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more deserving of pity than of punishment, and that Church, a new corn market has been erected, greatly looking person, happens suddenly to approach an to the convenience of farmers and others, who for- | infant, are not the instantaneous results an exclama- greater blame was due to the person who so carelessly merly exposed their grain in the open street during tion of terror, and a clinging to the mother's bosom exposed a fellow-creature to such a snare, than to her

who fell into it after so long a period of resistance. all weathers; it is not yet completed, but the covered for protection ? hall is already in use on market days.

The bearing and importance of these truths would Had the gentleman been fully aware of the real force

be at once perceived, were parents acquainted with the of a direct stimulus thus incessantly addressed to any DR COMBE ON THE MANAGEMENT OF structure and laws of the animal economy, and with feeling of the mind, he would have felt that his own INFANCY.--EARLIEST MENTAL

the fact that the mind acts through the medium of negligence was not less culpable than its results were EDUCATION. bodily organs, to the influence of which it is subjected unfortunate.

It is astonishing, indeed, from what an early age Dr COMBE has added another to the list of his valu- during the whole course of life.

The grand principle, then, to be borne in mind in a faculty will respond to its stimulus, whether that able publications, in the small volume of which the the moral and intellectual treatment of even the ear- stimulus be direct or only from sympathy. Madame title is quoted below.* The prominent merit of the liest period of infancy, is, that the objects which are Necker de Saussure gives an affecting example of this new treatise appears to us to be, that, for the first specially related to each individual faculty form the fact

, which she witnessed in a child of nine months time, it fully and clearly carries those who inquire natural stimulants of that faculty. Danger is thus old. The child was gaily playing on its mother's respecting the right management of infants, to natu- the object or natural stimulant of the feeling of fear, knees, when a woman, whose physiognomy expressed ral principles. He first expounds “ the nature and and suffering that of the feeling of compassion, just as deep but calm sadness, entered the room. From that laws of the infant constitution,” and upon these founds sound is of the ear, or light of the eye. The child has moment the child's attention was wholly fixed on the the rules which he asks us to obey. Throughout the no choice in the matter. If the natural stimulant of person, whom it knew, but for whom it had no partiwhole work he keeps this object steadily in view; and any feeling be presented, that feeling will start into cular affection. By degrees its features became disso reasonable, accordingly, do the rules appear, that, activity, precisely as vision does when the eye is pene- composed; its playthings dropt from its hands, and at even where they most diverge from ordinary practice, trated by rays of light. We cannot by an effort of length it threw itself sobbing violently upon its mother's they seem calculated to make conviction of their the will cease to see or hear, so long as light and sound bosom. It felt neither fear nor pity; it knew not soundness almost unavoidable. The composition of reach the eye and ear; and neither can we prevent why it suffered, but it sought for relief in tears. Facts the work is marked by the same clearness and sim- the internal feeling from arising when its object is like these show how careful we should be in duly replicity as the former treatises of the same author. As present.

gulating the moral as well as physical influences by a specimen, we select Dr Combe's views respecting the

It is a law of the internal faculties, as well as of which infancy is surrounded. earliest mental education :

the external senses, that, when they are repeatedly It has often been affirmed, that bad temper, strong At birth, the brain, which during life is not

and appropriately exercised upon their own objects, passions, and even intellectual peculiarities, are comless essential to the action of the internal faculties than they gain both in strength, in durability, and in rea- municated to the infant through the medium of the the eye, ear, nose, &c., are to the external senses, is so diness of action. We have seen, that by exercise of mother's or nurse's milk, and that hence it is of great imperfectly and delicately constituted as to be almost this description, the Indian becomes expert in follow- consequence, in choosing a nurse, to select one of a wholly unfit for active mental manifestation; and, ing tracks and distinguishing sounds which the un- cheerful and amiable character. But, while admitting accordingly, we meet with none except sensation of practised European cannot detect. By the applica- that the quality of the milk may exert an influence, bodily pain, and the desire for food. Beyond these, tion of the same principle to the emotions of the mind, I am disposed to believe, that the effect upon the scarcely any trace of activity of mind can be detected ; and to muscular efforts, the Indian becomes trained child is caused more especially by the natural action and hence "sleep, or the negation of mental action, to the display of firmness in enduring pain, to the of the

evil passions stirring up, and, in a manner,

edupccupies nearly the whole time. The structure of the prosecution of revenge, and to dexterity in the use of cating the corresponding passions in the child. Many brain, however, being then extremely delicate, is very the bow; and it only requires to be carried farther sensible people imagine that they may say or do any easily disordered, and susceptible of permanent injury, and more consistently into practice by civilised man, thing in the presence of an infant, because it is too which, as in the similar instances of the eye and the

to yield equally marked results in his moral and intel- young to observe or be affected by it. This, however, ear, may impair the efficiency of its functions to the lectual advancement.

is a great mistake. It is true that an infant may be end of life ; or, in other words, induce permanent From the principle already laid down, that each unable to form an intellectual opinion on any occuridiocy or imbecility.

faculty is constituted with a distinct relation to objects rence ; but it is not less true, that, from a very early Such is the state of the mind and brain for some time after birth. By degrees, however, traces of ex

or qualities as peculiar to itself as light to the eye or period, as shown by Madame Necker de Saussure, its

sound to the ear, it follows, that when we wish to feelings respond to the calls made upon them, and tended mental activity begin to show themselves, and exercise or strengthen any of them, we must directly thus give a bias to the mind long before the child can the appetite for food is no longer the only instinct excite them to activity by the presentment of their exercise any act of judgment. which seeks for gratification. The infant, by its looks

own stimuli ; and when we wish to keep in abeyance Let us, then, not deceive ourselves, but ever bear and smiles, gives indications of awakening conscious

a faculty which is already too strong, the only effec- in mind, that what we desire our children to become, ness long before it can conceive the nature of the cause tual way is to withdraw its objects and leave it in

we must endeavour to be before them. If we wish by which it is excited. In this way it exhibits, even

repose, in short, to‘lead it not into temptation. But them to grow up kind, gentle, affectionate, upright, at a very early age, movements which neither sensa

for the ready response of the faculty to the stimulus and true, we must habitually exhibit the same qualition nor experience can explain, and which, as is of its objects, temptation would be a word devoid of ties as regulating principles in our conduct, because happily remarked by a late acute and elegant writer, meaning.

these qualities act as so many stimuli to the respective are in truth the signs of its dawning affections. “Even

From this proneness of the mental faculty to re- faculties in the child. If we cannot restrain our own at the early age of six weeks, when the infant is still spond readily to its natural stimulus, it obviously passions, but at one time overwhelm the young with a stranger to the world, and perceives external objects becomes a matter of great importance to the future kindness, and at another surprise and confound them so indistinctly as to make no effort either to obtain or character of the individual to regulate the circum- by our caprice or deceit, we may with as much reason avoid them, he is nevertheless accessible to the in

stances in which he is placed, or the stimuli by which expect to gather grapes from thistles, or figs from fluence of human expression. Although no material he is surrounded, especially during the very impres- thorns, as to develope moral purity and simplicity of object possesses any attraction for him, sympathy, or sionable period of infancy; for with

the fact before us, character in them. It is vain to argue that, bethe action of a feeling in his mind corresponding to

that every feeling or faculty is in this way strength- cause the infant intellect is feeble, it cannot detect the action of the same feeling in the mind of another, ened by reiterated exercise, it is natural to suppose the inconsistency which we practise. The feelings is already at work. A smiling air, a caressing accent, that many a child owes much of its perverze temper and reasoning faculties being perfectly distinct from raises a smile on his lips ; pleasing emotions already or cheerful disposition to the continued influence of each other, inay, and sometimes do, act independently, animate this little being, and we who recognise their similar dispositions exhibited by the nurse or mother, and the feelings at once condemn, although the judgexpression are delighted in our turn. Who, then, has during the early period of its existence. told this infant that a certain expression of the fea

ment may be unable to assign a reason for doing so. tures indicates tenderness for him? How could he, acquainted with an occurrence which so strikingly

