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CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF “ CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,”
* CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,” &c.
Price Three HalFPENCE.
should be to pages instead of numbers, though the after I have done so but for a short time, I become CONTRARY to all precedent, the conductors of this former has been in reality the case since the second quite hoarse. I cannot take eggs,” &c. A gentleman work have, from its commencement, declined to re- volume-a circumstance which a constant reader states that he is emboldened by our philantlıropy to ceive communications of any kind from unknown ought surely to have known. Another will ask in ask what is the best and most expeditious mode of correspondents, being certain that, were the case what number a particular article, of which he has a drying the inside of, and making fit for habitation, a otherwise, there could not fail to arise, out of so vast faint recollection, appeared. Some suggest alterations newly built house.” He is in great haste, too, for an a circle of readers, such a multitude of weekly letters, in the size of the sheet. Since Mr Rowland Hill answer, for he enters the premises at Ladyday, and his and so great an amount of mediocre and inferior com- has come into action, this branch of our correspon- wife is somewhat poorly. Here are two things we never positions, as would have engrossed our whole time, 'dence has much increased. People will now write once thought of in our lives, yet about which we are without any advantage worth speaking of to the work from all parts of the United Kingdom to inquire expected to be as conversant as if we were operaor to the public. We have from the first endeavoured | where and how they may get this and that-parti- singers on the one hand, or builders on the other. to make the public aware, that the Journal, being culars which they ought to learn from the next book- We were some years ago requested to state by what a work designed for all who would read, and having seller. If a difficulty occurs about keeping a few of the steps a person might attain the situation of a serjeant in view certain definite results, is necessarily com- sheets sewed together, the perplexed purchaser imme- of police, and more recently to describe the state of posed by individuals who act in concert, knowing to diately devotes a queen's head, as he most irreverently the law respecting the hiring of servants in Ireland. direct their efforts towards those results ; and that, calls it, to the purpose of asking the editors what he is The respectable individuals who made these inquiries accordingly, nothing can be more unsuitable to it to do, when, in truth, to parody Sterne's remark on must allow us to express our surprise at being supposed than the occasional productions of young and un- Smelfungus, he ought to ask his wife or eldest daugh- to have such information at our fingers' ends. We can skilled writers, who only aim at the glory of seeing ter. Let not our readers at large suppose this to be a only account for such applications, upon the supposition themselves in print. It has also been shown that, hypothetical case. An extract from a late letter, that the great number of facts of one kind and another while we were anxious to discharge every fair and received from a very distant part of the kingdom, stated in every Journal, has at length led to a general reasonable duty of courtesy, we should have been will show its reality. The writer, after some remarks belief that there is nothing beyond our ken. This unfit for any other employment, if we were to read of a complimentary nature, comes at length, as he would certainly be a very flattering supposition, but, and reply to every letter of remark, inquiry, and says, “ to the point,” which point is this. “My neigh- we fear, it would not be much more sound than the discussion, which our readers might be prompted, bours, mostly artisans, and too poor to buy, requested notions which the people of most states are said to whether in the spirit of levity, or for serious and me to let them have a reading of my copy. I felt entertain respecting the wisdom of their rulers. It respectable objects, to send to us. Notwithstanding pleasure in complying with their wishes ; but mark has been said that the world is in reality ruled by these announcements, a great quantity of communi. the consequences. After a month's numbers had gone a very little wisdom; and so we suspect the Jourcations of all kinds have been made to us by unknown the rounds, owing to the way they were stitched, they nal is conducted by virtue of a remarkably small persons, so great indeed as to prove in a very striking were returned torn from where the stitch caught, stock of knowledge. We must not forget that our manner how hopelessly enormous must have been the half an inch; and, when again lent, the paper, thus friends “the boys” sometimes make bold to approach weekly load which would have reached us, if any thing torn, soon lengthened an inch to the right of the the editorial throne. We had some years ago a most of the kind had been invited, or even tacitly permitted. original rent. What could I do? I intended to keep formidable communication from the secretary of a Many of these communications have been from evi- them, to have them bound up in years; but, owing juvenile bathing club, calling our attention to the ex. dently estimable persons, containing either composi- to this, I had to give up my intention, and now they pediency of forming swimming or bathing clubs all tions of some merit, or remarks deserving attention ; remain almost useless. [Our correspondent then de over the kingdom, and holding occasional competibut the great majority have been of the kind which we scribes an effort he made to sew them up as books are tions at certain stations, in the manner of the Yacht from the first dreaded--verses by children in years or bound, which he had ultimately to give up in despair Club regattas. We had also the honour to be addressed intellect, crude and trite essays, tales of ultra senti- --so that] I had to relinquish the buying of them, much by“ a young though constant reader,” for the purmentalism deficient in both character and incident, to my regret. Many have complained to me that pose of ascertaining if a round substance of a bluish and letters which it would have only been a waste of they were in a like situation. I am certain, if you colour, which people sometimes meet in the sea when time to read, if it were not that, in the very qualities could contrive some way to avoid this, many persons swimming, has the power, as is usually said, of making which make them to us undesirable, they served in would take them that do not. When they get into those whom it touches feel as if they had been burrit. some measure to illustrate human character.
this state, they are tossed about as almost useless ; In all of these cases, the subject of inquiry is comChancing one day lately to have our attention and the money is then considered to have been almost paratively trifling. In many others, it is no unfair directed to a vast pile of this forbidden correspondence thrown away.” We must own that, without this calculation that to fully ascertain the point inquired --if it can be called correspondence which has never acknowledgment, we could not have believed that about, would occupy us a week, and require, besides, had but one party—it occurred to us that, after all, it any reader would have given up a work which he some travelling. For example, we have been asked might not be amiss to publish a selection of the offered professed to like, and the price of which is a mere to state where the title-deeds of a piece of procompositions, and to take tho desired notice of some trifle, because a great quantity of reading and thumb-perty in Lancashire, forfeited in the affair of 1745, of the letters of criticism and inquiry, so as at once to ing wore it considerably. To think of the small price might be found. In some instances, advice is asked gratify the writers and to make the public acquainted of this sheet being considered as thrown away, be about the most delicate domestic affairs. Persons with the state of the case. We propose to do this in cause, after some twenty people have read it, it has residing in distant provinces will explain to us their the greatest possible good humour, and with the very become a little ragged and unfit for binding--as if all whole circumstances, and ask how we should advise reverse of a design in the least to offend particular this vast amount of reading (as much as one person them to proceed—our advice, if we give it, being underparties. Let each correspondent only keep his own reading a book of twenty large sheets) were nothing ! stood to actuate them towards decisions involving the secret, and he is safe.
Surely we have here a remarkable illustration of the whole future weal or woe of a family. A young person A great number of letters relate to circumstances insatiableness of the human heart. Something of the of fortune, whose home was in a remote part of the of an unimportant nature connected with the work same kind may have been remarked in many quarters United Kingdom, and who lived disagreeably with his itself. A gentleman from the remotest corner of with regard to the cheap postage. People are relieved relations, once actually came to Edinburgh, to seek England or Ireland will think it worth while to let all at once from the long-felt burden of paying seven- counsel from two humble individuals who have their us know that the first sentence of a particular article, pence at an average for every letter they receive, and, own troubles to contend with, and are only conscious lately published, contained, to the best of his judg- instantly after, instead of any joyful feeling there- of forming a channel through which the maxims of ment, a grammatical error; while one word substituted anent, we hear only mutterings at trifling inconve- general and traditionary wisdom may be communifor another in an immediately following passage from niences, and ridicule at the peculiar appearance of the cated a little more largely than heretofore to society. an English poet, seemed to him to deprive the said stamps and envelopes.
