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When I arrived in town, I was recommended to Mr a-year by my business. I was in the thirty-seventh a circumstance particularly gratifying to him, as, from Hunt, a hairdresser in Dean Street, with whom my year of my age, and I determined to marry;

and be the impression of his early life, he always felt strongly brother had lodged and boarded. I paid him ten coming acquainted with the family of Mr Brodie, a attached to that noble family.

respectable army linen-draper, I chose Elizabeth, his Dr Denman now finding the duties of his profession shillings and sixpence a-week, and a bad bargain he youngest daughter, then in the twenty-fourth year of too laborious for him, he gradually introduced his sonhad. The money I brought with me to London was her age. I received no money as a dowry, but two in-law, Mr Croft, who had chosen the same branch of intended for the purpose of enabling me to attend St leasehold houses in Vine Street, Piccadilly, which the profession, and who attended to the more arduous

duties of the practice, until the doctor finally retired George's Hospital, and two courses of anatomical produced L.80 a-year, clear of all deductions. lectures ; but in six months it was wholly expended. to my disposition and circumstances ; her manners

It was impossible to have chosen a wife more suitable from the field. Dr Denman died in the year 1815.” I knew little of economy, for having never been acwere amiable, her disposition gentle, her understanding

CONTRABAND MUSEUM IN PARIS. customed to the management or disposal of money, I naturally good, and improved by reading and the con

I HAD caught a bad cold, and just as I lifted up my head acted as a child in this respect, contriving how to versation of reasonable people, and she had that regard to sneeze, I saw through one of the windows of the mayor's spend it as soon as it was received. This was rather for truth and propriety, that I was firmly persuaded ofice, in the twelfth arrondissement, the body of a negro a misfortune than a fault; but it is amazing to me, from them. She was frugal without meanness, temno human consideration could induce her to depart hanging by the neck. At the first glance, and even at

the second, I took it for a human being whom disapwhen I recollect how many years I lived in the world perate, and cheerful; and it was impossible for any pointed love, or perhaps an expeditious justice, had diswithout changing this disposition, and how many two people to have lived together with more perfect posed of so suddenly; but I soon ascertained that the inconveniences it caused me in the course of my life. harmony than we did for nine years.

ebony gentleman in question was only a kind of doll as My money being gone, there was a necessity of seeking the very year we were married, we saved L.200, and I asked the doorkeeper the meaning of it,

My assiduity increased with my family, so that in large as life. What to think of this I did not know ; so some employment for immediate support. Many were have continued to do so every year since. About two

“ This is the contraband museum,” was the answer; thought of, but none seemed so agreeable to myself or

years after our marriage, I thought it necessary to and, on my showing a curiosity to examine it, he was friends as going to sea in the king's service. I applied take a larger house, partly for appearance and partly kind enough to act as my cicerone.

In a huge dusty room are scattered over the floor, on to the Navy Board for an order to be examined at Sur- for convenience, that in which we lived being too the walls, and along the ceiling, all the inventions of geons' Hall; and, very much to my own astonishment, Queen Street, Golden Square, which I thought would roguery which have been confiscated from time to time

small. In the year 1772, I therefore removed into I passed as surgeon to a ship of sixth rate, April 3, be a good situation for lectures and for business, and is a complete arsenal of the weapons of smuggling: all

by those guardians of the law, the revenue officers. It 1753. The ship to which I was appointed lay at I soon after purchased the lease of this house for unfortunately in complete confusion. Look before you ; Blackstairs, but I had no money to prepare for the L.1200. Three hundred pounds of this money I had there is a hogshead dressed up as a nurse, with a child voyage, or to bear my expenses to the ship. I pawned saved, and for the rest I paid interest about four that holds just two quarts and a half. On the other side my watch, and set off with about forty shillings in my years, when the whole purchase was completed. I are logs, hollow as the Trojan horse, and filled with whole pocket, to enter among strangers upon a way of life of had now a large house ; my business brought me in armies of cigars. On the floor lies a huge boa constricwhich I had no more idea than of the Mogul's court.' about L.400 a year, the lectures L.100, the houses in tor, gorged with China silks ; and just beyond it a pile After Dr Denman's return from sea, he was recom

Vine Street L.80, the yacht L.70, and I lived rent of coal, curiously perforated with spools of cotton. The

free. My business was chiefly among the lower class coloured gentleman who had excited my sympathy so mended by his friends to settle at Winchester: At of people, but I never lost sight of the possibility of much at first, met with his fate under the following cir this time he had saved up L.500. After residing at getting business among a higher rank and I had cumstances who was built of tin, painted black, and soon became impatient of waiting, and began to blame struggled through so many difficulties, that my mind board of a carriage, fastened by the feet and hands. toplo myself and others for having undertaken a matter of better qualified to conduct myself in the more intricate known by sight to the soldiers, who noticed that he was

had frequently passed through the gates, and was well fretted, made myself less likely to succeed by uneasi- parts of the business of life. My friends have for some always showing his teeth, which they supposed to be the ness and solicitude, and after teasing myself and my but I may assure the reader of this, whether it be my to was stopped by a crowd at the gate. There was, as

years given me credit for being remarkably steady ; custom of his country. One day the carriage he belonged friends for about four months, I determined to quit wife, or my daughters, or my son, that if I have steadi- usual

, a grand chorus of oaths and yells, the vocal part Winchester, having thrown away, since my arrival in England, nearly two hundred pounds.'

ness, it is all acquired, my natural disposition being being performed by the drivers and cartmen, and the

impetuous. I always thought steadiness worth every instrumental by their whips. The negro, however, never polis ; and after attending a course of anatomical lec- the business of my life to acquire it. Dr Denmanleft Winchester for the great metro other quality, either in man or woman, and it has been spoke a word. His good behaviour

delighted the sol

diers, who held him up as an example to the crowd. tures and dissections, on the recommendation of Drs About this time I took courage, and kept a chariot he behaves! Bravo, nigger, bravo !" He showed a per

“ Look at the black fellow," they cried; “ see how well Kelly and Kirkpatrick he obtained his degree of in the winter ;* but the advantages which might result fect indifference to their applause." My friend,” said a M.D. from the University of Aberdeen. Dr Denman received forty pounds in fees the first business, however, both increased and improved, slapping our sable friend on the shoulder,“ we are really

from it were rather expected than realised. My clerk at the barrier, jumping up on the footboard, and year ; but this sum, he says, 'though not adequate to though slowly; but in the year 1778 it amounted to very much obliged to you !" Oh, surprise! the shoulders pay my expenses, gave me some encouragement. He L.600, and the profits of the lectures to L.150 ; and rattled. The officer was bewildered: he sounded the footthen published an essay on puerperal fever, which then I built a new chariot. In the year 1777, I pur- man all over, and found he was a man of metal, and as gained him some credit and increased his practice. chased two pieces of land near Lynn, in Norfolk, for full as his skin would hold of the very best contraband He also published a letter to Dr Hirch, on the con

which I paid down L.350, and was to pay L.500 more. liquor. The juicy mortal was seized at once, and carried struction and use of vapour baths ; but this, the author This land was to bring me in four per cent. for my off in triumph. The first night the revenue people drank says, scarcely, produced so much as to pay the expense money, or L.34 a-year ; but I was unfortunate in my up one of his shoulders, and he was soon bled to death. of printing it. from the proceeds of his practice, applied to be ap- the banker, which put almost an instant stop to all might tell! 'Only ask that empty mattrass that lies there The doctor, finding it difficult to support himself after I had made it ; first, by the failure of Mr Fordyce system, and was reduced to a dry skeleton. bargain, the value of money increasing immediately It is now six years since he lost all the moisture in his

How many strange stories these inventions of roguery pointed surgeon to one of the king's yachts. He received the appointment, which was worth L.70 a-year war, which occasioned a real scarcity of money.

