and our own Burns and faculty which constitutes what is called bad temper. tation of the sources of uneasiness in an infant renders Byron. Great mental ability is often found apart We repeat, wherever bad temper is found, it is all prognostications of the future temper of a human from it ; but is also often found so bound up with nothing more or less than the revenge of unpleasant being from cradle manifestations, extremely liable it, that those very men who, by their delight sensations. Some men are said to be of habitual bad to error. One who is hereafter to be the victim of ful effusions, charm their fellow-creatures unto all temper; they are constantly angry, or snappish, or nervous irritability, and from other causes to be re- time, are themselves the most unhappy that live, be- peevish. In many such cases, permanent uneasiness markable for bad temper, may be a healthy, well-kept ing exposed to a thousand sources of suffering which in the bodily feelings from bad health is the cause of infant, and therefore placid. Another, who, in adult others have no experience of. Nor is this extreme the malady, for such it may be called. Often, again, it life, is to be quite the reverse, may suffer in the first irritability only born with men. It often happens that arises from the habitual dissatisfaction of some mental few months of his existence from ill health, mistreat persons originally sound, from the long and incessant faculty ; for example, self-esteem may be in a constant ment, or some accidental sore, and therefore appear action of certain circumstances, become in time liable gangrene in consequence of some degrading or supvery ill tempered. But we are anticipating.

to it. Smollett was an example. He was in early life a posedly degrading circumstances in past or present life; As the faculties of a child increase, as sense after cheerful and agreeable man; but, entering upon a lite- the feeling of attachment may have been so wrung sense awakens, and one feeling after another becomes rary career, he tasked his brain so severely during a and tortured by a disappointment, that all loving active in his nature, the sources of agreeable sensa- long course of years, and was exposed to so many ex- may be declared, in the language of Amiens, “ mere tions may be said to be multiplied, for there is not one asperating annoyances of various kinds, that he at folly;" or the hopes of life in general may have been sense, or faculty, or feeling, which is not primarily de- length became irritable to an extreme degree, though so blighted, that misanthropy is the consequence. To signed to be a means of giving us pleasure. There is never altogether losing the benevolent and manly be habitually under the influence of envy and jealousy, not, however, one of these senses or faculties which is feelings which so largely inspired him in his better is no uncommon condition : while such an influence not also liable to be disagreeably affected. This may be, days. In both cases, great irritability may be consi- lasts, there must be bad temper, for these are disagreeeither by its being disappointed of some object which it dered as unsoundness ; only, it is in the first case the able aff ions of certain of the faculties. Of occadesires, or being acted upon by something the opposite to result of circumstances which have taken place before sional bad temper, or bad temper only on particular that which excites it agreeably. For example, the sense birth, and in the second, of circumstances which have points, most readers must be acquainted with examples. of taste may be disappointed of some expected or desired taken place in the course of life.

The mildest of men are found to have some little treat, or may be called upon to palate a nauseous drug; Then men are born with the senses and faculties in point in their constitution, liable to be so galled as to the desire of approbation may be thwarted in an effort every conceivable variety of power and tendency to call forth angry feelings. An honest farmer whom to become dux of the class, or subjected to the severest activity; and, as they go on in life, those various na- we knew in early life, the most benignant and kindly mortification in a public whipping; a boy who hoards | tural proportions are further varied by the different of human beings, was never known to be angry except marbles and tops may be thwarted in a wish to collect circumstances of individuals calling, in each, different when he saw a fence broken down, or an idle herd-boy a few more, or enraged by losing at play a large por- faculties into vivid and habitual action, and leaving allowing the cattle to get amongst the corn. Another tion of what he previously possessed. In numberless others in comparative dormancy. Every one of these amiable man, who was said to be fond of the pleasures various ways, the juvenile faculties may be offended, faculties in every individual is liable to be disagreeably of the table, was considered by the working people and in each case there will be an experience of angry affected in the proportion of its natural or acquired under him as not safely approachable, especially for feeling as the natural consequence. This feeling may activity; and what may be called the predominating any thing like a favour, during the hollow and hungry not find vent, or it may be checked by an effort of or most conspicuously active faculty, is always the hour before dinner. A third we have known, whose reflection, or from some other cause ; but the rise of ' most liable to be so affocted. Thus, there is no per- 1 irritable point regarded nice arrangements in his

. , “ I feel with you the

household. He had the misfortune to be so refined sealed. He had before his eyes the horrible fate of But Castagnos was not alone. They gave Leckinski away into exquisiteness in all matters of punctuality, General René, who, a few weeks before this, in exe- something to eat; but his horse was not saddled, and neatness, and economy, that the least error on the cuting a mission similar to his own-endeavouring to he remained in his prison till the morning. He was part of a servant set his usually courteous nature ajar join Junot—had been assassinated in the most bar, then taken to a place, and was shown the bodies of for the remainder of the day. Sometimes, very odd barous way, and expired amidst the most frightful ten Frenchmen, who had been horribly massacred by and extraordinary matters are found to set mild men tortures. Death by torture creates terror even to the the peasants of Truxilla. They kept him here all off their equipoise : in one case familiar to us, the stoutest heart, and the blood round the heart of the the day, threatening him with death, and that a horfrequent iteration of any thing monotonous in sound young Pole froze within him for an instant.