Individuals who think of settling temporarily on the passage of much of its point. The payment of some The inquiries for information and advice are so Continent for the sake of economy or the education of fifteen or eighteenpence was not, in the days of dear numerous and so various, that the most encyclopædic their children, will write to us from the most distant postage, thought too much for the writer to give, to and most sage of minds would fail to answer them all parts of England, minutely describing the state of enable such a letter to reach us. There is indeed no satisfactorily. “A subscriber from the commence- their family and pecuniary circumstances, and requestcircumstance too minute to be thought worthy of cor- ment" writes from the neighbourhood of London—"I ing us to point out the places most suited to their respondence. One “constant reader" will suggest shall feel obliged if you will inform me what is a good purpose
. In more than one such letter, the writer that the references in the index for our volumes I thing for the coice, for I am in the habit of singing, and discusses the attractions of various places, in a manner
FIFTH ARTICLE. CAUSES OF DIFFERENCES IN THE
AMOUNT OF WAGES.
which shows, what he would perhaps scarcely believe, before them, with words which they honour by calling cure but one quarter of corn, and in another year will that he knows ten times more of the matter than we do, wise, and sentiments which they deem generous and procure two, the labourer liaving on both occasions having probably done that which we never did, namely, philanthropic; and finding it to be, as it were, their the same money wages, is, in the latter, not quite twice
as rich as in the former (for rent, clothing, &c., have turned his attention to the subject, and been for some only friend, they turn to its editors for a helping hand time in the habit of conversing on it with all who in their darksome struggle. Many affecting tales thus to be taken into consideration), but he is at all events really had any information to give. We are often, as reach us, of the force of which we, certainly, may well be much richer. This, however, is a measure which, the might more reasonably be expected, asked to point out sensible ; but how is a stranger to interfere in matters greater the wages are, and the higher the labourer the most eligible colonies, with a view to emigration. so delicate, and so full of responsibility? Principles rises in social condition, loses its accuracy. To be a Here also we have sometimes very minute specifications we may expound, and a general spirit of benevolence we perfect measure, indeed, it would presume food to be of circumstances, joined to a request that we should may seek to encourage and extend; but we, of course, the only commodity on which wages are spent : and to take all these into consideration, and advise accord- neither can nor ought to take it upon us to direct the make it approximate accuracy, it must presume only ingly. The request is certainly an honour, and we fate of individuals. Let one remark of experience a small portion expended on other things. Thus, to trust it can never be supposed that we do not sym- here attend the sympathy which we would express for the pavier, who is perhaps earning 15d. per day, the pathise heartily and earnestly in the anxieties of these this class of our correspondents. It is alone the ener- price of grain is of the utmost consequence in elevatparties, albeit we never saw, and probably never shall gies native to each man, and not any external aid or ing or depressing his wages. To the physician or see them. We are also sensible of there being a great advice, which can steadily or certainly enable him to barrister, who may be making several guineas a-day, and deplorable cause for such applications, in the become the master instead of the slave of circum. and who, perhaps, uses no more grain than the pavier, faithlessness of many of the books on the colonies. stances.
the price of food, as it directly affects him, is not an Unable to depend on what they find in print, the
object of a moment's consideration ; and so in the
The higher, intending emigrants eagerly seek for the testimony of POPULAR INFORMATION ON POLITICAL grades between these two extremes. some tangible person ; and to us they come, as almost
indeed, the wages are, and the greater therefore the the only individuals with whom they think they can
quantity of artificial wants, the less accurately does have any confidential communication. It is generally
the quantity of food they will procure measure their with sad hearts that we receive and read these letters,
amount. for we are at once anxious to do friendly service, and On a former occasion, namely, in No. 377, we con- Another method which has been suggested for yet sensible that in such cases we cannot and ought sidered this important subject at some length, chiefly measuring the extent of wages, is by the amount of not to interfere. In some instances, even while we sympathise with the writer, the letter will irresistibly which the whole amount of wages must come. with reference to capital, as the general fund out of commodities of all kinds which they will procure for
the labourer. In using this test, however, for the
We raise a smile, from the very simplicity which it evinces.
purposes of ascertaining the respective position of the Amongst a bundle of epistles of this kind, we find one propose on the present occasion to turn our attention working classes at different periods, we must compare of pretty old date, which we should be glad if we could to the circumstances which rule the distribution of their comforts and luxuries with those possessed by present in full to our readers, without any risk of giving the fund, and regulate the proportional amount of other members of society. The same amount of these pain to the writer, towards
whom we feel nothing but wages. Wages is the word used for expressing the commodities at two different epochs of history, mark good will. It is from a middle-aged married man, return which a man obtains for his labour, whether that a well employed labourer of the present day pos
very different relative ranks. " It is often remarked, exercising the profession of a teacher in one of the it be employed in the production of a commodity in sesses more comforts and luxuries than ever fell to the southern counties of England. He commences, as almost all such correspondents do, with a panegyric demand in the market, or assume any other form in lot of one of our Saxon kings: yet, if it be the case upon our humble labours, and a hope that his address- which it will be remunerated—such as menial service that other classes of society have had their comforts ing us will not be deemed intrusive. He then pro- When a cooper makes a cask, and charges a certain and luxuries increased in a still greater ratio, it cannot ceeds, in about three long and closely filled pages, sum for it, the whole of that sum is not wages : part elevated. During the last half century, a wonderful
be said that the relative position of the labourer is give a history of his life, and an account of his existing circumstances, which he was somewhat dissatisfied of it is the repayment of what he has expended for diminution has taken place in the price of manufaewith. He wishes to change, either to some other wood and in the use of tools, with the usual profits ; tured goods—a diminution by which the labourer's school, or to some other kind of business. Having the remainder only is wages. The price, however, of position has been materially improved. Yet, unless it hitherto made little or nothing, “ I should,” says he, a basket made of osiers plucked on the wayside, with has been improved by this means to the same extent "give a decided preference to such occupation as would afford the safest and surest mode of realising a com
out expense to the maker, is wages. The chief dis- have been benefited, it cannot be said to have been petence.” After another long and closely filled page tinctions which have been taken on the subject of elevated-in other words, wages cannot be called respecting qualifications, he re-commences under a wages, are on the question of extent. Simple, how- higher. Fifty years ago it may have taken ten days' new date. He has in the mean time turned his thoughts ever, as may at first sight appear the distinction into wages to procure for the labourer's wife the printed to emigration. He then details a totally different set high and low wages, it is one the elements of which calico gown which may now be bad for one day's prospects of a settler in one of the colonies. He re- political economists have been completely bafiled in what they were fifty years ago, there is no doubt collects that he has always had a liking for gardening. the attempt to lay down, and it is pretty clear that that they would be virtually lowered. Thus difficult He “can handle a spade, and is not averse to manual any rules on the subject can only be of an approximat- is it to find any means by which the amount of wages labour.” He wishes to know what part of the globe ing character. Some have employed the simple ele- can be accurately measured : but there is no doubt would be most suitable. He looks ultimately to the ment of money, calling wages high when much is that all the methods proposed have their respective purchase of land. He would wish to fix himself where given, and low when little is given. However clearly uses, in providing us with the means of at least apwhere the climate is most salubrious, and not differing of wages both paid at the same time, or within an the soil is most valuable for agricultural purposes, and this criterion may distinguish the extent of two sets proaching the solution of that very important problem
