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BY THOMAS SMIBERT.
heart filled with indignation, while my whole person, door of the wine cellar!”. “ I mean to say," retorts the are never at a nonplus; bandboxes and parasols made and the coarse shirt that a beggar would not have lady, beating time with her hair-brush on the palm of way for canisters and rocking-chairs; bird-eages were worn, were passed in review. •Is it over, sir? I asked her hand, " that in that house there are fourteen doors, dismissed for cradles ; the washing-tub took precedence of the director, seeing myself no longer under inspec- and no more.” “Well
, then,” cries the gentleman, rising of the guitar ; and as for the feathered songsters, they tion ; 'and may I put on my clothes ? Not yet-in in despair, and pacing the room with rapid strides, “ this were all consigned to other lodgings ; their places in the a short time ; only take your
shirt. What ? am I is enough to destroy a man's intellect, and drive him orchestra being occupied by a band' of innocent squalto remain longer in this state of nakedness ? "It is mad!" By and bye the gentleman comes
to a little, and linis. Barraek ladies are, for the
most part, very clever, the
order ; I cannot help it. And saying this, he passing his band gloomily across his forehead, reseats good hands at a dish of scandal now and then, as well as made a sign for the straw mattrass, counterpane, and this time the lady begins. “ I appealed to Mr Jenkins, cultivate the gossiping propensities, for which there clothes, to be carried out of the room, leaving me ex- who sat next to me on the sofa in the drawing-room dur- | could not be a more eligible nursery. They are for ever posed to the damp and cold air of the dungeon, and to ing tea." “ Morgan, you surely mean,” interrupts the sifting and prying into one another's business ; and polithe gaze of all the bystanders. This noble exploit gentleman. " I do not mean any thing of the kind,” tics run so high at times that the interference of their ended, the director made me a slight bow, and turned answers the lady. * Now, by all that is aggravating and lords and masters is resorted to in order to check the to Confalonieri, who was subjected to the same indig impossible to bear,” cries the gentleman, clenching his progress of a civil war. Woe betide the unlucky, though nities as myself. He also, though suffering, was obliged hands and looking upwards in agony," she
is going to quiet youth, who may chance to be within the range of to get up to yield his miserable couch, his convict insist upon it that Morgan is Jenkins!”. “Do you take one of our musical amateurs; who produces a sensation
as if she was hammering on his nerves, instead of on the clothing, and even his feeble body, to their examination. me for a perfect fool ?" exclaims the lady ; " do you It was an afflicting spectacle to sce the man I most suppose I don't know the one from the other? Do you keys of her piano: it is one tormenting
strum, strum, loved and revered in the world, treated by these suppose I don't know that the man in the blue coat was strum, at the
Downfall of Paris," and Fly not yet,” Mr Jenkins ?” “ Jenkins in a blue coat !" cries the gentle when you would fly with eagles' wings to the antipodes. ruffians of the police like the worst malefactor : to see
man, with a groan; Jenkins in a blue coat !--a man who I was at one time vis-à-vis to such another lovely cantahim stand with naked feet, stripped of every particle would suffer death rather than wear any thing but brown!" trice, who harped alternately on " Drink to me only with of dress, before these tools of arbitrary power, who “ Do you dare to charge me with telling an untruth ?" | thine eyes," and " From night till morn I take my glass ;" neither respected his grey hair, blanched by sorrow demands the lady, bursting into tears. * I charge, you, her face, meanwhile, resembling the full moon in a gale, and suffering, nor the infirmities consequent on his ma'am," retorts the gentleman, starting up,“ with being and bearing the roseate hue of wine, was a faithful illosimprisonment, nor the noble dignity of his character. a monster of contradiction, a monster of aggravation, tration of her song.-- Major Putterson's Camp and Quar
Yet this man, on whom they dared to lay their impure -2-8-Jenkins in a blue coat !-what have I done that ters.
THE FIRST SWALLOW.
White-throated herald of the coming May, perished.
of the most admired luxuries of the table in China is the It joys me much to see thee here again ! For being kind to the prisoners, the head keeper of edible birds' nest formed from them. A small swallow,
Once more shalt thou, sweet bird, at dawn of day, the fortress, an old soldier named Schiller, was turned called, from his peculiar instinct in building this sort of
Chase my dull slumbers with thy cheerful strain ; out of his place. The disgrace broke the aged war- habitation, hirundo esculenta, makes his nest from several
Thy parent-labours, at my window-pane, rior's heart. Andryane seized an opportunity to exof these species, and amongst others, it is said, from the
With placid morning thoughts my breast shall fill, press his gratitude to Schiller. “Thanks, thanks!" Ceylon moss, in the highest and most inaccessible rocks,
And I shall quit my bed, said the other ; " ere long I shall cease to want any accustomed from childhood to the dangers it offers, can in deep damp caves. Craufurd tells us that none but those
Full-fraught in heart and head thing in this world. I am hit here (striking his breast). pursue the occupation of collecting these nests; for they
With soothing trust in God, and unto all good-will. If our emperor knew that you are a hundred times are only approachable by a perpendicular descent of many
Who can behold the nicest art and care, worse off than the greatest malefactors we have here, hundred feet, by ladders of bamboo and ratan, over a sea
With which thou labourest thy little home, I am sure he would never permit that I should be rolling violently against the rocks. When the mouth of
Nor think of Him, whose hand is written therepunished for leaving you some pieces of bad paper and the cave is attained, the perilous task of taking the nests Ev'n on thy tiny edifice of loama few old quills. Yet God will not punish me for pity- must be performed by torchlight, by penetrating into As visibly as on the vast air-dome! ing my poor prisoners." Schiller seems to have done the recesses of the rock, where the slightest slip would
Or who can mark the fond firm ties that bind the Emperor of Austria too much justice here. Every instantly be fatal to the adventurers, who can see nothing
Thy chosen mate and thee, point in the prison regulations was arranged by the below them but the turbulent surf making its way into
In toils alike and glee, monarch himself, and in the third year of the capti- the chasms of the rocks. The high price given for these Nor yearn with deeper lovingness for all his kind! vity of Andryane, the situation of things became much delicacies, is, however, a sufficient inducement for the
On thee, indeed, and all thy dark-winged race, worse for him and his companions, through particular gatherers to follow this dreadful trade.” The nests are
Who cleave the air or skim the glassy pool, orders from Vienna. The jailors became more stern concocted fibrous isinglass, and are described as of a
formed of a mucilaginous substance; they resemble ill- Conspicuous are the tokens of His grace, and vigilant, and daily inspections were made, of so
Who holds infinity beneath his rule: white colour, inclining to red; their thickness little more rigorous a nature, that the captives were deprived of than that of a silver spoon, and the weight from a quarter
When autumn winds our norland climate cool, almost all the petty sources of amusement which they to half an ounce. When dry, they are brittle and wrinkled,
Doth He not kindly lead you far away had at first possessed. For example, a small leather the size nearly that of a goose's egg. The qualities of
To some more sunny land,