rible one. Constantly surrounded with snares, listened or silly in meaning has that effect. The liability of “Who are you ?” said Castagnos in French, which to with the most eager ears in order to catch a sound musicians to be put out of temper even by so small a he spoke well, as he had been educated at Sorrize. which might betray him, and watched by the most matter as an ill-struck half note, is too trite to be Leckinski looked at him steadily, and made a sign of piercing eyes to discover a suspicious movement, he worthy of remark. Occasional bad temper from such ignorance, and answered in German,“ I don't under- nevertheless maintained his equanimity. He had causes is easily explained : it obviously arises from the stand you.”, Castagnos, who spoke German, did not passed his word not to flinch, and he was resolved to accidental over-refinement of some particular portion perhaps wish to figure further in the matter, as he keep it, and fulfil his commission. Not a single gesof the mental organisation. When any faculty be left one of his staff to continue the interrogatories. ture or word of a suspicious nature escaped him. At comes so far refined, it may be considered as in nearly The young Pole answered alternately in Russian length, after many hours of the most cruel trials, he the same condition as the whole nature of a man who and German, but never once let slip the least French was reconducted to his prison, and left to all the inherits from nature extreme nervous irritability intonation. He was, however, very, uneasy, as he horrors of his uncertain fate. to have all the parts of one's nature only so far refined of men eager for his blood, who only waited for his great importance of preventing communication beas to suit the

average of the affections, agreeable and being pronounced French to fall on him and massacre tween the chiefs of the French army who are in Spain ; disagreeable, to which our situation exposes it. When him.

but here, in the position in which we find this officer, any part goes beyond that, it is likely to become a These sanguinary feelings increased to a pitch beyond we cannot treat him as a spy upon the simple assersource of great pain.

the control of even the general himself, in consequence tion of one of our men. This man may be deceived Considering bad temper in this philosophical point of what appeared a most unlucky incident. An aide by a resemblance, and then we shall become murderers of view, we think some important advantages may be de-camp of Castagnos, a man fanatically patriotic, as -a part certainly ill becoming us to take, gentlemen." reasonably hoped for. Bad temper in one party is there were many in the Spanish war, and who, the Poor Leckinski felt a degree of pleasure in re-enterthe constant cause why much bad temper is in others, moment Leckinski was taken, pronounced him to be a ing his dungeon, which was comparatively an agreeable for, being always disagreeable, its manifestations are French spy, rushed into the chamber, dragging a pea- change from what he had undergone for the last twelve almost sure to occasion irritation. Perhaps, this sant dressed in brown cloth, with a red feather in a hours. He had had nothing before his eyes but gibeffect would not so often take place, if the well- high conical hat. The officer made way through the bets and hideous bloody carcasses, exhibited to him constituted and placid were to look upon such mani- crowd, and, placing the man opposite Leckinski, said, by men with the looks of demons, and the most ferofestations as the result of either actual bodily pain, “ Look well at this man, and say whether he is really cious countenances. His thoughts were, as it were, or at least disagreeably affected mental faculties, in a Russian or a German. He is a spy ; I will swear | under the influence of a spell. He believed he saw on those from whom they proceed. A feeling of pity it with my life," said he, stamping furiously.

the cracked walls of his prison the fantastic shadows would rather, in such a consideration, be due to those The peasant in the mean time attentively examined of the victims he had seen hanging from the trees on unfortunate individuals. Thus the mischief would the features of the young Pole. The examination was the road-side. Surrounded by these gloomy visions, stop with its originator, and even some efforts might not long; for, darting a malignant glance, with his exhausted nature again overcame him, and he fell into be made to extinguish it there, where now it only gets eyes burning with rage, he clapped his hands, and a deep sleep. additional exasperation. With regard to those whose cried out, “Me is a Frenchman ! he is a Frenchman!" During this repose, his door was again softly opened, bad temper is only excitable on particular points, it and then told them that he had been only a few weeks and his bed approached. The same gentle voice said might be possible for their connections and dependents, ago at Madrid with some cut straw, which had been in French, “Get up, and come ; you are saved, and by studying to give no cause of offence on those points, required from his village, as well as from every other in your horse is saddled." to prevent in a great measure explosions of anger and the district. “And I recognise this man,” continued The courageous Leckinski, however, always on his exhibitions of wrath, which are both disagreeable at the peasant, “ as he who received my portion of forage, guard, said in German, “What do they want with me ! the time to others, and afterwards almost certain to and who gave me a receipt for it." This was true. Castagnos, on learning the result of this new proof, be deeply regretted by themselves.*

Castagnos possibly saw the truth of it; but he was declared that the young Russian was a noble fellow. He

a noble and generous adversary, and it was not by had thought so, he said, all along. But this opinion THE SUSPECTED SPY.

massacres that he wished to build up the edifice of could not sway the commission, who wished to find him DURING the time that Murat held military rule at Spanish liberty, which would have been raised more guilty, and were outrageous at being thwarted in their Madrid, he had occasion to send important dispatches beautifully, and more durably, had such men as him- wishes. All party spirit tends to weaken our just to Junot, then at Lisbon ; but it was a matter of great self