—perhaps the most important in the science of political
economy_whether the labouring portion of the comhas been accustomed. These points being
settled, he immaterial period of each other, it will be difficult to munity is well or ill remunerated. would wish to secure the best advice as to all the make it a means of comparing the relative state of
In a commercial and manufacturing country, such minutiæ of procedure, whether to apply to any of the the working classes at two distinct periods ; for the as ours, where almost all the labour is sold, and there emigration companies, what articles to take with him, precious metals themselves, though not subject to the are very few who apply the produce of their exertions the most prudent precautions to be taken by one same sudden fluctuations as other commodities, may entirely to their own domestic uses, the means by possessing a small capital, and so forth. Might he become changed in value to a material extent, after which labour is set agoing is capital-a subject which not unite his former to his new profession in bis new the lapse of a long interval. Thus,“ The differences,” has been considered in another chapter. The extent country? He then enters into a long exposition of says Vír Senior, “ which have taken place in the to which this impulse is in existence, will materially what he thinks he could do in a literary capacity in a amount of money wages at different times, inform us affect the extent to which labour can be made use of. remote settlement. Finally, after six dense pages, he of scarcely any thing but the abundance or scarcity If we presume that it is unlimited--that is to say, that expresses his fear that he may not have made his case of the precious metals at those times.” Nor is mere wherever there is an opening for its application, it is yet plain enough for our forming a judgment upon it, money a proper criterion in comparing wages in one forthcoming, then the relative amount which the but entreats that nevertheless we shall speak to it as place with those in another at one point of time, for different kinds of labourers will receive in wages, will well as we can. To have been able to say ten decided there are many adventitious circumstances which will depend on two circumstances—the extent to which words in answer to this gentleman's inquiries, we make the same sum "go much farther,” as it is called, the species of labour they are able and willing to exeshould have required to visit him, and spend at least in one locality than another, even though both bé cute is in demand, and the number of individuals who a month in the study of his character and circum- within the same kingdom. Three shillings a-day in are prepared to supply that demand. When the stances, and, after all, it would have been the most Dublin will make a man as well off in every point of demand is great, and the number prepared to supply painful responsibility we could have incurred if we view as four shillings will mako him in London. it small, wages are high; and when these circumstances had taken it upon us to advise him in what part Another criterion attempted has been, the propor- are reversed, they are low. It is a common fallacy to of the world to bestow himself!
tion which the labourer receives of the produce of his overlook these regulating circumstances, and to conLetters from men who have entered learned pro- labour, as compared with the quantity that goes to sider the amount of wages as regulated by the price of fessions, and are not prospering in them, are not the capitalist. Perhaps, by taking the whole amount the necessaries of life-to say that wages will be high uncommon. While perhaps holding a high head in of the produce of labour in any one country, and find when food is dear, and that they will be low when some provincial or metropolitan situation, they pour ing what proportion of it is divided among the whole food is cheap. Wages can only be regulated by the into the ears of a pair of distant strangers the bitterest labouring population, an estimate might be made of price of the necessaries of life in one particular case, complaints of the ambition or misjudgment of parents, their position, or, in other words, of the amount of which is, fortunately, of very rare and limited occurwhich has condemned them to a position in which wages. This would be an unfair criterion, however, rence ; it is that where the labourer, instead of disthey are virtually idle, and have no hope of ever in individual instances, for the circumstances which posing of his labour as a trader, is merely kept in realising a subsistence. We hear of the law's delay in elevate or reduce the labourer's wages sometimes affect existence by his employer like a domestic animal
, for a different sense from that generally thought of the returns of the capitalist to a still greater extent. the sake of the work that may be obtained from him. These individuals seek our aid and counsel, with a view When wages are at å miserably low ebb, the manu- Matters can only be in this state when labourers are to changes which could not be breathed of in their facturer's profits are sometimes proportionally lower; so numerous in comparison with the demand for labour, own neighbourhood without injury to their present sometimes they are extinct altogether; and he keeps that, from their underbidding each other, the employer prospects, such as these are. The woes attending the up his trade
merely because he has embarked capital could hire them at less than what would support life, more ambitious walks of life are thus brought before in it, which, if he stopped, would be entirely, instead were it not that then they could not labour. In this our eyes in a way quite peculiar, and which conveys of only being partially, lost. In these circumstances, case, and this alone, the wages given will depend on the most painful impression of such courses in a the labourer, though he may receive the whole of the the price of necessaries, for of these the labourer must country like this, where all the beaten paths are overcrowded. Another class of applicants are youths just be very poorly paid. returns procured for the produce of his labour, may have a certain quantity, otherwise the employer loses
his labour. When provisions are lowered in price, about to enter the world, whose minds have been Of the economists who have adopted some one the employer can lower his wages, because the comstimulated by the cultivation now so common, but article as a measure of wages, those who have taken petition being for bare subsistence, he knows that if who feel trammelled and bound down by harsh, de grain have certainly been nearer the truth than those those who have hitherto worked for him decline to do grading, and unworthy circumstances, which they who have taken money. Wages, they say, are high so, others will be glad to take their place. In the know not how either to submit to or to overcome. when the labourer gets much food, or what will buy case, however, where wages, depending on the number Placed perhaps in obscure and remote situations, they much, and low when he gets little. It is obvious of individuals capable of meeting the demand, are have scarcely one congenial spirit near, to whom they that, if not the whole, by far the greater part of the beyond what is barely enough for subsistence, both can communicate their feelings, or from whom they wages of labour will be included under this measure- parties are in a state of competition ; and if the can seek advice. But this little sheet weekly comes If one hundred shillings in one year will pro- labourers be underbidding each other, the employers are overbidding. It were an idle use of words to tell combination among the individuals who practise it away from the castle of Kavanagh, though he left it an artificer, whose labour is in demand, that he must may assume either of two forms. They may limit not till he had won a pledge of faith from Aileen, and work for less, because bread is cheap. If wages, in their number, and thus compel the sum to be spent had in turn vowed to her enduring constancy.
To clear his brother from unjust charges which had deed, were thus measured by the means of subsistence, in such a manner that each of them shall obtain more there are circumstances necessary for the continuance wages, and that the amount of labour executed shall caused the English viceroy to outlaw the whole nano of the species, which would of themselves make marked be less than would have been the case had there been and clan, and to while away the interval till better distinctions in the rate of wages. They would have free competition ; or, secondly, if their numbers amount days might come, Carol O'Daly left his native district to be increased or decreased, according to the largeness to or exceed that which free competition would pro- to visit the court of the viceroy. It was at this time or smallness of a family ; whereas, in practice, the duce, they may insist on working only to a limited that the father of Aileen pressed her to give her hand
to a relative, whom he wished to make the supporter question whether a labourer is a bachelor in lodgings, extent, and thus obtaining more wages for their work or the parent of twelve children, is one which the than they would have procured in a free market. of his house and family. The maiden confessed, and employer has no occasion to ask.