Where skies are ever bland, pillow had been allowed to lie on the pallet of the sick the nest vary, according to the situation and extent of
And make your span of life one long bright summer's day? and suffering Confalonieri. It was peculiarly dear to the caves in which they are found, and the time at which him as the last and only souvenir which he possessed they are taken; if procured before the eggs have been
So do we oftest deem, at least, of thee, of his beloved wife, who, on her journey from Vienna laid, the nests are of the best kind ; if they contain eggs Sweet page, that holdest up the skirts of spring! to Milan, to see (as she believed) her husband's exe- only, they are still valuable; but if the young are in the Usher of flowers-foretype of songs to be, cution, had rested on that pillow her throbbing head, nest, or have just left it, they are nearly worthless, being Albeit less perfectly thyself may sing! and bedewed it with her tears. It was taken from dark-coloured, streaked with blood, and intermixed with Yet doth a veil hang o'er thy passaging: the count, his retention of it being an “ infraction of feathers and dirt... After they are procured, they are Haply thou hiest thee, as some do say,
To lonely pool or brook, the rules.” A young sparrow had been caught by separated from feathers and dirt, are carefully dried and one of the captives, and he had tamed it and taught sent to Pekin, for the use of the emperor. The labour
Or dark secluded nook, it to love him. It had become his chief consolation, bestowed to render them fit for table is enormous; every
And there, like bedded stone, dost sleep the cold away. but was taken away, as an “ infraction of the rules." feather, every stick, or impurity of any kind, is carefully
Dark as the polar secrets of the north, Again, the captives, though chained, could mount to removed, and then, after undergoing many washings and
Have been thy ways, thou pilgrim of the sky, their narrow loop-holes, and get partial glimpses of preparations, they are made into a soft delicious jelly ;
Since, bringing light and life, Time first stood forth,
A finger-guide in bleak eternity: the face of nature. Some of them passed whole days they are likewise served up in broths and soups; they
Though questioned long by man's deep searching eye, in this occupation. Alas ! they were not permitted have the reputation of being nutritious, and gently stimu
Thy course is full of doubt, when all is done, to taste the enjoyment long. "I perceived several lating. The extravagant prices given for these nests by
And still we can but guess, persons examining the bastion, and I shuddered at the the Chinese render them a most expensive article of diet. The sale has become a monopoly of the government in
That when the chill winds press, idea that we should probably be the victims of some
Thou seek'st a home in climes that front the prone-rayed sun. new persecution. Soon afterwards, the appearance of whose dominions they are found. Meyen, in his Voyage some masons, bringing bricks and scaffolding in great discovered that these costly birds' nests are nothing more
Round the World, states that the Japanese had long ago Welcome, thou gentle haunter of the eaves ! quantity, confirmed our apprehensions. The work than softened sea-weed, and that they now prepare the
Gladly I welcome thee, come whence thou may ;was immediately begun ; and during that day, and substance itself in an artist-like manner.- Dr Sigmond
Whether the spirit that evolves the leaves
Hath from the deep awakened thee to day, several others, we contemplated with increasing sadon the Ceylon Moss.
Or thou from far-off lands hast winged thy way. ness the men who raised the wall of the parapet, and
I love thee, and with joy will watch anew by degrees concealed the cheering landscape from our
LADIES IN BARRACKS.
The labours, to and fro, view. This barrier of stonework, which an evil genius The promising young lady, newfangled in her matri
Which thou must undergo, seemed to have placed between us and nature as a monial reign, and by the royal duties thereto appending Ere from their beauteous shells thy young step forth to view. warning that we were to renounce for ever the joys of (the moon being over), is delighted to get into military this world, augmented our wretchedness fearfully, and quarters. I have seen one of these young things almost
Men wrong theo, my poor bird, when they compare
A summer-fly of human kind to thee; the health of several of the prisoners sustained an irre- leaping out of her skin with joy upon her first entrée.
Although thou comest when the skies are fair, parable shock. Confalonieri suffered more from it This agreeable state of matters was, however, of short than any other.”
And at the winter's touch dost straightway Slee, duration ; she soon regretted her lately forsaken and peaceful haunts; when, instead of either leaping or danc
No faithlessness in thy career we see; The subsequent details of this rigorous imprison- ing for joy, she tamed down into a very languishing, slip
Thy comings and thy goings both are sure: ment are of remarkable interest, and serve to throw shod housewife. She was married to a jolly ensign, of
And could'st thou choose, my bird, an instructive light on the nature of the Austrian whom, poor fellow, it might literally have been said that
Thy flight should be deferred, government. These details will be presented in a he was twice caught.” Light marching order was not And through the year thy stay, I know, should aye endara condensed form in our next publication.
the order of his day; he travelled with a most respect- More justly wert thou likened to the young,
which his only room not being sufficiently capacious, the And most of all to those whose lips have sung
The brief preludings of a pleasant tune, “ I do believe,” he says, taking the spoon out of his played their duets and overtures upon it. Chests and But have grown dumb and blooinless all too soon! glass, and tossing it on the table," that of all the obsti- trunks abundantly came in, so that the poor disciple, and These are thy prototypes ;-but as we bend nate, positive, wrongheaded creatures that ever were the partner of his cares, were stowed away among the
With meekness to the blow, born, you are the most so, Charlotte.” “ Certainly, | lumber, very much after the manner in which the steer
That lays such dear ones low, certainly, have it your own way, pray. You see how age passengers are ensconced on board_a packet just Be we content with what we have of thce, sweet friend! you didn't contradict me at dinner-timech no, not pretty little birds in brass wire cages, and a green parrot April 29, 1840. you !" says the gentleman. “Yes, I did," says the lady. to keep them from being alone. By and bye, the scene « Oh, you did !" cries the gentleman; “ you admit that was changed, and other little birds were heard to sing;
London: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by W.9.
Orr, Paternoster Row; and sold by all booksellers and newsIf you call that contradiction, I do," the lady answers; the piccaninnies began to show themselves, and were
men.-Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars s and I say again, Edward, that when I know you are introduced into this sinful world much more rapidly wrong, I will contradict you. I am not your slave.” than the finances of their parents justified; “ the love publishers or their agents ; also, any odd numbers to complete
Complete sets of the Journal are always to be had from the “ Not my slave !" repeats the gentleman, bitterly; "and they were so rich in” would by no means “ make a fire in sets. Persons requiring their volumes bound along with titleyou still mean to say that in the Blackburns' new house their kitchen;" for kitchen they had not, nor would the pages and contents, have only to give thom into the hands of any there are not more than fourteen doors, including the little god turn their spit. Fertile in expedients, the sex | bokseller, with orders to that effect.
CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF “ CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,”
CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,” &c.
SATURDAY, JUNE 13, 1840.
