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To establish himself still farther in their confidence, innate sentiment of justice which exists even among the foaming waters, succeeded in carrying him safely he also assumed the character of a buffoon, ima- the most ferocious and most savage of men.

to the opposite shore. The day was then beginning gining every day some new jest to amuse them. Kascambo had written three letters since his de- to dawn, and the Cossacks, recognising his uniform, Ibrahim was particularly delighted with his perform- tention without receiving any answer: a year had immediately marked him out, and shouted, “ A deance of the Cossack-dance. When any of the in- passed over. The unfortunate prisoner, deprived of serter! Kill the deserter !". His clothes were comhabitants of the village came to visit them, they took linen, and in utter want of every comfort of life, found pletely riddled with balls. At last, after having fought off Ivan's irons and bade him dance : he always did it his health fail rapidly, and was giving way to despair. with the courage of despair, and burnt all his cartwith a good grace, adding every time some new ridi- Ivan himself had been ill for some time. The stern ridges, he returned to the village with the glory of culous gambol. By such means he obtained the li- and severe Ibrahim, however, to the great surprise of having saved the life of one of his companions, and of berty of walking through the village, where he was the major, had taken off the young man's irons while having made himself useful to the whole troop. generally followed by a crowd of children attracted his indisposition lasted, and left him still at liberty. If his conduct on this occasion did not gain over all by his buffoonery, and as he knew already the Tatare The major interrogating him one day on that subject, the party to him, it won him at least a friend ; the language, he soon learned the language of the country, “ Master," said Ivan, "I have wished for a long time young man he had saved adopted him for his koniak which is only a dialect of it.

to consult you upon an idea that has come into my | (a relation held sacred by the mountaineers of the The major himself was often forced to sing Russian head. It strikes me it would be wise in me to become Caucasus), and swore to defend and protect him songs with his denchick, and to play on the guitar to a Mahometan."

against each and every one.

But this union and amuse that wild company. In the beginning they “ You are become mad, I suppose.”

friendship were not sufficient to protect him against used to take off the irons from his right hand; but “ No; it is the only way in which I can be useful the hatred of the principal inhabitants. The courage the woman having observed that he sometimes did to you, and at least procure you some good food and he had displayed, his attachment to his master, in, play with the irons on to amuse himself, they never some linen-in short, who knows kwhen I am free. creased to a great degree the fears with which he had granted that favour again, and the unfortunate musi- The God of the Russians is great !-we shall see.” inspired them. They could no longer look upon him cian repented more than once having shown his talent. “ But God himself will forsake you, wretch that as a buffoon, incapable of any design or enterprise, To obtain the liberty so ardently wished for, the you are, if you betray him.”

such as they had supposed him to be till then; and two prisoners formed many and many a plan, but Kascambo, whilst he was lecturing his servant, when they reflected on the failure of the expedition, to they were all very difficult to execute. when they could scarcely refrain from laughing at his absurd which he had been admitted, they began to wonder how had first arrived in the village, the inhabitants used plan; but when he proceeded to forbid him peremp- the Russian troops had come upon them so completely to send every night an additional man to increase the torily to go on with it, “ Master,” replied Ivan, “it in the opportunity of time, in a place so distant from guard. Insensibly this precaution was neglected—the is out of my power to obey you, and it would be use- their ordinary residence, and they suspected him of individual very often did not come. The woman and less to conceal it any longer : the thing is done ; I having secretly communicated with them. Although the child slept in an adjoining room, and old Ibrahim have been a Mahometan since the very day you their conjecture was completely without foundation, remained alone with them; but he used to keep the thought me ill, and my irons were taken off

. "I am they watched him more closely. Old Ibrahim himkey of the irons carefully in his pocket, and awoke at called Houssein now. Where is the harm! I shall self, fearing some plot for the prisoners escape, prethe slightest noise. The prisoner was treated every become a Christian again whenever I like, and as soon vented all conversation between them; and the brave day more severely, and as the answer to his letter as I am free. See, I have already no more irons on, denchick was menaced, and even sometimes beaten, did not arrive, the Tchetchenges often used to come and I can break off yours at the first favourable op- when he wished to converse with his master. to the hut to insult him, and threaten him with the portunity, which I hope will soon present itself.” In this miserable and distressing situation, the two most barbarous treatment. They deprived him almost According to the promise made, he was no longer prisoners contrived new means of conversing, without entirely of food, and he had one day the affliction of chained, and enjoyed from that moment a greater raising the suspicions of their keeper. As they were seeing poor little Mamet most unmercifully flogged liberty ; but that very liberty had nearly proved fatal in the habit of singing Russian songs together, the for having brought a few meddlars to him.

to him. The principal leaders of the expedition against major took his guitar, when he had any thing imporA very remarkable circumstance in Kascambo’s Kascambo soon began to fear lest the new Mussulman tant to communicate to Ivan in the presence of Ibrapainful situation, was the respect and confidence which should desert. The long stay he had made among him, and sang out his questions. Ivan answered to the his persecutors could not help feeling for him, and them, and the knowledge he had acquired of their same tune, and his master accompanied him with the the profound esteem with which he had inspired language, enabled him to know them all by their instrument ; this arrangement presenting nothing them. While the barbarians heaped on his head names, and to give their description at the Russian new, their enemies never found out the stratagem, to every sort of insult, and every species of oppression, lines, supposing he should reach them, which would which, besides, they resorted but very seldom. they, notwithstanding, very often consulted him in expose them individually to the vengeance of the More than three months had elapsed since the untheir private affairs, and made him the judge of their Russians: and they in consequence highly disapproved fortunate expedition we have mentioned, when Ivan differences. Among other disputes of which he stood of the ill-judged zeal of their priest. On the other thought he perceived some extraordinary stir and umpire, the following deserves to be quoted for its hand, the strict Mussulmans who had favoured him agitation in the village. Some mules, laden with singularity.

at the moment of his conversion, soon observed that powder, had arrived from the plain. The men were One of these ruffians had intrusted a Russian note when he said his prayers on the roof of the house, as busily engaged cleaning their arms, and making

cartof five roubles to a comrade who was setting out for is the custom, and as the Mollah had particularly re- ridges; he soon learned that a grand expedition was a neighbouring valley, charging him to remit it to commended him to do, by way of conciliating the in preparation. The whole nation was to unite in some one there. The fellow went off accordingly, but public good-will, he often happened by mistake to in- attacking a neighbouring tribe, which had placed itself lost his horse, which died on the road, and persuaded termix some signs of the Cross among his prostrations under the protection of the Russians, and allowed them himself that he had a right to keep the five roubles towards Mecca, to which place, by another still more to construct a redoubt on their territory. The object as an indemnification for the loss he had met with. unfortunate blunder, he at times turned his back-a of this campaign was no less than to exterminate the This mode of reasoning, very worthy of the Cauca- series of accidents, which made them rather suspicious whole population, along with the Russian battalions sians, was by no means to the taste of the proprietor as to the sincerity of his conversion.

who protected the construction of the fort. of the cash. At the return of the traveller, there was A few months after his feint apostacy, he perceived A few days after, Ivan, on leaving the hut in the a great uproar in the village.

a great change in the manners of the inhabitants morning, found the village completely deserted. Every These two men had gathered around them their re- towards him, and could not mistake the manifest signs man capable of carrying arms had gone off during the lations and their friends, and the quarrel would have of their ill will. He was seeking in vain the cause of night. "In the short turn he took through the village terminated in bloodshed, had not the elders of the that alteration, when some young men, with whom he to gather information, he obtained new proofs of the tribe, after endeavouring in vain to calm them, advised was particularly intimate, came and proposed to him bad intentions entertained towards him. The old them to submit the case to the decision of the pri- to accompany them in an expedition they were about men evidently shunned him. A little boy plainly told soner. The whole population of the village proceeded to undertake. Their plan was to pass the Tereek, to him that his father was resolved to kill him; and as tumultuously towards his habitation, that they might plunder some merchants who were going to Mosdok. he was returning, absorbed in mournful thoughts, he sooner learn the issue of this ridiculous case. Kas- Ivan accepted without hesitation. For a long time saw on the roof of a house a young woman, who cambo was brought out of prison and seated on the he had wished to procure himself some arms; and raised her veil, and, with signs of the greatest alarm, small platform, which served as a roof to the house. they promised him, besides, a share of the spoils. He motioned him with her hand to be off, pointing towards