In either case, the wrong done is this, that the pled in excuse, her affection for Carol O'Daly, and her As there are great varieties in the amount of wages labourer obtains money for work which he has not engagement with him. After a short interval, findfor different kinds of labour, so are there of the inten- done. In the one case, he is paid as if he had per- ing her inclinations not to be otherwise overcome, her sity of the labour given in return. The smaller the formed a more difficult kind of labour than he has father informed her that her lover was false, and pronumber who are capable of performing the sort of done ; in the other, he is paid for little labour as if he duced witnesses, who so far gained on the credulity of labour wanted, in comparison with the demand, the had given much. The question is--who are injured ? | Aileen, as to cause her hastily to assent to the union great er, as has been before remarked, is the amount of It is not the capitalist, for what he has to look to is proposed by her father. But all her lover's truth and wages given. Incidental circumstances apart, then, merely the profit of so much outlay; and if the public nobleness of nature rushed afterwards upon her recolthe reason why the number is smaller will be because have a certain sum to give liim for what he produces, lection, and she became miserable at the thought of the labour is more difficult. Adventitious circum- it is of no consequence to him whether it be given for what she had done. As the time fixed for the nupstanc es, the most material of which is education, will much or for little of the commedity. By bringing the tials approached, that misery increased to excess. On have, in many cases, the effect of giving the few their capitalists of other nations to compete with him, to be the day, however, which preceded the fatal one, an superiority over the many; but in more instances than sure it may affect him ; but this is a separate question, event occurred which admitted a ray of hope into her are generally imagined, native energy and intenseness in which, as shown in another paper, the workman is mind. An old attendant, who had been the confidant of exertion accomplish the distinction. The unskilled more concerned than his master. The person, then, of her former engagement, brought her a letter from labourer, working on small wages, looks frequently to on whom the overcharge of the labourer falls, is the Carol O'Daly. He had heard of her intended nupthe wealth of the busy member of a higher profession, consumer ; and it is of importance that we should tials, and of the calumnies invented against him; and as one incidentally favoured through unequal fortune, know on which class of consumers it falls most heavily. he besought her to grant him an interview, and allow without reflecting that the labour by which it is The answer is easily given-it is on the poorest class. him to clear himself in her eyes before it was too late. bought is fully as much greater than his own, as the The poor spend nearly their whole income on the The night preceding the nuptial morn was the earliest lot of the possessor is more felicitous. The qualities by produce of labour ; the rich only spend part of theirs ; | on which he could arrive, and even then it would be which great things are accomplished, are firm endu- and if they procured but half the quantity of commo- only by the utmost speed of his good horse that he rance, the exertion of much thought and calculation, dities they do, they would not be great losers, while could accomplish the journey. and the resignation of immediate gratifications for the poor are materially benefited or injured by a Hour after hour passed away on that night, and future advantages. These qualities are comparatively slight increase or decrease. Horses, dogs, works of Aileen, who had entreated to be left alone, sat in her rare, and it is because they are so that they generally art, and an array of servants-articles in which the chamber weeping, for Carol did not arrivé. ller old bring in the end great worldly advantages to those who wages of ordinary labour are but a partial ingredient attendant, who filled to her the place of a mother, and exercise them. The labourer, who sluggishly gives ---form the principal subjects of the rich man's expen- who was the only person beside her, in vain strove to forth his daily amount of physical strength to satisfy diture. As to his bread and linen, it would not cheer her sinking heart. The night was a dark and the cravings of nature, is apt to view the results with materially affect him if they cost double what they stormy one of winter, but in spite of its inelemency, envy, and but seldom reflects that the reason why he do; while an increase of five per cent. on these articles Aileen was ever and anon at the window looking out. himself does not attain them is, because he is either would be materially felt by the poor man.
Before the From this vain task, she turned always to her harp, a unable or unwilling to support the continuous and late improvements in the cotton manufacture, calicoes memorial of her lover, which was at the present mocalculated exertion and the sacrifice of ease by which were a coveted and admired dress among the higher ment unusually dear to her. Midnight came and they are purchased.
classes, because they cost six times their present price. went by. The heart of the maiden grew heavier and The amount of wages that can be procured by a If we could imagine combination existing to such an heavier, and her lamenting found voice in song. man in any particular line, constitutes almost the only extent as to restore them to their old cost, the rich
AILEEN'S SONG. means we possess of estimating the extent of the labour would resume them with the same pride as before ;
The night is dark, the wind is high, he incurs, because the greater the extent of the labour but how great would be the loss to the fainily of the
And tiercely drives the sleet: (in other words, the difficulty of performing the work poor man? Let it not be lost sight of, that every
It seems as all had vow'd that I
And Carol should not meet. required) the fewer are the persons who will be capable combination to raise wages, creates a distinct and
Yet well I know his dauntless heart, and willing to undertake it, and these fewer, before palpable loss, nearly the whole of which falls on the
And well I know his faith ; they consent to relinquish the comparative ease enjoyed working classes.
But one thing will his purpose thwartby the followers of less difficult pursuits, must be
And that one thing is Death. bribed by a higher rate of remuneration. Incidental
They said that he was false to me, circumstances, however, tend so far to disturb this
That he had bow'd to gold, measure, that in particular cases it is frequently not
And, where his heart could nevor be,
His hand had basely sold: to be trusted to. Ambition will prompt many a man THERE was preparation for a great festival in the
I did a while believe their guile, to undertake very intense labour for a small remune- halls of Kavanagh. On the morrow, the young heiress
But soon I felt and knew, ration--hence, where the labour is equal, the less of that ancient house, a princely one in the elder days
That Carol's love as heaven above, honourable the trade the better it is paid, unless it of Ireland's history, and still distinguished and wealthy,
As truth itself was true. be so far degrading that none but vicious characters will engage in it. We can often then pronounce one was to be wedded to a neighbouring chieftain and re
More wild and loud the storm has grown,
And darker is the night:
Unnindful of a maiden's moan, trade to be more laborious than another, independently lative, her equal in rank and fortune. Great was the
The moon with holds her light. of the wages in each ; if it so happened, for instance, joy of the father and kin of the maiden on this oconthat a skilful watch-maker received no more than a sion. But what were the feelings of the principal party
Oh! what if Carol lose the way,
Or perish in the fiood! hand-loom weaver, we should undoubtedly say either concerned ? On the evening preceding the day appointed
The thought forbids my heart to play, that the former was under, or the latter overpaid, for her nuptials, Aileen Kavanagh sat in her cham
And curdles all my blood! owing to the operation of some circumstance tending ber, weeping bitterly. She had given her consent to
Look out, ye pitying stars above, to disturb the course of the labour market. the ceremony which was to take place, but that con
Look out, thou gentlo inoon! happens that an incidental circumstance at the present sent had been wrung from her by ways and means of
Give light and guidance to my love,
And bring him to me soon. moment depresses the wages of the hand-loom weaver, which she was now suspicious. She had been told
Of all my earthly hopes and fears to an extent which has created a vast amount of
This night it bears the sum : misery: The circumstance in question is the intro- that the youth to whom she had long since given up
But wherefore blind myself with tears? duction of the power-loom. The effect of this has the whole treasure of her affections, was false to her,
Oh, surely he will come! doubtless been very great ; but in looking to the and had wedded another. Carol O'Daly, brother of The hours of night ran on, and still no signal of misery of that unfortunate class, too much perhaps Donogh More, the chief of one of the most ancient the lover's arrival was heard under the window of the has been attributed to the introduction of machinery. families of Connaught, had been the lover of Aileen. unhappy Aileen. Again and again did she send her Hand-loom weaving happens to be a very easy trade- He was one who had no equal among the youths of aged nurse to the private postern by which they experhaps the easiest in which any considerable number Connaught, as regarded either personal qualities or pected to receive Carol, and of which the attendant indolent and unenterprising are loath to abandon it. indeed, comparatively few even of the noble and of unen has in later times been employed and the mental accomplishments, to which latter possession, had taken care to secure the key. But the wished-for
visiter was not to be seen. Anxiety about her own During the rapid progress of the cotton manufacture, wealthy could lay any strong claim, in the days to
fate was now mingled, in the mind of Aileen, with there was a demand for this description of work, which our story refers. Carol O'Daly had never met
fears for the safety of her lorer on a night so dark and which raised the remuneration for it above its natural lis superior in feats of arms, yet his own tastes were
stormy. She prayed for the appearance of the moon, scale, when compared with other kinds of labour ; and peaceful, and he cultivated all the elegant arts of the
with a fervour only to be conceived in such a case as a class of men were thus brought into existence, who, time with such assiduity, that, had experience not
hers. At length, she was conscious of a light breaking accustomed to gain their bread by a small amount of exertion, were peculiarly unfitted to be turned adrift taught them to speak prudently when they men- slowly into her apartment. She started up, and rushed
to the casement, only to sink back in deeper distress to choose a new profession. Circumstances thus tended tioned the name of Carol, the rude chieftains of Conin the first instance to elevate this pursuit above, and nanght would have called his likings feminine and than ever, for it was the light of dawn.