, Romana, and
Palafox, had the sole direction of judgments

of things ; but tke party spirit at this time difficulty, as all the roads to Lisbon were in possession Russian, but he dreaded the horrible atrocities which men, being baffled in accomplishing their blood-thirsty

in Spain raged with indescribable violence. These of the army of Castagnos--troops commanded by the most distinguished men of the Spanish revolution-. tified as a Frenchman. There was a doubt, and, above themselves. They were the same judges who had

would have been inflicted on him, should he be iden- desire for a human sacrifice, were completely beside and were also infested by a more dreaded enemy of all, his appearance bespoke favour. He proposed, condemned General René to be saved in two! who had

Murat spoke of his embarrassment to Baron Stro- therefore, that he should be allowed to continue his placed Colonel Pavetti in an oven, and had horribly gonoff, the Russian ambassador at Madrid. Russia journey, for Leckinski persisted that he was a Russian, mutilated Franceschi. was at this time the friend more than the ally of word the general uttered, there arose a hundred After another dreadful night, four men, one of whom

and did not know a word of French. But at the first Leckinski knew his danger, but he quailed not. France. After some consideration, Strogonoff said he threatening

voices, and even murmurs of the word was the same who said he had seen him at Madrid, thought it could be managed. He proposed that a traitor applied to himself

. There seemed then no came to conduct him before a sort of tribunal, composed be charged with dispatches from his court to Admiral hope of mercy, for man becomes ferocious when he fears of many of the officers

of the staff of General CastagSiniavin, who was then at the port of Lisbon, and that ture with Russia, whose neutrality we have solicited!" the most terrible threats ; but, true to his resolution,

nos. During the short interval on his way, they uttered he might at the same time convey verbal dispatches “No!” said his officers ; “ but let us prove this man.” Leckinski appeared not to understand what they said. from Murat. This scheme, he thought, was the more practicable, as the insurgent army of Castagnos was

Leckinski heard all, for he understood Spanish. When he came before his judges, he appeared to very desirous to obtain the neutrality of Russia, and He was led out of the chamber, and thrown into a understand what was going on, more from the prepatherefore it was not likely they would give cause of place which might have passed for one of the most rations than from what was said around him. He umbrage by ill treating its messenger.

frightful dungeons of the Inquisition. At the moment asked where his interpreter was. The examination Murat was delighted with this ingenious plan, and the Spaniards lead stopped him, he had not eaten any commenced. He was asked what his object was in immediately sent a request to Krasinski, the Polish thing since the night before, and when the door of travelling from Madrid

to Lisbon. He answered by commander, to be furnished with any young man of his prison closed on him, he had been eighteen hours showing his dispatches from the Russian ambassador, his corps whom he could recommend as brave, in- without food. Add to this the fatigue he had under and his passport. This would certainly have been telligent, and of good address. A young Pole, eighteen gone, the anguish and deep anxiety of his situation, sufficient, had he not unfortunately been recognised by years of age, named Leckinski, volunteered for the and it will not be considered surprising that he fell the peasant. But the assertion of this man, who perdangerous service

nearly fainting on his wretched bed, which was placed sisted in it with great firmness, afforded strong eviMurat, who himself could calmly look death in the in a corner of the room. The sun was not yet set. dence of his real character to men so eagerly athirst face, could not, however, in this instance, help point- He had a glimpse of it through the cleft in the wall for his blood. “ Ask him," said the president of the ing out

to Leckinski the great peril he would be in above his head, and the light, so brilliant in beautiful commission, “ if he loves the Spaniards, since he is not should he be discovered. The young Polo smiled and Estremadura, for a time cheered the heart of the poor a Frenchman.” said, “ I thank your imperial highness for having prisoner.

“ Yes, undoubtedly,” said Leckinski ; " I love the honoured me above my comrades by selecting me for

This source of consolation, however, soon left him; Spanish nation, and I esteem it for its beautiful devothis duty, and I promise to render a good account of the heavens became murky and cheerless ; night closed tion. I wish our two nations were friends." my mission.” This bold and unaffected reply inspired around all; and poor Leckinski had full leisure to con- “ Colonel,” said the interpreter in French, “ the the confidence of Murat, who forth

with gave him his template his dreadful position, which he judged as prisoner says that he hates us, because we make war instructions, when he departed for Lisbon dressed almost without the least hope.

like banditti. He despises us, and he only regrets that in the Russian uniform, and furnished with the dis- eighteen, it was very young. He battled with the single man, that he might end the war with one blow."

He was undoubtedly a brave man. But to die at it is not in his power to unite the whole nation into a patches for Admiral Siniavin.

The two first days passed without molestation ; but visions which came before him and succeeded each other about the afternoon of the third, Leckinski was sur

as in a phantasmagoria ; at length youth and fatigue Leckinski, watching for the least movement of his rounded and taken prisoner by a Spanish troop, who, yielded, and he was shortly buried in the most pro- countenance on hearing this unfaithful interpretation having disarmed him, dragged him before the como found sleep, the very image of death.

of his answer. But on coming to the tribunal he had ,

He had slept for about two hours, when the door of made up his mind to every trial, and he therefore self. Let the chief be who he might, however, his prison was gently opened, and some one entered maintained the most astonishing self-possession.