PRICE THREE HALFPENCE,
tude made him fussily eager to help the lady where tated to swear an alibi in his favour. It is possible It is remarkable how small a peculiarity in form, pos
she did not need help. By the time, however, that they might have been wrong. Pyramus was so when ture, or arrangement, suffices to give us a general idea we have him in the second print, he has been made he accepted the veil of Thisbe as a proof that she had of an entire object, and not only of that, but of many
as happy as man can be. His mind has been brought | been devoured by the lion. But the readiness with things and conditions relative to it. In a popular into a state of delightful calm, so much so as to amount which people act on such hints is a powerful proof of book of travels we are presented with a plate, repre
to abstraction. So completely has he been rapt by his the aptitude to receive and make inferences from senting the lower part of a pair of limbs projected happy sensations away from all common thoughts, that them. through a window into the open air; and from that he has forgot the very person who has been the occasion
The human figure is at an average five and a half fragment of a gentleman, we can in an instant form of all his felicity. But this obliviousness, judged in a feet. Now, supposing that, in a darkened room boran idea of the attitude, bodily and mental, of the liberal sense, is just the highest compliment he could dering on some well-frequented thoroughfare, a tube whole man. He is a jolly Carolinian, sitting on a
pay to his wife. So, in the ordinary paths of the of certain dimensions were so arranged as to allow of rocking-chair, smoking his pipe, and conscious of no- world, when a lady and gentleman are seen walking our only commanding the lowermost six inches, or thing but the pleasant sensations which follow a good together, if you observe in the latter an air of undue one-eleventh, of the persons of all who passed. We dinner. We are often reminded of this whimsical solicitude about his companion ; if he inclines much
aver that, in such circumstances, it would be possible engraving, as we daily pass one of the club-houses. towards her, and seems over-polite ; and if she, on the
to know a very great deal of the general figure and There, within a window through which one can see
other hand, looks a little flurried and frivolous, and character of those who might pass in review. It from the street, is generally to be seen some snatch of appears far more interested about the way her reticule would not be merely the old story of guessing a Hera human figure. Very frequently the object seen is hangs than there is any occasion for ; then know that cules from a large foot, but much of the general conthe back part of a head, the owner of which has come
these are unmarried parties. But if the gentleman | dition of individuals might be predicated from that to the light to read the newspapers. One just catches and lady walk on quietly arm in arm together, both small portion of the figure. For example, if you saw a bald crown, below that some short grey hair, and quite upright, and just behaving as a lady and gentle
a pair of feet come up, ensconced within a very nicely below that again some very red layers of neck. No
man in their sober senses ought to do, then believe made and nicely brushed pair of boots, with deep thing else is needed. It is a country gentleman of that these persons are married; for now, with both, tapering heels, pointed toes, and blue trousers with course ; one who has been familiar with good port for all anxiety is past, the days of frivolity and fuss havo braided scams, neatly cut and strapped so as to apply half a century. Being now temporarily in town, he been succeeded by a lady-and-gentlemanlike style of very exactly to the boots, you could entertain no doubt has called to have his daily spell of the Post or Chro- | happiness, and all is contentment and peace.
that the owner of these said feet was some officer of nicle, as it may be. Such an object is at once recog- If you observe a pair, who are obviously from such ap- the dragoon regiment lying in the barracks, an indenised as characteristic of the place, and quite suitable pearances inarried, entering their dwelling, and should fatigable forenoon promenader, a haunter of all posto it. And though the whole man were standing bc- you wish to know whether they have any children, sible balls, and a decided lady-killer. Suppose you fore one, one could not see him more palpably. cast a glance at the windows; and if you see a little next observed a pair, sunk in loose-mouthed shoes
The least hint, indeed, suffices. Hence it is quite dog sitting wagging his tail at one, and a macaw tied with thongs, and connected with a pair of thin possible, in casting one's eye along a crowded street, chattering on his beam at another, you will be safest legs, wearing black worsted stockings, and of which to point out all the proud people within a quarter to conclude in the negative. But should you perceive even the four inches exposed to view manifest an of a mile, at least all those who are walking away no such objects, not even a few flower-pots on the inclination forwards of at least ten degrees, you could from the position of the spectator. Mark where you balcony at the drawing-room windows, and, looking not doubt that you saw the basement of an old man .see much of the crown of a hat. Wherever that a little higher, see two windows with wooden bars who acts in some such capacity as that of verger, is the case, and the individual is receding, you have a across them, you may be as sure there are children in or a winder-up of city clocks, or a recorder of mor. proud man; for, in walking, such men throw back the the case, as if you saw the chubby rogues staring tality, and the rest of whose habiliments consist of head, and that enables any one behind to see a good through the panes, or heard their merry shout as a rusty black coat of antique wideness of sweep, a deal of the crown. On the other hand, when much papa and mamma enter.
doep vest, and a pair of equally black and rusty nonof the crown of an approaching hat is seen, the pro- The world is familiar with the story of the physician descripts, tied with black worsted tape at the knee. bability is, that the owner is a studious, or bashful who concluded that his patient had been eating oys- Suddenly como upon you a pair of something in white man, or one who feels that he has little reason to ters from seeing some shells of that species of the silk stockings and pale-coloured jane boots, with a expect much courteous regard from his fellow-men. testacea under the bed, and how finely this surmise very small vision of ankle above, and then the bottom One only source of fallacy besets our outlook for proud was commented on by his apprentice, who, going to of a silk pelisse : you know in a moment from the men. There are a few old gentlemen, very generally another patient, and observing a saddle under the twitter of those pretty feet, their cut and dress, and belonging to one of the learned professions, who, in bed, came home and reported that the man must have the light yet firm hold which they take of the ground, consequence of sedentary life, and through other lately eaten a horse. In the case of the oysters, it that the owner is a decidedly smart young lady, whom causes, have become very corpulent in front ; by rea- must be owned that possibly the patient had not been the officer before mentioned surveyed very critically son of which peculiarity, they are obliged to keep eating any such thing; yet a strict regard to the a minute ago as he passed, and whom he intends to their heads pretty well back. It is just possiblo that principles of reasoning obliges us to believe that it have another peep of, by turning round at the end of a crown of a hat brought much into view behind, may was much more likely that oysters had been gobbled the street, and meeting her on his return. What belong to some such person. This, however, is only in the one case, than that a courser had been bolted varieties of people there are in the world ! The next an exception from a rule which will generally be found in the other. To be very candid, there might be some pair of feet exhibit dimly blacked shoes, black spatto hold good.