But for the prayers and entreaties of her attendant, afterwards to depress it below, its natural level. Still his skill on the
harp, and no professional minstrel of the despairing Aileen would have left the castle, and smaller scale. On some occasions, during the progress When Aileen Kavanagh was just blooming into wothe country would have dared to compete with him. sought, in the tender mercies of the storm, that refuge
and relief which seemed denied to her from all other of the war, gun-lock makers have been known to be manhood, Carol was a friend of her father, and a visi
sources. The anxious and attached nurse, however, paid a guinea a-day. Such high remuneration prompted ter at his castle. It may be imagined how brightly poured out assurances that Carol would never desert many to follow the trade, who, on the return of peace, he shone in her eyes, when contrasted with the less her, but would yet find means to save her from the found that it sunk below the average of other handi- polished chieftains around. She was herself passion fate she dreaded; and the heart of the maiden derived craft occupations.
ately fond of music, and he taught her so to touch the some little encouragement from these assertions. The The proper price of labour may be disturbed by a harp, that she became, to use his own words, “ the day was spent by Aileen in mingled agonies of fear monopoly, whether occasioned by the operation of only’rival of whom he was afraid.” The pair loved anu hope. She kept her chamber under plea of prelaw, or by voluntary combination. In the former each other, and at this moment every thing smiled paration for the ceremony, but all the preparation case, the responsibility generally lies, not with the individual labourer, but with the legislator ; in the Donogh More O'Daly, and, though no actual contests The evening came, with a speed which seemed to her
on their love. But the Kavanaghs quarrelled with requisite was made, not by her, but by her attendants. latter, it is solely at the door of the labourer, who followed between them, an enduring coldness took unnaturally great ; and the castle was filled with the thus sacrifices others to the desire of obtaining money place of their past friendship. Carol was frowned kin of the Kavanaghs, prepared to hold joyous festival, without working for it. Presuming a certain sum of money to be the amount which the community is able and disposed to expend on some branch of labour, a
* Aileen a-Roon, " Aileen (or Ellen) the secret treasure of my
to grace with
her presence the reception of the visiters, heart."
to whom, notwithstanding the languor of her move
A LEGEND OF IRELAND.
INTERESTING ANECDOTE OF EMANCIPATED NEGROES.
Far on the mountain side,
Aileen a-Roon :
Aileen a-Roon !
ments, she seemed the fairest of human beings. while musing, sadly upon Aileen and journeying to child),” he says, in his Dream for the king's birthHappily, the youth to whom she was immediately to her rescue, is known in Ireland by the name of Aileen day. Again, in his Earnest Cry and Prayer respectbe wedded was not of ungentle nature, and seconded a-Roon ; and the words which he sung are also extant, ing the troubles of the distillers, he says, “ Tell yon her wish, which she was at length compelled to ex- though we shall not say that those given here contain gude blude o' auld Boconnock's, meaning Mr Pitt, press, for leave to compose herself by a short retire- any thing more than a partial glimpse of some of the whose illustrious sire was second son to Robert Pitt ment. She had passed to a corner of the hall for this ideas expressed in the original. The incidents now of Boconnock, in the county of Cornwall. In another purpose, when, rising gently amid the other music, the related are familiar to this hour to the common people place the poet says, quite seriously, “ A garter gie to sounds of a single harp arrested her ear. The air it in Ireland, and the expression “ Cead mille failte," Willie Pitt.” The three last verses of the ballad on played was new to her, but of surpassing sweetness, first used by Carol O'Daly, has become a byword the American war form the most decisive proof of and thrilled her very heart. She looked to the spot among them. Scotland has sometimes put in a claim the poet's predilection for the “ heaven-born miniswhere the harper sat, and saw a figure, with snowy for Carol O’Daly's beautiful composition, which also ter.” They are a stormy burst of triumph on his hair, and bent seemingly with the load of many years. bears the name of Robin Adair, but there can be no overcoming the Coalition.
“ The Saxon lads, wi' loud placads, She drew nigh, as if attracted involuntarily, to the doubt entertained that its origin is Irish. Handel is
On Chatham's boy did ca', man; secluded place which the harper occupied, and heard said to have declared that he would rather be the
And Scotland drew her pipe, and blew, him pour forth the following words, in unison with his author of Aileen a-Roon than of all the great works
• Up, Willie, waur them a', man,' music, and in tones so low that the crowd heeded them he had executed.
At the same time, it must be kept in view that the not. But the ears of Aileen caught the sounds as
regard which the poet entertained for the minister fully as if they had been uttered by a thousand voices.
was but in small ineasure extended to the existing THE HARPER'S SONG,
occupant of the throne. Here is thy home to be,
At the general election of 1790, the contest between A FRIEND, residing in Scotland, has communicated Sir James Johnstone of Westerhalland Captain Miller, Or wilt thou go with me,
to us the following most interesting anecdote, of the for the Dumfries burghs, was celebrated by Burns in Aileen a-Roon?
truth of which our readers may rest fully assured :- three ballads, in which he evidently leans to the former Wilt thou become my bride?
“ Alexander Finlay, a native of Edinburgh, was, at candidate, who was the tory. In one of these, he Or wilt thou here abide,
an early period of life, sent out to Jamaica, and took makes a bitter allusion to the conduct of the whig
his post as a book-keeper on a plantation, where he party on the regency question. After this period, Think of the happy hours,
rose to be an overseer, and is now an attorney, having Burns began to be affected by the principles which Aileen a-Roon,
the charge of several estates. If I may judge from led to the French Revolution, when, of course, as Sir Wait us among the flowers,
the good feeling and good sense which appear in his Walter Scott has remarked, the government of the None whom you here may see,
conversation, he must have been a favourite with the day sunk in his estimation. Ever can love like me,
negroes, and acquired a thorough knowledge of their None else would die for thee,
character and habits. Aileen a-Roon!