“ If they kill me," he thought to himself," they recognised as a partisan of the French. He therefore then some one leaned over the bed of the prisoner. will not only kill an innocent man, but one who has determined on the instant not to speak a word of The hand was taken suddenly from before the light, all the appearance of innocence, and they will thereFrench, and only to answer in Russian or German, and he was touched slightly on his shoulder, and the fore have all the odium of my death. both of which languages he could speak fluently.

sweet and gentle tones of a woman's voice said in “ Gentlemen,” said Castagnos, who, contrary to his The dreadful imprecations uttered on all sides in French, “Do you wish to take supper?" Leckinski wishes, assisted at this last trial, but would take no nis way to Castagnos, told him his door was already suddenly jumped up in his bed, with his eyes scarcely part in it

, it appears to me that this young man open, and said in German, “ What do they want with cannot be suspected. The peasant must have been * The philosophy of the above paper, such as it is, is based upon

deceived. Let him, therefore, be set at liberty, and a theory which was first explained in a satisfactory manner by Mr “Let this man have something to eat,” said Cas. continue his route; and in rendering an account of Robert Cox, of Edinburgh, in a series of articles which appeared tagnos, on learning the result of this first proof, “and what he has undergone at our hands, he will do well a few years ago in the Phrenological Journal, under the title of then let his horse be saddled, and allow him to pursue to take into consideration the continual danger of our and in particular on the modes and laws of the Activity of De: his journey. He is not a Frenchman. How could he position, which must excuse the rigour we are forced structiveness."

be master of himself at such a time!-it is impossible.” | to employ."

me ?"

1

They then restored Leckinski his arms and dis- such documents, in aiding the trading relations of time for paying these bills occurs, the parties probably patches, and gave him a safe passport; and he went nations with each other, which will be noticed below. draw similar ones for a larger amount, and so manage away victorious over, it certainly may be said, as strong Paper money, as already remarked, would be on all to pay them up in the mean time, obtaining a little tests as were ever practised on a human being. He occasions an economical substitute for a metallic cur- more money, incurring heavy expenses, and becoming arrived at Lisbon, fulfilled his commission, and ex- rency, if it could perform all the services of the pre- liable in the end to make good increased engagements. pressed a willingness to return to Madrid ; but Junot cious metals ; but there is one of the peculiarities of It may happen that the individuals in question shall would not allow the brave fellow to run such another bullion which it is incapable of attaining ; that is, prosper rapidly, and be able in the end to meet their risk.

absolute certainty that it is of the value it professes to obligations; and if it were not for such a chance, no

be. The man who possesses an ounce of gold, knows body whatever would take their bills as cash. Such POPULAR INFORMATION ON POLITICAL that he has that which in every city, from London to documents are known by the names “ accommodation

Canton, will purchase him a certain quantity of the bills,” “ wind-bills,” and “ kites.”
ECONOMY.

current commodities of the place. He, however, who Let us compare this sort of transaction with a bona SECOND ARTICLE-PAPER MONEY.

has a bank-note, has that which is valuable only pro- fide bill, a “ bill for value," as it is called, given in the In describing the origin of a metallic currency, allusion vided the person who becomes bound by it is able to usual course of mercantile transactions. A retailer was made to the possibility of obligations or promises fulfil his engagement, and which no one will take at in a steady trade receives goods from a wholesale merto pay being used as a medium of exchange, instead its nominal value, except those who believe that he is chant. The former will not be able to pay for them of metals, which bear their value in themselves. Also able. If no bodies of men, or individuals, ever till part is sold ; the wholesale merchant wants his though such documents might at first sight appear to issued pecuniary obligations beyond such as they were money for some profitable investment. The retailer be a very simple arrangement for creating a circulat- absolutely certain of being able to meet, paper money gives the merchant his bill“ for value.” The banker ing medium, history shows them to be resorted to would be as secure as gold; such certainty, however, to whom it is presented knows that it is the represenonly in a far advanced and complicated state of society, is not in human things. In the best system of paper tative of property, the produce of a real transaction, and a little consideration will satisfy us that they money which ever has been or can be devised, there and that the security for its being paid is good. To cannot be brought separately into existence, but must will be more or less of uncertainty. The question be sure, there is a risk of the bill not being paid. All be first ingrafted in a real or metallic currency. To whether, under any of the present systems, or under human things are uncertain ; the shopkeeper's preillustrate the first employment of gold as a measure others that might be substituted for them, the evils mises may be burned down or broken into, and so it of value, a community of four individuals was supposed, of uncertainty are compensated by the conveniences may happen that this bill too is an over-issue. But it each possessed of a separate commodity, of which the attending the practice, would bring us to the discus- is not like those mentioned above, an over-issue in the others wish to obtain a portion, giving an equivalent sion of one of those debated points which we wish to very nature of the transaction, depending on chances in return. If an attempt were made to create paper avoid.

for being converted into a genuine security. One of money among such a body before metal had been first But to make a paper currency keep its value as the most calamitous instances of private over-issues employed, the nature of the obligations contained in compared with a gold one, it is not only necessary that that ever occurred, was the case of the Ayr Bank

