Abbildungen der Seite

with hor three sons to the chateau de Rochemaure, to Isidor addressed them in opposition to this design. | Isidor, do not even wish such a thing! I have seen take counsel with the old marquis as to the steps pro- He called to their recollection its founder, Oliver de my father expire, and death awaits my husband-yes, per for herself and her family to adopt in the existing Clisson, the terror of the Flemings, and scourge of the my husband, Isidor, and no power shall prevent me conjuncture. I was present (continued Lormet) at English ; and concluded by saying, that, in any case, sharing his fate. The two speakers wept for a time that consultation. The marquis advised Madame de they ought not to destroy the castle except by express in each other's embrace. But what a death, HorJosselin herself to join her husband without delay. 'As orders, ospecially as he had proposed to occupy it as a tense -oh, you know not all its horrors !'' We to your sons,' said the marquis, they should remem- favourable station for continuing the war. This little may escape, Isidor,' said she, in a whisper almost of ber the Athenian law, which condemned to death harangue had the desired effect. The castle was exultation ;' we are not without the means.' I turned overy citizen who did not take one side or another in evacuated, and Isidor made all possible haste to report round as she spoke, and saw that her features bore times of civil trouble. They held it base in any one the issue of the expedition to the officer above him in the marks of the deepest despair. to wait till he saw what would be his interest, before command, who, at the young soldier's own suggestion, It was now that I spoke to the ill-fated lovers, and declaring what his course was to be. Your sons are sent him back with a single picquet of cavalry, to that the deed was consummated which has made me now old enough to judge of their duty, and they should occupy Clisson and its neighbourhood. Isidor esta- spend my days in solitary prayer far from the dwellfollow it. For me, I am too old to bear arms in any blished his men in a building at the end of the park, ings of men.' Isidor and Hortense knew me instantly, cause, or to seek an asylum in a foreign land, and it is and then took an opportunity of entering alone the and, in the contemplation of my misfortunes, forgot my resolve to wait here the issue of events in quiet- deserted castle.

their own for a moment. But this forgetfulness could ness, so long as I am permitted to enjoy it. But The scene which then took place is not to be de- not last long. I told them I had overheard all, and the issue, I fear, will be dark and calamitous to all scribed. There Isidor, as he had been warned by the Isidor, with indescribable eagerness, besought me, if France.'

Vendean chief, found his beloved Hortense and her I could, to rescue Hortense from the horrible indigMadame de Josselin adopted the counsel of the grandfather, concealed in the secret chamber where nities of a death such as Carrier gave his victims. I marquis, and left the country with her youngest son. the family papers were kept. It may be imagined understood him too well. About my person I had a Her two elder children, notwithstanding the preju- with what terror the proposal to burn the castle in- small quantity of poison—the necessity was dreadful. dices of birth, had long been alive to the wrongs in. spired him. The secreted pair, he found, had been Why linger on the issue ? Believing that I was fiicted on the people of France by their superiors, and prepared to fly in the garb of peasants towards Paris, conferring a benefit, and indeed feeling that I was they gave in their adherenco, accordingly, to the po- jast before the castle was taken. Now, the scheme making a great personal sacrifice, I gave it to the pular cause. Isidor was immediately named com- was renewed. Isidor, over whose mind the remem- unhappy pair. It saved them from all sense of the mandant of a volunteer battalion of the Loire, and at brance of the terrible Carrier threw an inexpressible barbarities that followed in a few hours, when one the head of it was sent to Mayence to join General degree of alarm, counselled flight on the following day. hundred and twenty-five unfortunates, men, women, Kleber. But the hope which the young man had en- This being arranged, he tore himself from them, to and children, were taken on board a boat, tied totertained of being appointed to combat with his coun- avoid raising suspicion. An awful shock awaited him gether by pairs, and drowned in the Loire, in presence try's foreign enemies, was suddenly brought to an end. on rejoining his men, A paper was handed to him, of Carrier and his band. The accompanying brutalities The garrison of Mayence, of which he formed a part, containing these words : By order of the represen of the scene are not to be told. These were the too was ordered to La Vendée, the very province of his tatives of the people, Carrier and Francastel, the famous Noyades (drownings) of La Vendée ! þirth, and the abode of his Hortense. Against it was chief-of-battalion, Josselin, will instantly arrest and I saw (concluded Lormet) the bodies of Isidor and he to go as an enemy, and there

to engage in mortal conduct towards Nantes, the rebel Rochemaure, whom Hortense committed to the waters of the Loire. I contest with his countrymen and friends. So deeply he will find concealed in the Castle of Clisson,' &c. The myself underwent the same doom, but by a train of did this idea distress him, that, on reaching La Vendée unhappy young officer, as soon as night fell, returned accidental circumstances, which have no particular with General Kleber, whose favour he had completely to the castle, and without being able to articulate a interest, found myself rescued from death. For all gained, lsidor made an appeal to his commander to be word, placed the order in the hands of M. de Roche- that has happened to myself, I might still be among permitted temporarily to quit the army. But this mauro. I expected it," said the old man, calmly. men, but I prefer to remain

in solitude, and feed my appeal was met by a hint of the reflections which Hortense saw by the looks of her lover that some thoughts with the remembrance of the unhappy pair inight be thrown out against him by others, especially thing alarming had occurred. Tell me, Isidor, what with whose fate I was connected—a pair such, in peras a battle was hourly expected ; and Isidor at once has happened Tell me, I conjure you ! The youth son and mind, as heaven has seldom lent to earth.” saw that, at the moment at least, he could not ho- turned away his head, but the marquis answered for nourably be relieved from his painful situation. He him. It would be of no avail to conceal it. The MEMOIRS OF A RUSSIAN LADY OF remained, was present at the engagement of Tor- poor boy has received orders, my child, to arrest me.'