rashness in the physician's conclusion. The oysters terdashes, and the bottom of a pair of unstrapped When a lady and gentleman are seen walking to- might have been eaten by some other member of the rusty black trousers : reader, do you require to be told gether, no person of average acuteness of intellect can family. Yet, after all, it was not unlikely that they that this is the modest-looking man who acts as a be at a loss to distinguish whether they are married had formed a regale to the patient himself. We know private tutor three doors off? Next come a pair of persons or not. There is a well-known pair of prints, very well that from similar evidence conclusions are stumping boots, very much splashed, evidently not common in wayside country houses, professing to re- come to every day in the world. Old Mr Towser, of made by Hoby, thick in sole and low in heel, having present Courtship and Matrimony. In “ Courtship,” a certain town in the west of England, had a large strapped spurs attached, and a considerable many a gentleman is seen displaying great attention to a dog remarkably like himself, and which was intimately folds about the ankles : your seeing the remaining lady, in helping her over a stile, which she seems at associated by every body with the idea of his own ten-elevenths of this man could not more effectually ro loss to mount unassisted. In “ Matrimony,” the figure. Whenever this animal was seen at the door assure you of an honest farmer who has just ridden in same lady is seen attempting with some difficulty to get of the Bridgewater, did any passer by ever presume from the country to attend market. The boots stop over the same stile, while the gentleman, already past, to doubt that Mr Towser was sitting in his ordinary and give a turn round : the man is looking for some is walking coolly and unheedingly on in front. The seat at the bar fireside, taking his glass of brandy and shop, where he was commissioned to buy something design of this print has always appeared to us a shame-water? Convictions from such symptoms come upon by his wife or daughters. A pair of large lightful libel on matrimony. We truly believe the conduct one intuitively, and are irresistible. Supposing that coloured snow-boots, which next succeed (the seaof the gentleman to be capable of explanation. The Mr Towser had been accused of having committed a son not being winter), and which come heavily but thing is this. In the first print, he was full of solici- murder about the same hour when his dog was seen not slowly marching along, with a skirt of bomtude and anxiety, as all persons who have not the at the door of the Bridgewater, scarcely any one, out bazette or some such stuff sweeping round them, kood fortune to be married must be ; and this solici- l of all who had seen the animal there, could have hesi- / is detected in an instant as the fundation of a fat
Booksellers, like other capitalists, old lady, who goes to market with a basket on her it must be of such a nature that people will give some his fellow-men. arm to buy her own eggs and butter. Then we may thing for it on account of its utility in a commercial and like other men of all professions that have not perhaps have presented to us two huge pediments, point of view-in other words, on account of its value. something degrading in their nature, are average men,
The commodity which of all others in existence is actuated by the same motives, whether tending to with heavy soiled shoes, and corduroy spatterdashes, most purely of the nature of capital, is money; and so selfishness or generosity, as their neighbours; perhaps, the thongs of the shoes being drawn through pie-holes strongly is this felt, that, in the estimation of some, indeed, from the nature of their pursuits, and the in the spatterdashes, and then tied down above them; it is the only commodity which should be called capital. class of persons they come in contact with, they may this, you know in a moment, is Saunders Bathgate, This, however, is decidedly a fallacy,
for even if money be rated a degree higher in point of liberality
and good the Pennycuick carrier, newly arrived in town with
were the criterion of capital, certainly whatever will feeling than the average of traders. But this is a
bring money is in the same position. Thus, railways, digression. his cart, and now engaged in delivering orders " for roads, piers, docks, and
other public works, the stock Much has been said of the advantages which the goods” on behalf of his many country customers. of which is saleable, are in every respect capital. world has derived from the division of labour, a subYour mind comprehends the whole man, the integer Public works, however, which the sovereign of a stato ject which may be noticed on some future occasion. Saunders, as readily and clearly as if you met him face has made for the general and unrestricted use of the This system never could be carried to any considerable to face on the plainstones. If six inches of man can
people, however useful they may be, are not capital, extent without capital, and the more abundant the
A pier at which every vessel is allowed to touch, and capital, the more does the community profit by this signify so much, much more will six inches of child, by which no individual makes money, is no more capital beneficial arrangement... Adam Smith has given a for there the proportion of the part to the whole is in than a good natural roadstead, or a fair wind, is. If beautiful illustration of the division of labour, in the favour of the observer. See here come a pair of little the wind could be taken possession of and let out to preparation of so petty an article of commerce as a
pin. He found that ten persons could make 48,000 sturdy shoed feet, with very short thread stockings hire, it might be converted into capital. above the shoes, and above that again pieces of thick works, which are capital put into operation, cease to had they been working singly, “ they certainly could
In the opinion of some, manufactories and other pins in a day when their labour was divided, whereas, red fleshy legs which the stockings have evidently be, strictly speaking, capital, except to the extent to not each of them have made twenty, perhaps not one great difficulty in clasping or keeping up upon ; you which they are saleable." It is evident, however, that pin, in a day.” If we withdraw the existence of need to see no more in order to be aware that this is a such establishments, if they are successful, are pro- capital entirely from the pin-maker, we will find the stout well-built little gentleman of three years and a ducing the best effects of capital ; and it might per- not one pin in a day” fully realised. We must not,
haps tend better to a clear understanding of the sub- in such a supposition, presume that the operative has half , with the port and dress of a miniature beef-eater, ject, to make
a distinction between available and brass wire, or even wrought brass, in his possession, taking a forenoon walk with his nurse, and excessively invested capital. Thus, money, and any thing that for these are created by capital. If he wants to make troublesome on the subject of guns at all the toy-shop will bring money, is available capital. An establish- a pin, we must set him in search of copper ore, which windows, although he has a ball in one hand already, ment of warehouses and machinery, of which the he has to smelt and amalgamate with zinc, that he and draws a horse behind him with the other. It take off his hands, is invested capital. A manufactory a case which probably never occurred, but it may
owner makes profit, but which no other person would may have brass to make his pin with. This is putting were needless to enumerate more figures. The above will in many instances be a mixture of both. It will sorve as an illustration. The individual would hardly must form a convincing proof of how little in many often happen, that in the hands of the person who perhaps (supposing him even to live in a place where instances the eye requires to see, to enable the under has planned and organised it, it is worth more than it copper is found) make his pin in a week. By Adam standing to vaticinate on all that remains.
would be in any other person's, and that, consequently, Smith's estimate, each individual of the ten must be These speculations are not altogether mere whim or no other man will give so much for it as it is worth considered as making 4800 pins per day. Even this
to the owner. To the amount that it will fetch in number, however, would, it appears, be increased by drollery. They point to some practical good lessons, the market, it is available capital. The remainder of a more liberal employment of capital than that which In the social world, points as minute in dress and its value—that is, of its value to the owner-is in- took place in the instance alluded to by him. “I bearing as any of those above adverted to, have their rested capital. If the owner of an establishment have seen,” he says, “a small manufactory of this effect in giving a general impression of individuals. A which no other person will give any thing for ceases kind where ten men only were employed, and where piece of attire out of taste in its colour or form, a
to make use of it, it is no longer capital either avail- some of them, consequently, performed two or three
able or invested, and it becomes, like the Pyramids, an distinct operations. But though they were very poor, slight uncouthness of pronunciation or address, even so old ruin, or any other object that cannot be applied and therefore but indifferently accommodated with small a matter as a careless or over-familiar attitude, to commercial purposes—a mere portion of the crust the necessary machinery, they could, when they exerted particularly in sitting-all of these little matters, and of the earth.
themselves, make among them about twelve pounds of many others, tell upon men of the world, and also upon
Let us now look to the benefits conferred by the pins in a day.” It is very evident from this, that an women, as indications of the whole man, and may be accumulation of labour, when it possesses the qualities increase of capital would in such a case increase the decisive of much that is for his disadvantage. Great of capital. It is the great engine by which the useful proportional results.
energies of the human race are concentrated and Want of capital is the chief evil which poor comand constant vigilance is accordingly necessary, in directed. It keeps the results of industry piled up munities industriously inclined have to combat with. those who do not stand quite independently in the and accumulated, to await the moment when it can The long and steady industry of Great Britain, coupled world, for the detection and suppression of all such be most advantageously put forth, as Napoleon con- with the absence of internal convulsions and foreign peculiarities.
centrated his forces, that their united efforts might invasion, have given us a greater amount of this accubear on one selected point. Every convenience which mulated labour than perhaps all the rest of the world
the citizen of a civilised country has at his hand, is put together. It is by this that we preserve our POPULAR INFORMATION ON POLITICAL the result of this accumulated labour. The savage, manufacturing and commercial superiority in spite of ECONOMY
when he wants warm clothing for winter, has to hunt many advantages on the part of other nations, which down a wild beast, and to prepare the skin for its might at first sight appear of superior importance.
destined purpose. The inhabitant of one of our large The cotton we use grows in India, but there is no CAPITAL has been defined as “ accumulated labour.” cities can procure, by stepping to a shop in an adjoin- accumulated labour there to be concentrated in its This, to a certain extent, explains what capital is ing street, a similar piece of fur, which the silent manufacture in the form of the steam-engine and the composed of, but it is not a full definition of the word. operation of capital has caused to be stripped from spinning-jenny; and so, with the disadvantage of being There cannot be capital which is not created by the distant, and to be adjusted, as if by some miraculous can manufacture it, and send it back in the form of
some animal in a frozen wilderness thousands of miles ten thousand miles from the place of its growth, we accumulation of labour, but all accumulated labour is anticipation, to his most fastidious taste.