After the preceding pages were printed, I became Here is another of the many admirable proofs which

we meet with in the animal economy of the harmony to whom his own physiognomy is unknown, imitate illustrates and confirms the accuracy of the principle and beauty which pervade all the works of God, and that of another, unless a corresponding feeling in his insisted upon, that I cannot refrain from inserting it. which render it impossible to pursue a right course own mind impressed the same characters on his fea- A respectable-looking woman made some purchases in without also doing collateral good, or to pursue a wrong tures. That person near his cradle is perhaps not his

a shop in town, in payment of which she presented a course without producing collateral evil. If the mother, nurse ; perhaps she has only disturbed him, or sub- five-pound note. The clerk, on examining it, refused for example, controls her own temper for the sake of jected him to some unpleasant operation. No matter, it as a forgery. The poor woman took it back with her child, and endeavours systematically to seek the she has smiled affectionately on him ; he feels that he is loved, and he loves in return.' some surprise, and offered another of the same value guidance of her higher and purer feelings in her general

conduct, the good which results is not limited to the Here, then, is the true key to the philosophy of in- in its place. It also proved to be forged—some susfancy, and to the right training of the infant mind. picion was excited, and the woman was handed over, consequent improvement of the child. She herself The internal emotions, like the external senses, are failed to account satisfactorily for having the notes in the pleasures of success. If the mother, on the other

in a state of great agitation, to the police. Having becomes healthier and happier, and every day adds to distinct from each other, and independent in their her possession, an inquiry was instituted, and by which hand, gives way to fits of passion, seltishness, caprice, action. Present its appropriate object to one whose it was ascertained that she had been for several years and injustice, the evil is by no means limited to the organ is already sufficiently developed, and it will start in the service of a gentleman in the country, where suffering which she brings upon herself. Iler child into activity, just as the eye does when the rays of she bore a high character for integrity and good conlight are directed upon the retina. Look at an infant duct. About a year before, she first saw the two notes

also suffers both in disposition and in happiness; and six months old, for example, and observe the extent lying unconcealed among some old papers in her regard of all who come into communication with her,

while the mother secures, in the one case, the love and to which it responds to every variety of stirnulus ad- master's room, where they continued undisturbed for she rouses, in the other, only their fear or dislike.” dressed to its feelings. If we wish to soothe it in a moment of fretful disappointment, is it not a matter time she never thought of touching them ; but at

month after month, as if forgotten by him. For a long of '

notoriety that we succeed by gentle fondling, and length the desire to appropriate them arose in her singing to it in a soft and affectionate voice? If our mind, as she believed they would never be missed. where the English resort, among various ways of paying

Some tradesmen in Paris, and other continental cities aim is to rouse it to activity, are not our movements After resisting the impulse for months, the desire and tones at once changed to the lively and spirited ? increased so much by the daily stimulus of the object their shop cards, usually printed underneath or at the

court to our countrymen, give English translations of When, inadvertently, an acrimonious dialogue ensues between the nurse and any other person in the pre- herself, for the first time in her life, to the degrading result occasionally from this practice, when zeal outrung

which excited it, that she at last yielded, and subjected back of the original. Very odd assemblages of words sence of an infant, is it not a common occurrence for consciousness of guilt. Afraid of detection, she made knowledge. Thus the keeper of a cooking shop at Brusthe child to become as uneasy as if the scold was directed to itself, and forthwith begin to cry! If, on for the purchase above referred to, and with what tises himself, on the English side of his card, as...I.P. V; the other hand, an affectionate and gentle-temper d result we have already seen. The gentleman had mother enters a nursery, and, imagining the infant to

-- Board House, at the Fashionable Beef !But of all be asleep, merely addresses the nurse in the soft tones remain undestroyed. known the notes to be forgeries, and allowed them to

the mystifications in this way that ever fell under our characteristic of her mind, do we not instantly see the

notice, the greatest was contained in a play-bill, which infant waken up, and with a placid smile look around

Considering the manner in which this poor woman

we read not very long ago on the front of the Theatreto solicit the notice of its parent? Or, to use one priation strongly excited and educated by the daily pure blunder. The first piece to be performed that night was led into temptation, and her desire of appro- ing because we could scarcely suppose the misprint to be

FOREIGN ENGLISH.

Royal at Brussels, where the enigma was the more puzzlmore example, if a disagreeable, ill-tempered, coarse stimulus of its appropriate object-and considering was announced under the following title :---- MAEDE AS * A Treatise on the Physiological and Moral Management of

also the fearful moral evil brought upon her in the AN Marsh HEAR.” We may almost defy our readers to Infaney. By Andrew Combe, M.D. Edinburgh: Maclachlan,

permanent degradation of character of which she must guess that this riddle was meant as the English name of Stewart, and Co., and Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., London. have been conscious even when undetected- it is im

an extravaganza called MAD AS A March HARE!"possible not to acknowledge, that she was an object Newspuper paragraph.

1840. Pp. 376.

den church, and to open the coffin and examine the pistol at his adversary, that his adversary's ball might JOHN HAMPDEN AND HIS GRAVE.