credit ; and, secondly, by the French and American by the stove. That mattrass came from Valenciennes. to him ; but in 1777 he was obliged to resign the

One morning, two citizens left the town, with swords in

With my new chariot I had a coachman in a hand- hand, and seconds by their side. The solemn mournful situation, as the yacht was ordered upon service, and some livery, and a servant behind, which were beyond gait of their companions indicated clearly the deadly chathe attendance would have been incompatible with his London business. But to continue the doctor's auto my wish and

inclination, but I thought them due to racter of the promenade, which took place before the

my present reputation, as well as to my future pro- eyes of the revenue officers. The angry principals were biography :-- The whole savings,' he says,.' of the spects; and I hoped that I had secured my family from so anxious to get to work, that they drew almost as soon pended, and I had with great difficulty kept myself of making any further addition to my fortune. We blades, and the clatter of the ducl

, would easily be noout of debt; the thoughts of which hurting my pride, observed the most strict frugality in all other respects: the noise ceased. A cry of distress was heard;

and if and giving me very mortifying reflections, i began to on the strength of the yacht, I had taken a small given up all hopes of having any more children, my the same immunity. A wide wound across the forehead, be very circumspect about my expenses. However

; of my son, which was an unexpected blessing, as I had both the contending parties had preserved their honour house in Oxendon Street, but I furnished only one daughters being at that time more than seven years and a scientific thrust into the region of the sternum, parlour, thinking to complete it gradually, as I was of age. I shall not fail to do all in my power to pro- which bled profusely, were easily seen. In a moment, a able ; and I hired a maid-servant, who cheated me vide for them, consistently with those rules of probity hand-barrow, with the aforesaid mattrass upon it, were very much. When I went into this house, excepting and integrity which I have always established as guides transformed into a litter, and the procession re-entered my furniture, I had but twenty-four shillings in the of my conduct, and from which, when they are capable the town by the same gate, amidst the sympathies of the world, but I was out of debt. My business increased of judging, they will be glad that I have never swerved. guards. every year, and in the third year after I had taken if the property I may leave behind me should not be

It happened that one of the soldiers had dabbled a my house, I had two hundred and fifty pounds, which, together with the profits for the yacht, prevented alí

80 much as they expect, or as I wish, they will see the little in inedicine, and been surgeon's mate in a regipresent inconvenience, and gave me better hopes for

reason in this narrative. Whatever it may be, it ought ment. He took pity on the wounded man, and followed to wear well

, because it has been honestly gained. him home, to offer him his services. This generous bethe future.

haviour won him all hearts in Valenciennes, except those About this time died Dr Cooper, a teacher of mid. They will see an example of the good which attends of the seconds, who were at a loss how to get rid of a wifery, of no great reputation. Mr Osborn, who had / industry and fair intentions, even when counteracted benefactor whose presence would be so fatal to the suc

by errors and indiscretion. attended St George's Hospital when I did, and who The continuation of this memoir must be left to of them took the soldier aside, and begged him to wait

cess of their daring fraud. At last, the most ingenious was pretty much in the same predicament with respect some future period, and it concludes for the present on to fortune as myself, agreed to give lectures with me.

a few moments in another room, till he got the sick man We purchased Dr Cooper's apparatus for L.120, and the 5th of August 1779.'

ready to receive his disinterested physician. The sur

Thus concludes the deeply interesting autobiography geon-soldier readily agreed to this; the friend availed great difficulty we had to raise the money between us.

of Dr Denman. It appears that, after having written himself of the interval, and whispered in the patient's We began to read lectures in the year 1770, awkwardly the above account of his early life, he found that his ear, as he lay on the mattrass, “We are lost!", enough, and with little encouragement, as I suppose business did not increase as rapidly as he anticipated,

Sabrebleu! and why?" asked the wounded man. most people do at first ; but it is probable that we

and he was compelled to take pupils, three of whom “ Speak lower! one of the custom-house guards wants improved, for in a short time the lectures flourished, attained considerable eminence in the profession, to dress your wounds.", and with them my business, and I believe my credit namely, Dr Parry, of Bath ; Mr Chesshen, of Hinck

* My wounds ? he shant do it--I want to keep them also,

as they are, and you go and tell him so." Dr Cooper had likewise been man-midwife to the ley; and Philip Martineau, Esq., of Norwich. Middlesex IIospital; I offered myself as a candidate him in considerable pecuniary difficulties. On the I am my own master, and besides, I have a reason for it.” In 1781, his house was burned down, which involved

- He wont believe it," was the answer.

“ But suppose I dont want to be cured? I presume to succeed him ; and after a very hard contest, some expense, and endless trouble, I was elected jointly with and was placed at the head of his profession. Upon

death of Dr Hunter, Denman rose rapidly in practice, * I know that, but the fool will insist on it." Dr Krohn. I was now surgeon to the William and Mary yacht, was called to attend the late Duchess of Devonshire -

“ He may go to the d-1; I'll jump out of the window removing his residence to Old Burlington Street, he first.” I was teacher of midwifery, I was man-midwife to the

“ Why, you wretch, we shall be ruined." Middlesex Hospital, I had published two pamphlets,

“ What of it? I wish I had really been badly rounded, which had at least acquired me a character for indus- practice of London physicians. No man who walks on foot is *[The keeping of a carriage is indispensable to success in the I give you my word for it."

* Alas! I'm afraid it's the only way to get out of this ory and common abilities, and I got upwards of L.300 supposed to possess any ability.-Ed.]

scrape."

“ Much obliged to you."

tints of the vast arcana of vegetable nature, each owes and British troops at the outposts. The value of such a “ If you only would"

its peculiar quality to these simple substances. So generous intercourse old soldiers well understand, and Well, what?"

wonderful, indeed, is the laboratory of nature, that some illustrations of it at this period may be quoted. “ It's time enough yet, perhaps".

even from the same trunk, and from a mass of sap, On the 9th of December, the 43d were assembled in Well "

apparently homogeneous in its character, substances of column on an open space, within twenty yards of the “ The wife of Brutug, on a like occasion, inflicted a desperate wound on herself."

a very opposite nature are produced. “An oil, bland enemy's out-sentry; yet the latter continued to walk his ***What have I got to do with that?"

as that of the olive, is eliminated from the poppy. In beat for an hour without concert, relying so confidently

some parts of the globe it is extensively employed for the ground to ease his shoulders. When at last the order “ Don't you understand, my dear friend?" " Ah, horrible! I shudder at the thought. You are so

dietetie purposes. From the same plant is extracted to advance was given, one of the British soldiers, stepping fond of me, that you are very willing to shed my blood”

the milky juice, from whose substance is produced the out, told him to go away, and helped him to replace his and the frightened patient raised himself up in bed.

poisonous opium. The delicious pulp of the peach also pack; the firing then commenced. The next morning Come, come, try to be reasonable."

is well known to enclose in its kernel a poison of a the French, in like manner, warned a 43d sentry to retire. “ You are troublesome: do you think I'm going to most deadly character. Olive oil is another instance But the most remarkable instance happened on the occathrow away my life to serve you-think of something in point. Its chemical constituents approach near to sion of Lord Wellington being desirous of getting to the else. I should like very much to oblige yon--but in such those of alcohol ; how materially, however, do these top of a hill occupied by the enemy near Bayonne. He a way--never! I'd die first."

substances differ in their operation on the human ordered the riflemen who escorted him to drive the Only think what it is you ohject to.-only two little system! These facts are sufficient to convince us French away, and seeing the former stealing up, as he wounds

--- if they only look natural, it's all sufficient. how profound, and yet how simple, are the operations thought, too near, called out to commence firing with a Come, my dear fellow, say you agree to it."