Almost every house in the valleys of Caucasus is thought, also, that on seeing him return to his master, Russia. She was the sister of the young Tchetchenge partly dug under ground, and is only elevated four those who suspected him of wishing to desert, would he had saved at the passage of the Tereek. feet above the level of the soil ; the roof is horizontal, no longer have any grounds to justify their suspicions. When he entered the house, he found the old man and formed of hard-beaten clay: The inhabitants, the However, the major having strongly opposed his join- busy examining Kascambo's irons. A new comer was women especially, are in the habit of reposing upon ing the party, he pretended to have given up the seated in the room ; it was a man whom a slow fever these terraces after sunset, and frequently even spend thoughts of it, when, one morning, Kascambo awaking, had prevented from accompanying his comrades, and the whole night there in fine weather.

saw the mat upon which Ivan used to sleep carefully who had been sent to Ibrahim as an additional guard When Kascambo made his appearance on the roof, rolled up against the

wall ; he had gone off during the over the prisoners, till the return of the inhabitants. 2 profound silence ensued. It was, no doubt, a won night. His companions were to pass the Tereek the Ivan marked that precaution, but without showing derful sight to behold before this singular tribunal, following night, and attack the merchants, whose the slightest surprise. The absence of all the men infuriated clients armed with pistols and daggers, march was known and followed by their scouts. from the village presented an admirable opportunity submitting their cause to a judge loaded with chains, The confidence of the Tchetchenges ought to have for the execution of his designs ; but the increased and half dead with hunger and miseries of all sorts, created suspicions in Ivan's mind. It was not natural | vigilance of their jailor, and the presence of the inbut who judged, nevertheless, without appeal, and in men, so cautious and so cunning, to admit so freely valid, rendered their success very uncertain. Howwhose sentence was always respected and obeyed. a Russian, their prisoner, in an expedition directed ever, his death was inevitable if he waited the return

Having lost all hopes of making the defendant un- against his own country people. It was, indeed, found of the warriors : he foresaw that their expedition would derstand reason, the major ordered him to approach; out some time afterwards, that they had invited him be unsuccessful, and that, in the fury of disappointand resolved to win the laughers at least over to the to accompany them with

the sole intention of murder- ment, they would not spare him. He had no other side of justice, he put to him the following question :- ing him. “As his quality of a convert obliged them to alternative than to abandon his master or deliver him “ If, instead of giving you the five roubles, your com- some sort of regard, they had proposed to keep a forthwith. He would have rather suffered a thousand rade had merely charged you with his compliments, close look-out upon him on the road, and to make deaths than adopt the first resolution. would your horse not have died all the same ?" “ Perhaps,” answered he.

away with him at the moment of the attack, leaving Kascambo, who was beginning to lose every sort of

it to be supposed that he had perished in the fight. hope, had fallen into a kind of stupor, and preserved “Well, then," added the judge,“ what would you Only a few members of the party were in the secret ; a profound silence. Ivan, on the contrary, was more have done with the compliments? Would you not but the event baffled all their sanguinary designs. calm and more gay than usual ; he fairly surpassed have been obliged to keep them as a payment, and be Their troop was hardly placed in ambush, to attack himself in preparing the dinner, and kept singing the content? I order, in consequence, that you shall give the merchants, when it was itself surprised by a regi- whole time Russian songs, in which he introduced back the note, and your comrade shall give you his ment of Cossacks, and so vigorously charged, that they some words of encouragement for his master. “The compliments."

had infinite trouble in passing the river again. The time has come,” said he, adding at every phrase the As soon as this sentence was translated to the spec- intensity of the danger made them forget their plot insignificant chorus of some Russian popular song, tators, a universal roar of laughter

proclaimed afar against Ivan, who followed them in their retreat. Hai luli, hai luli—the time has come to put an end the wisdom of the new Solomon. The defeated man While the panic-struck band was crossing the to our misery or to die. To-morrow, hai luli, we shall himself, after some farther discussion, was forced to Tereek in complete disorder, the horse of a young be on the road to a town, a pretty town, hai luli, which yield, and said, giving up the money, “I knew before- Tchetchenge stumbled in the middle of the river, and I shall not name. Courage, dear master! the God of hand

that I should lose, if that dog of a Christian had was immediately carried off by the rapid stream. Ívan, the Russians is great!" any thing to do with it." That extraordinary confi- who was behind him, pushed his horse forward, at the Kascambo, completely indifferent to life or death, dence shows what an idea these people must'entertain risk of being drowned himself, and, taking a firm hold and ignorant of his denchick’s plans, merely answered, of European superiority, and it is also a proof of the l of the youth, at the moment he was disappearing under / “Do as you please, and hold your tongue." Towards

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the evening, the sick man, whom they had treated silence which had succeeded to such a noise —she said that he was thus laying in a stock of strength to generously to make him stay, and who, besides a very opened the door of her room. “What are you about fit him for some useful industry; in this case, to the copious meal, had amused himself the whole day eating here !" said she, advancing towards the prisoners; extent to which he lays in strength to render that that he had to give up, and retired to his own house. which had been scattered about, produced almost no industry more productive, he may be said to labour. He was allowed to depart without great difficulty ; light. Ivan lifted the axe to strike her-she saw it Suppose, however, that the individual is paid for Ivan having completely removed every fear of the old in time to throw aside her head, and received the blow exerting himself in wrestling or gymnastics. Here the man by his extraordinary gaiety. To remove more in the chest—she fell with a groan: a second blow, entirely every cause of suspicion, he withdrew very as rapid as a thunderbolt, caught her in her fall, and occupation entirely changes its nature, and becomes early to the end of the room, and laid himself down on laid her dead at Kascambo's feet. Frightened and to its full extent labour. It may not, to be sure, be of a bench against the wall, waiting till Ibrahim should horror-struck at this second murder, which he did not much ultimate service to mankind; but fashion, capfall asleep ; but the latter had resolved to watch all expect, the major, seeing Ivan proceed to the child's rice, or whatever else may have instigated the desire night. Instead of spreading himself on a mat near room, rushed forward to stop him. “ Where are you for it, is to be supposed in such an event to have made the fire, as usual, he sat himself down on a large log going, wretch ?” said he ; " would you have the fero- it one of the wants of society; the community are of wood,

opposite to his prisoner, and sent away his city to sacrifice also that poor child who has shown ready to give value for it, and the operation through daughter-in-law, who retired to the next room where me so much affection ? If you were to deliver me at her child was, and shut the door. such a price, neither your attachment nor your ser

which the demand is supplied is labour. From the dark corner in which he was placed, Ivan vices could save you whenever we reach the line." The demands of society are thus the only criterion observed attentively the scene bofore him. By the “ At the line," said Ivan, “ you will do as you to distinguish what is labour in this sense, and what glimmering light of the fire, which flashed at times a please, but here we must put an end to all this." is not. It is impossible to establish any other critetransient blaze, an axe glittered in a recess of the wall. The old man, overcome with sleep, would at times let him by the colar, as he was forcing his way: - Vil rion of utility. A man may be convinced that a his head fall heavily on his chest. İvan saw it was time, lain !" cried he, if you dare to attempt

his life, if certain occupation in which he is engaged will be and rose to his feet. The suspicious jailor immediately you touch one hair of his head, I swear here before productive of the greatest benefit to mankind; but noticed it. “What are you doing there, you dog? | God that I shall give myself up to the Tchetchenges, if men will not take him at his word, and pay him for cried he, harshly. Ivan, instead of answering, pro- and your cruelty will be fruitless." ceeded towards the fire, yawning and stretching himself, like a man coming out of a deep sleep. Ibrahim, chick, raising the axe over his master's head;