in the notes would of course be to give such and such a the persons who issue the obligations should be able to Scotland. Instead of being ready to take advantage commodity. A could circulate an obligation to give meet them, but that there should not be a greater num- of the legitimate demands for accommodation which a sheep to the bearer on demand, B to give a bushel ber of them brought into existence than the commercial arose out of real business transactions, it endeavoured of corn, and so on. Such documents would be almost wants of the community require. If there be notes to push forward such transactions by giving the actotally useless for the purposes of money. The person to the extent of L.2000'in circulation among a com- commodation in the first place. If success had attended to whom the obligation to give a sheep was offered, munity, whose business could be quite well transacted the various schemes of those to whom it inade advances, might not be in want of such a commodity, and might with L.1500, there will be a correspondent reduction all wonld have been well; but the usual proportion of know no other person so anxious to obtain it that he in the value of the notes. If every issuer of paper them failed, and the concern gave way, burying many would take the obligation off his hands. Moreover, were likely to be immediately called upon to pay in a noble fortune in its ruins. there would be no general standard of value. It gold, and were prepared to meet the call, there would We must not omit some account of one of the most would be difficult to say what proportion a note for a be little likelihood of one of these “over-issues," as important uses of paper money, and that for which it sheep bore to one for a quarter of grain; and those they are technically called, occurring. But however was in reality first invented—the settlement of pecuwho accepted of such documents, instead of receiving great may be the facilities for enabling the holders of niary transactions between individuals at a distance something of fixed value, would be purchasers of com- notes to get them paid, the public are not always on from each other, without the actual transmission of modities, the value of which they might not be ac- the alert to demand payment; and, indeed, if they bullion. If an individual, A, in London, have a quainted with. Instead of being paid, they would were, paper money would not be of much service. The debtor B and a creditor C, both in Paris, instead of only be purchasers, or rather parties to a transaction commercial world having once established the fact that sending money to C, and getting money sent to him for bartering goods.

the note-maker is trustworthy, it goes on using his by B, he may give C an order on B to pay the debt When metal has once been brought into existence, documents without a thought whether he is issuing over at once to him. This is a bill of exchange in its however, as a circulating medium, every body knows too many of them, until the over-issue is felt to act simplest form. Suppose, however, that A has a its value, and an obligation to give a certain quantity on commerce, and the paper gets depreciated. In creditor in Paris, but no debtor, while his neighbour of it is perfectly well understood. “ I promise to give 1814, during the time when the Bank of England was E has a debtor, but no creditor: A may pay the you on demand half an ounce of gold," is a sort of exempted from paying its notes in gold, the deprecia- money to E which the French debtor owes him, and document which, if the person who received it has a tion in the notes of the bank amounted to L.29, 43. Id. obtain from him an order on his debtor to pay A's perfect faith that the promise will be performed, per cent. ; in other words, a bank-note for L.l was French creditor. This order he will be said to purwould be just as valuable in his possession as the half worth only a fraction more than 143. The manner in chase. It will be an accommodation to him, or an ounce of gold itself. It might perhaps be more which an attempt has been made to check the recur- accommodation to the other party, according to circonvenient to him to have the gold, as he might rence of any such mischief, is the following. Bank of cumstances. In the complicated arrangements of wish to employ a small portion of it in a petty pur- England notes are every where a legal tender; in modern commerce, the individual debtors and creditors chase : but, on the other hand, there might be cir- other words, every creditor is bound to take them are lost sight of. If a person has a sum to transmit cumstances in which the obligation would be the as cash, in payment of his debt. At the bank, how to another country by such an order, the rate at more convenient commodity to possess ; for example, ever, and at its branches, gold must be given for the which he will obtain it will depend on the pecuniary he might fear being robbed, and would consider the notes when required.

relations of the two places taken in the main. If note for various reasons more likely to be traced to Presuming that this, or any other check, could be there is more money payable at the moment by people the perpetrator than piece of gold; or he might the means of preventing an over-issue of paper from a in London to people in Paris, than there is payable wish to pay a creditor at a distance, and the paper government establishment, such as the Bank of Eng- by those in Paris to those in London, there will be a would be by far the more convenient substance to land, there would still be, in a commercial country, a demand for orders on Paris, and a premium will be transmit.

manufacture of paper money, which can neither be payable for the accommodation by those who want In the circumstances in which the gold circulating put down, nor subjected to a check. Every individual

, them. In this case the exchange will be said to be medium was presumed to come into existence, it will indeed, whose bill or note of hand is taken by another, against London. In Paris, on the other hand, there be recollected that it occasioned a loss to the small is an issuer of paper money, lending his drop to the will be more people ready to give such drafts than community in whose proceedings the subject was illus- ocean of the general supply. All operations in the there are in want of them, and those who dispose of trated. A coat was given by one of them in exchange science of political economy, as in most others, are them must do so at a discount. The rate of exchange for as much of the metal as would serve the purposes best illustrated by particulars; and perhaps we may is from this circumstance said to be in favour of Paris. of the community. Thus, while they used the gold, find the most intelligible illustration of the nature and The premium in the one case, and the discount in they were paying for it as an expensive article of con- effects of an over-issue, in looking to the conduct of a the other, will be measured by the balance due by venience. Should they find that obligations to pay, very few individuals. Let us suppose three or four London to Paris over what is due by Paris to London, will serve their turn as well as the gold, they might young merchants beginning the world together with and the principal sum to be met by the rate of exthen dispose of it to any others who wanted it, and out capital, and inclined to make a great effort to get change will be the expense of transmitting that recover the property they parted with, or its equiva- on. They know that simple pieces of paper, with balance in specie, unless the accounts can be adjusted lent. It is thus pretty clear, that the use of paper certain names written on them, will in certain circum- by bringing transactions with some other community money is a distinct saving, and that wherever it can stances pass for money, and they resolve to try if into the circle. be made to perform the services of the precious metals, their own names will produce this magical effect. If the community who so employ it gain the difference they succeed, they know that in the end they will between a dear and a cheap article. There is another have to “retire their bills,” or meet their engage