I
of creation, and how boundless she is in her resources loud voice one of those old soldiers replied, “ No firing !"

and then, holding up tle butt of his rifle towards the “Come, now, be clever, I've an easy hand, and the to supply the wants and to gratify the lawful pleasures French, tapped it in a peculiar way. At the

well-underof man. surgeon will be tired waiting.” " I suppose you think it will be fine fun for me."

The knowledge that the whole of this variety in short time,” the French, who, though they could not

stood signal, which meant, “ We must have the hill for a « Oh what a fuss you make about a couple of little vegetable creation is occasioned simply by a very slight maintain, would not have relinquished the post without scratches! If kindness and friendship cannot touch your variation in the combination of three simple sub- a fight if they had been fired upon, quietly retired. And obstinate heart, let's see what force will do.” And there stances, affords to us a distinct idea how the elemen- this signal would never have been made if the post had upon the friend seized his sword; the patient dodged | tary principles of alcohol may exist in nature, without been one capable of a permanent defence, so well do the first blow, leaped to his feet, snatched up the other the actual existence of alcohol itself. No human in- veterans understand war and its proprieties.--Napier's weapon, and attacked his aggressor furiously. The sol vestigation has as yet, nor indeed have we any reason Peninsular War. dier, hearing the scuffle, rushed into the room, and suc

to suppose it ever will, discover the slightest trace of ceeded, not without trouble, in separating the combatants, native

cohol in any part of the creation of nature.

ANECDOTE OF ACHILLE MURAT. when he found, to his great surprise, that it was not the

The application of this argument is familiar and sham patient that needed help, but his friend, till now safe and sound, whom the dying man had pinked just in grain and fruit, and in every part of vegetable crea

[The following curious anecdote is translated in the New York clear. Many persons assert that alcohol is contained Mirror, from the Courrier des Etats-Unis, a French periodical below the thorax.

which has been published for several years in the same city, and " I thought,” said the soldier, “ that these gentlemen tion, and that therefore it is intended by the Creator is now under the care of a gentleman named Gaillardet.] were too polite to give me all the trouble of coming for for the use of man. Such, however, is not the case. We may mention the name of a prince as having been, nothing."

The elements of alcohol, indeed, are to be found for a time at least, connected with the New Orleans bar. The wounded man was soon cured, and the mattrass, throughout the whole of vegetable creation, and so are M. Achille Murat, son of the ex-king of Naples, made stuffed full of English goods, well repaid the soldier for the elements of other deleterious substances, but not his début as an advocate there, and showed himself a his medical services.-- From the French, in the New York a particle of alcohol itself. So long as the chemistry remarkable man, if not an orator. With a singularity, Mirror.

of life retains its sway, will the constituent materials however, which belongs to his character, he never ap

of vegetable matter liold together in the relation in peared at the bar a second time, and has since quitted ALCOHOL. which nature has placed them. Death, however, or,

the gown and the country. We may, however, mention

an anecdote of his stay here, which rests on the authority ALCOHOL was so denominated, by an Arabian physi- in other words, decomposition, subverts this natural cian who discovered it, from a fine impalpable powder arrangement, dissolves its connexions, and new and of his mother, the Princess of Lipona. with which the ladies of Barbary were accustomed to totally different combinations are thereby formed. broke out in the garrison of Leghorn, of so serious a cha tinge the hair and edges of the eyelids--the word so it is with alcohol. In wines, this poison undergoes racter as to excite in a high degree Napoleon's indigbeing thus anatomised : Al, the, and Kahol, powder juice of the grape ; in malt liquors, man destroys the resolved to crush it in its bud, and make a terrible

He was no friend of insubordination, and of lead ore. There is a prevalent notion, which has been of some

vital principle of the barley, by converting it into example of the culprits. Joachim Murat was charged use in resistance to the maxims of temperance, that, malt, and then subjects it to another artificial pro- with this painful duty, and set off for Leghorn without alcohol being a direct product of nature, it ought to

cess, which produces results similar to those which delay. When he arrived there, the insurrection had be esteemed as a gift of Providence, and received and take place in the production of wine.

spent itself, and shame and remorse succeeded a temenjoyed as such. We find this view controverted in

By many it has been supposed that alcohol does not porary forgetfulness. However, the emperor's orders

were strict, and punishment must be inflicted. Murat a work recently published under the title of “ Bacchus, exist ready formed in fermented liquors, but that it is being an Essay on the Nature, Causes, Effects, and generated by the heat used in the process of distilla- therefore called the soldiers together, and, after reproachCure of Intemperance," by Mr Grindrod of Man- tion. The fallacy, however, this view, is manifest ing them bitterly for their offence, required that the chester. It is there represented that alcohol is a

from several considerations, and by none more than ringleaders of the mutiny should be given up, otherwise thing of considerably different character, and that of by the following decisive experiment made by Ir and shot. The soldiers hung their heads, and professed course all

such arguments for its use as an intoxicating guished philosophers. Add to wine a solution of the emperor might inflict upon them, but begged the general When vegetables cease to live, they, like animals subacetate of lead, and the colouring and extractive not to force them to turn informere against their comunder the same circumstances, hasten to a complete matter will be precipitated. The further addition of a rades. Murat would not yield, and the ten men, whose dissolution or decomposition, so as to become once

small portion of dry subcarbonate of potassa, separates names were drawn, were about to be carried off, when more inorganic matter. Very soon after they have the alcohol from the fluid, which floats on the surface, three soldiers stepped to the front, and avowed themceased to live, if steeped in water, at a temperature o

and will ignite on coming in contact with a lighted selves the instigators of the revolt. There was so much about 60 degrees of Fahrenheit, they begin to undergo taper. By this means we decisively determine that shame and contrition expressed by the vieux moustaches, a process called fermentation. of this process there distillation separates merely the alcohol, which had that Murat was deeply moved. He stood silent a while, are three stages, each, however, only to be realised been previously evolved by the process of fermenta- then ordered the three eriminals to be taken to prison, under certain conditions. For the first, or rinous tion; its constituent parts being thereby extracted, in to be shot the next morning. That same night, when stage, the above temperature is necessary; for the their elementary forms, from the saccharine juices of every thing was quiet, except the measured step of the

patrol, and the cry of the sentinels on the walls, Murat second, the acetous stage, a temperature of 70 degrees the grain or fruit, and combined under a new, a

was seated in his apartment, while before him stood three is required; the third, or putrejactice stage, has also potent, and a deleterious form.

grizzled veterans, cap in hand, weeping like children. It conditions peculiar to itself.

Arguments like these are interesting, and even

was not death that the heroes of Arcole and Marengo The first stage in fermentation is named the vinous, necessary to remove such objections as are urged in feared-it was to be disgraced to die the death of traibecause at that stage is developed the spirit of wine, proof that alcohol is a good creature of God. The tors; they wept, not for their fate, but for their crime! or alcohol. The second is named acetous, because in of these liquors on the moral and physical powers of for what you have done, and I want to save your lives.