"they article in the market. On the other hand, the quack, To the Tchetchenges !" repeated the excited den- his exertions, these exertions are not labour in the

sense in which it is necessary here to view it—as an who felt overcome with sleep, ordered Rascambo to shall never take you alive again : I shall murder them, play the guitar to keep him awake. The major was you, and myself, before that shall happen. That child whose pills cut off his fellow-beings by thousands, is

, about to refuse, but Ivan brought the instrument to can ruin us by giving the alarm, and, in your present in virtue of the credulity to which he ministers, a lahim, making the usual sign; “ Play, master," said he; condition, a woman might drag you back to prison.". bourer in the strictest sense of the term. It follows, “I want to speak to you.” Kascambo tuned the “Stop, stop!” cried Kascambo, out of whose hands that certain exertions will be partly labour, partly not: guitar, and beginning immediately, they sang together Ivan was trying to escape ; “stop, monster; you shall namely, labour, in so far as they are spent on somethe terrible duet which follows :Kascambo.-Hai luli, hai luli, what have you

got weak as he was, and embarrassed with his irons, the thing which is wanted-mere useless tension of mind to say ? be cautious!" (At every question and every could not hold the excited

young man, who pushed him wanted. Thus,

the exertion of making tiles for coveranswer they sang a verse of a Russian song.) violently aside, and he fell heavily to the ground, half ing houses will be strictly labour ; but if the tileIvan.-" See that axe, but do not look at it. Hai dead with

surprise and horror. Whilst, all covered with maker should volunteer to spend his time in putting luli! It shall dash out that villain's brains. Hai luli! the blood of the first victims, he was struggling to get certain ornaments on the interior of the tiles, where hai luli!

upon his feet, he cried out incessantly, ** Ivan, I en they will not be seen, and where consequently they Kascambo.—“ Useless murder! Hai luli! How treat you, do not kill him; in the holy name of God, will have no such value in the eyes of the purchaser could I escape with my irons ?"

spill not the blood of that poor innocent creature !" as will prompt him to make an allowance for them, Ivan.- “The key will be found in the rascal's As soon as he could, he ran to his assistance ; but here is a mere fantastic outlay of time and exertion. pocket. Hai luli!

on reaching the door of the room, he knocked himself Lost labour it would be called; and in the sense in Kascambo.—“ The woman will give the alarm. Hai in the dark against Ivan, who was returning. “Master, which labour is viewed in political economy, it would luli ! hai luli!"

all is over ; let us lose no time, and make no noise. be no labour at all. Ivan.-“ Never mind, happen what may, will you Don't make any noise," answered he to the bitter and But let us bring this doctrine to bear more clearly not perish all the same-hai luli !—of hunger and of desperate reproaches which his exasperated master on practice. The loss of labour, in the manner just misery?"

addressed to him.“ What is done, is done ; now illustrated, is but casually and rarely exhibited ; but The old man becoming attentive, they repeated a there is no drawing back. Till we are free, every man there is another form in which it is too common, double allowance of hai lulis, accompanied by a loud I meet is dead, or he shall kill me ; and if any one namely, that where exertion is used in producing arpeggio. “ Play, master,” added the denchick,“ play enter this door before our departure, I consider not something which is in demand, but a greater quantity the Cossack ; I shall dance round the room to get near whether it be man, woman, or child—I shall stretch is produced than what is demanded. Thus, if ten the axe; play boldly!" them there with the others."

men be sufficient to produce the quantity of shoes Kascambo.-“ Well, let it be so, this hell will be He lighted a splinter of larch-wood, and began to requisite for the consumption of a village, while there over.” He turned aside his head, and began to play search the pouch and the pockets of the dead brigand. are in reality twelve shoemakers at work in it, onethe dance with all his might.

The key of the irons was not there. He sought it sixth part of their exertions is lost. To estimate, Ivan began the steps and grotesque attitudes of the also in vain in the woman's clothes, in a trunk, and however, the number which is required for the wants Cossack, which pleased the old man most particularly, every where he imagined it might be concealed. of a community, there are various circumstances to be making ridiculous leaps and gambols, and uttering Whilst he was engaged in this pursuit, the major was taken into consideration. The proportion which any loud shrill cries, to distract his attention. When Kas- giving way, without any prudence or control, to the class of labourers ought to bear to the other members cambo saw that the dancer was near the axe, his heart bitterness of his grief ; Ivan consoled him after his of the community, cannot be absolutely fixed; it must beat violently in his chest, and he panted with anxiety; own manner. “ You ought rather,” said he,“ to bear relation to circumstances. Thus, in a country that instrument of their deliverance was in a little mourn the loss of the key of your irons, which can't where there is much capital, and a comparatively small press without a door, cut in the wall, but at an eleva- be found; what can tempt you to regret these population, the value of every kind of labour will be tion which Ivan could not very easily attain. To wretches, who have tormented you more than fifteen greater than where the population is large and the bring it within his reach, he seized a favourable in- months?' They wanted to make away with us. Well

, wealth small

. Let us take two communities, then, in stant, caught it rapidly, and put it on the ground, in their turn has come before ours. Is it my fault ?” one of which the demand for every kind of labour is the very shade formed by Ibrahim's own body. When the latter looked round at him, he was already far

[Here must in the mean time be concluded this double what it is in the other, while the number of from the spot, and continued the dance. This danger- singular, but true narrative : it will be resumed and labourers

is the same in both. If there be ten shoe

makers in each, though those in the former make ous scene had lasted for some time, and Kascambo, brought to a close in the ensuing number.]

double by their work what those in the latter do, yet tired with playing, began to think that his denchick's

there is none of the labour of the latter thrown away, courage was failing, or that he did not judge the op- POPULAR INFORMATION ON POLITICAL because the quantity produced is proportioned to that portunity favourable. He raised his eyes towards him at the moment when the intrepid dancer, with the

ECONOMY.

of other productions of labour. If, however, the shoeuplifted axe, was advancing in steady strides to strike

FOURTH ARTICLE.—LABOUR.

makers of the latter could easily remove to the former, the old brigand. The emotion the major felt at this LABOUR is a word which political economists have and did not do so, they would be throwing away their sight was such, that he ceased playing, and dropped used in two different senses. In its more accurate There is still, however, another matter to be taken old man had stooped, and made a step forward to application, it refers to the means adopted for obtain into consideration, before we can estimate whether push some brambles into the fire : the dry leaves ing certain ends ; but it has likewise been adopted to any particular portion of the labour-market is overthe room : Ibrahim turned round to sit himself down. labour in its more correct designation. Thus, in a open to a man's choice. In the same town you will blazed up immediately, and threw a great light into designate those ends themselves, or the results of stocked, namely, the relative amount of labour neces

sary for the different trades or professions which are If at that moment Ivan had persevered in his en former chapter, capital was spoken of as accumulated find two sets of workmen, the one of which receives a and the alarm would have been given, which was tó labour. It is in the former sense alone that we have shilling a-day, while the other receives five shillings; be avoided above all things ; but his presence of mind here to discuss the subject.