body. Leave to this purpose having been granted by wound him in the shoulder ; for he was soon after Jonn HAMPDEN, one of the most venerated of English his lordship, and confirmed by the rector, the search observed, as stated by Sir Philip Warwick, with patriots, was the descendant and heir of a family of took place on the 21st July, in the presence of Lord his head hanging down, and his hands leaning upon Saxon origin, long settled in Buckinghamshire, and Nugent, Counsellor (now Lord) Denman, the Rev. his horse's neck. possessed of extensive property both in that and ad- Mr Brookes, and nearly twenty others, onlookers and In order to corroborate or disprove the different joining counties. He was born in the year 1594, his assistants. The circumstances have been thus detailed statements relative to his having been wounded in the mother being Elizabeth, second daughter of Sir Henry by an eye-witness :-" It is remarkable that so distin- shoulder, a close examination of the parts took place. Cromwell, and aunt to Oliver, afterwards Protector of guished and wealthy a family as that of Hampden The clavicle of the right shoulder was firmly united to England. In 1609, John Hampden entered Magdalen should never have possessed a private vault for the the scapula, nor did there appear any contusion or inCollege, Oxford, and there distinguished himself highly interment of the respective branches of the family; dentation that evinced symptoms of any wound ever in his studies. Ten years afterwards, he was married such, however, is the case ; they have, from a very having been inflicted. The left shoulder, on the conto Elizabeth Simeon, heiress of Pyrton in Oxfordshire, early period, been buried in the chancel of the church, trary, was smaller and sunken in, as if the clavicle had and spent some time afterwards in the placid enjoy- about four feet deep:. On the morning of the 21st been displaced. To remove all doubts, it was adjudged ment of a country life, and of the society of a wife July, we all assembled in the church, and commenced necessary to remove the arms, which were amputated whom he dearly loved. His rank and importance, the operation of opening the ground. After examin- with a penknife. The socket of the right arm was however, rendered it incumbent upon him to enter ing the initials and dates on several leaden coffins, we perfectly white and healthy, and the clavicle firmly parliament in the beginning of 1621. In this new came to the one in question, the plate of which was united to the scapula, nor was there the least appear. situation, he immediately attached himself to the anti- s0 corroded, that it crumbled and broke into small ance of contusion or wound. The socket on the left royalistor popular party; and though he never attained pieces on touching it. It was therefore impossible to shoulder, on the contrary, was of a brownish coat, and to the very highest eminence as a speaker, his strong ascertain the name of the individual it contained. the cavicle being found quite loose and disunited from good sense, cultivated mind, and resolute spirit, to- The coffin had originally been inclosed in wood, covered the scapula, proved that dislocation had taken place. gether with the natural influence attaching to him with velvet, a small portion only of which was appa- The bones, however, were quite perfect. Such disloas one of the wealthiest commoners of the country, rent near the bottom at the left side, which was not cation, however, must have arisen either from the force gave him a degree of prominence in the public eye the case with those of a later date, where the initials of a ball, or from Colonel Hampden having fallen from alike honourable and perilous. In the second parlia- were very distinct, and the lead more perfect and his horse when he lost the power of holding the reins, ment of Charles I., when the king resorted to new fresher in appearance. The register stated that Hamp by reason of his hand having been so dreadfully shatmodes of raising supplies, Hampden suffered a tem- den was interred on the 25th June 1643 ; an old do- tered. The latter, in all probability, was the case, as porary imprisonment, along with others, for refusing cument, still in existence, gives a curious and full it would be barely possible for a ball to pass through his share of the subsidy. Getting more and more account of the grand procession on the occasion ; the shoulder without some fracture either of the deeply embroiled, as time ran on, with his parliaments we were, therefore, pretty certain that this must clavicle or scapula. In order to examine the head and and people, the king at length attempted to revive an be the one in question, having carefully examined hair, the body was raised up and supported with a obsolete tax, known by the name of ship-money. On all others in succession. It was lying under the shovel; on removing the cloths, which adhered firmly this occasion,“ John Hampden (says Hume) acquired western window, near the tablet erected by him, to the back of the head, we found the hair in a comby his spirit and courage universal popularity through when living, to the memory of his beloved wife, whose plete state of preservation. It was of a dark auburn out the nation, and has merited great renown with virtues he extols in the most affectionate language. colour, and, according to the custom of the times, was posterity, for the bold stand which he made in de- Without positive proof, it was reasonable to suppose very long, from five to six inches. It was drawn up fence of the laws and liberties of his country.” He that he would be interred near his adored partner; and tied at the top of the head with black thread or resisted, in his own case, the payment of the tax. It and this being found at her feet, it was unanimously silk. The ends had the appearance of being cut off. was not the extent of the imposition, for the sum agreed that the lid should be cut open to ascertain the On taking hold of the top knot, it soon gave way, and amounted to no more than a few shillings, which made fact, which proved afterwards that we were not mis- came off like a wig. * This was the only this resistance memorable, but the principle which taken. The parish plumber descended, and com- spot where any putrescence was apparent. dictated it, and the fact that the nation at large viewed menced cutting across the coffin, then longitudinally, He was five feet nine inches in height, apparently of Hampden as a champion who had put himself forward until the whole was sufficiently loosened to roll back, great muscular strength, of a vigorous and robust to defend their common rights. The king nominally in order to lift off the wooden lid beneath, which was frame ; forehead broad and high, and the skull altogained the victory in the legal struggle which followed; found in such good preservation, that it came off gether well-formed-such a one as the imagination but the conviction of his arbitrary purposes was nearly entire. Beneath this was another lid of the would conceive capable of great exploits. strengthened in the minds of the people to his ultimate same material, which was raised without materially Here I close the narrative-one of singular interest ruin.

giving way. The coffin had originally been filled up to those who were eye-witnesses of the examination, Hampden's first wife died, leaving nine children, with sawdust, which was found undisturbed, except in which presented a scene so novel, so ghastly, but at and he married a second time. But he tasted few of the centre, where the abdomen had fallen in. The the same time so full of moment, that it will ever the comforts of home and domestic society in his latter sawdust was then removed, and the process of exami- prove a memorable event in the short era of our lives. days, being constantly engaged in the still darkening nation commenced. Silence reigned. Not a whisper We recalled to inind the virtuous actions of the deaffairs of the state. Finally, the king and his parlia- or breath was heard. Each stood on the tiptoe of ceased, his manly defence against the tyranny of the ment came to an open rupture, and mutually took up expectation, awaiting the result as to what appearance Star-Chamber, his abandonment of every social and arms. Hampden, of course, continued to side with the the face would present when divested of its covering. domestic tie for the glorious cause of freedom ; and popular party, and in the outset of the civil war, dis- Lord Nugent descended into the grave, and first re- whilst we gazed on his remains, remembered that that played as much courage in the field as he had shown moved the outer cloth, which was firmly, wrapped voice which was once raised on behalf of his country, in the senate. But he did not live to see much of this round the body-then a second, and a third-such had contributed in no small measure to prepare the way great contest. On the 18th of June 1643, a battle care having been taken to preserve the body from the for the blessings of liberty, which, but for his warning, took place between the royalists under Prince Rupert, worm of corruption. Here a very singular scene pre- might to this day have been withheld from an enand the army of the parliament under Essex, at sented itself. No regular features were apparent, al- lightened people.” Chalgrave Field, and Jolin Hampden there received a though the face retained a death-like whiteness, and mortal wound. The circumstances attending the showed the various windings of the blood-vessels be

MAY MORN. receipt of this injury hare long been a source of doubt neath the skin. The upper row of teeth was perfect, and dispute, and have given origin to an inquiry of a and those that remained in the under jaw, on being

[BY SWYNFEN JERVIS.] strange and peculiar kind, even in our own day. taken out and examined, were quite sound. A little Shame be to him who sits at home and thinks,

Lord Clarendon and the majority of historians, re- beard remained on the lower part of the chin, and the While all the busy world is out a-Maying ; late that the patriot was “shot into the shoulder with whiskers were strong, and somewhat lighter than his

by far, upon the flowery brinks

Of streams, that babble as they run, be straying. a brace of bullets, which broke the bone," and caused hair, which was a full auburn brown. The upper part of his death “ three weeks” afterwards. Hume, follow the bridge of the nose was still elevated; the remainder

Since, with her cloudy inantle on, ing Sir Philip Warwick, narrates that a prisoner had given way to the pressure of the cloths, which had And deck'd with brighter jewels than e'er shone taken by the royalists in the action at Chalgrave, been firmly bound round the lead. The eyes were

Amid the tresses of an earthly bride,

The fair Aurora I descried, * said that he was confident Mr Hampden was hurt, but slightly sunk in, and were covered with the same

As up the mountain's steepy side for he saw him, contrary to his usual custom, ride off white film which characterised the general appearance

She flew, as though her soul were in her feet, the field before the action was finished; his head of the face. Finding that a difference of opinion existed

Higlı on the topmost verge her lingering lord to meet. hanging down, and his hands leaning on his horse's as to the indentation in the left shoulder, where it was Had you but seen the glow of lovely red, neck.” Hume also states that he died "some days" supposed he had been wounded, it was unanimously

As o'er her cheek the bright suffusion spread,

And marked her look of innocent delight, after the event. But another account of the fatal agreed to raise up the coffin altogether, and place it

When tirst his radiant forehead met her sight, injury differs materially from these. It is presented in the centre of the church, where a more accurate You would have deem'd your happiness complete, in the following terms in the Earl of Oxford's papers : examination might take place. The coffin was ex- And all the pageantry and state “ Two of the Harleys, and one of the Foleys, being tremely heavy, but by elevating one end with a crow.