" Listen !” said Murat. “I believe you are really sorry like manner vinegar is then produced. It is by arresting the process at these respective stages, and

Let it be admitted, for the sake of argument, To-morrow, at daybreak, you will be led out to execution, subjecting the fermenting matter to distillation, that that alcohol is a creature of God, and no advantage outside the city. I will take care there shall be no human ingenuity obtains alcohol and vinegar, neither will be derived by its advocates from the concession. spectators. The platoon will fire on you with blank of which is ever found, in any form or combination Many of our most powerful poisons are the creatures cartridges, and you must fall down, and remain motionwhatever, as the effect of any living process, but only of God. The poisonous upas, and the deadly hemlock, Loss, till they march off the ground. A trusty man will as arising “out of the decay, the dissolution, and the

are each of them creatures of God; yet the Creator be ready to put you into a close carriage ; a vessel sails wreck, of organised matter."

to-morrow for America, on board of which you will emThe constituent ele- nowhere autherises his creatures to make use of them bark. Here is a purse of gold for each of you. Will you ments of alcohol are, nevertheless, the same as those as habitual articles of diet. IIo has given to man the promise to behave yourselves ?" of all living vegetable substances, namely, carbon, power of distinguishing between moral good and evil;

Every thing happened as he had arranged it; and hydrogen, and orygen; the first being, out of 100 parts, and although the scientific knowledge of the precise Napoleon thanked Murat for having taken the lives of as 52, the second as 13, and the third as 35. These character and quality of articles generally used for only three of his soldiers. The circumstances remained statements will serve to introduce the following re

dietetic purposes may be limited in a great measure to a secret till 1830, when Prince Achille Murat, walking one marks of Mr Grindrod :

professional men, yet it is every man's duty, as it is day in the suburbs of New Orleans, was canglit in a “ On the supposition that the formation of alcohol obviously his interest, to acquire by experience all the shower. He bought shelter in the nearest house, a small is the result of natural laws, it may pertinently be knowledge he can upon that important subject ; and and plain one ; a man and wife, with their children, were inquired, why man interferes with and disturbs the conscientiously to abstain from every indulgence which the only inhabitants. The man had an austere, yet operations of nature, at a particular period, that is, is calculated either to affect his moral character, or to good-natured face, and that stiffish walk which an old exactly at the commencement of her object, and thus injure the exquisite texture of his intellectual or cor- soldier can never get rid of. The prince remarked that

lais host eyed him fixedly, and scemed strangely agitated. prevents that ultimate action which otherwise would poreal frame.' inevitably take place. The answer is simple and

We leave this train of reasoning to the best con-hearth, cast his eyes round the room with the idle curio

The prince, on the other hand, sitting by the humble decisive. He arrests the operations of nature exactly sideration of our readers, without pretending to pro-sity of a man who has nothing to do. He rose, for ho at that period when he can supply himself with a pro

nounce decisively on a point which involves the whole saw on the walls some coarse engravings of Napoleon's duct calculated to gratify his depraved and vitiated question of providential design.

generals and battles. Above them were placed, under a appetites. Hence the multifarious and complicated

laurel crown, two portraits of Murat, as general, and inventions of the wine-maker and brewer.

as king. “ Have you ever served France ?" asked the This branch of our inquiry may be better understood

SURPRISING OF MILITARY POSTS.

prince. “ Yes, sir," answered his host, not without emby a slight review of the active laws of animate vege

About the same time, one of Hill's posts near the con barrassment. “Where? and under whom ?” “ In Italy, table creation, so far at least as they liave connexion

flaence of the Aron with the Adour, was surprised by under General Murat.” The son of the soldier-king held with the present object of our investigation. The fresh troops detached from Urt forced them to repass the name, my brave fellow.?" " Claude Gerard; might I ask,

some French companies, who remained in advance until out his hand to his father's old comrade. · Your constituent principles of regetables consist of carbon, river again. This affair was a retaliation for the surprise sir, oxygen, and hydrogen. The poisonous upas, and the of a French post a few days before, by the sixth division, my eyes did not deceive me! You are the son of my

* I am Achille Murat.” “ It is true, then, and nutritious grape ; the fragrant rose, and the nauseous assafætida ; the refreshing folioge, and the delicate to the friendly habita long established between the French ! if I have a wife and children, I owe it to him, and tó

which was attended with some circumstances repugnant general, of my king, of my saviour! If I am now alive,

man.

(A wager to decide) to tell medo
Who governs in this house-your spouse, or you?'
“Sir," said the lady, with a doubting noủ,

“ Your question's very odd :
But as, I think, none ought to be
Ashamed to do their duty (do you see?)
On that account I scruple not to say

It always is my pleasure to obey.
But here's my husband (always sad without me);

Take not my word, but ask him, if you doubt me."
“ Sir," said the husband, “ 'tis most true;

I promise you,
A more obedient, kind, and gentle woman

Does not exist."

** Give us your fist," Said John, “ and, as the case is something more than common,

Allow me to present you with a beast

Worth fifty guineas at the very least.
There's Smiler, sir, a beauty, you must own,

There's Prince, that handsome black,
Ball the grey mare, and Saladin the roan,

Besides old Dunn;
Come, sir, choose one ;
But take advice from me,

Let Prince be he;

Why, sir, you'll look the hero on his back."
" I'll take the black, and thank you too."

Nay, husband, that will never do ;
You know, you've often heard me say
How much I long to have a grey ;!
And this one will exactly do for me."

“ No, no," said he,
“ Friend, take the four others back,

And only leave the black."
“ Nay, husband, I declare
I must have the grey mare."

Adding (with gentle force)
“The grey mare is, I'm sure, the better horse."
** Well, if it must be so-good sir,

The grey mare we prefer :
So we accept your gift." John made a leg;
“ Allow me to present you with an egg ;

'Tis my last egg remaining

The cause of my regaining,
I trust, the fond affection of my wife,
Whom I will love the better all my life.
Home to content has her kind father brought me;
I thank him for the lesson he has taught me."

R.S.S.

ܪ

him alone;" and thereupon the old soldier told the story | messenger was also intrusted with dispatches to the we have sketched down, often interrupting it with bless-governor of Edinburgh Castle, a circumstance which he ings and exclamations of gratitude.

mentioned to one of Monk's servants while on his jourThe prince, wlose singular character, and aversion to ney. The man (a sergeant) saw something unusual in society, led him to avoid the city, and wander about in this, and prevailed upon his fellow-traveller to drink the country, never, while he remained in America, found dram of brandy with him at a neighbouring ale-house, any roof more welcome, and visited none oftener, than where the messenger became ultimately so drunk that that which covered the poor and humble abode of his the sergeant was enabled to take the papers from his father's old companion in arms.

custody without detection. This done, he posted to his
general with the packet, who, on perusing its contents,

found an order for his arrest and detention in the castle. HUMOURS OF AN IRISH STUDENT.

Policy and resentment at once directed the eyes of Monk
Among the many peculiar tastes which distinguished Mr to Charles Stuart, and his restoration succeeded.
Francis Webber, was an extraordinary fancy for street
begging; he had, over and over, won large sums upon his

THE EGGS AND THE HORSES.
success in that difficult walk; and so perfect were his
disguises, both of dress, voice, and manner, that he ac- [The following version of a popular English story, of which an
tually, at one time, succeeded in obtaining charity from outline is given in Grose's Dictionary, was one of the

speeches" his very opponent in the wager. He wrote ballads with

at St Saviour's Grammar School in November 1837. The youthful the greatest facility, and sung them with infinite pathos versified fables, under the title of “Old Friends in a New

author has already given to the world an attractive volume of and humour; and the old woman at the corner of College Dress."*] Green was certain of an audience, when the severity of the night would leave all other minstrelsy deserted. As

John Dobbins was so captivated these feats of jonglerie usually terminated in a row, it was

By Mary Trueman's fortune, face, and cap,

(With near two thousand pounds the hook was baited) a most amusing part of the transaction to see the singer's

That in he popp'd to matrimony's trap. part taken by the mob against the college men, who,

One small ingredient towards happiness, growing impatient to carry him off to supper somewhere,

It seems, ne'er occupied a single thought ; would invariably be obliged to have a fight for the booty.

For his accomplish'd bride Now, it chanced that a few evenings before, Mr Webber

Appearing well supplied was returning with a pocket well lined with copper, from With the three charms of riches, beauty, dress, a musical réunion he had held at the corner of York

He did not, as he ought, Street, when the idea struck him to stop at the end of

Think of ought else ; so no inquiry made he Grafton Street, where a huge stone grating at that time

As to the temper of the lady. exhibited, perhaps it exhibits still, the descent to one

And here was certainly a great omission; of the great main sewers of the city.