BENNETT'S WHALING VOYAGE ROUND THE
charge (I believe, though I am not quite sure, the
very estate on which he had been educated),' was, The ship Tuscan, of 300 tons burden, T. R. Stavers Aileen a-Roon?
during the last twenty years of slavery, sixty-seven commander, sailed from London in October 1833, on Here then amid my foes,
hogsheads of sugar, and the expense of management a whaling voyage to the Pacific Ocean, having on Come I my life to close
some hundreds of pounds per annum. As soon as Welcome the grave's repose,
board Mr F. D. Bennett, whose object was to invesAileen a-Roon !
the term of apprenticeship commenced, he, then the Blow never fell on me,
attorney for owners at home on whose confidence he tigate the anatomy and habits of southern whales, Aileen a-Roon,
could rely, paid off all the European officers, and gave and the mode of conducting the Sperm Whale Fishery But was repaid with three,
the charge of the negroes and the labour to negroes (a subject then untouched by the literature of any Aileen a-Roon:
whom he thought qualified for the duty, not by their country), and to make as many observations on the Yet on thy kin my arm
education, for they could neither read nor writo,* but state of the Polynesian, or other lands he might visit, Ne'er shall alight in harmFatal but strong thy charm,
by their character and habits. The produce rose to Aileen a-Roon!
ninety-seven hogsheads, and is now one hundred and and to collect as many facts and examples in natural Oh think how fond our love,
fice, and the expenses of management do not exceed history, as opportunities might offer. The ship had a
L.50 per annum, chiefly gratuities to the black men, prosperous voyage round Cape Horn and into the All other loves above,
who do the duty of book-keepers and overseers. Aileen a-Roon!
Pacific Ocean, where she made an extensive excursion Ne'er did the tribes of air
This is the account given to me by Mr Finlay. He by the Society and Sandwich Isles, to a point near Vumber a truer pair
is a plain man, without any affectation. I have conOh must I now despair,
fidence in all he says ; and it is confirmed by the Nootka Sound ; thence southward to the Society I sles Aileen a-Roon!
overflowing gratitude of his owners, ladies, who are again, and from that point straight westward to the The agitated maiden knew that Carol was before surprised to find themselves so rich.
Indian archipelago, and so homewards, returning to her, and hope and terror contended so strongly in The greatest of his difficulties, when he set about Britain in November 1836, without having lost one her breas that she would have fallen to the ground, the work, was the violence of opinion against him man by disease or accident. Of this voyage we are had not her nurse, who, having introduced the harper, amongst the white public.”
now presented by Mr Bennett with a very agreeable had been watching the scene, passed quickly to her
THE POLITICAL PREPOSSESSIONS OF ROBERT BURNS.
narrative,* to which are added distinct sections on side and supported her. Aileen took advantage of
the southern whales and whale fishery, and on the the permission to retire formerly given her by her The general impression respecting the political feelfather , and mored with her attendant from the apart ings of Burns, is that they were of the liberal stamp. general natural history of the countries
visited. It is ment, only. whispering tremulously, in passing her They certainly were so, and to an ultra extent, in his scarcely necessary to remark, that, in the present lover, “ Thine_thine only! By this time, however, latter days; but this is far from being true of the state of the North Sea whale fishery, a satisfactory her stay had been noticed, and some of the visiters earlier period of his life. In the year 1825, two
account of the southern whales, and of the best modes were attracted towards the strange harper. Carol gentlemen having had a dispute and a bet on this
of taking them, is of great importance in a commercial broke out into a verse which seemed as a common subject, one of them wrote to Sir Walter Scott, to point of view, to say nothing of its completing a deharper's welcome to a bride, but which bore a diffe- request that he would, if possible, decide the question
partment of natural history over which, till now, much rent meaning to the ears of the retiring maiden her- for them, when the author of Waverley replied in
obscurity has rested. self :the following terms :-“ There is not the smallest
The cachalot, or sperm whale, peculiar to the Cead mille failte, question that Burns, when he first came to Edinburgh,
southern seas, is about sixty feet long, and is chiefly Aileen a-Roon, Cead mille failte,
was a keen Pittite, and a Jacobite to boot. The latter distinguished in external figure from the Greenland feeling, he somewhere says, was a matter of sentiment
whale by the great bulk of its head, upon the fore When the harper had thus sung a “hundred thou- rather than reason, but he was quite serious in his part of which, external to the skull, is a huge mass of sand welcomes to Aileen, the treasure of his heart,” he was approbation of Pitts administration. The whole fat, sometimes producing several tons of oil. The silent, and the attention of the company was soon ballad beginning
animal is gregarious, and usually occurs in small pardiverted from him. Seeing this, he rose slowly, and,
• When Guildford good our pilot stood,'
ties, which the sailors call schools, or pods ; but some
times a number, “exceeding all reasonable concepwith the step of apparent age, left the hall. In a few is an eulogy on the prime minister, and a very warm instants, knowing the castle well, he had made his one, and he is mentioned as a subject of panegyric in " a succession of spouts.” “ A large party of cachalots,
tion,” is assembled, and the sea for miles around appears way to the apartments of Aileen, and had folded her his
Ode to the King on the Birth day. After Burns gambolling on the surface of the ocean, is one of the in his arms. “ Aileen, beloved !” he cried ; “ I am
went to Dumfriesshire, and the French Revolution most curious and imposing spectacles a whaling voyage come !" “ Oh save me--save me !" was her
reply: “I broke out, he adopted other views in politics of a more affords; the huge size and uncouth agility of the monwill; I can !" he returned. “ Horses wait us but a popular nature, and of course the minister sunk in
sters exhibiting a strange combination of the grand short way hence ; and there, too, is Donogh More, his estimation ; but down to that period he was an
and ridiculous. On such occasions it is not unusual to and my brave brothers, with many a good arm besides, admirer of Mr Pitt. (Signed) WALTER SCOTT.
observe a whale of the largest size leap from the water to guard and rescue thee! They would have stormed Edinburgh, 21st February, 1825.”+
with the activity of a salmon, display the entire of its the castle, Aileen, before the betrothed of Carol O'Daly should have been lost; but I would not shed Lockhart, and printed in his Life by that gentleman, in the air, and again plunge into thc sea with a help
Sir Walter, also, in a note communicated to Mr gigantic frame, suspended at the height of several feet blood akin to thine! Come, thou shalt be saved with alludes to some passing stupid verses in the papers, less and tremendous fall, which causes the surroundout blood! Come, my beloved !" In those rude feudal days, when matches were sel certain preacher, whom lie termed an unco calf. In capped with foam ; whilst others of the school leap,
attacking and defending his (Burns's] satire on á ing waters to shoot up in broad and lofty columns dom made upon the fair principle of mutual liking, one of them,” adds Sir Walter,“ occurred these lines or breach,' in a less degree ; sportively brandish an escape such as that proposed to Aileen by her in vituperation of the adversarylover was not so apt to shock the better feelings of a
their broad and fan-shaped flukes in the air, or pre
A whig, I guess. But Rab's a tory, well-disposed maiden as it might now be. Aileen
trude their heads perpendicularly above the waves
And gies us mony a funny story.' filed with Carol O'Daly, and fled safely. The Kava- This was in 1787.”