Thenceforth a shallow mockery and a cheat. at supper with Sir Robert Pye at Faringdon House, bar, two strong ropes were adjusted under each end,

From his imperial car the god descended, Berks, in their way to Herefordshire, Sir Robert Pye and it was thus drawn up by twelve men in the most

And with surpassing dignity and grace, related the account of Hampden's death as follows: careful manner possible. Being placed on a trestle, the Like some tall statue stooping from its base, “That, at the action of Chalgrave Field, his pistol first operation was to examine the arms, which nearly Advanced with eager step to her embrace. burst, and shattered his hand in a terrible manner. retained their original size. On lifting up the right One moment more, and side by sido lle, however, rode off, and got to his quarters; but arm, we found it was dispossessed of its hand. We

They sat--the monarch and his bride.

The heavenly car moved on, not unattended, finding the wound mortal, he sent for Sir Robert Pye, might, therefore, naturally conjecture that it had

For smiling Plenty bover'd nigh, then a colonel in the parliament army, and who had been amputated, as the bone presented a perfectly flat And Joy and Love were there, and Mirth, with half-closed married his eldest daughter, and told him that he appearance, as if sawn off by some sharp instrument. looked on him in some degree accessory to his death, On searching under the cloths, to our no small asto

I saw no more: for 'mid the blaze,

The gathering splendour of encircling rays, as the pistols were a present from him. Sir Robert nishment, we found the hand, or rather a number of

As toward the zenith the bright god of day assured him that he bought them in Paris of an emi- small bones, enclosed in a separate cloth. For about Pursued his glittering way, nent maker, and had proved them himself. It ap- six inches up the arm the flesh had wasted away, be- The glorious vision ended. peared, on examining the other pistol, that it was ing evidently smaller than the lower part of the left

And I return'd, to tell in verse

Of scenes which, fitly to rehearse, loaded to the muzzle with several supernumerary arm, to which the hand was firmly united, and which

Might task the loftiest powers of him charges, owing to the carelessness of a servant who presented no symptoms of decay, farther than the two Who sang of heaven's proud cherubim, was ordered to see that the pistols were loaded every bones of the forefinger loose. Even the nails remained And first to our astonish'd eyes, morning, which he did without drawing the former entire, of which we saw no appearance in the cloth

In strains which for their purpose high charge. containing the bones of the right hand. At this pro

Men “will not willingly let die," In the year 1828, Lord Nugent, being then engaged cess of the investigation, we were perfectly satisfied

-Spectator, May 2. in writing a memoir of Hampden, and therefore de- that, independently of the result of any farther exasirous of ascertaining the real cause of the patriot's mination, such a striking coincidence as the loss of LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by W. S. death, bethought himself of having his grave opened, the right hand would justify our belief in Sir R. Orr, Paternoster Row; and sold by all booksellers and news. in the hope that his remains might yet be in a con- Pye's statement to the Harleys, that his presentation men.-Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars. dition to throw some light upon the question. He pistol was the innocent cause of a wound which after

Complete sets of the Journal are always to be had from the hamshire (to whom the family estates had descended) at the same moment, in the heat of the action of pages and contents, have only to give them into the hands of any therefore made application to the Earl of Bucking- wards proved mortal. It was, however, possible that publishers or their agents; also, any odd numbers to complete for permission make search for the grave in Hamp- | Chalgrave, when Colonel Hampden discharged his bookseller, with orders to that effect.

A VISION.

Betto

It is but one brief hour agone,

That on anointed monarchs wait,

eye.

Unveil'd the charms of Paradise.

[graphic]

IAMBERS
DINBURG/

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF " CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,”

“ CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,” &c.

NUMBER 440.

SATURDAY, JULY 4, 1840.

PRICE THREE HALFPENCE.

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NECESSARIES AND LUXURIES. eyes, and wo resolve to button up for ever against his nine he always wrought three hours. There could

not be a more interesting example of self-denial in a The indefiniteness of the range of human wants is whole fraternity. These ideas are perhaps not unnamatter of such notoriety, that we do not need in this tural, and they are not brought into notice here with lowly walk of life. Yet this man spent fourpence place to expatiate upon it. But it may be allowed us any design of reflecting discredit on those who enter- every week upon tobacco. He told us that he had

tain them. It would be unreasonable for those depen- often debated with himself the propriety of cutting to remark, for the sake of argument, that the number. dent on the productive part of the community, to ex- off this last remnant of the little comforts of better circumstances requires to make his life comfortable

, pect to have the same indulgences as those on whom days, but he never had been able to do so. We feel

they depend. Those who produce may be fairly allowed certain, from his whole character, that, if he could is very great. It is much greater than most people to have a right to consume what they produce, though have dispensed with the tobacco without a very great who have not reflected on the point are probably that may involve many superfluities ; while those who and very distressing sacrifice, he would have done so ; aware of, including as it does all the various things eaten and drunk, all the various things worn, all the

consume without producing any thing, may as fairly he was quite the man to have made any sacrifice at the various furnishings of a house, the services of various be expected to be content with a narrower range of call of high principle. But sensation in this matter kinds performed by attendants, the gratifications of indulgences. Our object is to enlighten, not to ridicule overcame principle. He, in short, could not want this or blame.

small modicum of tobacco. Before we knew of this taste, and the various visitings and recreations, which are more or less frequently indulged in. Noene would, ideas of what is necessary to themselves be too wide, wages for using tobacco, but we have never been

since. It appears, then, to us, that, whether or not men's case, we were disposed to censure working-men of small if strictly questioned, say that all of these things are their ideas of what is necessary for the unfortunate, or necessaries; but most people act and feel as if they for those whom they take under their protection, are

Again, how anxious are the aged poor of the female

sex generally found to obtain the occasional treat of a were so. The loss of any of them would occasion a blank, which would excite much immediate discon- generally too narrow. They are deceived by finding little tea. The tincture of this leaf seems totally intent, and to which it would require a long time to that simple food, clothing, and shelter, are alone re- nutritive, and therefore useless to the poor; yet there reconcile us. A lady whose health was such as to quired for the immediate support of life. They see these is no solid which they prefer to it. Give any poor forbid her a whole winter's balls, would expect to be things keep in the breath from one day to another, old woman a trifle of money, and it is ten to one heartily sympathised with, although the home to which but do not reflect that to maintain a healthy existence that she goes and buys a few pennyweights of tea, she was confined might be supplied with every other for a considerable space of time may require something although she may be at the moment in the most possible luxury. A gentleman who smokes cigars they do not deny to themselves

. That such is really

else—some part, in short, of those indulgences which pressing need of more substantial provisions. This would, if denied that regalement for a single fortnight, the case,

is, we think, rendered extremely probable by

seems the height of foolishness; but can we be quite be apt to take the matter very grumblingly. On all

sure that we know best? A friend of ours knew an of those points, the question whether they are neces

various considerations, and by none more than the old female in the country, who, whenever she could saries or luxuries

, whether dispensable or indispen- universal anxiety which exists for something beyond command a little tea, locked her door to keep out all sable, never arises

. But that the need for them is simple unvaried food, and clothes and shelter. It is intruders while she regaled herself with it. Surely really felt is indubitable, and therefore they may be found that no one whatever, except he be a fanatic of there must be some grave cause for circumstances like surely described as practically regarded by those who

some kind, rests content with that range of neces- these. Is it not the voice of somo natural principle use them as necessaries.

saries, if he can obtain any thing beyond it. Whether which cries thus loud within the old and feeble? In Yet amongst these very people there is an abstract

we look to revenue returns, or to the behaviour of the workhouse of our own city, the food given is of a idea of necessaries, quite different from that which individuals