clothing to the agriculturist who produced it. Again, not capital. To make any article constitute capital, Like many other unintentional benefactors of the when there is a sudden demand in some distant it must be capable of being employed in satisfying the human race, the capitalist has been the subject of country for a commodity which is produced in a wants of mankind, either by its being itself adapted to of most other men, is generally self-interest. It is has capital enough to convey the article from the
much ignorant abuse. Undoubtedly his aim, like that neighbouring land, neither of the two states perhaps those wants, or by its being the means of bringing into because it returns a profit to himself, not because it place where it is a superfluity, to that where it is existence those things which are so. It must, in faet, gives the consumer a cheaper article and feeds the wanted, until the accumulated labour of Britain, lying be an useful commodity. It is not sufficient, however, workman, that he puts his money out to use, but the by for a profitable use, accomplishes the exchange. that it be something merely useful to the individual service done is not the less because he profits by it as in modern warfare, capital is a powerful auxiliary, who has it ; the root which the savage takes out of well as others. In those communities which swarm and nothing but our vast command of it could have the earth and eats, is not capital in any form. It must of capital is of service the most signal, the opposition warfare, in which
we are so pre-eminent, it is essenwith idle able-bodied men, and where the introduction supported us through our later struggles. To naval I be something that has utility, and, consequently, value, to the monied man is generally the most bitter- tial. An army may support itself by rapine ; it may with reference to individuals besides the possessor. witness the attempts which were made in the earlier be merely a collection of human beings let loose to Thus potatoes piled in a granary, whether to be sold, part of the last century to introduce an enlarged sys- shift for themselves. A navy, however, must be a or to be employed by the farmer in feeding the work- tem of farming into the Highlands, and the later
efforts set of vast machines, which capital alone can ercate ;
and until some other country can rival us in this men on his farm, are to a certain extent capital. The parts of Ireland. The more
numerously human beings quality, none will be able to meet us on the sea. The extent to which an article possesses the qualities of are congregated together, the more powerfully benig- extent to which luxuries, or artificial wants, pervade capital is not measured by the pains bestowed on it, nant is the influence of capital ; and when Ireland the great body of the people, is one of the most or the difficulty of its acquisition. It is not measured, shall freely embrace the sometimes overflowing re- marked outward indications of the existence of capital. in short, by its cost. A thousand pounds may be sources of England, it is impossible to anticipate the It is thus a somewhat singular inversion of ancient spent in labour, the result of which shall not be six- might bring to that hitherto unhappy land. But we quantity of luxuries is likely to be the most successful
amount of felicity and prosperity which such a change notions, that the nation which possesses the greatest pence worth of capital-say, in building a monument must not throw on the ignorant and needy the sole in war. on the top of a hill. A calculation was lately made odium of the prejudices against the capitalist. Such The peculiarity of the capitalist, if we compare him (whether it be correct or not, is little to the point), to is the natural jealousy which man feels towards the with the simple operative or non-capitalist, is, that he the effect that the Great Pyramid of Gizoh must find this feeling lurking in the most enlightened on under his auspices. The operative works for daily
can wait for the returns of the industry which is going have cost about as much (that is, occasioned about as much labour) as the Liverpool and Manchester rail-ject to it. Their complaints against the booksellers concentrates the fruits of the workman's industry,
quarters. Authors, for instance, are peculiarly sub- bread, and cannot wait for a market. The capitalist way. Here we have two specimens of accumulated are of notorious recurrence; and some of them are until they are put in the most advantageous state for labour. The former, however interesting it may be classical, from the bitter genius with which they are being disposed of. Take a piece of printed calico as as a study, and thence valuable to mankind at large, exercise his capital upon them, many of the noblest Atlantic ; the carter and bargeman take it to Man
an illustration. The sailor brings the cotton over the is, like any of the works of nature, not worth sixpence works of genius would never see the light, and few chester; the carder, spinner, weaver, and printer, with in the commercial world, while the latter constitutes authors would be rewarded for their toils. It is true many other operatives, are all successively employed a capital far more valuable in the aggregate than the that the bookseller, whatever appreciation he may on it, ere it has reached the final purpose for which the various individual portions of labour of which it is have of the genius or merits of the author, will give cotton was grown. It has lain for weeks on the constituted.
nothing for a work unless he expects to make the usual counter of the retail merchant, and has perhaps been There is an important quality which must distin- that he is not a disinterested benefactor of genius, has been finally paid
for; yet the various operatives profit by his outlay; but this is no more than saying worn as many more before the labour expended on it guish accumulated labour before it can be called capital; who has resolved to bestow his money on a portion of engaged in preparing it, have, through the instrumen
tality of the different kinds of capital applied to the These birds naturally choose retired habitations. steadily engaged in avoiding it. To effect this, the manufacture, been paid their wages, some of them The falcon, in particular, builds her nest amongst affrighted heron strenuously endeavours to rise above inonths, others years, perhaps, before the final return cliffs in wild and unpeopled regions. In order to fit the hawks, who, however, by superior power of wing, has been so obtained.
birds for the sport of falconry, it was necessary to commonly succeed in getting the upper station, from It is not unnatural that the artisan, who sees that take them from the nest at a very early stage of their which one presently makes its stoop, and happy it is his employer never personally touches the manufac- existence (then technically called eyasses), or to en- for the poor heron if he can evade the blow, which ture through which he makes his fortune, should con- snare them in their more mature age, and then train he occasionally does, either by shifting his station, or ceive that he is liimself the sole fabricator of the com- them for the purpose. A falcon in its natural state by receiving the falcon on his sharp bill, which inmodity, and alone deserving of the remuneration. The was said to be a haggard; hence, apparently, the term stantly transfixes it. This danger is, however, denied artisan too frequently considers himself the only person by which we still express a wild or agitated aspect. on authority, but we feel assured that it does occur. concerned in the creation of that which his hands have The first step in training the falcon, was to man it, or The second hawk, if the first fails, stoops in his turn; inade ; and as such fallacies have generally their coun- accustom it to the presence of human beings. Feed- but the meditated blow of this also is frequently evaded terparts, the capitalist perhaps occasionally thinks that ing was the grand source of the power which its keeper like the former. The trio then still rising higher and he is the creator of those riches, of which he is but acquired over it. When it did as required, it was fed, higher, the sight becomes interesting in the extreme, incidentally the depositary. There are, in truth, no and thus taught to know that it had done right--and and the spectators are scarcely less agitated than the two classes whose interests are more mutually depen- not otherwise. If extremely refractory, a stream of feathered warriors above. At length another stoop dent. That the capitalist could not make his large cold water was directed at its head, as an admonition takes place, and the fatal seizure is made by one hawk, profits without the industrious and intelligent labourer, that nothing was to be gained by such conduct. From while the other binds to his fellow, and all three quickly is self-evident. That the labourer would be poorly the very first, the animal was accoutred with certain descend together, but not with a dangerous rapidity, off without the stimulant which the capitalist supplies, paraphernalia, the names of which at least must be as their powers of inflation and the action of their a little reflection will perhaps make fully as clear. It is familiar to most readers. First, its head was covered wings break the fall. It is now that the mounted quite true that the capitalist does not work in propor- by a leathern hood, fitting close all round, so as to shut horsemen make the best of their way to the assistance tion with the artisan for what he makes ; yet, if he up its eyes, and calculated, by a slit behind, to be of their falcons, and their first efforts must be directed shocid cease to make his profits, the artisan would readily slipped on and off. On the top of the hood to secure the head of the heron, that the sharp beak suffer ; and it is poor consolation to a starving family there was a tuft of feathers, which usually has a grace- may not take effect on one or both of them.” to reflect that the rich man is not increasing his store. ful effect in the old pictures representing ladies or Pheasants are objects of this sport, but not to a If it should come to a question between the capitalists gentlemen travelling with their hawks upon their great extent, on account of the inconvenience preand the operatives of this country, which could most wrist. Leathern straps, called jesses, a few inches in sented by the sylvan ground in which the sport must easily cast aside the other, the advantage would lie length, were fitted to the legs of the bird by a but- be practised. Partridge-hawking is found to be a more with the former. There are few places in which capi- ton slipping through a slit or loop. Close beside the convenient sport. To quote the same authority tal cannot be put out to use ; there are not many in end attached to each leg, was a small spherical bell, “The scene of practice is commonly on large fields, which industry alone can find a market: Labourers like those of a child's rattle, and composed of silver or open tracts of country, where the horsemen and cannot easily leave their country in large bodies ; but for clearness of sound, the one being in some nice in company generally can beat in line, and the attendant a slip of paper may be the means of transferring to stances made a semitone higher than the other. The falconer or master, being well mounted, can ride foranother country as much capital as would employ other ends of the jesses were furnished each with ward, and be ready to receive the quarry. Either thousands of them.