like columns of black rock." naghs soon discovered their loss, and, suspecting the
The general process of attacking the sperm whale These dicta of Sir Walter Scott appear quite true. truth, pursued the fugitives, but in vain. A deadly The Jacobite feeling was certainly the predominant which has been already described in this work, that
so much resembles that of attacking the Greenland, feud was like to have followed, but Donogh More O’Daly, who was restored to peace with the ruling but such other political bias as he acknowledged at
one in the poet's earlier years, and down to about 1790 ; we shall not present any summary of it. But there powers chiefly through the impression made by his that time, appears to have been in favour of the ture, arising from the particular character of the ani.
are some features of the adventure, of a peculiar nafugitives, in such a way as to show the father of Aileen ministry of Mr Pitt: He seems to have been pre- mal, which
may be adverted to. While the nature of the prudence of coming to terms. A jovous event possessed in favour of this statesman from the first, the Greenland whale is of a pacific and gentle characthis was to the bride of Carol O'Daly, and not unim
in consequence of his admiration of the gigantic genius ter, the cachalot has a considerable inclination to
of Chatham. portant to the welfare long afterwards of their chil
“ Will's a true gude fellow's gett offensive warfare. If allowed time to rally after being dren and children's children.
first harpooned, he often becomes a wary and mis* They kept accounts by tallies, or, as we used to call them,
chievous adversary. An old female and a half-grown The air which Carol O'Daly played in the castle of
male are considered the most troublesome to encoun
+ The original of this letter is in the possession of Henry Darley, Kavanagh, and which had sprung up in his mind | Esq. of Stillorgan, in the county of Driblin.
* Two vols. 8vo. London : Richard Bentley. 1840.
ter, from their active and combative temper. Mr | boat in a threatening attitude, but ultimately rolling cution of the sperm fishery, have satisfactorily solved Bennett considers these dangers as sufficient to coun- to one side, and closing its mouth harmlessly ; nor is this problem, and determined that ambergris is a morterbalance the advantage of the agreeable climate in it rare to observe this whale, when pursued and at. bid concretion in the intestines of the cachalot, derivwhich the southern whale fishery is pursued. He tacked, retain its mouth in an expanded state for some ing its origin either from the stomach or biliary ducts, says—“ Some of these whales, when attacked, will minutes together. Such threatening demonstrations and allied in its nature to gall-stones, or to the bezoars retreat but little from the spot on which they are har- of the jaw, as well as some others with the flukes, of herbivorous animals ; while the masses found Hoatpooned; but rather lie, and fight with their
jaws and occasionally compel a boat's crew to leap into the ing on the sea, are those that have þeen voided by the tail until life is extinct. Others, without being them- water, and support themselves by swimming or cling- whale, or liberated from the dead animal by the process selves injured, will aid an attacked companion, and ing to oars until the danger is past.
of putrefaction. from the circumstance of their actions being less A highly tragical instance of the power and ferocity It is not common for the whaler to find ambergris in watched, often succeed in doing serious injury to the occasionally displayed by the sperm whale, is recorded the cachalots he destroys; nor does he, indeed, make boats, whilst some few individuals make wilful, deli- in the fate of the American South-Seaman Essex, a very rigid scrutiny of the intestines in search of it, berate, and even judicious, attempts to crush a boat Captain G. Pollard. This vessel, when cruising in the unless a suspicion of its presence be excited by some with their jaws, and, unless avoided or killed, will Pacific Ocean, in the year 1820, was wrecked by marked peculiarity in the whale. Some years ago the repeat their efforts until they succeed in their object. a whale under the following extraordinary circum- whale-ship Vary, of London, discovered a dead cachalot
An “under clip,' or blow received from a whale's stances. The boats had been lowered in pursuit of a floating on the ocean, and as there were no injuries on flukes near the surface of the water, may shatter and school of whales, and the ship was attending them to its body to account for death, that event was attrioverturn a boat, or injure the crew by the force of windward. The master and second-mate were en- buted to disease ; consequently, the whale was strictly the concussion alone ; but human life is chiefly engaged with whales they had harpooned, in the midst searched for ambergris, and the captors were gratified dangered when the tail of the animal is swept rapidly of the school, and the chief mate had returned on board by finding a very large quantity of that valuable drug through the air, and either descends upon the boat, to equip a spare boat, in lieu of his own, which had impacted in its bowels. cutting it down to the water's edge, or encounters in been broken and rendered unserviceable. While the Concretions of ambergris are either black, grey, its trajet some of the crew standing up, as the heads- crew were thus occupied, the look-out at the mast- yellow, or ash-colour mottled with yellow and black. man or harpooner, who are destroyed and carried head reported that a large whale was coming rapidly They occur of various sizes, and their
maximum weight away by the blow; and this last is the most common, down upon the ship, and the mate hastened his task, would appear to be thirty or forty pounds ; but it is as well as the most sudden and awful calamity recorded in the hope that he might be ready in time to attack it. recorded that a mass of prodigious size, weighing 182 in the fishery.
The cachalot, which was of the largest size, conse- pounds, was carried to Ireland in the year 1694. An It was by a melancholy accident of this kind that quently a malé, and probably the guardian of the entire concretion, which had been recently taken from an experienced and enterprising whaler, the father of school, in the meanwhile approached the ship so a cachalot destroyed by the South-Seaman Hoftly, and our commander, lost his life when in command of the closely, that although the helm was put up to avoid which was shown to me by her coinmander, when we ship Perseverance, and outward bound on a voyage to the contact, he struck her a severe blow, which broke spoke that vessel in 1835, did not exceed four ounces the Pacific Ocean. He was engaged in destroying a off a portion of her keel. The enraged animal was in weight. It was in the state as removed from the cachalot on the Brazil Bank, when a rapid and in- then observed to retire to some distance, and again whale; of an oval form, and pointed at each extreevitable blow from the flukes of the animal struck rush upon the ship with extreme velocity. His enor- mity; of a dull-black colour; smooth on the surface ; him out of the boat ; his body floated on the water, mous head struck the starboard bow, beating in a resembled soap in texture and consistence ; and was and was immediately rescued and conveyed to the corresponding portion of the planks, and the people on similarly unctuous to the touch. Its odour was slight ship; but although no external marks of injury were board had barely time to take to their boat, before the and peculiar, but not decidedly fragrant, unless heat any where visible, all attempts to restore animation ship filled with water, and fell over on her side. She was applied. were of no avail, for life was totally extinct. One of did not sink, however, for some hours ; and the crew The only use made of ambergris in this country is the crew, pulling an oar in the same boat, was also in the boats continued near the wreck until they had as a perfume, and for this purpose it is chiefly prekilled by the same blow. The whale, after thus deal- obtained a small supply of provisions, when they pared in the form of an alcoholic solution, or essence. ing destruction amongst its pursuers, effected an shaped a course for land ; but here, it is to be re- It possesses a peculiar property of increasing the escape; but there is reason to suppose, from the clue gretted, they made a fatal error. At the time the power of other perfumes to which it may be added, of marked harpoons left in its body, that it was sub- accident happened, they were cruising on the equator, and when combined with musk, has a remarkable effect sequently destroyed by an American whale-ship. in the longitude of about 118 degrees west, with the in softening the odour of that drug, and rendering it
Captain T. Stavers, of the Tuscan, when cruising in Marquesan and Society Islands on their lee, and might more agreeable. The retail price it bears in London the North Pacific, during the season of 1831, had the have sailed in their boats to either of these groups in is about one guinea the ounce-a value which invites misfortune to lose his chief mate, Mr Young, under a comparatively short time. Under an erroneous im- to its frequent adulteration. The best tests of its circumstances very similar to the preceding. On the pression, however, that all those lands were inhabited purity are the oily appearance it assumes, and the morning of the 30th of August, a small party, or “pod,' | by an inhospitable race of people, they preferred pull- odour it emits, upon the application of heat'; and its of sperm whales was noticed from the ship, and the ing to windward for the coast of Peru, and in the perfect solubility in hot alcohol. commander and second-mate lowered their boats in attempt were exposed for a lengthened period to ex- Some medical virtues have been attributed to this pursuit, leaving Mr Young on board in charge of the treme privations.