and yet each of these methods of occupation shall have saved him. He no sooner perceived the major's agi- Labour may be defined as the exertion, bodily or that none is thrown away. The difference is owing to

just the proper quantity of labour devoted to it, so tation, and saw. Ibrahim get up, than he put down mental, expended for the accomplishment of a certain the intensity of the labour bestowed in the one, in comthe axe immediately behind the log he used as a end. In the common use of the word, the result aimed parison with that bestowed in the other; or, in other seat, and resumed the dance.“ Play, play!” said he to his master ; " what are you thinking of ?" The at is not so much kept in view as the extent of the words, to the comparative rarity or abundance of the major, seeing the imprudence he had committed, exertion expended in accomplishing it. When a man qualifications required for the two pursuits. The quietly recommenced playing. The old jailor had not continuously exerts his sinews, he is said to labour ; edness, or any other description of skill, or in educa

superiority may be in muscular strength, in neat handa suspicion, and sat down again ; but he ordered them and if he do so to the production of some end neither tion; the result simply is, that the labour in the one to stop the music and go to rest. Ivan brought calmly useful to himself nor to others, his labour is said to be case'is more valuable than in the other, and for the the guitar-case, which he placed on the stove ; but, instead of receiving the instrument from his master's unprofitable. In considering the nature of labour, purposes of comparison it may be talked of as more inhand, as quick as lightning he seized the axe behind however, in connexion with political economy, that tense. Here, as in other cases, it is impossible to draw Ibrahim, and struck him such a terrible blow on the kind only can be taken into consideration which is by circumstances as they occur. If we suppose the

absolute distinctions; they must be left to be arranged head, that the unfortunate wretch did not even give profitable in some form or other ; in other words, labourer who gets five shillings a-day to be a watcha sigh, but fell dead with his face in the fire : his long that which results in some service being done to the maker, and he who gets one shilling to be a pavier, grey beard was instantly in flames ; Ivan pulled him aside by the feet, and covered him over with a mat. community. Whatever a man does for the purpose then the labour of watchmaking is in that community

They were listening to know if the woman had been of procuring food and clothing for himself, is labour. five times as valuable as the labour of paving, and for awake, when—astonished, no doubt

, at the profound But however energetically a man should gratuitously the purposes of political economy it is so much the

exert himself in wrestling or gymnastics, he would not titious circumstances; such as a peculiar abundance Mutton roasted in small bits at the end of a sharp stick. be considered as labouring, unless, indeed, it might be of persons possessing the qualities necessary for being watchmakers, which may make the difference in value more advantageous for a man to do himself than to others are dispersed, than himself a producer. He is less. These circumstances will be more minutely con- get done by others. Thus, the farmer bakes his own a means by which the money of his neighbours is sidered when we come to treat of wages. bread, while the merchant and manufacturer pur- spent, neither increasing

[graphic]

nor decreasing its amount We are now, perhaps, placed in a position to take a chase theirs. When we find, however, that even those by his own efforts. He gives amusement, however. more minute view of the circumstances in which labour who sell their labour frequently go to the wrong The manufacturer loses part of his inducement to may be thrown away or lost through the miscalculation market, it is still more likely that those who have not exert himself if he have not some means of relaxation; of the labourer. Suppose there are two trades, the the criterion of a price before them should mistake and thus even the rope-dancer is to a certain extent qualifications for the performance of which are exactly the value of their exertions. Hence, there is much indirectly productive. of the same standard, if there be a greater proportional domestic labour wasted. Variety of occupation is number of persons employed in the one than in the sometimes sought as a recreation, and the exertion SKIMMINGS FROM AN OLD RECEIPT. other, then the former is glutted, as it is termed, and which may be thus applied is not to be looked on as

BOOK. there is so much labour thrown away. Suppose that wasted labour. There is, however, a fallacy in favour the trade of shoemaking and that of saddlery require of home production, which makes many a man launch Through the kindness of a friend, we have obtained exactly the same qualifications; in other words, that into expense under the guise of economy. There is a a sight of a manuscript receipt-book, written early in of a certain number of men able to do both, each is lurking feeling that the payment of money only is the last century, and which latterly seems to have able to do either the one or the other. Let us sup- extravagance, and when that unpleasant process can belonged to the Honourable Margaret Murray, a sister pose that the quantity of saddlery labour required is be avoided, the receipts that are sacrificed are over- of the first Earl of Mansfield. Such books were to just half that of shoemaking labour which is required. looked. Many a man who, if he turned his attention be found in every house of any consequence, before Suppose that the number of men capable of perform- to one object, might make a comfortable livelihood, printed manuals of cookery had become common. ing both is thirty; to make their labour bear to the fritters away his time and abilities in multitudinous They were generally compiled from one another, with community its exact value, there ought to be twenty ingenious pieces of labour, by which he avoids sundry such additions as each lady housekeeper could give shoemakers and ten saddlers. If, instead of this, there trifling disbursements at the sacrifice of the substan- from her own skill and experience, or as could be are twenty-five shoemakers and five saddlers, here tial means of living:

obtained from the skill and experience of her nearest are five men throwing away their labour, or, a fifth In labour-useful labour, as we have above explained friends and neighbours. Accordingly, many of the part of the labour of twenty-five men is lost.

it-we find the great standard by which the value of receipts were of indefinite antiquity, while others If this were merely a theoretic distinction, which every commodity is measured. How much of the pro- miglit be considered as nearly contemporary with the did not affect practice, we should not have enlarged duce of labour will be given in exchange for it? is the date of the particular manuscript in which they apupon it. Unfortunately, it is too amply illustrated simple question by which the value of any thing is peared. The book before us contains many curious in daily life. District or family prejudices, and the ascertained. There are, indeed, just two elements of matters, illustrative of the habits of thought and the natural indolence of the human mind, prompt men value-labour and monopoly. That a thing should habits of common life which prevailed rather more to follow professions which are much overdone. Apart bear value in the general market of the world, it is than a hundred years ago. from greater exertion, mere change of pursuit and necessary that labour should have been expended on The receipts in this book are not, it must be ebhabit would often materially increase a man's income; it, or that it should be something of which the supply served, cookery receipts. They refer to the more yet the change will not be made. It is thus that is limited, and for which a certain portion of the pro- refined parts of housekeeping, as the preserving of generation after generation will follow a trade, for the ceeds of labour will be given. of the former, gold fruits, the compounding of sweet cakes, and the mak. produce of which the demand once existing has ceased, itself, as the reader may recollect was shown in the ing of cordials and medicinal preparations. Common and they will call it a “poor trade," and consider them- first chapter, is an instance. Of the second, land is cookery would, we presume, be left to servants, who selves oppressed by the rest of mankind, forgetting the most extensive example in existence. As will be would conduct it according to traditionary rules which that their hardships are the result of no other combi- more minutely explained under the subject of rent, no one ever thought of improving ; while the ladies nation of circumstances beyond their own foolish the only means of ascertaining the amount of value themselves would deem it a fair part of duty, to study choice. The mistake is exhibited, perhaps, most glar- that is in a monopolised commodity is by measuring the mysteries of pastry, preserving, and the concoction ingly in the adherence of individuals to localities where it with labour; there is nothing in its intrinsic nature of specifics. Not even the highest rank seems to have their labour is not profitable. Thousands of indivi- that can indicate the extent. Of three fields, perfectly been exempted from such labours, for, amongst these duals, who could incalculably benefit their condition on a par in their capabilities and proceeds, one in the nostrums, is one entitled “The Countess of Ruthlands by removing to spots where there is a demand for vicinity of Manchester or Glasgow will bring £12 an Receipt for making the rare Bamburry Cakes qich labour, do not dream of adopting the means of bene- acre ; a second, in the more remote parts of Perth- was so much prais'd att her doughter's wadding." * If fiting themselves and society, but dose away life in shire, will bring £2; and a third, in Hungary, may we might judge from the volume in our possession, we their self-elected poverty, ruminating on a vague con- not be worth 58. Here we have an illustration of would say that much more attention must have been viction that Providence has not destined them for good another truth, to be afterwards more fully explained, bestowed by the ladies of those days upon confecfortune. In the two subjects of wages and machinery, that it is only through means of labour that even the tionery than upon learning, for the spelling is generally a little more practical light will be endeavoured to be monopolised article is made valuable. Tluis latter is, of a very original kind, and the handwriting in many thrown on this subject. Meanwhile, it is our design, after all

, but an instrument in the hands of industry, parts by no means distinguished for elegance. by the above remarks, to bring to the conviction of worthless of itself, but capable of being increased in It does not seem necessary to bestow any particular our readers the circumstance, that the man who fol value to an incalculable extent, when made the sub- notice on the great mass of the receipts in our volume, lows an unprofitable, instead of a profitable occupation, ject of man's industrial exertions.