None should accept of Hymen's gentle fetter,

“For worse or better," The light was shining brightly from a pastry-cook's Whatever be their prospect or condition, shop, and showed the large bars of stone, between which

Without aoquaintance with each other's nature; the muddy water was rushing rapidly down, and plashing

For many a mild and quiet creature in the torrent that ran boisterously several feet beneath.

Of charming disposition, To stop in the street of any crowded city is, under any Alas! by thoughtless marriage has destroy'd it. circumstances, an invitation to others to do likewise,

So, take advice; let girls dress e'er so tastely, which is rarely unaccepted; but, when in addition to

Don't enter into wedlock hastily

Unless you can't avoid it. this, you stand fixedly in one spot, and regard with stern intensity any object near you, the chances are ten to one

Week follow'd week, and, it must be confest,

The bridegroom and the bride had both been blest : that you have several companions in your curiosity before

Month after month had languidly transpired, a minute expires.

Both parties became tired : Now, Webber, who had at first stood still, without any

Year after year dragg'd on; particular thought in view, no sooner perceived that he

Their happiness was gone. was joined by others, than the idea of inaking something Ah ! foolish pair! out of it immediately occurred to him.

“ Bear and forbear" " What is it, agra?" inquired an old woman, very much

Should be the rule for married folks to take. in his own style of dress, pulling at the hood of his cloak.

But blind mankind (poor discontented elves !)

Too often make * And can't you see for yourself, darlin'?” replied he sharply, as he knelt down, and looked most intensely at

The misery of themselves. the sewer.

At length the husband said, “ This will not do!

Mary, I never will be ruled by you: " Are ye long there, avick?" inquired he of an ima

So, wife, d'ye see? ginary individual below; and then waiting as if for å To live together as we can't agree, reply, said, “ Two hours !” “Blessed Virgin ! he's two

Suppose we part!" honrs in the drain !”

With woman's pride, By this time the crowd had reached entirely across the

Mary replied street, and the crushing and squeezing, to get near the

With all my heart!" important spot, was awful.

John Dobbins then to Mary's father goes, Where did he come from?” “ Who is he?” “How And gives the list of his imagined woes. did he get there ?" were the questions on every side, and

** Dear son-in-law !" the father said, “I see various surmises were afloat, till Webber, rising from his

All is quite true that you've been telling me; knees, said, in a mysterious whisper to those nearest him,

Yet there in marriage is such strange fatality,

That when as much of life “ He's made his escape to-night out o’Newgate by the

You will have seen big drain, and lost his way; he was looking for the

As it has been Liffey, and took the wrong turn."

My lot to see-I think you'll own your wife To an Irish mob, what appeal could equal this? A As good or better than the generality. culprit, at any time, has his claim upon their sympathy;

An interest in your case I really take, but let him be caught in the very act of cheating the And therefore gladly this agreement make: authorities, and evading the law, and his popularity An hundred eggs within this basket lie, knows no bounds. Webber knew this well ; and, as the With which your luck, to-morrow, you shall try : mob thickened around him, sustained an imaginary con

Also my five best horses, with my cart; versation that Savage Landor might have envied, impart

And from the farm at dawn you shall depart. ing now and then such hints concerning the runaway,

All round the country go, as raised their interest to the highest pitch, and fifty

And be particular, I beg;

Where husbands rule-a horse bestow, different versions were related on all sides--of the crime

But where the wives-an egg. he was guilty--the sentence passed on him—and the day And if the horses go before the eggs, he was to suffer.

I'll ease you of your wife-I will-I fegs !" “Do ye see the light, dear,” said Webber, as some

Away the married man departed, ingeniously benevolent individual had lowered down a

Brisk and light-hearted: candle with a string ; “ do ye see the light; oh! he's

Not doubting that, of course, fainted, the creature." A cry of horror from the crowd The first five houses each would take a horse. burst forth at these words, followed by an universal shout

At the first house he knock'd, of “ Break open the street."

He felt a little shock'a, Pick-axes, shovels, spades, and crow-bars, seemed

To hear a female voice, with angry roar,

Scream out-“Hullo! absolutely the walking accompaniments of the crowd, so

Who's there below? suddenly did they appear upon the field of action, and Why, husband, are you deaf? go to the door, the work of exhumation was begun with a vigour that

See who it is, I beg." speedily covered nearly half of the street with mud and

Our poor friend John paving stones ; parties relieved each other at the task,

Trudged quickly on, and, ere half an hour, a hole capable of containing a

But first laid at the door an egg. mail-coach, was yawning in one of the most frequented

LORD ERSKINE'S LOVE OF ANIMALS. “I dined to-day [a day in January 1808] at Lord Erskine's. It was what might be called a great opposition dinner. * * Among the light and trifling topics of conversation after dinner, it may be worth while to mention one, as it strongly characterises Lord Erskine. He has always expressed and felt a great sympathy for animals. He has talked for years of a bili he was to bring into parliament, to prevent cruelty towards them. He has always had several favourite animals to which he has been much attached, and of which all his acquaintance have a number of anecdotes to relate---a favourite dog, which he used to bring when he was at the bar, to all his consultations ; another favourite dog, which, at the time when he was Lord Chancellor, he himself rescued in the street from some boys who were about to kill it, under pretence of its being mad; a favourite goose, which followed him wherever he walked about his grounds; a favourite macaw, and other dumb favourites without number. He told us now that he had got two favourite leeches. He had been blooded by them last autumn, when he had been taken dangerously ill at Portsmouth ; they had saved his life, and lie had brought them with him to town; had ever since kept them in a glass ; had himself every day given them fresh water; and had formed a friendship with them. He said he was sure they both knew him, and were grateful to him. He had given them different names, Home and Cline (the names of two celebrated surgeons), their dispositions being quite different. After a good deal of conversation about them, he went himself, brought them out of his library, and placed them in their glass upon the table. It is impossible, however, without the vivacity, the tones, the details, and the gestures of Lord Erskine, to give an adequate idea of this singular scene." Sir San. vel Romilly's Memoirs.

OLIVER CROMWELL. His speech on dissolving parliament, April 20, 1653, is a burst of extraordinary eloquence :-“ It is high time for me to put an end to your sitting in this place, which you have dishonoured by your contempt of all virtue, and defiled by your practice of every vice. You are a factious crew, and enemies to all good government. Ye are a pack of mercenary wretches, and would, like Esau, sell your country for a mess of pottage, and, like Judas, betray your God for a few pieces of money. Is there a single virtue now remaining amongst you? Is there one vice that you do not possess? You have no more religion than my horse: gold is your god. Which of you has not bartered away your conscience for bribes ? Is there a man amongst you that has the least care for the good of the Commonwealth ? Ye sordid profligates' haye ye not defiled this sacred place, and turned the Lord's temple into a den of thieves, by your immoral principles and wicked practices? You, who were deputed here by the people to get grievances redressed, are yourselves become the greatest grievance. Your country, therefore, calls upon me to cleanse this Augean stable, by putting a final period to your iniquitous proceedings in this house : and which, by God's help and the strength he has given, I am now come to do. I command you, therefore, upon the peril of your lives, to depart inime diately out of this place. Go! get ye out; make haste. Ye venal slaves, begone! So ! take away that shining bauble (the mace) there, and lock up the doors."

I will not, all his journey through thoroughfares of Dublin. Meanwhile, as no appearance

The discontented traveller pursue ; of the culprit could be had, dreadful conjectures as to

Suffice it here to say his fate began to gain ground. By this time the autho

That when his first day's task was nearly done,

He'd seen an hundred husbands, minus one, rities had received intimation of what was going forward, And eggs just ninety-nine had given away. and attempted to disperse the crowd ; but Webber, who “ Ha! there's a house where he I seek must dwell," still continued to conduct the prosecution, called on At length cried John; “I'll go and ring the bell." them to resist the police, and save the poor creature.