, we have this all-pervading desire strongly very monotonous kind, though perhaps sufficient in seems to reign over their own practice. This abstract impressed on us. There are some, it is true, who hesitate point of quantity. It is common to see one of the idea is much the same as that of the moral poet, not to speak of the millions spent on tea, tobacco, and poor inmates creeping along from a neighbouring shop, “meat, clothes, and fire.” When they dream of an

such articles, as so much money thrown away ; but thus with a single salt herring in his hand, purchased with anchorite, they allow him nothing but “ meat, clothes, to set up a solitary opinion against the actual choice and senze accidentally acquired halfpenny. It may be said, and fire.” Perhaps he is even restricted to vegetable practice of an immense nation, argues perhaps more what need of this herring, when he every day has a diet. Water is certainly the only necessary beverage self-esteem than reflection. The nation, in spending dinner of soup made from ox-heads, with a loaf? But

these sums, must surely feel that it has an equivalent a natural principle prompts the monotonously fed old “ His food the fruits, his drink the crystal well."

for them; and what is this equivalent but the grati- man to seek for some relishing variety to his fare ; Nor is this allowed to be a mere abstraction, or a ma- fication of certain cravings or needs ? Perhaps the and a salt herring is of that character. Those who terial for furnishing out the picture of a hermit, but it articles consumed are not those suited to gratify these feed every day on the best, with ample variety, do not becomes a real ineasure for what is to be dealt out to cravings either most agreeably or most harmlessly : detect the principle ; but the poor man who dines actual human beings in all circumstances of an unfor- there may be others which providence has designed to day after day for years on one mess of soup-maigre, tunate nature. In most cases, for example, a pauper give that gratification, without any drawback of injury discovers it. Is it not reasonably to be inferred that is held to be sufficiently provided for, if he obtains to the physical or moral nature of the people. But the rich would find reasons for a great many other “ meat, clothes, and fire”—that is to say, a plain and these things must be held as an exponent of the cravo preferences, and tastes, and habits in the poor, which perhaps unvaried diet, a coarse but sufficiently warm ings nevertheless, and that is sufficient for the argu- at present astonish them, if they were to take a trial dress, and house shelter. There is no thought in his ment. With regard to individual illustrations, no one for a while of the condition of the poor? case of even the simplest of those innumerable appli- who has a personal acquaintance with the less affluent The drift of all these remarks is to impress, if posances and indulgences which constitute the fortunate or fortunate classes, can hesitate to acknowledge the sible, a more liberal sense of the needs of unfortunate man's idea of what is necessary to himself. What is eagerness with which the poorest poor grasp at little human beings than what at present exists. We should indispensable to sustain immediate existence is given, indulgences beyond the meat, clothes, and fire.” wish to see all who have any charge over the poor, but nothing more—that is, let us always remark, in We will not here speak of the more debasing of these disabused of the erroneous notion that life can be the generality of cases, for in some there is greater indulgences, though even of them were we to speak, it quite well sustained by the barest necessaries, when liberality. Our ordinary ideas respecting a mendicant would be more in sorrow than in blame. Let us only in reality something farther and various is required. are of the same kind. We are anxious that he should notice those which cannot be said to do any great or We should wish that the rich would not think ill of not starve, either of hunger or cold ; but if he is sup- immediate injury, while unquestionably they minister the poor, or be cooled in their efforts to do them good, posed to be supplied with the means of doing any to the gratification of some existing appetites or tastes. because the poor are disposed to indulge in some of more than merely keep in life, he is thought to have We once knew an artisan who realised only seven those comforts which the rich themselves enjoy in abuntoo much, and if he spends any part of his receipts on shillings a-week by his labour, and who had little other dance, seeing that it is an imperative law of our nature articles not strictly necessary for his support, wo be income wherewith to support his household. His to desire such comforts, which accordingly cannot be to him the next time he applies for an alms. It is family had grown up and ceased to be a burden to permanently withheld altogether without some evil expected of a mendicant-and indeed this may be him ; but his wife remained, and seven shillings was ensuing. A benevolent person who wishes to sustain said of the unfortunate and reduced in general—that but a poor income for the weekly support of two per- some of his poorer neighbours may think that he does no sort of enjoyment should ever come his way. To sons. He was a rigidly honest and prudent man, a great deal if he supplies bare daily necessaries : he think of a beggar having even a hearty laugh by the disposed to fulfil, and who had fulfilled, all the duties certainly does much, but let him not suppose that he evening fire in his mean lodging, seems wrong and out of life creditably. He allowed himself no relaxation extends a full support to his dependants, when he of character. If he for a moment lays aside his poor from constant labour. He took no food between six withholds things which, with regard to extended years, look and his whine, he becomes a base deceiver in our in the evening and nine next morning, though before I are as pressingly necessary as bread is for each day.

CONCLUDED

Comforts in food or other articles of consumpt, are prospect of happiness was embittered in the major’s | They had the good fortune to meet no one till daynot alone to be regarded here. There are solacements mind by the remembrance of the horrid catastrophe break, when the sight of two men, who appeared at a for the mind which are not less necessary for a healthy he had witnessed, and which his fetters and blood- great distance, obliged them to lie down flat on the

stained garments presented in such vivid colours to ground to avoid discovery. existence. Amongst these may be reckoned occasional his imagination. While contemplating at a distance After leaving the inountains in those provinces, the recreations and sports, indulgence in cheerful society, the termination of his labours, he calculated in silence forests disappear, and the eye looks in vain for a single reading, and an exercise of the feelings which have a and anxiety the difficulties of the journey. The sight tree to relieve the nakedness of the country, except

on the banks of large rivers, where they are even very regard to the world beyond the present. Many a per- of the long and dangerous route which still remained son would suppose that he did enough for a being and

his limbs swollen with fatigue, soon effaced the sidering the fertility of the soil. They had been fol

to be performed, encumbered as he was with irons, scarce : this circumstance is very extraordinary, condependent on his generosity, if he provided a suffi- last trace of the momentary pleasure created by the lowing for some time the course of the Sonja, which ciency of animal comforts alone; but this is a great view of his own native land. The torments of a burn- they had to cross to reach Mosdok, and were look. mistake. There is as great a certainty of derange- | ing thirst added to the anguish and distress of his ing out for a spot where the stream, being less rapid, ment and discomfort, if a cheering intercourse with mind. Ivan ran down towards the rivulet to bring would afford them a safer passago, when they disthe world be withheld, as if we denied some imme

somo water to his master: a bridge formed of two covered a figure on horseback coming straight towards

trees was thrown over it, and he saw a habitation at them. The country, totally uncovered, presented diately requisite article of food : it only takes a longer a small distance. It was a sort of chalet, or summer

neither tree nor bush for concealment. They squatted time to realise the result in the one case than the residence of the Tchetchenges, which was deserted. down under a ridge of rock near the water's edge. other. And similar effects follow from deprivation of In the situation of the fugitives, that isolated house The traveller passed within a few yards of their the other elements of comfort. We shall see these

was a most precious discovery. Ivan interrupted his hiding-place : their intention was merely to defend

master's reflections to conduct him to the refuge he themselves if they were attacked. Ivan drew his matters in a clearer light, if we once reflect what a

had so fortunately discovered, and, after establishing dagger, and gave the pistol to the major. Perceiving, complex being manis, how many sentiments, affections, him as comfortably as possible, he proceeded to search however, that the rider was but a boy of twelve or and powers, exist in his frame, all calling for exercise for the magazine.