these referring only to ordinary objects, as “ To make not only injures himself but society at large. He is Before leaving this subject, it may be as well to marmollate of oranges," “ To make a goosberry Full," like one who should join a multitude of others, to notice a distinction, adopted by Adam Smith and “ To make Cherrie Water," " To make Gilly Flowr divert their labour from the channel of utility, and others, between productive and unproductive labourers. water,” « To make Steill Carvie," "To clarifie Sween's employ it in something, useless. The supernumerary “There is one sort of labour,” says Smith, " which Saime," "To make goosberry Wine,” “To make Curran workman, on the principles above pointed out, is as adds to the value of the subject upon which it is be- Wine,” &c. Here the titles, we presume, are enough. ill employed as if he were assisting to build a new stowed; there is another which has no such effect.” | Our attention, however, is irresistibly arrested when pyramid in Egypt. Those who take their labour to As of the former kind, he classes the labour of the we come to such a characteristic and peculiar receipt a wrong market, are thus not merely themselves the manufacturer; while he says, “ The sovereign, for as “To make Oyll of Swallows,” which proceeds thus : sufferers—they occasion a loss to the community. On example, with all the officers both of justice and war

“ Take swallows as many as you can get, ten or those who are blind to the dictates of self-interest, this who serve under him, the whole army and navy, are twelve at the least, and put them quick into a mortar; consideration will probably not have much effect; but unproductive labourers.” That such a distinction and put to them lavender cottone, speke, cammomyle, it is fit that it should be kept in view by those more as that between productive and unproductive labour knot grass, ribwort, balm, valerian, rosemary tops, stirring spirits, whose exertions not only benefit them- does exist, may be admitted ; but a little consi- woodbine tops, strings of vines, French mallows, the selves, but are frequently the means of rousing the deration will show that it is impossible to draw tops of ale hoof (and other ten or twelve like things), dormant energies of their neighbours. The indolent the line. As has been already observed, there are of each of thes ane handfull ; beat all thes together, and and injudicious will be carried forward by the power very few articles in common use which are the pro- put thereto a qart of neats feet oyll

, or May butter; of public opinion, when nothing else will move them ; duction of any one man ; the greater part are the stamp them all together, and beat them with ane or two and it is difficult to form an idea of the amount of result of an organised division of labour.

ounces of cloves, and put them all together into ane good that might be done by the propagation of senti- admit, then, that the man who hammers out a knife earthen pot; stop it verie clos with a piece dough ments tending to counteract the barbarous prejudices blade, that he who grinds it, that he who whets it, round about, so clos that no air can come out ; set which tie people to employments which have ceased and that he who fixes it to its handle, are each one them nine days in a cellar, and then take them out to be profitable.

a productive labourer, shall we deny the same cha- and boyle them six or eight hours on the fire, or else In a commercial and thickly peopled country, the racter to the overseer, without whose organisation the in a pan of water; but first open your pat and put in greater part of the labour of the inhabitants will be labour could not have been thus productively divided, half a pound of vax whit or yellow, and a pint of for sale, and not for home consumption. The expert- or to the book-keeper, whose daily attention to his sellat oyle, and strain them through a canvass cloth." ness acquired by the person who devotes his labour to duties are necessary to keep the establishment from For what purpose on earth could our ladies have deone object, aided by the facilities which the application ruin? If we admit these, shall we then exclude the signed this unhallowed mixture ! of capital gives to the employment of labour in the form policeman and the magistrate, whose labour is be- “ King Edward's Perfume” is highly characteristic in which it is most profitable, tend to place the com- stowed in preserving that social order, without which all of the age when floors were strewed with rushes, and munity in such a position that each man finds he will the manufactories of the district would cease to exist, only cleaned once in a few weeks.“ Take twelve possess the greatest quantity of the comforts of life, or the physician, who assists in preserving the health of spoonfulls of right red rose water, the weight of sixnot by making them for himself, but by employing his the workmen? 'Let us take the distinction in another pence in fine powder of sugar, and boyll it on hot labour in some one article used by others, by selling view. Is a maker of children's toys a productive embers softly, and the house will smell as though it which he is enabled to choose from the general market labourer? This, by the way, is an occupation involv- were full of roses; but you must burn the sweet cypress articles produced by others under equally advantageous ing more capital and industry than many would readily wood befor, to take away the gross air." "A Cordiall circnmstances. In this country, indeed, the division anticipate. An instance has been known of a glass Water of Sr Wallter Rouligh’s” is also worth giving. of labour is carried so far, that we but seldom meet manufacturer receiving an order for £500 worth of " Take a galloun of strawberries, and put them into a with an article in ordinary use the whole of which is glass eyes. If it be decided that the toymaker is un- pint of aquavitae : let them stand four or five days. fabricated by one individual. The labourer who thus productive, what shall we say to the maker of the Strain them genteely out, and sweeten the water as you throws the produce of his exertions into the general ornaments which gratify the adult ; the painter, the pleas, with fine sugar or with perfume.” market, has thus a perpetual measure of the value of statuary, nay, the builder and the clothier, in as far as Here, however, is a much greater marvel than any his industry, which he who devotes his time to the their exertions are bestowed on the production of mere of the above, namely, “ A Soveraigne Water of Doctor production of articles consumed by himself cannot so ornament? On the other hand, if the maker of toys is Stephen's, which he a long time used; wherewith he easily achieve. There are many circumstances in a productive labourer, shall we exclude the actor or the did many cures; he keept it secrett till a little befor his which the produce of labour may be profitably con- rope-dancer, whose exertions are directed to the same death, and then gave it to the bishope of Canterbury in sumed by the labourer. For instance, it would in end—that of producing amusement? If we take the a writing, which is- Take a gallone of good Gascon wine, general be a clear loss were the baker to buy the bread extremes of the scale, however, the distinction appears and take vinegar, gallingall, cinnamun, nutmegs, cloves, he uses at home, or the shoemaker the shoes he wears. very forcible. The baker or the cotton-spinner may grains, annisseeds, fennell seeds, of every of them a If the former, however, instead of selling his bread be deriving small incomes when compared with that dram; then take carroway seeds of red, mintes, rose, and buying shoes, were to make them for himself, be- of the rope-dancer; yet there is no comparison as to tyme, pelletory of the wall, rosemary and wild tyne, stowing on the work the time he might give to his the respective productiveness of the two, or as to the camomyle, the leaves if you cannot get the flowrs of own trade, he would in almost every case be a loser.extent to which their distinct efforts tend to increase small lavender, of each a handfull; then bray the There are, at the same time, many descriptions of la- the wealth or useful commodities of the community. spiret small, and bray the herbs, and put all into the bour which constitute separate professions, and which, The rope-dancer, indeed, however large his income, is wine, and let it stand twelve hours, stirring it divers at the same time, in certain circumstances, it may be rather a vehicle through which the productions of times, then still it in a lembik, and kep the first

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NEWCASTLE.

water, for it is best ; then put the second water by unanswered. We have never gone to the country the reverse. When we put something under our heels itself, for it is good, but not of such virtues.” Hear, without observing this kind of procrastination. Å to raise them permanently an inch above the level of reader, the virtues of this water : " It comforts the small job that might be done in five minutes, will be the ball of the foot, we lose the power of our limbs to vital spirits, and helps all inward diseases, that come pushed off for a day or two, and made a matter of an immense extent. The body is thrown off some of of cold. It is good against the shaking of the palsie. serious consideration. In this dawdling way, thou- its strongest supporting muscles, upon some of the It cures the contraction of the sinews. It kills the sands of men dream away their existence, and are just weakest, namely, those in front of the limbs. The worms in the belly and stamach ; it cures the dropsie; as poor and miserable at the end of their days as they posture becomes constrained, difficult, and imbecile. whosever useth this water morning and evening and were at the beginning.

Free and forcible motion is impossible. No graceful not too often, it preserveth him in good liking, and will

dancing could be executed under such circumstances.