a ring, which could be readily fitted upon the swivel pointers or spaniels are necessary, or both. Sir John
designed to connect them both with the leash, a long Sebright says, that high-ranging pointers are the best FALCONRY.
slender strap, sometimes prolonged by a creance or dogs for the sport, for the birds will often lie to a dog Falcoxry was the favourite field-sport of the middle common cord, and designed as a tether by which to when they will not suffer horsemen to approach them. ages, as shooting with the gun is the predominant one allowed considerable room for free motion. Two great necessary that it should be very near the dogs when of the present day. It appears, in this country, to objects in training were to teach the bird to fly at its they point, or near the birds when they rise. He also have doclined and gone out of use in the seventeenth proper game, and to habituate it to come back to the observes, that, if the hawk be within two or three century, in consequence of the gun having then become, hand of its master, after on any occasion
having been hundred yards, it will be near enough, if her soar be by the addition of the lock and flint, a much more
let free in pursuit of its prey. For the first of these high and she directs her view inwards. In case she ready means of bringing down game than the use of ends, in the case of long-winged birds, an implement should not do this, she must be lured by the voice, or
termed the lure was used. It consisted either of a constrained into noticing by the lure itself. It is hawks had ever been. Falconry, while it existed, was stick or of a cord, on the end of which were fixed however observed that it is better that a flight be lost the peculiar sport of kings, and princes, and nobles, pieces of flesh, with a bunch of the feathers of the prey by the hawk ranging too far, than that she should be many of whom were painted in life with their hawks which it was designed that the bird should fly at, or lowered or confined in her pitch by too much luring. seated on their wrist, and were sculptured on their perhaps an actual resemblance of the prey in its entire Sufficient time should by all means be allowed to the
form. The falcon being set loose by one man, another hawk to mount well before the game is sprung; for tombs after death with the same creature placed at stood at a distance waving the lure around his head, being sufficiently elevated, her range of vision will be their feet, thus marking the special regard in which thus tempting the animal to advance and strike at it. equal to take in the whole expanse around her, and they held the animal which was the means of giving A whistle was the implement used to reclaim or bring incline her to watch the moving scene more attenthem so much amusement. All over Europe, and far back the hawk. When a hawk was to be kept on tively than if she were nearer. into Asia, the sport may be said to have flourished, its talons. It may here be remarked, that the training with astonishing rapidity, and seize on it ; at which
The partridge being flushed, the hawk will stoop from the latter years of the Roman empire downwards ; of falcons was altogether a most laborious business, time neither horses, dogs, nor company, should press and amongst the earliest books of an instructive kind and that trained birds were accordingly to be only forward ; on the contrary, they should permit the which found their way into print in most civilised purchased at a high price. At the beginning of the falconer only to advance, who, approaching the hawk countries, were books descriptive of falconry, and con- seventeenth century, a trained goshawk and tiercel with caution, must walk quietly round her, when, taining directions for those who would practise it with favour to part with them. The extreme labour at- in the act of feeding the hawk, he should lay hold of
brought one hundred marks, and it was considered a gently kneeling down with his arm extended, as though success. Circumstances connected with hawks and tending the training of the animals must have been the partridge, and at the same time place the hawk hawking, the modes of the sport itself, and the techni- sufficient in early times to confine the sport to persons on his fist. This done, put on the hood, and reward cal terms employed in it, were introduced largely of birth and fortune, if there were no other cause, the hawk with the head of the quarry, and if she be into literature and into the ordinary language of the and it must also have conduced to the rapid decline not intended to fly again, let her be fed immediately.
A somewhat different method of partridge-hawking people, as we shall more particularly show in a subse- and extinction of the sport, after a ready means of quent part of this paper.
killing wild-fowl by the gun became attainable. is practised in the latter part of the season, when the
The sport, after being long given up, was revived country is very bare, and when the partridges are The sport, we need scarcely remark, was founded in England a few years ago by Colonel Thornton, often very wild, and lie indifferently even to the dog. on the natural instinct of the rapacious order of the the Duke of St Albans, and a few other gentlemen, In such cases it is recommended that the company feathered creation, as the chase may be said to be chiefly through the influence of a taste for what draw up in line at fifty or sixty yards' distance founded on the instinct of the dog to pursue the hare, forefathers. It is said to be a gallant and goodly hawk upon wing,' the falconer being in the centre of
ever is elegant and romantic in the usages of our from each other, and gallop aeross the plain with a fox, and other animals. The rapacious order of birds, sight, when a train of well-mounted English gentlo- the line, that he may regulate the pace by the situaof which the eagle, falcon, and owl, are the three prin- men and ladies ride forth on a clear sunshiny day, to tion of the hawk. Sir John Sebright informs us that cipal types, are formed in such a way as evidently pursue this sport, attended by their falconers, each this method of partridge-hawking has afforded him fits them for pursuing, seizing, and destroying the with his hawk on his wrist. In the present day, as more sport than any other, and that when the face smaller birds ; a part in creation which at first sight of yore, various kinds of feathered game are flown at. of the country was so bare, and the birds so wild, as appears to involve much cruelty, but which has been the heron, as must be generally known, is a large bird way.