HINTS ON GIVING DINNERS-FOR HOUSEKEEPING convenience, moreover, in the use of paper money ; ments ; but they are prepared to take their chance. whether an advantage or not, we shall not say, as we John Thomson, then, we shall suppose,

draws a bill and not any particular dishes or wines. Common soup

It is the mode of dinner that I wish to recommend, should then be entering on one of the many disputed on William Jones, which William Jones accepts. made at home, fish of little cost, any joint, the cheapest points regarding the currency. The trading transac- Thomson indorses it to Andrew Smith, who presents vegetables, some happy and inexpensive introduction, like tions of a large community may require a greater cir- it at a bank to be discounted. A prudent bank will the erab, and a pudding, with sherry and port, provided culating medium than can conveniently be obtained not discount such a document, if suspicious of its every thing is good in quality, and the dishes are well in a metallic form. All the gold in the world would fictitious nature ; an imprudent one will run the risk. dressed, and served hot and in succession, with their not supply Great Britain with a circulating medium Now, the state of circumstances which this document adjuncts, will insure a quantity of enjoyment which ne equivalent to that at present in use. It may be said would lead one to believe in is, that Jones is owing one need be afraid to offer, and so it will be with any that, as the paper currency of the country professes to money to Thomson, which he will pay him at the combination in the same style ; but then it is absolutely be a substitute for gold—is in reality a set of obliga- date mentioned in the bill, and that Thomson is in necessary not to overdo the thing on the one hand, and, tions to pay in gold-it must therefore be fallacious, as his turn indebted to Smith, and has given Jones's on the other, to direct the attention entirely in the right it not only promises that which the obligant has not obligation to him in payment. The fact is, how- course; to think nothing of display or fashion, but only to pay, but what in reality does not exist. It is not ever, that none of the parties is owing the other any of realities, and to dispose every thing for comfort and necessary, however, that there should be gold to repre- thing. Jones certainly becomes bound on the face

ease. What is there in state and show to compensato sent all the paper money in existence ; it is sufficient of the document to pay so much

money to Thom- for the loss of enjoyment ?. They are the resources by that there be capital, or property of some sort or other son, but he compensates himself by drawing a similar which

dullness seeks to distinguish itself

, and it is pity pounds is measured off by gold ; but, in reality, it is on their failure would be liable to the bank, likewise brilliant, I have observed the company is generally dull,

The calico-printer's bill for one thousand bill on Thomson, which he accepts ; while Smith, who that those who are capable of better things should subthe representativo, not of so much gold, but of s'ındry gets a bill in his favour as his share. Suppose each of and every ornament seems to me an impediment in the bales of cotton cloth in bis warerooms, the existence the bills to be for L.100, here are L.300 created out of way of good fellowship. Theso snug, little parties, I of which makes the holder of the bill know that it is nothing-notes to pay that amount circulating as must confess, have very much the air of being conworth a thousand pounds in gold. There are further money, and nothing to meet them with. In short, fined to bachelor ones, but I think them equally appliconveniences derived by the commercial world from I just so much over-issue of paper money. When the cable to a mixture of the sexes. Ladies are very ape

[graphic]

LADIES.

to suppose that men enjoy themselves the most when readers :-“Would you believe it, that in Ireland, which certainly (being interpreted) meant, leave them they are not present. They are in a great measure right, though there was an express act of parliament passed to my care, she swam up and down with the ducklings, own to a mixture of female society, but that females against it three hundred years ago, the practice of and when they were tired with their aquatic excurdelight in a number of observances, and in forms, upon harrowing by horses drawing from the tail, is still sion, she consigned them to the care of the hen. The some of which I have already touched, and upon a certain resorted to; the following is part of a letter I received next morning, down came again the ducklings to the

pond, and there was the goose waiting for them, and display and undeviating order, which conspire to destroy yesterday :

there stood the hen in her great flustration. On this that enjoyment which they seem to think they are de- • The good old custom of harrowing by the tail, is occasion we are not at all sure that the goose invited barred from. The fault is their own. If they will study my doctrines, and fall a little into the herring-and-hashed still followed in Erris. In justice to those who con

the hen, observing her maternal trouble, but it is a mutton system, they will soon find a difference in their tinue the practice, it is said that it is not cruel, for the fact that she being near the shore, the hen jumped favour. In their management of dinners, let them only horses submit to it quietly. Indeed, some people here on her back, and there sat, the ducklings swimming, think of what contributes to real enjoyment. Such a

assert that it is the most humane way of doing the and the goose and hen after them up and down the system will afford them plenty of scope for the display of their taste in realities, instead of in vanities which work; in proof of which, I shall sketch the following pond. And this was not a solitary event; day after have no charms for men in the article of conviviality. anecdote. I was on my way to dine with a worthy day the hen was seen on board the goose, attending If they wish to witness any thing like the enjoyment i old gentleman, who resided here on my first arrival, and good humour-numbers of people coming to withave described to have taken place at my dinner at the nineteen years ago ; and observing, as I went through ness the circumstance, which continued until the to insure it. Side dishes, centre-pieces filled with flowers, the farm, this practice,

it was natural for a foreigner ducklings, coming to days of discretion, required no and such encumbrances and impediments, are fatal to it to express strongly his feelings on the barbarity of the longer the joint guardianship of the goose and hen. They may make their election, but they cannot hare thing. “I beg your pardon," said my host; “you are While this paper was passing through the press, a both. I rather believe they think their system necessary quite mistaken ; for I assert, and feel assured I will lady supplied me with the following anecdote of %