CORNS—THEIR CAUSE AND CURE. make him seem young serie long, and comforteth nature

In the case of a gladiator or a wrestler, it would marvellously. With this water did Master Stephen Theinvariable and sole cause of corns is pressure. It has decide the day against a man considerably stronger preserve his life till extream age wold not let him goe been so arranged in nature, that, when any unwonted by nature than his antagonist. Its worst effect, in nor stand, and he continued fyve years when all the pressure upon any part of the body takes place, a thick- our ordinary modes of life, is to wedge the foot physicians juged he (wold) not live a year longer, nor ening of the cuticle or outer skin ensues in that part, deeply into the angular recess prepared for it in the did he use any other medicine but this !"

for the purpose, evidently,of affording the required pro- fore part of our common shoes, and thus to expose It will be observed that Dr Stephen's sovereign tection. This process takes place as a direct conse- it in its tenderest part to all the pressure which it water includes an ingredient which has generally been quence of pressure, for when a part is severely pressed, seems possible by any convenient means to create in allowed to bave a direct effect in a comforting the the flux of particles from the interior of the skin is that region. From this peculiar cause, perhaps, arises vital spirits.” The same principle is found in all the stopped at the outside : the particles, prevented from the greater part of the calamity of corns. other cordials described in our receipt-book. We there flying off, are accumulated, and added to the We do not point out these errors, with any hope of have “ The Lord Spencer's Cherrie Water," the basis thickness. This goes on indefinitely, and it would go seeing them quickly corrected. There are, however, of which is “ane pottle of new sack," and which on in any part of the body. The cheek of the fairest some rational persons who, if we shall have succeeded is “good for faintings and soondings;" likewise maiden might in time, by the proper means, be in convincing them, may be expected to sacrifice “The Lady Spotswood's Stamach Water," the basis thickened to the consistency of the upper leather of fashion, in some considerable measure, to convenience. of which is a white wine ane pottle ;” and “ Doctor her shoe. On any spot where pressure

takes place. They may not altogether and at once go the length Butler's Cordial Water against melancholy, most ap- the thickening is greatest in the centre. At that of banishing heels from their shoes, and having those proved,” which seems at first to be a mere decoction particular point, at a certain stage of the process, the articles of dress made in the form of isosceles triangles ; of a great list of gay spring flowers, until, on looking cuticle assumes the hardness of horn, and this causes but they will at least lower the heels, and widen the a little closer, we discern that it, too, has a substantial great pain in the tender parts beneath, when the ex- fronts of their shoes, as far as they can without makfoundation, in “a qart of Canary wine," so that even ternal pressure is further continued—unquestionably ing themselves appear odd. It is not unworthy of we moderns may well believe the concluding passage- a warning of kind Nature that her child has persisted remark in this place, that the Highlanders of Scotland "take of this water at one tyme three spoonfulls thrice too long in an injurious course, which ought as quickly in former days had no heels to their shoes, to which a weick, or when you are il; it cureth all malancholy as possible to be stopped, and retraced.

circumstance may probably be attributed in no small fumes.” So also “ À Cordial Water called Sanatifera" The remedy is to be effected by means the reverse measure the graceful freedom of their motions, and rests upon “a Chopine of Brandie,” which is only, as of those by which the evil has been induced. The their amazing powers as pedestrians. it were, by the bye, ordered to be poured upon the pressure must be removed, and the very opposite of ingredients ;" not to speak of the concluding direction pressure must be applied to the place. if, while the

A FEW WEEKS FROM HOME. to “ take a spoonful or two amongst a litle warme ale." pressure is altogether removed, a soft or wet substance

There is "A Receipt of Water much magnified by be laid upon the part, the hardened cuticle will become the IIylanders and Italeans, for thikening the hair soft, and in time fall off ; and in the course of the Newcastle, in which we have now arrived by the wher it is, and making it grow wher it is not ;" but ordinary process of waste and supply which goes on railway from Carlisle, may be described as in a state the ingredients are not to be enumerated before po- all over the body, a new skin of proper character will of transition from a general meanness, or at least melite society. At the bottom of “a Receipt against be supplied. Generally, it is desirable to adopt a Melancholy and Madness,” we are informed that quicker mode of cure. The thick skin may therefore diocrity of aspect, to a condition of great elegance and “the eating of a roasted magpie is very good against be in the first place pared as much as may appear convenience, indicative of a wonderful spirit of imMadnesses, tho occasioned by, witchcraft; but if it safe or convenient. Let pressure be at the same time provement, and of advance in a course of thriving makes the patient wors, vomiting well will make it as much as possible removed. After two or three and profitable industry. Some seven or eight years of high rank in those days, we have “ To make will grow out from the bottom. But the quickest, ago, we had made a passing visit to the place, and obchees, Lady William Hay's way,”.“ How to make most convenient, and most certain cure, is, to pare, as served

that it had little to distinguish it from some Cherrie Brandie, the Countess of Linlithgow's way," above directed, and to bind up the place with a rag other English provincial towns, whose plain brick edia “ Receipt to make Gillie of Hartshorn, my Lady soaked in melted candle-grease. In this case the ap- fices are rendered dingy by age, and the volumes of Hyndford's way,” a “ Receipt for Goosberry Vene- plication must be repeatedly renewed, and the paring smoke which usually canopy their black-puddled streets. gar, my Lady Ormiston's way,” and a rival receipt may also be repeated, if the thickness of the integuto the last by “ Colonel Keith's Lady." Lady Bal- ment will allow of it." At the end of about a fort. At that period, however, Newcastle was beginning to canquhal, Lady Woodhall, and Mrs Isobel Stirling, night, if there be no counteracting circumstance, the manifest symptoms of improvement ; in one part of the also appear as authorities on these grave matters. corn will have disappeared. It may be remarked, environs, several rows of smart yellow-coloured brick Nor was the sterner sex above lending their aid. The that, if the part be kept well supplied with the soften houses were springing up as places of residence for Lord Spencer's Cherrie Water has already been al ing application, it may be subjected to considerable the more affluent class of inhabitants, and nearly in luded to. We have also “ The Lord Barron Halmon's pressure, and yet the cure of the corn will proceed the centre of the town, a large and handsome stone True Receipt of the Queen of Hungarie's Water,” | Candle-grease is more suitable than any other oleagiand “Lord Neill Campbell's Receipt for a Squinancy, nous substance, because it does not so readily become structure had been erected, embracing an arcade of which he bought for 3 guinies from a mason who absorbed in the cloth.

elegant proportions, with lines of shops and a number lived by it when he could not work." This Lord Neill Supposing a cure effected, the patient will only be of public offices. Since that period, a surprising was a younger son of the famous Marquis of Argyll, able to prevent the recurrence of the evil, by studying change has been effected. A kind of new town, built beheaded at the Restoration. That men of such rank as far as possible to prevent a renewal of that pressure of beautiful light sandstone, resembling the better should have put faith in obscure nostrums practised by which it was originally produced ; and this brings by the humblest and most ignorant of the community, us to consider the form of that article of dress, which parts of the New Town of Edinburgh, has been placed shows in a striking light the imperfect wisdom of those is the chief, if not the only, recognised cause of corns. in the centre of the old ; and as the improvements times.