thirteen, he sprang abruptly on him, seized him by on the various things in the world and out of the The inhabitants of the Caucasus being often exposed the neck, and throw him down. The youth attempted world, which they have a respect to. How prepos- to the incursions of their neighbours, have always near to resist ; but on seeing the major appear at the river terous to suppose that this strange bundle of clamorous their houses subterranean recesses in which they con- side, pistol in hand, he ran away at full speed. The appetites and faculties is to be kept sweet by the mere ceal their provisions and their utensils. These maga- horse was without a saddle, and with only a halter administration of a certain amount of food, or even by zines, in the shape of a narrow well, are closed with a passed in his mouth by way of a bridle. The two the addition of a few luxuries! The whole being must plank or a large stone, carefully covered over with fugitives made use immediately of their capture to be kept in a condition appropriate to its character in earth, and generally placed in a spot where there is no pass the river. This rencontre was most fortunate

lest the difference of shade should betray the for them, for they very soon saw that it would all its various parts, before there can be any approach deposited treasure. In spite of all these precautions, have been impossible to cross it on foot as they into contentment of an unaffected kind, and before we the Russian soldiers often find them out. They go tended. Their charger, although burdened with two consequently can expect such moral results as may be over the beaten paths around the habitation, knocking men, was very nearly carried away by the rapidity regarded with satisfaction.

about with the ramrod of their guns, and the sound of the stream. They reached the shore, however, in

indicates to their practised ear the cavities they are safety, but it was too steep to allow the horse to land; THE PRISONERS OF MOUNT CAUCASUS. the house, and found in it some earthen

jars, a few him with all his might to make him climb the bank seeking. Ivan discovered one under a shed close to they dismounted to easo him. As Ivan was pulli ng

stalks of maize, a bit of crystal salt, and several house the halter gave way. The poor animal was carried The key of the irons not being found, all that had utensils. He ran for some water to begin cooking : off by the current, and, after many an unsuccessful been done for the liberation of Major Kašcambo seemed the quarter of mutton, with some potatoes he had attempt to land, was fairly overpowered and drowneda to have been done in vain, unless the irons could be brought, were placed on the fire. During the prepara- Deprived of this resource, but less tormented now broken. Ivan, with the corner of the axe, managed to tion of the dish, Kascambo roasted the stalks of Indian by the fear of being pursued, they made for a rocky loosen the ring attached to the hand, but that fixed corn, and some nuts, found also in the magazine, com- hillock, which they perceived in the distance, intendto the foot resisted every effort ; he was afraid of pleted the meal.

ing to hide there, and rest till night. By their calcuhurting his master, and did not dare to use all his Ivan, having now more time and more means, suc- lation of the distance they must have gone over, they strength. On the other hand, the night was advancing, ceeded in freeing his master entirely from his fetters, judged that the habitations of the Pacific Tchetand the danger was becoming pressing : they resolved and the latter, now more composed and more calm, chenges could not be very far away. But it was by to depart. Ivan tied the chain firmly to the majors and, besides, well restored by a meal excellent under no means safe to trust to these men, whose possible belt, so as to annoy him as little as possible, and to present circumstances, fell fast asleep, and the night treachery would ruin them for ever. However, in make no noise. He placed in a pouch a quarter of had quite closed in when he awoke. Notwithstanding the desperate state of weakness to which Kascambo mutton with some other provisions, and armed himself this favourable rest, when he wished to resumo his was now reduced, he could not reach the Tereek with the deceased's pistol and dagger. Kascambo route, his swollen legs liad stiffened to such a fearful without assistance. Their provisions were exhausted; took his bear-skin cloak; they went out in silence, degree, that he could not make one movement without they spent the rest of the day in sullen and mournful and, turning round the house to avoid meeting any experiencing intolerable agony; it was, however, ne- silence, not daring to communicate to one another one they struck into the bills without following the cessary to depart. Supported by his servant, he their mutual anxieties. Towards the evening, the ordinary road to Mosdok, supposing that they would started mournfully, convinced that he should never major saw his denchick strike his forehead with his be pursued in that direction. They skirted for all the reach the term so ardently wished for. The motion, hand, and give a deep sigh. Surprised at this sudden rest of the night the mountains on their right, and however, and the heat of the walk, calmed by degrees mark of despair, which his intrepid companion had when daylight began to dawn, they entered a beech- the pain he suffered. He walked all night, halting never yet displayed, he inquired the cause of it. “Maswood, which crowned the summit of the hill, and frequently, and almost immediately continuing his ter," said Ivan, “I have committed a great fault!”. screened them from the danger of being discovered journey. But sometimes giving way to despair, he “May God forgive it us !" replied Kascambo, with at any distance. It was in the month of February : would throw himself on the ground, and entreat Ivan great compunction. the ground on those heights, and especially in the to abandon him to his fate. His intrepid compa- Yes," continued Ivan; “ I have forgotten to carry forest, was still covered with hard snow, which offered panion not only encouraged him by his speeches and off that splendid rifle, which was in the child's room. a firm footing to the travellers during the night and example, but employed almost violence to raise him But it cannot be helped ; it did not occur to me ; you part of the morning; but towards noon, when it be- to his feet and drag him off. They came to a most made such a moaning up there, that you put it out came melted by the sun, they sunk at every sin difficult and most dangerous passage, which they could of my head. You laugh ; it was indeed the prettiest which made their progress very slow. After a most jot avoid ; to wait for daylight would have caused an rifle in the whole village. I would have made a prepainful and most difficult march, they arrived at the irreparable loss of time. They resolved to go through, sent of it to the first man we meet to make a friend side of a deep valley they had to cross, at the bottom at the imminent hazard of being precipitated from the of him, for I do not exactly see how we can, in your of which the snow had disappeared ; a well-beaten heights. But before engaging his master in this peril, present condition, accomplish our journey." path ran along the windings of the rivulet, and showed Ivan resolved to reconnoitre the past, and to survey it The weather, which had hitherto favoured them, that the spot had been frequented. This considera- alone. While he was going down, Kascambo remained changed suddenly in the course of the day. The tion, added to the excessive fatigue and exhaustion of on the edge of a rock, in a state of anxiety by no means cold wind of Russia blew with violence, and corered the major, determined the travellers to remain in that casy to describe. The night was dark : he heard them with sleet. They started again at nightfall, unplace till night : they established themselves among under his feet the distant înurmur of a rapid river, certain whether to risk entering one of the villages, or some isolated rocks which rose from the centre of the whose agitated waters were rolling tumultuously to avoid them entirely. But the long journey which snow. Ivan cut a quantity of fir branches to make a through the valley. ; the noise of the stones detached on that alternative awaited them, became utterly imsoft bed for his master, who lay down immediately. from the mountain's side by his companion's feet, possible in consequence of a new misfortune which Whilst he was resting, Ivan was reflecting on the indicated to him the immense depth of the precipice happened to them towards the end of the night. safest plan for continuing their route. The valley on which he was standing. At this moment of anguish As they were crossing a small ravine, on a wreath over which they now stood was surrounded with high and of distress, which might be the last of his life, he of snow which covered the bottom of it, the ice broke hills through which no passage was visible. He saw thought of his beloved mother, who had given him her under their feet, and they sunk up to the knees in that the beaten path could not be avoided, and that blessing at his departure from the line, with that tender the water. The efforts Kascambo made to extricate it was necessary to follow the course of the rivulet to maternal affection which no other love can ever equal; himself, completely drenched his garments. From get out of this labyrinth. It was eleven o'clock at that thought renewed all his courage : a pleasing pre- the moment of their departure the cold had never been night, and the snow was becoming harder and firmer sentiment that he should once more see her arose in so intense ; the whole country was covered with sleet. when they descended into the valley ; but before start- his mind. “Merciful God!" he exclaimed; "do grant After half an hour of the most painful and laborious ing, they set fire to their establishment, as much to that her blessing shall not have been given in vain!” travel, nipped by the cold, he fell down, exhausted by warm themselves as to prepare a small meal of chislik, As he was just finishing this short but fervent fatigue and pain, and refused peremptorily to go a which they needed much. A handful of snow was all prayer, Ivan returned. The passage was not so diffi- step farther. Convinced of the utter impossibility of they had to drink, and a mouthful of brandy crowned cult as they had at first supposed it to be. After erer reaching the term of his journey, he considered the feast. They luckily crossed the valley without descending a few fathoms between the rocks, it was it an useless cruelty to detain his companion, who could seeing any body, and entered the narrow pass where necessary, in order to gain easier ground, to skirt a easily escape alone. “Listen to me, Ivan,” said he ; the road and the rivulet lay contracted on each side narrow ridge of rock, inclined, and, besides, covered “God knows I have done every thing in my power by precipitous hills ; they walked on at the utmost of with slippery snow, under which the mountain formed till this very moment, to take advantage of your help their speed, knowing well how dangerous it was for a steep and abrupt precipice of fearful depth. Ivan and assistance; but you see now that they cannot save them to be met that narrow passage, which they made openings in the hard snow with his axe to faci- me, and that my fate is sealed. Go to the line, my dear only cleared fairly at nine in the morning. It was litate the passage ; they both commended their souls and faithful Ivan-return to our regiment, I command only then that this dark defile opened all of a sudden to God. “Now," said Kascambo, “if I perish, let it you ; tell my old friends, and my superior officers, before them, and displayed over the tops of the lower not be for want of courage ; sickness and misery alone that you have left me here a prey to the ravens, and mountains the immense horizon of Russia, spreading could ever damp my spirits ; I shall go now as long as that I wish them a better fate. But, before leaving itself afar like a distant sea. One could hardly form the Almighty will give me strength.” They sur me, remember the oath you took up there in the blood a true notion of the pleasure the major experienced at mounted all difficulties, successfully accomplished their of our jailors. You swore that the Tchetchenges this unexpected sight : “ Russia ! Russia ?" were the perilous passage, and continued their route. The should never take me alivo again : keep your word ?" only words he could pronounce.