1 to keep up a proper degree of respect to themselves, and induce yeu to agree with me in opinion, that it is the goose, which she assures me can be depended on. that without it men would become too careless and un- most humane way of working the beast; and for this have every confidence in her credibility :- :-A goose, civilised; but this I apprehend to be a mistake. There reason, that he harrows with more ease to himself.” not a gander, in the farm-yard of a gentleman, was may be well-regulated ease without running into disorder “ Impossible,” said I. “ I will prove it to a sailor as observed to take a particular liking to her owner. and brutality; and whatever facilitates the social inter- you are, with ease," replied the old gentleman. “Pray, This attachment was so uncommon, and so marked, course between the sexes, will of course increase refine when you anchor your ships, why do you give them a that all about the house and in the neighbourhood ment on the part of the men. I think it would be a long scope of cable when it blows hard.” “ Because," took notice of it ; and, consequently, the people, with vast improvement in society if the practice of familiar said 1, " the hold the anchor has of the ground is in the propensity they have to give nicknames, and with dining were introduced-parties not exceeding eight, an inverse ratio to the sine of the angle the cable makes the sinister motive, perhaps, of expressing their sense without the trouble of dressing beyond being neat and with the ground.” “Oh !” says my old friend, “ being of the weak understanding of the man, called him to the means or inclinations of the givers, and calculated neither an orangeman nor ribbonman, I know nothing Goosey. Alas ! for his admirer-the goose's

true love to please the palate, and to promote sociability and about your signs, though I guess at what you mean. did not yet run smooth. For her master, hearing of health.– From the Original, by Thomas Walker, Esq.

Now, if you give a long scope of cable to increase the the ridicule cast upon him, to abate her fondness, resistance, don't it stand to reason that a short scope insisted on her being locked up in the poultry yard.

must have a contrary effect ; and, therefore, must not | Well, shortly after, he goes to the adjoining town to INTELLECTUALITY OF ANIMALS. harrowing by the tail be easier to the animal than attend petty sessions, and in the middle of his busiTue May number of the Dublin University Magazine harrow rope is shortened by the whole length of the from the collar, inasmuch as in the latter case the ness what does he feel but something wonderfully

warm and soft rubbing against his leg, and on looking contains an interesting paper on what is termed the horse." My host, chuckling with delight, seemed to down he saw his goose, with neck protruded, whil * Intellectuality of Domestic Animals.” It forms the consider this argument a floorer. And my “ But, quivering her wings in the fullness of enjoyment, substance of a lecture delivered before the Zoological dear sir, there is a vast difference between securing looking up to him with unutterable fondness! This Society of the Irish capital, by a gentleman distin, der," neither diminished his glee nor induced him to manners, for while it set them wild with laughter, it

was too much for his patience or the bystanders' good guished for his talents and accomplishments, and change his opinion. He continued this practice to urged him to do a deed he should ever be ashamed of; whose name, though given only in initials in the Ma- his dying day, and up to last year it was, and now for, twisting his thong-whip about the goose's neck, gazine, ought in mere justice to be mentioned at full (1840) it will be practised. It is hard to break a he swung her round and round until he supposed her length, even if the fact of the lectare having been a

custom attended with no expense. “Of what use is dead, and then he cast her on the adjoining dunghill. public one did not render any secondary concealment a tail,” says the Erris man, “if not to save all sorts of Not very long after, Mr Goosey was seized with a unavailing. The article is one which will reflect addi

severe illness, which brought him to the verge of the

But it is not only horses that are ill-treated. There grave; and one day, when slowly recovering, and tional credit on the author—the Rev. Cæsar Otway. is that poor little inferior beast, the ass, that appears allowed to recline in the window, the first thing he We would willingly cite the whole of the lecture, but to be consigned, by general consent, to all the wrongs saw was his goose, sitting on the grass, and looking our space will only admit of extracts. The author that the lowest of the human race may inflict; the with intense anxiety at him. The effect on him was thus opens his views of the subject under considera- urchin's sport, the tinker's drudge.

most alarming. What !' says he is this troublesome

I assert, that were you to make yourselves acquainted bird come back to life, and am I, for my sins, to be tion :—“I am about to say what I am able on the with asses, you would find them clever enough. I once haunted in this way?, Oh ! father,' says his daughter, habits and intellectuality of animals. I allude to two purchased an ass for the amusement of my children. - don't speak so hardly of the poor bird. Ever since qualities-habits, or, in other words, instinct-intel- I did not allow him to be cudgelled, and he got some your illness it has sat thore opposite your window-it lectuality, or, in other words, understanding. I con- thing better to graze on than thistles. Why, I found scarcely takes any food.? Passion, prejudice, the fear fine myself, in order to keep within bounds, to domestic him more knave than fool; his very cleverness was of ridicule,

all gave way before a sense of gratitude for animals. We all must allow that animals have instincts ablest animal about the place; and, like others having immediately taken notice of, and treated, from hence

my plague. My ass, like the king's fool, proved the this unalterable attachment. The poor bird was that distinguish one species from another—those of a more wit than good manners, he was for ever not only forth, with great kindness; and, for all I know, Goose sheep, for instance, as differing from those of a dog. going, but leading other cattle into mischief. There and Goosey are still bound'in as close ties as man and Well