The servant came-John ask'd him, “Pray, And now began a most terrific fray; the stones forming

Friend, is your master in the way?" a ready weapon, were hurled at the unprepared con

" No," said the man, with smiling phiz, stables, who, on their side, fought manfully, but against

"My master is not, but my mistress is; superior numbers ; so that, at last, it was only by the aid

Walk in that parlour, sir, my lady's in it; of a military force the mob could be dispersed, and a

Master will be himself there-in a minute.' riot, which had assumed a very serious character, got

The lady said her husband then was dressing,

And, if his business was not very pressing, under. Meanwhile, Webber had reached his chambers, She would prefer that he should wait until and changed his costume, and was relating over a supper His toilet was completed; table the narrative of his philanthropy to a very admiring

Adding, “ Pray, sir, be seated." circle of his friends.- Charles O'Malley, the Irish Dragoon.

** Madam, I will,"
Said John, with great politeness; « but I own

That you alone
GREAT EVENTS FROM TRIFLING CAUSES.

Can toll me all I wish to know; There is a tradition in Scotland, that a dram of brandy

Will you do so? produced the restoration of Charles II.

Pardon my rudeness,

A messenger from the Parliament of England had brought letters to

And just have the goodness General Monk whilst he remained in Edinburgh. This

* London: Smith, Elder, and Co. 1827.

LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by W.S.

ORR, Paternoster Row; and sold by all booksellers and newsmen.-Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars.

Complete sets of the Journal are always to be had from the publishers or their agents; also, any odd numbers to complete sets. Persons requiring their volumes bound along with titlepages and contents, have only to give them into the bands of any bookseller, with ordors to that effect.

[graphic]

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF “ CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,

“ CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,” &c.

NUMBER 442.

SATURDAY, JULY 18, 1840.

PRICE THREE HALFPENCE

THE RAILWAYS.

A FEW WEEKS FROM HOME.

digious increase will take place in the traffic by this reached Hampton on the London line. Here the great line of route.* The towns either actually upon train paused for about twenty minutes, till the train

the line or within a very short distance from it, are from Birmingham arrived, consisting of seventeen WHEN a person, in travelling southwards, reaches Leeds, Wakefield, Barnsley, Rotherham, Sheffield, vehicles, exclusive of several trucks, bearing gentlethe neighbourhood of Newcastle, he finds himself sud- Chesterfield, Belper, and Derby; and at the distance men's carriages and horses. A union of trains now denly transported into the region of railways, in which of a few miles are also the towns of Pontefract, took place, and produced a row of thirty carriages with not only a new kind of locomotion, but a new order of Doncaster, Bawtry, Worksop, Mansfield, Bakewell, trucks, resembling the side of a street in motion, and things generally, may be said to prevail. A railway Matlock, Wirksworth, and Ashbourne. The North carrying along, as I calculated, from six to seven hunregion is a very different thing from a district of Midland Railway performs the important office of con- dred passengers. This enormous mass, which was country still lying in its primitive simplicity of com- necting the populous and wealthy districts employed dragged along at the rate of at least twenty-three miles mon roads and common means of transport. The in the woollen, the linen, and the cutlery manufac- an hour by two locomotives, received accessions at some change from the one condition of things to the other tures of Yorkshire, and the hosiery, lace, and porcelain other stations on its way, and, finally, on reaching is very striking, and is attended with both ludicrous manufactures of Derby ; and also, by means of the London, the debouche of passengers on the quay of the and melancholy effects. As I performed a journey of other railways joining it, will connect with the hard railway resembled the emptying of a crowded church. several hundred miles by railways in different direc- ware manufactures of Birmingham, the hosiery and Nine trains go doren, and nine up daily; and though tions, I beg to offer a few words on this rather into- lace manufactures of Nottingham and Leicester, and seldom so large as this, the number of carriages being resting matter.

the wool-growing districts of Leicestershire, North- usually ten or twelve, yet the quantity of traffic, and At present, England is in the course of being cut, amptonshire, and Warwickshire-all which places interchange of passengers, between different parts of bored, bridged, and banked, in nearly all directions by will have the most rapid and easy communication the country along the great line and its tributaries, are prospective railways, so that in a few years we shall with London and the south and west of England. immense, and can be but faintly understood by those be able to make excursions to the most remote quar- The entire length of the North Midland Railway at a distance from the scene of action. The money ters of the country with the greatest ease and expedi- from Leeds to Derby is seventy-two and a half miles. drawn for passengers by the large train in which I tion. Already I have spoken of the railway across So much for the eastern and midland division of reached London, could not be less than six hundred the island from Carlisle, and this is the first which we the north of England. As is well known, the line pounds. The weekly revenue of the London and Birstumble upon in going south. Adjacent to Newcastle from London to Birmingham, and the Grand Junction mingham, alone, is upwards of L.16,000, and of the there are several lines in operation, among which are extended from it to Manchester, have been some time Grand Junction, L.9000. Five-and-twenty thousand one to Tynemouth, one to Sunderland, and a third in effective operation, and these, with the railway pounds, weekly, on one extended thoroughfare! The which connects the Sunderland line with Durham. from Manchester to Liverpool, may be called old fact is startling. All these are, comparatively speaking, short railways. established concerns. Latterly, the Grand Junction, South and west from London various railways have A line of grander character, called the North of which strikes the Manchester and Liverpool at War- been projected, and some are opened for short disEngland, is at present constructing from York north- rington, has been extended by the addition of the tances in their proposed course. Only one important wards, and is designed to reach Newcastle ; in a short North Union to Preston, passing Wigan in its course ; line has been opened throughout its entire length, time it will be opened as far as Darlington or Dur- and in a few months a new line will in addition be being that which extends from the vicinity of Vauxham, and then, by means of the above-mentioned short opened as far as Lancaster. Till the present time, hall, near London, to Southampton, a distance of railways, there will be an unbroken line of rails be- the chief communication from the north with London seventy-seven miles. This is a well-designed and twixt York and the Tyne. In travelling by coach takes place through this commodious channel. Reach- well-constructed railway. It pursues a curved line southwards, we at different places see the line in ac- ing Preston by coach, the traveller is fairly embarked over the flat downs and moors of Surrey, and by tive progress. Reaching York, a new railway awaits on the railway trains, and in ten hours reaches the several deep cuttings in the chalky eminences, reaches us, called the North Midland, which extends from metropolis, whence he may be transferred by other the rich agricultural plains of Hampshire, and finally that city to Derby, and is already opened at both railways to different parts of the country.

terminates in the beautiful vale of the Itchin, close by ends, leaving about twenty miles in the centre in a It has been projected to carry a line of railroad Southampton and its navigable waters. As an indestate of forwardness. Proceeding by this line, and from London to Cambridge, and so on in a straight pendent line, with no towns of any consequence in its having arrived at Derby, we are next carried forward course by Lincoln to York, where it will join the course, Winchester alone excepted, and depending only by the Birmingham and Derby Junction to a point North of England, and thus form a distinct and great on its own traffic, it may be pronounced the boldest on the London and Birmingham line, at a place called artery of communication northwards. But there is undertaking of the kind which has yet been completed. Hampton, and are thence sent directly onwards to little chance of this being speedily performed, and, for I am glad to learn that there is every prospect of the London. We have, therefore, already, by these dif- a number of years to come, the entire transit from the success of this line of railroad. I travelled several ferent lines, which, as may be supposed, are the pro- metropolis in a northerly direction will be first by short stages upon it at different times, and made one perty of different companies