Small feet being usually esteemed an important are still incomplete, the houses of various crooked

requisite for a handsome exterior, great anxiety is streets and alleys seem in the course of being pulled OCCASIONAL NOTES.

generally manifested, especially by the fairer part of
creation, for

small shoes. Shoes, therefore, are often piece-meal to the ground and cleared away, while PROCRASTINATION.

worn too small for the natural size of the foot. In fresh and gay lines of building, ornamenting the newly We are told by an old proverb “ never to leave things this alone we see abundant cause for corns, for a tight opened broad thoroughfares, are taking their place. till to-morrow that can be done to-day," and many shoe inevitably occasions pressure in one part or an- Some little account of this destruction and re-edificaexamples are given of persons who have attributed other. This is, then, an error to be avoided by all tion of the metropolis of the northern counties, can their whole success in life to their attention to this persons accessible to rational ideas — while, on the well-established rule. Now-a-days, the proverb re- other hand, a too wide shoe is also to be avoided, scarcely fail to be read with interest. quires to be a little more stringent. If we expect to seeing that it is sure to occasion friction in some par

Those who have never been in Newcastle, may compete successfully in our profession, whatever it ticular place, and thus bring about the same evil readily imagine the Tyne-here a noble river, double may be, it will be necessary not to leave any thing for result. But it is in the form of shoes, rather than in the size of the Clyde at Glasgow-issuing from the the next hour, or the next minute, that can be per- their size, that the evil most frequently lies. formed in the present-leaving matters till the morrow In the ordinary manufacture of shoes, two leading

beautiful fertile valley on the west, through which we is now quite antediluvian. Railways, steam-boats, errors are comınitted. The first is in'a too great have described the railway as passing, and pursuing and the penny post, have put mettle in the heels of contraction of the shoe towards the front. If we look its course between high sloping banks towards the the public; and he who lags in the old procrastinating at the foot of an infant or a savage for the natural east

. At the point where the river becomes rather fashion—"ay, we'll see about it by and bye”—is pretty form of the foot, we find that, from the heel forwards, closely overhung with rising grounds, are built the certain of getting himself overrun and trampled upon it gradually

widens as far as the situation of the little towns of Newcastle and Gateshead, the former on the in the onward struggle.

toe, and from that point, instead of contracting equally To be serious, the true way of getting through the on both sides, contracts only on one, namely, from the north, the latter on the south bank, and both stretchworld with either present or prospective comfort, is to point of the little to the point of the great toe. The ing upwards from the connecting stone bridge over do whatever is required right slick off, as the Americans foot is indeed an irregular isosceles triangle, of which the superior grounds. The situation on the northern say—not postponing for a single instant what can be the front of the toes is the base, the line from the side had been in early times selected by the Roman immediately executed, unless prudence should suggest great toe to the heel the longest side, and the line from a due measure of delay;

and such a suggestion, of the little toe to the heel the shortest side. Instead, generals as a commanding point for one of their chief course, is always to be carefully attended to. A con- however, of making shoes in any thing like this form, stations along the line of wall from the Tyne to the stant exercise in promptitude of execution has a they are made with a lozenge-shaped front for ele Solway. During the middle ages, a considerable mopowerful effect in sharpening the wits. The mind of gance, thus crushing the toes into a narrow angular nastic institution, which helped to attract inhabitants, a man who is every minute called on to decide upon space quite unsuited for their reception. The evil is was planted on the spot, and conveyed to it the name a matter of importance, becomes at length exquisitely increased by the second of the two great leading of Monkchester; but this designation was dropped acute ; while he whose mind is little exercised in errors—the elevation of the heel. It seems strange this way, becomes incapable of decision without long that, while the exquisite adaptation of all nature's when Robert, the eldest son of William the Conqueror, cogitation. A London merchant, for example, who works to purposes and circumstances is so often the erected a fortress on the high bluff which overhangs receives a hundred letters in a morning, will decide on theme of remark, no one ever thought of asking why, the Tyne, and gave it the name of the New Castle, the kind of answer to be given to each almost as if high heels were convenient to mankind, nature did in contradistinction, it is presumed, to the older castle quickly as they are individually opened, although they not make them so. For certain, if such a peculiarity may involve matters of thousands of pounds. Å of structure had been conducive to our good, we shoulă of Prudhoe, now in ruins farther up the valley of the country gentleman would probably require a week for have found ourselves possessed of it. But the truth Tyne. From this time, or about the beginning of the cach, and, after all, probably leave some altogether is, that, so far from being conducive to good, it is quite twelfth century, the town grew apace under the shelter of the castle, was strongly walled to protect it giving promise of respectability, and indications of ing the ground story, and the principal lines are in a from the warlike incursions of the Scots, and received power of mind. When his apprenticeship had expired, most elegant style of architecture, with corner and

his elder brother George, who was a bricklayer, engaged central buildings of a superior order, and embellished from successive kings and Northumbrian princes var him to join in an enterprise of his own, pulling down with lofty Corinthian pilasters and cornices. Some rious privileges. The situation of the town on the and rebuilding a small house

. George died prema- of the streets are designed as private dwellings, with river, also, gave it a great advantage over less favoured turely, and Richard being thrown on his own resources, sunk areas and railings; but the main division, to towns near the Scottish border. We find that, as early was patronised by Mr Batson, an opulent member of which most attention is directed, consists of houses as the fourteenth century, it was already noted for its the Methodist body, to which the young builder be- rising from the street, with a ground-floor of shops, maritime traffic ; for in 1346, it furnished 17 ships and longed. By Mr Batson he was employed to build some and bearing a close resemblance to the buildings of 314 men to carry on the siege of Calais

. Its prosperity a respectable and worthy young lady, with a fortune thoroughfares are Grey, Grainger, Market, Blacket, received frequent checks from plagues, onslaughts, of L.5000. Afterwards, he undertook, on his own and Shakspeare Streets. These, as well as other and various other tragical circumstances incidental account, the erection of several new buildings, mostly, streets, do not run parallel to each other, but are acto an age of ignorance and strife ; yet its natural or however, of brick, and in the plain style in which commodated to the nature of the ground'; one makes

English towns are ordinarily constructed. Some of a bend, so as to present the convex and concave sides acquired advantages carried it over all difficulties, and his structures were of a more elegant and important of a crescent, and three form a triangular mass of rendered it one of our most busy and wealthy pro- kind, among which was the Arcade, already noticed, building; and this may be considered the centre

of atvincial towns.

which alone cost L.40,000. His various undertakings, traction in the newly-modelled district. At the muThe main cause of both its increasing trade and up till 1832, are reckoned to have required an outlay tual termination of two streets which constitute the

triangle, is erected a tall column in honour of Earl population, is its fortunate situation in the midst of of L.195,000.

It may easily be supposed that these expensive Grey, resembling the Melville pillar at Edinburgh, the great coal-district of Northumberland and Dur

speculations were only warranted by the growing and surmounted by a statue in stone. This handsome ham, or a large tract on both sides of the Tyne, which prosperity of the town, and the natural demand for å structure, which was finished

in August 1838, during affords an ever-ready depôt for shipping, and an out- better class of dwellings, shops, and warehouses, than the meeting of the British Association, makes a good let for a most extensive traffic. The distance of New- had hitherto existed. Circumstances, as in the simi- appearance in the general external view of the town, castle from the sea is only about ten miles, and the lar case of the New Town of Edinburgh, required in conjunction with the crown-like tower of St Nicholas volume of water in the river at favourable times of the change, and to Mr Grainger was given the tact and the finely proportioned spire of All Saints.

to take advantage of them. The achievements of In the central part of one of the new lines of street, the tide, is sufficient to float craft of from four to five this bold designer, were, however, only commencing. the new theatre has been erected. It exhibits a por hundred tons burden, up to the quay that bounds the Having, in 1834, purchased the monastery grounds tico in front, of the best architectural taste, resting lower part of the town. The coal-field of Newcastle in the centre of the town, and bought up other old on a row of Corinthian columns, forty-one feet in is reckoned to extend to a medium length of 44 miles property adjacent, to the amount of L.45,000, he height. The projection of the portico over the pare

brought forward a well-matured plan for opening ment has been objected to as a blemish in the street, by 21 miles, forming an area of 924 square miles ; and, communications by handsome new streets through the but in reality it is a beauty, for it relieves a flat sameafter making all allowances for breaks or defects, it is district, so as to connect some of the busy parts of ness in the lines of buildings, and offers a pleasing understood that over this vast space there is an ave- the town, distant from each other, and which could break for the eye to rest upon. The theatre in its rage depth of ten feet of coal. Deducting a sixth for only be reached by inconvenient circuitous ways. In interior accommodation is rather smaller than that of what is already consumed, there remain upwards of the market and theatre ; but, by certain arrangements, well supported. We can speak with pleasure of a re

the lines which he proposed to execute, were placed Edinburgh, but is more elegantly fitted up, and is seven billions of tons, which, at the rate of 5,235,602 these

were removed, leaving a large space open for markably well performed piece in the standard and tons exported per annum (that being the quantity for thorough improvement. År Grainger engaged to respectable drama, on one of the evenings during our 1837), will afford a supply for 1450 years. The strata build a new theatre, and to furnish a new market on residence in the town. The manager, Mr Ternan, amidst which the coal seams are found, are chiefly a far more splendid scale than the old one, on receiving with his wife (late Miss Jarman), sustain this depart sandstone and limestone, with ironstone at no great an adequate remuneration from the corporation. In ment of the public amusements of Newcastle with