Heron-hawking is, we believe, in greatest esteem. to make it impossible to approach them in the usual clearly shown to be intended to save rather than to in appearance, with a long neck, long legs, and a long Brook-hawking, as it is often termed, was much in produce pain, and to be indispensable to a system of sharp bill, being designed to haunt marshes and pools, vogue formerly. The practice was not, however, conthings in which one leading feature is, that there shall and feed upon whatever fish it can find
therein. It fined to brooks, but extended to rivers, sea-shores, always be as many living creatures as can possibly be to protect it from enemies but its sharp bill. Herons "the jer-falcon, the haggard falcon, the jerkin, and the
is, however, a light insubstantial bird, with nothing moors, and ponds. It engaged, according to Blome, supported.* The falcon family were alone employed are gregarious, and the lonely places where they live tassel gentle.' Waterfowl of every description were for purposes of sport, as alone possessing the required are called heronries. These explanations will intro- made prey of; but some particular objects, according docility, and of this family two or three species were
duce the following account of heron-hawking, from with the training of the falcons, were particularly more frequently used than any other. Of those posBlaine's Encyclopaedia of Rural Sports :
sought for. Dogs were employed to rouse the fowl, sessing long wings, the falcon properand the ger-falcon; places are watched by the falconers, who station them- while horsemen, with the hawks on their fists, were at
“ The daily visitations of the heron to its feeding being led on by men who traversed the water's edge; and of the short-winged, the goshawk and sparrow- selves to the leeward or down wind of the heronry, so hand to cast off one or more, according to the nature hawk; seem to have been the favourite kinds. Species that the heron on its return must fly against the of the game. A heron or mallard would require two, called the hobby, the kestral, the merlin, and buzzard, breeze, which gives a great advantage to its enemy. while a widgeon or a teal would probably engage only were the next in request. The female, which is in all As soon as one is discovered on the return, a cast of one. the varieties of this tribe considerably larger than the rise in pursuit. The heron, instinctively aware that with the following hints on the training of falcons to falcons is let loose, who, catching sight of the quarry,
Blome's description of brook-hawking commences male, was alone employed in sport, and the common its life is at stake, prepares for the fray by disgorging this sport in many places there are ponds inclosed names of all the species apply to that sex, the male the contents of its stomach to lighten the weight of with woods, bushes, and the like obscurities, so that having usually some distinctive appellation : thus the the body. The coursing falcons ascend the airy vault they are concealed from passengers, and such places male of the ger-falcon was called the jerkin, of the in spiral gyrations, by which the atmospheric resist- ducks do much resort unto : now, for the training up falcon proper the tierce gentle, of the goshawk the been observed, have frequently the curious effect of Your hawk being in all points ready to fly, be pro
ance to their flight is lessened. These circlings, it has your hawk to take them, observe these directions. tiercel, and of the sparrow-hawk the musket.
presenting the three birds as flying in different direc- vided with two or three live train ducks, and let there
tions; whereas the real intentions of the two hawks be a man who must lie concealed in some bush by the See the ingenious reasonings on this subject to Buckland's are steadily directed to one point, which is that of pond with them, so that, coming to the place, having Bridgewater Treatise.
contact with the heron whose entire efforts are as your bawk prepared for the sudden flight, beat the
bush with your pole, where the man lieth concealed place where the birds retained by the English monarch the annual ones of a guinea, are already nunen with the ducks, who must cast forth one of them, to were put on those occasions, near his palace, was called and there is every prospect of the requisite sum ben the end the hawk may think it was put up by you ; the King's Mews. The buildings for the hawks were soon made up, and the building got ready. Asé and if with a courage she takes it, reward her well ; in time supplanted by stables for the royal stud, but medical attendance, it seems to be arranged that ce and this is the way to train up a goshawk to catch a still the name of King's Mews or Meuse was retained. resident medical officer shall take the general cha fordi at sovce. Having trained your hawk to this, you This has in time spread to stable-lanes, as already of the house, assisted by others who are to sea may boldly go with her to the ponds where the fowl mentioned, all over the kingdom.
visiting physicians. lies, and creeping close to the place, raise them up by
We trust that this establishment will go on e beating about with your pole ; and when any rise, let
prosper. But we have now to present a claim for te
SANATORIUMS. go your hawk from your fist, and if she seize it, let
Scottish capital, as having had the merit of less her take pleasure thereon, and reward her well. It is The term Sanatorium, which is nearly synonymous the way in this particular path of sanatory que very necessary to have a spaniel with you ; for if the with the French Maison de Santé, or House of Ilealth, In 1837, a private hospital was opened at L hawk is well acquainted with the sport, she will be so
lias been suggested as the title for an Hospital-Esta- House, Argyle Square, Edinburgh, the leading po nimble at the catch, that they will fall into the water blishment of a peculiar order, lately proposed to be siple of which is identical with that of the Lord together, and by that means the fowl may go to plunge, so that then the spaniel will be ready to do good ser
set on foot in London. The objects of this institution original Report. “It is intended for the benefit to vice, and not displease the hawk. It is when your seem to us of so commendable a character as to claim numerous class of individuals, who, when labo hawk will fly, jump, and come in at your lure, it is some notice at our hands, and we give it with the under disease, are unwilling to be considered ouję. then that she is fit to go to the river in earnest ; and greater willingness, as our pages are more particularly of charity, and to enter a public hospital. It to further manage your flight, observe these direc-addressed to the very classes of society chiefly inte-lodgers, when affected with ill health, cannot, in te then go about a quarter of a mile up in the wind to rested in the subject, and may be the means of calling peculiar circumstances, obtain all the attention = the river side, and whistle off your hawks, loosing their their attention to it more readily and extensively. confort they require. In many cases it is para hoods, and let them fly with their heads in the wind, The Sanatorium is intended to be, in some measure, larly inconvenient for the masters or friends c for there must be a cast of hawks for this flight; then let the falconers, or others that are at the sport, strike individuals of the middle and lower classes of society, ing; and to them, therefore, the advantage of a mass
whom they reside, to afford them suitable aceom. a private hospital, calculated for the benetit of many dation, professional attendance, medicines, and a in unto you, and own the river ; and when they are who, when labouring under disease, are unwilling to de santé, to which recourse may be had, must be aps got up into their places, then let one of the falconers resort for relief to an ordinary medical charity, yet rent. In such an institution the patients enjor 2 go below the fowl, that is, down the river ; and the are not so circumstanced as to be able to pay for seclusion of a home; and as something is paid for a fowl again, and by that means the fowl will be crost cians and nurses at home—at least, in a manner suit- charity are removed.” The same Report then så other
that is above, let him come down, and show the medicines, and to procure the attendance of physi- services of which they stand in need, the feelings at over land, that the hawks may make a fair stooping ; and knocking the fowl on the land, will occasion the able to their ailments. In short, the proposal is, to out several of the advantages likely to arres killing it, which will quarry your hawks. But if they give to every such person, through the advantages country patients from such an institution, with eze should miss their stooping, so as the fowl may get to of combination, the amplest and best means of relief circumstances rendering it worthy of public body wings to make good their flight ; but it the fowi under bodily distress, at the lowest possible rate of and mentions that the charge for board, joder
medical attendance, and nursing, was to varst: should go to plunge, then take down your hawks, lest cost, without rendering them debtors to public charity, 103. to 20s. per week. you should fly them too long; and the falconers, with as in the case of common hospitals. It appears to us Three regular medical officers, Drs Peddie, Beer their spears or poles, may endeavour to spear or kill that there is a large section of society, which establish- and Cornwall, aided by the valuable services of 3 the fowl, which take to quarry the lawks with. If ments of this order are calculated to benefit extensively fessor Syme, in the capacity of consulting surz they kill not the fowl at first stooping, give them and lastingly. Mechanics and working men of every