odoriferous substance, but they are all doubtful and vessel. While engaged in destroying a large whale, The few of the crew who survived their complicated unimportant. It is said to be tonic, aphrodisiac, and the boat of the second-mate was so severely shattered disasters first made the land at Elizabeth, or Hender- antispasmodic; it is certainly an aperient.” that the consort boat was compelled to receive both son's Island, a small and uninhabited spot in the the wrecked crew and the harpoon-line. The chief South Pacific, and which until then had never been BIOGRAPHIC SKETCHES. mate, on observing this dilemma, lowcred his boat and visited by Europeans. After a short continuance here, came to their assistance. The harpooned whale was part of the survivors again put to sea in search of then spouting blood and much exhausted, while a loose inhabited land, and ultimately reached the coast of The amusing work entitled “Physic and Physicians," cachalot, of equal size, remained in its vicinity, strik- South America ; when an English South-Seaman recently published, contains an autobiographical meing at the boats with his flukes, with the evident in- sailed from Valparaiso, and rescued those of the suf- moir of Dr Denman, extracted from his “ Introduction tention of assisting his wounded comrade. The boats ferers who had been left to support a precarious to the Practice of Midwifery,” and which gives an were close together, and Captain Stavers had but just existence on Elizabeth Island. By a strango fatality, interesting account of the difficulties he had to meet remarked to his mate, that as the whale was nearly Captain Pollard, who was amongst the number of dead, he would leave him to complete its destruction, survivors, had the misfortune to lose the ship he next and overcome before attaining the eminence in his whilst he harpooned the loose cachalot, when the tail commanded, by running her upon a coral reef (then profession to which his talents and high accomplishof the latter passed, with the rapidity of lightning, but little known) in the North Pacific. He returned ments entitled him. As this memoir seeins worthy of over and in front of his boat, and simultaneously, Mr to the United States, dispirited by his ill fortune, and, being extensively read, we present it to our readers
Young, though a large and strong man, was seen Hying engaging in agricultural pursuits, ceased to tempt any in the abridged form in which we find it in the new through the air at a considerable height, and to the further the perils of the deep. distance of nearly forty yards from the boat, ere he A few cachalots have been noted individually as
work above mentioned. It must be premised that fell into the water, where he remained floating motion animals dangerous to attack. One was thus distin- Denman was born and educated in the country, and less on the surface for a few moments, then sank, and guished on the cruising ground off the coast of New came to London in 1754, for further information and was seen no more. There can be no doubt that his Zealand, and was long known to whalers by the name improvement. «« The money,' he says, with which death was instantaneous. A native of the Society of New Zealand Tom. He is said to have been of I was supplied for this purpose, amounted to L.75; Islands plunged into the water immediately the acci- great size ; conspicuously distinguished by a white dent occurred, and endeavoured to save the body of hump; and famous for the havoc he had made amongst L.50 bequeathed by my grandfather, and L.25 as my his unfortunate officer, but it had sunk before he could the boats and gear of ships attempting his destruction. share of what my father was supposed to be worth at swim to the spot where it fell. No injury was sus- A second example, of similar celebrity, was known to the time of his death. tained by any other person in the boat, nor was the whalers in the Straits of Timor. He had so often boat itself injured, beyond a portion of the bow being succeeded in repelling the attacks of his foes as to be details of my own life, I may be permitted to speak of
As I am now,' he continues, ' entering upon the broken off, and the thigh-board, which was torn from considered invincible, but was at length dispatched by its place and accompanied the body of the unfortunate a whaler, who, forewarned of his combative temper, myself. I had been educated at the free-school at mate, so powerful was the impulse it had received. adopted the expedient of floating a cask on the sea, to Bakewell
, in such sort of knowledge as my old master As is customary in cases of serious accident, the line withdraw his attention from the boats; but notwith- Mr Hudson was capable of teaching. I understood was cut from the whale, that the boats might be at standing this ruse, the animal was not destroyed withliberty to render every assistance ; but when it was out much hard fighting, nor until the bow of one of Latin language, and I wrote a good hand.
a little Greek, I was tolerably well informed in the found that no human aid could avail in this instance, the boats had been nipped off by his jaws.". the boats renewed their attack on the harpooned whale, The oil of the sperin whale is the purest of all the
I had not been instructed in any of those accomwhich was soon after killed and taken to the ship, animal oils employed in commerce. In its original plishments which serve to show inferior capacities to whilst the mischievous cachalot made off, after he had state, it contains a variable proportion of spermaceti advantage, nor had I seen much company, having been pierced with many lance-wounds. The chief and other gross matters. Of spermaceti we may only mate of the British South-Seaman Lyra, when in the remark that, though formerly held as the most certain
never been from home a week at any time of my life. cruising ground off Japan in 1832, was also swept from cure for an inward bruise, its chief use in modern
It might be truly said that I was ' home-bred; but his boat and destroyed by a blow from a whale ; and times is as a substitute for wax in the manufacture of I had an excellent constitution, having been accussimilar casualties are too numerous and uniform in candles. The most rare and costly product of the tomed to live on the most homely diet, and I had their results to permit a more particular notice. sperm whale is ambergris, which is not found in any hardly ever been out of bed at ten o'clock at night.
Some sperm whales appear reluctant to employ their other of the whale family. Mr Bennett gives us the tail when attacked, but prove active and dangerous following account of this substance : « For many years Though my education was very incomplete, I had a
In short, I was a meagre, hungry, sharp-set lad. with their jaws. Such individuals often rather seek after the civilised world became acquainted with this than avoid the attacking boats, and, rushing upon drug, its origin and composition remained involved in very competent knowledge of pharmacy, and knew as them with open mouth, employ every possible art to great obscurity. It was usually found floating on the much of disease as the frequent reading of Dr Sydencrush them with their teeth, and, if successful, will seas of warm climates, and was generally considered ham’s works and a few other books could give me. I sometimes continue in the neighbourhood, biting the to be of a resinous or bituminoas nature : and when had a common understanding, and some ambition to wreck and oars into small fragments. When thus subsequently detected in the intestines of the cachalot, threatening a boat, the whale usually turns and swims a doubt was still entertained of its true character, and succeed in the world, though I was ignorant of the upon its back, and will sometimes act in a very slug- whether it had not been swallowed by the animal, means of procuring success; but I had been trained gish and unaccountable manner, keeping its formid- rather than produced within its body. Of late years, in habits of industry, frugality, and civility or respect able lower jaw suspended for some moments over the chemical investigations, and a more extended prose- ! to those with whom I had been connected.