paths were becoming more frequented and well beaten; So saying, he lay down, and covered himself all over T'he travellers sat down rest themselves, and to they only found snow

in the spots oxposed to the with his hear-skin cloak. . " Thero is still a resource enjoy in anticipation their approaching liberty. This north wind, and in the hollows where it had gathered. I left;" replied Ivan ; “it is to seek a habitation of

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Tchetchenges, and bribe the master with promises ; | roubles on the footpath, at a hundred yards from the had been deposited, dividing them close by the skin or if he betray us, we shall have nothing to reproach house, and be off. ourselves with. Try to drag yourself so far; or,” said

thread of the cloth, by means of a pair of teeth with

As soon as he had secured them, he returned to the which it is provided for that end, and which act prehe, seeing his master's exhaustion, “ I shall go alone, roof, and, throwing himself at the major's feet, begged cisely like scissors. The same filaments are then cut and try to gain over a Tchetchenge ; if things turn his pardon, and entreated him to forget the bad usage by the insect into convenient lengths, and applied one out well, I shall come back with him, and carry you he had been forced to make him endure for his own away. If they go wrong, if I perish and cannot re- safety. “I shall only remember,” said Kascambo, by one, with the most surprising dexterity, to the turn, there, take the pistol.” Kascambo stretched “ that I have been your guest, and that you have kept outside of its silken case, to which it fastens them by out his hand, and took the pistol. your word faithfully ; but instead of begging my the agency of the additional silk which it emits at will

, Ivan covered him up with herbs and brushwood, for | pardon, I should rather prefer you to take off these applying always new layers in succession, and fastenfear he should be seen during his absence. He was ropes.”

ing them in the same manner, until it has thus brought about to depart, when his master called him back. Without answering, the Tchetchenge, seeing Ivan the whole case to a convenient thickness. No product * Ivan,” said he, “ listen again to my last request. If return, bounded from the roof, and disappeared like of human art could be more regularly woven than this you ever succeed in passing the Tereek, and see my lightning.

vestment, the mechanical process being precisely the mother again without me"

In the course of the same day, the brave Ivan had same in both instances. When completed, the case is “Master," interrupted Ivan, “farewell for a few the satisfaction and glory of restoring his master to in the shape of a hollow tube, of the length of the body hours. We shall meet again in the course of this his dear friends, who had lost all hopes of ever seeing of the insect, which makes its abode in the interior, day. But, if you die, neither your mother nor mine him more.

nor ever quits it except in case of urgent necessity. shall ever see me again !"

When it wants to feed, it puts out its head and helps After an hour's walk, he perceived, from a small The author of this narrative, happening to pass Iego- itself with its cutters ; and when it is desirous to shift rising ground, two or three villages, at about four riensky some months after, arrived during the night its position, it pushes out its six anterior limbs, having miles distance : it was not what he wanted ; he wished before a small house, of very elegant appearance, and first fixed the posterior ones to the case, so as to drag to find a solitary house, which he might enter without particularly well lighted up. He jumped from his it along when the fore legs move. being observed, and secretly gain over the master, kibick, and approached a window to enjoy the sight Being thus within a warm and compact tenement,

The distant smoke of an isolated chimney discovered of a most lively and animated ball which was taking lined with the most delicate silk, the insect feels as to him what he wished for. The master of the house place on the ground-floor. A young officer was also comfortable as may be, until its bulk, increasing with was seated on the floor, busily repairing one of his boots. I looking on, and appeared particularly taken up with its age, renders some alteration of the original struc“I come here,” said Ivan, “ to offer you an oppor- the gay scene in the interior of the apartment. ture necessary. In fact, this necessity occurs several tunity of winning two hundred roubles, and to ask of " Who gives this ball ?" inquired the traveller. times successively. The consequent mutations of the you a service. You have, no doubt, heard of Major “ It is our major, who was married to-day." case “ are accomplished by the little occupant (to use Kascambo, a prisoner among the mountaineers. Well, « And what may be his name, pray?"

the words of Kirby and Spence) as dexterously as by I have carried him off-he is here close by-sick, ex- “ His name is Kascambo."

any tailor. If the case merely requires lengthening, Lausted, and in your power. If you deliver him up The traveller, who was acquainted with the singular the task is easy. All that is necessary, is to add a to his enemies, they will praise you certainly, but, you history of this gentleman, congratulated himself on new ring of hair or wool and silk to each end. But to krow it well enough, they will not reward you." If, having yielded to his curiosity, and admired the bride- enlarge it in width is not so simple an affair. Yet it on the contrary, you consent to save him, by keeping groom, who, glowing with pleasure, had completely sets to work precisely as we should, slitting the case im only three days in your house, I shall go to Mos- forgot for the moment the Tchetchenges and their on the two opposite sides, and then adroitly inserting ok, and bring back two hundred roubles in fine cruelty.

between them two pieces of the requisite size. It does sounding silver for his ransom. But if you dare stir “ Have the kindness to show me also the brave den- not, however, cut open the case from one end to the one inch from your place,” added he, drawing his chick who delivered him." The young officer, after other at once ; the sides would separate too far dagger, " and give the alarm to get me arrested, I some hesitation, answered, “ I am the man.” asunder, and the insect be left naked. It therefore murder you this instant. Give me your word this Doubly surprised at this extraordinary coincidence, first cuts each side about half way down, and then, moment, or you are a dead man."