, an almost complete rail the London and Birmingham, and then by its two entire journey to and from its southern extremity. road from York to London, and soon another hundred great tributaries—one from Derby, York, and New- There is an arrangement upon it worthy of imitation. miles will be added as far north as Newcastle, which, castle, and the other from Manchester, Preston, and Instead of only two kinds of trains, there are three, from certain ill-judged contentions of competing com- Lancaster. This last mentioned will finally bring up which differ considerably in character. One is called panies, must remain the limit in this direction for a

the great bulk of the Scotch traffic from Dumfries, the Fast Train, which stops at but a few places, and number of years. Little doubt can be entertained Paisley, Glasgow, and other western parts of the king- consists only of first-class carriages, with a carriage for that ultimately there will be a line from Newcastle dom; and when this consummation is effected, the servants; it performs the journey in three hours-fare to Edinburgh, either by the coast or through the transit along the London and Birmingham, terminat- 20s. The next kind are Stopping Trains, which take interior; but before this, a railway from Englanding at Euston Square on the northern side of the

up and let down passengers at twelve stations on the will most likely have reached the west of Scotland. metropolis, will probably be augmented fourfold. route, and consist of both first and second class car

In this rapid view of matters in the eastern and To give an idea of the effect of these in pourings of riages—fares 18s.and 123. And the third kind is a train middle part of the country, I have only mentioned tributary branches, I may state what came under my for goods, with uncovered carriages, the fare with the great line, or, as it may be styled, one of the main observation in travelling southwards. The train with which is only 7s. ; the accommodation being neverarteries of the railway system ; it remains to be told which I started from Sheffield, at about nine in the theless equal in all respects to that of the outside of a that the principal thoroughfare receives branches, or morning, consisted of six carriages, a number which stage-coach. Both in my doron and up journey by the pushes forth extensions, at different places in its

was increased to eight at Rotherham, where the first-mentioned of these trains, there was a string of course, not the least important being a cross branch union with the Derby Junction takes place ; at the ten or twelve carriages, each holding eighteen persons ; from Manchester to Sheffield, not yet finished; a town of Derby, the large station enclosure yielded a and at some of the stations, such was the press of passhort branch in extension of this from Sheffield, now

contribution of other five carriages, making up the sengers, that several were in each case left behind for in operation, and bringing hundreds of passengers to number to thirteen. These were now rapidly whirled lack of accommodation—a circumstance, by the way, the Derby Junction daily, the point of influx being at along through a fine piece of country, receiving an which I never saw occur on any other railway, there Rotherham; and a branch from Nottingham, which accession of passengers at every stopping place, till we being apparently, in all cases, an abundance of carstrikes the line at Derby. The North Midland, like

* We write this, June 20, and observe by a newspaper announce

riages at command. Fully as much revenue is, I wise, is extended to Leeds; and when this portion ment that the North Midland is to be opened throughout from

believe, expected to be ultimately realised by the is opened, as well as tho above side branches, a pro- | Leeds to Derby on the Ist of July,

transit of goods as passengers by this line of conveyance. At Southampton, docks, and other accommo- little more rapid though not more easy than on the showmen or frozen-out gardeners, picking up a few dations for shipping, are in a state of active progress, ordinary lines. The only difference in the carriages is, odd pence and shillings. We may pity these men, and it is anticipated, that not only much of the trade that four instead of three passengers sit in the breadth. but we should at the same time remember that their of Portsmouth will centre here, but that many vessels The speed at which the quickest-going trains on system was a demoralising one to a great degree, as, from the Atlantic will prefer disloading at Southamp the various railways usually proceed, varies from indeed, this resorting to mendicancy helps to prove. ton in preference to sailing up the Channel to the twenty to thirty miles, but is sometimes as much as Their gains were in general much above the value of Thames, and that their cargoes will be sent overland forty miles, per hour. Even in the most favourable their services, and were realised in a degrading way. by railway to London. I am not able to offer any instance, the rate of locomotion is greatly below Hence, while many, no doubt, were decent and worthy definite opinion on this comprehensive scheme of what is possible. It is generally understood, that men, inany others were unsteady, and some acted in operations, but it appears very evident, that unless unless for stoppages, which cause a great slackening a manner absolutely ridiculous.' I remember one Portsmouth protect itself by establishing an indepen- of speed, both in approaching and leaving stations, personage who was afilicted with such a plethora of dent line of railroad to tho metropolis, its aspiring the rate of inotion could be very easily sustained wealth, that all the buttons on his clothes were halfneighbour, Southampton, will at no distant day sweep at fifty miles per hour. I have no doubt whatever crowns, shillings, and sixpences. But there was acup a large share of its inland and external traffic. that fast trains, which do not profess to stop on other, equally rich, who did things more genteely. Already, as may be seen from public announcements, their journey excepting once in every thirty or forty On arriving at his destination, he threw down tko Southampton has become the chief centering point for miles for water, will ultimately, and if the public reins with the air of a prince, touched his hat all intercourse with the Channel islands and with Havre, require it, proceed at a rate of sixty miles per hour. round to the passengers, and having pocketed his couland when a railway from the last-mentioned place to When this is accomplished, trains will regularly per- tributions, took his place in a gig with a liveried serParis is completed, this must become a preferable route form the journey from London to Edinburgh, all vant, who was waiting for his arrival. to France and the countries on the Mediterranean.

necessary stoppages included, in probably eight hours. Many stories, equally deplorable, are told of the Of tho short lines of railway connected with Lon. According to the present comparatively slow rate of ruination of inng on the formerly leading lines of don, the principal is one of from four to five miles in progression, the distance from London to Birmingham, road. Some “ houses” are entirely shut up, and others length to Greenwich, and which appears about as which a year or two ago required twelve or fourteen continue a feeble existence. One inn at wvisionary a speculatiou as can well be conceived, when hours by coach, is now performed in four hours and a perliaps the largest and oldest-established in Eng? put in competition with steam-boats, omnibuses, and half, and with perfect case to the passengers. land, is at present about to be abandoned by its other means of locomotion. It is laid entirely on brick The London and Birmingham line, which was the proprietor. Previous to the establishment of the arches, on a level with the tops of the adjacent houses, first completed after that of Manchester and Liver- adjoining railway, it maintained in daily use thirty and must have cost much more money than sound pool, has always appeared to me to be among the best pairs of post-horses, and now it scarcely gives emprudence would have warranted. Yet this railway, managed of the various railways, as well as the most ployment to two. But there are a hundred such after all, has its conveniences. The public have no complete in all its arrangements. There are accom- ses, as every traveller by the old lines of road can reason to complain of it. From a motive of curiosity, modations on this line which I have seen on no other. readily testify. If, however, there be some indiviI made a trip upon it last Whitmonday, which is a Un all the lines there are waiting-rooms both for dual losses, there are evidently great public adranholiday of the working classes in London, and the ladies and gentlemen at the different stations ; but tages from the railway establishments. Every whero occasion of a fair, or rather idle assemblage of people, exclusively of these on this line, there is a large and along the lines, and particularly at the stopping stain the town and park of Greenwich. It was com- commodious house of entertainment at the Birming- tions, improvements are less or more perceptible, and puted that on this holiday occasion fifty thousand ham terminus, where meals stand ready prepared for in some instances entirely new towns are rising into persons were carried by the different steam-boats to the passengers. At a place half way from the metro existence on the verge of the newly created thoroughGreenwich from London; but this did not apparently polis, and where the train stops ten minutes, there is fares. Trade, promoted by rapid personal transit and diminish the vast crowds which pressed to the place likewise a large establishment in the form of an open a cheap means of literary correspondence, is likewise of festivity by the railway. As a spectacle of a novel booth or shop, where tea, coffee, or viands of a more acknowledged to be on the increase in every newly nature in connexion with the most wonderful im- substantial kind, with different liquors, are sold on opened-up district. As yet, indeed, the great railway provement in the arts which has distinguished the the instant to those who require refreshment. It organisation in England, wonderful as is its extent present age, the scene of transit was of exceeding would be well if every long railway in the country had and capacity, is only in its infancy, and a few years interest. For twelve or fourteen hours, & train was similar establishments at convenient distances. will necessarily be required for its perfection. When dispatched every fifteen minutes, returning as fre- Passengers who make the journey for the first time by this period arrives, social improvement, in despite of quently; but for an hour or two at the period of the mail train, will be amused by observing a travelling every opposing, principle, will be developed beyond greatest bustle, the dispatch was every five minutes. post-office in the string of carriages. This “Grand the most sanguine expectations of its advocates. I happened to go in one of the five-minute trains. It Northern Railway Post-Office," as the inscription on consisted of fourteen carriages, each holding from its side denotes, is a carriage consisting of two small A STORY OF THE VENDEAN REIGN thirty to forty persons, and was shot along its course, apartments, one of which is appropriated to the guard