August 1834, he began his operations, which were great credit to themselves and satisfaction to their distance, so that the subterranean wealth of the dis- rapidly, and without the aid of an act of parliament, audiences, trict cannot be considered as limited to one article. carried into execution. The new market was opened In the lines of new streets, there are various banks The sandstone, as all the world knows, forms a first- in October 1835. These extraordinary proceedings, and other establishments of local importance, but rate material for grinding stones ; the lime is of great which were generally popular, did not escape opposi- none of these demand our notice except the Central value for agriculture and other purposes ; and the iron. vity, all obstacles disappeared. Mis removal of the unrivalled in its way. The Central Exchange occupies

tion ; but by Mr Grainger's sound judgment and acti- Exchange and public market, two establishments each stone is now, in some places, beginning to be worked theatre was threatened with an injunction; but within the interior of the triangular mass already noticed, on a large scale for smelting. With an abundance of three hours from sealing the contract, the chimneys the facing of which is Grey, Grainger, and Market coal and iron, two of our most valuable materials in were down, and before any message could have reached Streets. The main entrance is undistinguishable in the arts, and the best means of export, it would have London, the whole edifice had disappeared. Another the line of houses, and it is only on going through a been surprising if Newcastle and its neighbourhood has been mentioned.« A house in Grey Street pro- The interior is å semicircular area, measuring 150

instance of Mr Grainger's Bonapartean promptitude lobby that the grandeur of the place is apparent. had not assumed the importance which they now jected in an unsightly manner, so that it became of by 95 feet, with a corresponding height, and powerenjoy.

importance to the architect to get possession of it. fully lighted by a great number of windows in the From the lower portion of Newcastle, on the bank The different owners of the house and cellar made roof, supported on Hying buttresses. We enter by of the river, where the business in shipping is carried difficulties, and Mr Grainger was longer than usual in the flat side of the semicircle

, and are immediately on, a steep street ascends to the higher town, making carrying his point. At last he succeeded, but not struck with the great extent of floor of tasselated in its course a bend round the base of the knoll on who amused themselves with watching whether the with its numerous beams, pointed and ornamented,

before the contract had interested the inhabitants, pavement, the lofty pilastered walls, the vast roof which the ancient fortlet or castle is placed, and still architect's design was to be injured by the projection and, above all, by the bold design of a semicircular in a well preserved condition, with a conspicuous of this one house. The purchase being effected, the colonnade of fourteen pillars, painted to resemble turret rising from the mass of antique buildings which tenant's family were, that very evening, removed to a yellow-veined marble; this colonnade is a main support parasitically surround it. All the lower department house which Mr Grainger had made comfortable for to the roof, and encloses a space slightly raised and of the town, consisting of business streets and factories, them, and their fires were still burning when the carpeted on the flat side of the structure, and laid remains in its former state, and it is only on emerging ing, when crowds came to see how the affair proceeded, thus, there is an open walk of great breadth on the

demolition of their late dwelling began. In the morn- out as a news-room, with handsome tables and chairs; from this quarter, and coming to the central thorough- noť a vestige of the house remained."* fares, that the nature and extent of the alterations are Other difficulties consisted in planning and execut-colonnade. Opposite the colonnade, a double stair observable. Northwards from the old principal cross ing levels, for the scene of operations is principally a conveys the visiter to an elegantly fitted up tavern or street, in which stands the church of St Nicholas with gentle slope, with a southern exposure, in the middle coffee-room, to which there are other entrances from its high and elegant tower, the improvements are of the town, and in its former condition it had nume- the adjoining streets. Altogether, this Central Exchiefly to be found. At the time of our former visit, rous heights and hollows which it was necessary to change is an exceedingly grand structure, more like a secluded area of ground, measuring twelve acres in transform into an even surface. The digging and cart- what one might expect to form a magnificent temple extent, and which belonged to the monastery or nun- ing, exclusive of the cost of deposit, amounted to than a place for merchants congregating, and therenery already referred to, was unappropriated for any L.21,500. Sand was procured from some parts of the fore strongly characteristic of that principle of aduseful purpose ; and at a short distance from it, ground, and in other places the clay was adopted for vancement in society which connects elegance and there was a large market for meat, vegetables, &c., making bricks. The plans for laying out the new refinement in architecture with other purposes besides besides a considerable cluster of houses of a mean streets involved great artistic skill; but all were pro- the public offices of religion. The institution is well order. From the central district, the town expanded, jected solely from Mr Grainger's own conceptions and supported; it has now about 2000 annual subscribers by slow degrees, in a northerly and westerly direc- experience, with the assistance of his observations at a guinea each ; Mr Grainger remains as the protíon, leaving the large monastery grounds in the during a visit to Edinburgh, London, and Dublin. prietor, and for this work alone deserves a high degree condition of an unprofitable wilderness, in the heart He attributes much, we are told, to a visit to Edin- of credit. of a busy seat of population. Many efforts were made burgh many years ago ; what he saw there gave him The public market, which is across the way from to purchase and render useful so valuable a property ; great delight and a powerful impulse. To carry those the Central Exchange, consists of a quadrangular area but, from being in the hands of a party unwilling to plans into execution required an enormous capital, and of upwards of two acres, all under one roof, and surdispose of it, all such attempts proved unsuccessful. it cannot be supposed that any one individual could rounded by the houses of four new streets. It has At length, it came into the possession of a proprietor have been found to peril so much money on a series entrances from the different sides, and, on visiting it, who was willing to sell it, and it was purchased in of architectural creations, however ostensibly useful. we perceive that it consists of four principal arcades, 1834, for the sum of L.50,000, by Richard Grainger, an In this department of his undertakings, it is under crossed at right angles by four equally spacious architect, who had already signalised himself by effect- stood that he was powerfully aided by Mr Clayton, avenues, the whole lined with open shops or booths, ing various improvements in the town.

town-clerk, and a member of a very opulent and and well lighted from the roof; the length of the Mr Grainger -as we learn from a memoir of his life influential family. Through this gentleman's per- avenues is 338 feet. The entire length and breadth in the Penny Magazine, written, we believe, by Miss sonal and professional assistance, Mr Grainger was has a remarkably clean and neat appearance, expresMartineau-was born in Newcastle in 1798, and such enabled to work out his plans; and as many of the sive of a correct taste. In the long and broad hall, or was the humble condition of his parents, that he was new houses were sold or let as soon as they were spacious arcade devoted to the sale of vegetables, educated at a parish charity school. In early life, he erected, a much smaller active capital served the pur- butter, &c., there are placed, opposite cross avenues, was remarkable for nothing but the serenity of his pose than would have been otherwise required. two handsome stone fountains, or jets d'eau, with disposition, which has been his characteristic through The result of Mr Grainger's proceedings, as it at basins capable of holding three thousand gallons each. life. Some of the inhabitants of Newcastle can recall present appears to a stranger, has been the erection of To appearance, about half the booths in the market the appearance of the boy in those days, in his green eight or ten new streets, varying from about 80 to 500 generally are not let, but the others are in full operabadge-coat, with his round, ruddy, smiling counte- yards long, and consisting of houses whose fronts are tion. Those who have seen St John's market in nance, and his singularly quiet manner. At the built entirely of a fine yellowish sandstone. The Liverpool, may have a pretty good idea of the design proper time, he was apprenticed to a house-carpenter houses rise generally to a height of four floors, reckon- of that of Newcastle, which, however, is much more and builder, and won some attention by the remarkable steadiness and easy composure of his character,

spacious, and infinitely more tidy in external aspect. * Penny Magazine

At another part of the town, opposite St Nicholas'

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