took the management of this private hospital. I their place again, and their heads in, lay out the fowl description, and all who fill the humbler departments House, where it was commenced, had formerlyn as before directed, and reward them well if they kill
. in offices, shops, and warehouses---especially where extent, yet airy and commodious. As the origins: You should do well to have a live duck in your hawk- they are unmarried and live in lodgings-together did not possess the advantage of large subscripta ing-bag, that if they kill not the fowl which is stooped with all domestic servants of the more respectable to establish their Sanatorium on a very excess their pitch, and their heads in, you may throw to your class, who usually are compelled to leave their places by them has not been the man average, abortreten hawks and reward them; and by this means you shall of service when attacked by serious diseases-these,
or sixty annually. This may seem a comparati! always keep your hawks in good life and blood, and to and many similarly situated parties, must be again limited amount of practice, but it must be reme be inwards." ;
and again thrown into the deepest distress by the bered that only eight or nine patients can be Laying out of view entirely the partial revival of want of such institutions as the one now proposed.ceived into the house at one time, and that manté the sport in modern times, it may be said that falconry On the other hand, there is an equally large class of them, being afflicted with diseases of long standing is, and must ever remain, a living thing amongst us, individuals, not residing in cities, to whom such insti- regard to the description of persons thus relieved, in consequence of there being so many references to it in literature, and its terms being so largely received tutions would also be of the highest benefit. There
are told that they consisted of the class for wbce into our common language. Dante, Chaucer, Spencer, are numerous persons, in rural situations, afflicted benefit “the institution was principally intended, soek and Shakspeare, to say nothing of many meaner with diseases of a chronic kind, such as old ulcers, as strangers from the country, individuals in reduced names, abound in allusions to this sport of the noble eruptions, tumours, and the like, who might be relieved circumstances, clerks, shopmen, the upper class of and princely, and in images derived from the falconer's by the superior medical advice to be got in cities, but servants, &c. Of the cases coming under treatment, craft. One of the most affecting stories in Boccaccio who cannot make up their minds to enter a common many have been highly important and interesting i is that of the reduced gentleman, who long wooed a hospital as objects of charity, or to risk the expense a medical point of view, and several requiring tbe lady unsuccessfully, and at length on her visiting him, attending a residence in private lodgings under the performance of severe surgical operations.” T. having no other means of entertaining her, gallantly charge of proper purses and proper medical attendants
. Report for last year also states that patients have sacrificed his falcon for her meal
, and thereby, though They are in decent enough circumstances to shrink lately come from great distances, and that the hospital without design, gained her affections. The idea in from the first of these alternatives, yet too poor to has met with countenance from families in the higa Othello's exclamation respecting the suspected Des- venture on the second step: Small farmers, and re- circles in town, from commercial houses in waci demona
spectable tradesmen, with their wives and families, as boarders are kept, and from hotel and lodging-hoaz I'll whistle her off, and let her down the wind,
well as servants and others who have laid up little keepers, who have placed under our care valued To prey at fortune
money, are the parties usually placed in this dilemma, vants and others.” The medical managers conelade, is taken from the act of setting off the hawk upon her and whose comfort in life is too often impaired in con from their past experience, that, as the institucw
Their existence itself is in many cases flight. sequence.
becomes more widely known, the number of admi What! all my pretty ones-all
shortened by the same cause. To these persons the sions will progressively increase.
Sanatorium would be an institution of the highest
It is but just, therefore, to the gentlemen now me the frantic inquiry of Macduff—is from the act of the cost, the best possible tendance and advice, and would torium by gratuitous labours of no common exteri,
value. They would there enjoy, for the least possible tioned-who have for three years sustained this Sare bird itself in descending upon its prey: Milton speaks neither, on the one hand, have their honest pride hurt of " imping his wing” to a bolder flight. Imping is by the sense of accepting eleemosynary relief, nor be practice, by which no fewer than 5611 poor persons
as well as kept up a large out-of-door and dispensar the technical term for the process of mending a broken alarmed, on the other, by fears of incurring debt, or feather in the wing of the hawk; the process itself draining the scanty resources of their families for a
were relieved during last year-to state that they lsre consisting in splicing, as the sailors would say, a new
the merit of having given a fair trial to the scheme feather to the stump of the old one, with a needle personal end.
now about to be carried into operation in London. I: passing through both at the juncture, and holding the
So much for the principle of the Sanatorium, which is true that the trial has been made on a comparatively
seems much the same as that which leads gentlemen small scale, yet the public have it in their power, be two pieces together. Knowing this, the reader will understand Sir Philip, Sidney, when he speaks in his duals
. Sanatory institutions, based on this leading sphere of usefulness of the institution. It is excellens
to form club-houses ; union lessening cost to indivi- increased support, to extend the advantages and sonnets in praise of Edward IV:
principle, appear to is likely to do much good in every as far as it goes, and has nurses, medical attendants Not for his fair outside, nor well-lined brain,
great seat of population. The details of the plan and other conveniences suitable for its extent; the Although less gifts imp feathers ofl on Fame.
may differ in different places, and will do so, it is pro- patients are treated as if they were in their sereral “ Hood-winked," a familiar phrase for one who walks bable, if the idea be adopted to any great extent. The homes, and, according to their wishes and means, are in any kind of mental darkness, is from the practice following are the leading features in the scheme of the provided with single rooms, or have the comfort of keeping hawks looded till they were ready to fly. London Sanatorium, projected, we believe, by Dr (which most of them are found to like) of the comWe speak of “fiying at higher game,” from a tradition. Southwood Smith, a gentleman who has won an ho- pany of others of their own sex during their confine. ary notion of hawking. The term hawker, expressive nourable reputation by liis excellent work on human inent; scales of comfortable diet are arranged for of a travelling merchant or pedlar, is probably derived physiology. A payment of about two guineas a-week them, in accordance with their wants and their mafrom the old custom of carrying about hawks for sale. made by cach patient, insures to hiin bed, board, ladies; and, in short, the establishment is conducted These men carried the birds upon a frame slung from and medicine ; the attendance of skilful physicians with great liberality, judgment, and care. But Edintheir shoulders, and termed a cadge : hence cadger, an and nurses; the use of a separate room if requisite ; burgh and its neighbourhood, if fully alive to the adother but comparatively local term for an itinerant with baths, quiet, pure air, and all the curative vantages of such an institution, would support its dealer. Most curious of all is the term musket, which means and appliances which science has provided managers more generously, and enable them to work seems to have been derived from the technical name in aid of medicine. To collect a fund of L.3000 for the male sparrow-hawk, on the same principle wherewith to commence operations, life-subscriptions, to a certain extent, by patients themselves taking
on a scale of increased utility. This might be done, which was followed in calling pieces of ordnance in of ten guineas each, and yearly subscriptions of one advantage of the opportunities which the institution, the sixteenth century by such names as the Great guinea, have been proposed and opened, the subscribers Falcon, Thrawn-mou’ed Meg, and so forth. Another in such cases being privileged not only to share the ward at the annual meetings of the supporters of the
as it is, affords ; but if the public were to come forstrange memorial of falconry is found in the term, advantages of the institution at a lower rate of cost, dispensary and general establishment of Minto House, now common in our large cities, for a lane of stables but to recommend non-subscribers as inmates. It is and to strengthen the hands of its managers by their running behind a street. The birds employed in the only a few months since the idea of the institution was support, something still more worthy of the capital sport annually mered, or changed their feathers. The first started, but the subscriptions, and particularly | of Scotland, in the shape of a Sanatorium, miglit be