, supposing I identify habits with instinct, should was not a gate about the place but he would open— bird can be. I not define what instinct is? Perhaps I am not able he awoke me of a summers morning, braying for sheer it came within my knowledge this summer ; the cir

I shall trouble you with but one story about cows; -I stand not here as a philosopher—but this I know, wantonness, in the middle of my field of wheat. Icumstance occurred to one of my own. I am in the that one who has given the subject more consideration was obliged to part with him and get a pony, merely habit every year of buying two or three Kerrys: they than I can, has said that no one can define properly because he was too cunning to be kept.

are the kindest little creatures in the world ; they pay what instinct is, until he has spent some time in the

I could relate some curious instances of their me- very well; and though wild at first, they become under head of a brute, without being a brute himself. But the to individuals—I shall allude but to one, the well when I buy them, I always choose from the head and

mory for persons and places, and their attachment proper treatment exceedingly gentle and familiar; same author ventures to give what may stand for a known story of Captain Dundas’s ass, that he had horn ; I pick out those I consider to have good coun. definition, and it is this — those faculties that God has shipped from Gibraltar to Malta ; and when a storm tenances. Last year I was very lucky in the three I implanted in animals, whereby, independent of instruc- came on, when far on their voyage, and the vessel was bought; they became in a short time great pets. I tion, observation, or experience, and without knowing overboard, the ass swam to shore at Cape de Gat, and they always meet me at the gate of the pasture, ex

in such danger that all the live stock was thrown generally go out in the morning before breakfast, and the end in view, they are impelled to the performance in an incredibly short space of time made his way pecting to have their heads scratched, and be spoken of certain actions conducive to their own well-being, over the rivers and mountains of the Ronda, for two to; one in particular, a quaint crumpled-horned little and the preservation of their species.' But will those hundred miles, until he found himself standing at the lassie, used to put her snout into my pocket like a dog, at all acquainted with animals be content with ascrib- door of his master's stable in Gibraltar.

to look for bread and potatoes, which I generally ing to them such a limited quality as this? Do not we

There is another domestic animal, that I think has brought with me; her breath was so sweet, and her find an adaptation of plans to circumstances, and an Wild or tame, I hold that geese are not to be sneered the humour of the man who loved to kiss his cow. Well,

not got fair play from man, and that is a goose. large eyes so placid, that I was almost tempted to be of exercise of individual judgment, reflection, induction, at. The wild are the most wary of all that take wing there was a swing-swong in this field, and my Kerry and memory! I must insist, then, that the creature --see how aloft the flock soars, observe with what lass, who was inordinately curious, seeing my young has personal and independent mental powers; and if beautiful mathematical precision the order of flight is ladies swinging, thought (I suppose) she might take you will not call it reason, confess that it is akin to it, kept listen to the voice of direction or of warning a swing herself ; be this as it may, one day, about and call it intellectuality.”

that the sentinel keeping in advance every now and noon, a constant and loud lowing of cows was heard at

then gives outlook how each bird in turn takes the the gate nearest the house, and my brother, who was The sequel of the paper is devoted to the proof of leadership, and how the one relieved assumes his within, hearing the unusual and continued noise, went these opinions by argument and anecdote, and from regular position in the rear ; let no one venture to tell out to see what was the matter ; as soon as he came the whole is extracted an admirable moral. “ I told me that there is not considerable intelligence in these to the gate, he saw two of the Kerry cows very uneasy, (says the reverend gentleman) that there are intellec- even in their domesticated state ; every schoolboy has and as he went, the cows followed him still lewing,

; every one knows how watchful geese are but not the third ; so he proceeded into the grounds; tual qualities belonging to animals, which call for our learned how they saved the Roman capitol. At the until he arrived at the farthest end of the land, when observation, demand our aid in their developement, flour mills of Tubberakeena, near Clonmel

, while in he saw my pet, the third Kerry, entangled in the rope and which, in proportion as observed, and respected, the possession of the late Mr Newbold, there was a and developed, will be conducive to the animal's hap- goose, which by some accident was left solitary, with: she must have been soon strangled

if not relieved; the out mate or offspring, gander or goslings. Now, it moment my brother extricated her, the lowing of the piness and to man's use and profit.” Humanity and happened, as is common, that the miller’s wife had others ceased. I could not learn that my Kerry fair attention to our domestic animals are the practical set a number of duck-eggs under a hen, which in due one ever afterattempted the humours of a swing-swong. lessons which the writer inculcates. From his nume- time were incubated, and of course the ducklings, as Of dogs I need not say much. Large books are to be Tons stories relative to domestic animals, our treat- the water, and the hen was in a sad pucker ; her ma- fulness; and

each of you no doubt has so cae fact that soon as they came forth, ran with natural instinct to got, descriptive of their fidelity, intelligence, and usement of them, and the intellectuality they evince, we ternity urging her to follow the brood, and her selfish- has come under your own knowledge, and which con

lect the following, assured that they will be produc-ness disposing her to keep on dry land. In the mean vinces you, that dogs have almost reasoning powers. tive

of equal entertainment and instruction to our while, up sailed the goose, and with a noisy gabble Many of you no doubt have read of the Newfoundland

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