and still more at the youth of the speaker, the traveller after having filled up the fissure, proceeds to out the The determined tone of Ivan convinced the Tehet- | asked him what his age was. He had not completed remaining half : so that, in fact, four enlargements chenge without intimidating him. “Young man,” his twentieth year, and had just received a sum of are made, and four separate pieces inserted.” These said he, pulling quietly on his boot, “I have also got a money and the rank of officer as a reward for his additional rings and longitudinal stripes are always dagger in my belt, and yours does not frighten me. courage and fidelity.

lined with silk, and are as perfect in disposition as the Had you entered here as a friend, I should never have This brave young man, after having voluntarily original case. The additions are well marked, and betrayed a man who had crossed the threshold of my shared his master's misfortunes, and restored him to may be observed under ordinary circumstances. But door; now, I promise nothing. Sit down there, and life and liberty, was now enjoying

his happiness on there is one way by which they may be made still more explain your wish." Ivan, seeing at once who be had his marriage-day, gazing at the feast through the distinct to the view. The colour

of the habit, or any to do with, sheathed his dagger, sat down, and repeated window. But the stranger happening to express his part of the habit, always corresponds with the hue of his proposal. “And what security do you offer me," astonishment that he should not be in the ball-room, the cloth from which the materials may be taken. asked the Tchetehenge," for the execution of your and appearing also to imply some suspicion of ingra- Accordingly, the progress of the creature’s various promise ?” “ I shall leave you the major himself,”, titude in his old master, Ivan glanced towards him operations is made beautifully manifest, when it is replied Ivan. “Do you think I would have suffered a fierce and angry look, and walked into the house transferred from cloth of one tint to a differently for fifteen months, and brought my master to your whistling the tune “ Hai luli, hai luli !". He very coloured article. Thus, if the original case has been house, to desert him there ?" "Well, I believe you ; soon appeared in the ball-room, and the inquisitive formed from white cloth, and the insect be then placed but two hundred roubles are too little-I must have traveller jumped into his kibick, quite thankful not upon a scarlet article, the first rings at the ends, which four hundred.” “ Why not ask four thousand it's to have received the fatal axe over his skull.

usually constitute the first enlargement, will be of just as easy ; only, as I intend to keep my word, I

scarlet. Let the creature then be shifted to a black offer you the two hundred, because I know where to

cloth, and new rings of black will appear. The side get them, and not another kopeck. Would you place SKETCHES IN NATURAL HISTORY. stripes may in like manner be rendered blue or green, me under the necessity of deceiving you ?”

THE CLOTHES' MOTH.

so that, upon the whole, the case will present a parti“ Well, let it be done for the two hundred roubles ; and you coine back in three days, and alone p « Yes , The moth commonly found among clothes is the coloured appearance, making the Tinea into a little

harlequin. alone, and in three days ; I give you my word for it; Phalæna Tinea Pellionella of naturalists.

It is a

In such a manner does the insect proceed, always but have you given me your own word ?-—is the major creature of some interest, both on account of the pecu- enlarging its case with undeviating regularity in proyour guest ?" “ He is, and so are you from this liar features which mark its history, and the annoy- portion to its growth, and consuming in the process a moment ; you have my solemn word for it.”

They took each other's hand, and ran for the major, ance which it gives to man in an important point of very considerable amount of the stuffs upon which it whom they brought back half dead with cold and his domestic economy. The Tinea Pellionella finds its chances to be at the time. Another portion of the

same material, whether wool, hair, or fur, is required hunger.

food and habitation chiefly among woollen stuffs and for its food, and this portion, also, is no inconsiderable Instead of going to Mosdok, Ivan hearing that he animal furs, and haunts alike the coarsest and finest one. But besides the consumption occasioned by was nearer to Tchervelianskaya-Staniza, where there substances of that description. The ermined robes of clothing and feeding, the creature is compelled to exwas a considerable post of Cossacks, hastened directly

tend its ravages still farther. In moving from place thither. He had no greut trouble in making up the kings and judges are held not one whit more sacred

to place, it seems to be as much incommoded by the necessary sum. The brave Cossacks, several of whom by it than the habiliments of the poor and humble. long hairs surrounding it as we are when walking had been present at the unfortunate engagement which Its proper food is said to be hair, however ; and when among long grass ; and accordingly, it projects its had cost Kascambo his liberty, were happy to put a skin covered with that material comes in its way, it scissors in front of the case, and mows down, as with their purses together to complete his ransom. On the shaves off the capillary covering as cleanly and cleverly a scythe, all that stands in its way. Its track is thus appointed day, Ivan departed to go and deliver at last

still more distinctly marked on the stuffs which it is his master ; but the colonel who commanded the post, as a razor could do. But it also feeds liberally on wool

placed upon. When it pauses in its course, a silken fearing some new treason, would not allow him to and furs, and as these substances form our common cable is thrown out and fixed, securing in this way a return alone ; and, in spite of the convention and clothing, it is in connexion with them that the Tinea safe anchorage in case of any movements taking place agreement made with the Tchetchenge, he sent a Pellionella comes chiefly under our eye. Another in the main body of the substance to which it is atdetachment of Cossacks with him.

species of moth, likewise, the Tinea Sarcitella, feeds on tached.

was fatal to Kascambo. His host no sooner perceived the Lances wool

, and commits great ravages among clothing of is called its larva state, and attains the length of about of the Cossacks in the distance, than he thought him that material. Generally speaking, the following half an inch. The period then arrives, when, in conself betrayed ; and displaying at once the ferocious remarks will apply to it, as well as to the preceding sonance with the modes of its tribe, it prepares for its courage of his nation, he conducted the major, still species.

change into the pupa or chrysalis condition. This weak and sick, to the roof of the house, tied him to a In its moth state, the Tinea Pellionella is of small change is begun by abstinence from food, and the creapillar, and placed himself before him, with his rifle in size, and of a leaden colour. It is, like its congeners, ture subsequently weaves around it a cocoon of silk, " If you advance,” cried he, as soon as Ivan was originally produced from an egg, and is then perfectly the space of about three weeks

, in the shape of a small within hearing distance ; " if you make another step, naked—which circumstance overturns Paley's asser- nocturnal moth, of a leaden or silver-grey hue, and I blow the major's brains out, and I have fifty cart- tion that man is the only member of the animal world with a black point in the middle of each wing: This ridges left for my enemies, and for the traitor who has that is born naked. The further statement of the evolution takes place usually in the month of August, brought them." denchick, trembling for his master's life ; « I hare itself , is likewise disproved by the history of this time it appears to be incessantly engaged

in searching " You are not betrayed p” exclaimed the faithful same writer, that the human animal can alone clothe and the insect, now completely formed, exists atter:

wards but a week or two, during the whole of which licen forced to come back accompanied ; but I have insect. As soon as the little creature quits the egg, for a fit place in which to lay the eggs which are te brought the two hundred roubles, and keep my word.” | being not, as man is, in a state of helplessness at that continue its race. Having fulfilled this end, its short " Let the Cossacks retire,” added the Tchetchenge, period, it begins to form a suit of clothes for itself.

career comes to a close. Out of the whole period of “or I fire." Kascambo himself begged of the officer to retire. For this purpose, it spins, in the first place, a thin and its life, which extends to about a year, ten months

are spent in the larva or caterpillar condition. Ivan followed the detachment for some distance, and very fine tissue of silk around its body, in the same

The eggs of the clothes' moth are an alarming sight came back alone. But the suspicious brigand would manner as other insects spin their silk-cases. It then to the careful housewife, and they are brushed off and Lot allow him to approach. He bade him count the cuts the filaments of the wool or fur on which its egg destroyed by her without compunction, whenever they

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