OF TERROR." including a stoppage at the middle, in a quarter of whose duty is to exchange the bags, and the other While residing at Nantes, I had repeatedly heard of an hour. The number of passengers by each train, is fitted up with a table for sorting letters, and holes of which this was a specimen, might be estimated round the walls for their reception. The manner in who had taken up his abode in a secluded cave, and

a person, usually called the Wild Man of the Rocks, at six hundred, yielding an aggregate fare of about which the duties of the clerk and guard

are performed had there passed many years

, only issuing forth now five-and-twenty pounds. From morning to night, in this flying post-office, is strikingly significant of the and then by night to receive the means of sustaining the entire number carried along and brought back new order of things introduced by the railway system. life from the charity of the neighbouring villagers. It could scarcely be fewer than fifty thousand, or equal Outside the vehicle a species of net is extended by a to that carried by the boats. During the same day, hoop, and into this the letter-bags are dropped as the

was well known that he had been a physician in Bre

tagne, at the era of the first Revolution, and that he there was a procession in carriages through the prin- train sweeps onward in its course, the bags which are cipal streets of London, of a much more agreeable kind to be left being at the same time tossed from the proscriptions of the terrible Carrier, one of the worst

had escaped in some extraordinary manner from the --that of the members of the various temperance window by the guard. The fresh bag of letters being of the many wretehes whom the agitations of that associations throughout the metropolis and its suburbs received, it is speedily opened, its contents re-arranged, time raised to note and power, and who made the city --and though this extended to several miles in length, and a new bag for next town being made up, it is pro- of Nantes the scene of calamities far exceeding those and was composed of a vast multitude of well-dressed jected as before at the place of its destination. By of even Paris itself. But no one knew the particumen and women, it did not seem to lessen the efflux this means a letter may be written, sent through the lars of the history of Lormet, as the old hermit was towards the festivities at Greenwich.

post-office, and delivered at the distance of twenty named. I was seized with a curiosity to see him, and, The Greenwich railway affords a share of its ter- miles in the space of a single hour. minus at London Bridge to a railroad which is de- There are certain exeellencies in the arrangements but prevailed upon him to relate to me the events

after some difficulty, not only accomplished my wish, signed to be carried to Brighton, but which in the of all the railways which deserve to be mentioned. which had affected him so deeply as to cause his vomean time is opened only as far as Croydon. On the Each line, being the property of a private

association, luntary separation from the society of his fellow-creaopposite or Middlesex side of the Thames, a short is secluded from one end to the other from the inrailway has been constructed between Blackwall and trusion of the public, and therefore no jostling or the city at a prodigious expense, through much confusion takes place either upon entering or leaving found to be no maniac, as some supposed, but a calm

“I was thirty years old,” said Lormet, whom I valuable property. Another line, called the Eastern the carriages. The rails of one line, likewise, join and thoughtful old man, " and was engaged in the Counties, intended to proceed to Yarmouth, has been those of another, by, which means carriages generally exercise of my profession in that part of Bretagne opened as far as Romford, where it is likely to stop for proceed onwards without changing passengers or

called La Vendée, when the civil troubles began to some time.

luggage. A carriage in which we took our seats at tive importance as that which leaves the outskirts along the lines of three companies. The extraordinary distinguished families of Josselin and Rochemaure,

None of these lines of railroad is of such prospec- London carried us straight on to Preston—that is, desolate our unhappy, province. A principal part of of the metropolis at Paddington, and is designed to magnitude of the railway undertakings has enabled the existing members of which honoured me with reach across the country

to Bristol; at present it tha directors to organise rules which could never be their warmest friendship. These houses, connected is opened for only about thirty miles. The Great enforced in the irregular scramblo of stage-coaching. by frequent former alliances, were about to be still Western, as this line is termed, is one of the greatest It is customary to dress the subordinate functionaries and most expensive undertakings as yet set on foot. on all the lines in a uniform resembling that of the dor de Josselin and Hortense de Rochemaure, the

more closely united by the projected marriage of IsiIt pursues a course by Reading and Windsor to Bath, London police --each man having his number in heirs of their respective families. The end of the year and so on to Bristol, forming a line of 1174 miles in scribed in figures on some part of his dress ; so that, 1792 had been fixed upon for this union. Isidor, the length, and, with one or two tributaries, opening up if any one be guilty of incivility or inattention, he can

eldest of three sons, was at this time only twenty-two the whole west of England from Glo'ster southwards be easily reported to his superiors. There is one delight years of age ; but he had already given such indieato Exeter. I have heard it mentioned that the Great ful peculiarity in the arrangements, which is entitled tions of talent, and bad exhibited so many virtues, as Western line alone will cost five millions of pounds; to the highest commendation : it is the rule that no and on seeing the works, and learning the history of officer shall on any account take a fee from passen- tined to high distinction among his countrymen.

to be looked upon by the whole province as one desthe concern, this sum appears by no means unreason- gers, on pain of instant dismissal. Those who ima- Hortense was an orphan. She had reached the age able. Whether from a crotchet, or the sound judg- gine that fees to guards, coachmen, or waiters, are

of seventeen years, and lived with the Marquis de ment of the engineer, the width between the rails has requisite to ensure civility, will be surprised to find Rochemaure, her grandfather, by whom she was been made seven feet, while on all other railways in that railway attendants are infinitely more polite

and almost idolized ; and if beauty and amiability of chathis country the width is between four and five fuet; attentive than their brethren of the coach conveyances.

racter could excuse a feeling so strong, Hortense was the carriages, therefore, which run upon the Great This, in itself, gives travelling by railway a great supe

one well worthy of it. The betrothed pair had been Western must be necessarily confined to itself. The riority over all other modes of public conveyance. main object contemplated in this extreme width was the Talking of coachmon, reminds me of the wonder- fondly attached to one another from childhood, and laying on of a more powerful class of locomotives, and ful change which has taken place in the fortunes

of every thing was full of smiling promise for their

future happiness. this has been so far accomplished ; but it is extremely theso personages near the great lines of railway in

Such was the state of the two families when the standoubtful if the unwieldy size of the vehicles and other England. I heard of a town through which eighty dard of civil war was raised in the provinces, and a procircumstances, do not form a drawback which will more stage-coaches used to pass daily to and from London :

clamation addressed to the gentry of Bretagne, calling than compensate the anticipated advantages. The rails now there are only two. What a falling off for by this line are not laid, as is usually the case, on trans- coachce! The men had ample reason to foresee the upon them to take part with the republic. "In the abverse blocks of wood or masses of stone, but, like those coming day of distress, but they made no provision sence of her husband, who had gone abroad at the first

outbreak of the Revolution, Madame Josselin repaired of the Newcastle and Shields line, are placed on squared against it. In the town just mentioned, a company longitudinal beams of timber, secured at intervals by of fifty guards and coachmen have adopted the ex

* This tale is abridged from a French work, entitlel" The Horcross rivets of the same material. The notion is, pedient of public begging. They go about in a band, mit in the Provinces," the production of ul. E. Jouy, a wellnevertheless, from what cause I know not, only a with trumpets and other instruments, like a knot of | known traveller in his native land.

tures.

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