HONOUR.* fou, and had the honour of being advanced to the Hortense gave a cry of poignant distress, and threw rank of chief-of-brigade by Kleber, for his conduct on her arms around her grandsire. “We must all fly The Princess Daschkaw was the intimate friend of the field. But Kleber was immediately called to the instantly, cried Isidor, starting as if from stupor; one of the most remarkable personages of modern army of the north, and the subsequent disposition of the park adjoins a forest, which I have well exa- history, Catherine II., Empress of Russia. The vices things compelled Isidor to remain behind with his mined. We can find temporary safety there, at which stained the character of Catherine as a woman, battalion. His entreaties procured a promise, how- least, and may afterwards reach the hamlet beyond.: cannot prevent the world from taking a strong interest ever, that the general would send for him to the north That is what I was about to propose,' said the old in her as the able and successful ruler of a great emwithin a month afterwards.

marquis. You have no other way, Isidor, of saving pire ; and hence we peruse these volumes with no The inquiries of Isidor procured him intelligence your wife-yes, your wife ; for, from this moment, slight degree of curiosity. respecting Hortense and her grandfather, that at once Hortense is yours, and you must answer for her pro- The Princess Daschkaw was of the Worontzov pleased and vexed him. He learnt that the neutra- tection before heaven and before men! Such a thought family, one highly distinguished in the Russian annals, lity preserved by the marquis had not saved him from was capable of giving pleasure to the unfortunate pair, and several members of which were in office under the suspicion, and that he had been compelled to quit his even in that hour of distress ; and they kneeled down Empress Elizabeth, at the period of our heroine's birth, chateau, but had escaped with his grandaughter to to receive the old man's blessing. Having given this which took place in 1744. She was therefore much some place not known. Trusting that they were in with tears, the marquis continued to enjoin the neces- about the court even from her infancy. When littlo safety, the young soldier longed for the summons of sity of flight. My father, exclaimed Hortense, you more than fifteen, she was married to her countryman, Kleber, to take him from a scene where the fulfilment do not speak of yourself. The marquis now pointed Prince Daschkaw, to whom she was ever fondly atof his duty was so painful. But at this time Carrier, out the necessity of their separation. He said that tached. A story is told by her, which gives a striking the execrable Carrier, came to Nantes. With the his age and infirmities would but impede their flight, proof of her conjugal affection in the early years of eagerness of a bloodhound, this man caused the repub- and render it vain ; and that he himself would even her wedded life. After a temporary absence from lican soldiers to scour the country incessantly in search be safer alone. To all this Hortense had but one Moscow, where his family then lived, the prince reof prey. Isidor was forced to act under his orders for reply, No, no, I will never quit you! never ! turned to it in a state of ill health; and being unwilling a few days, and was sent with his battalion to take An hour was spent by the marquis in endeavouring to alarm the princess, at that time in a situation rethe Castle of Clisson, where several Vendean chiefs, it to combat this resolve of his grandchild. The period quiring such caution, drove first to his aunt's house. was known, were accustomed to meet. When 'in of safety was fast passing by, for Isidor had been in- Å giddy servant girl informed the poor young wife action, Isidor forgot all but his immediate duty, and formed that Carrier's detestable body-guard were to of his illness and secret return, and her fears magon this occasion he speedily made his way, at the head come at morning to meet him and receive his prisoners. nified the danger so greatly, that, in spite of her of a few of his men, into the castle. In a lower hall, he At length, finding Hortense still resolute, the marquis condition, she left her

chamber, and rushed through found five or six wounded Vendean officers. 'Surrender, arose, and, saying solemnly, Isidor, remember your the streets to the house where the prince was. I gentlemen,' cried Isidor, "and I pledge my word for duty to your wife,' went into a little side apartment. know not (she says) how I scrambled up a high the safety of your lives! His men echoed the pledge. In an instant, the sound of a pistol indicated that flight of steps which led to my husband's apart* You promise more than you can perform,' replied an the old man had sacrificed himself to terminate the ment. All I can tell is, that, on entering, I saw old Vendean officer, calmly. Once taken prisoners, scruples of his grandchild, and enable her to be saved ! him pale and extended on his bed. I caught but a we are in the hands of Carrier, not yours; and we It was with great difficulty, and only after a long momentary glimpse, and fell lifeless on the floor, and must certainly perish on the scaffold. Permit us to delay, that Isidor could separate Hortense from the in this state was conveyed home in a litter.” Prince go,' continued he after a pause, “and we shall yield body of her unfortunate parent. But he finally pre- Daschkaw believed at first that he had seen a vision, our arms, and engage never more to bear them against vailed upon her to quit the castle. The pair entered but he followed her home instantly. His complaint the republic. This was all that Isidor desired from the forest, and after walking till dawn, reached the being infectious, he was not allowed to see his wife, those whom he opposed in this civil struggle, and he banks of the Loire at the village of Broussards. They and the pair had to content themselves with writing consulted his comrades with the view of gaining their had the hope, if they could procure a boat to convey to each other hourly. Happily, both of them recovered. consent. Guided by him, they gave it at once, and them across the river, that they would then be in After “ forty long years of sorrow” for her husband's the officers were told that they were at liberty to comparative safety; and they were on the point of loss, the princess remembered these things, she says, depart. Before going, however, the old officer again entering one, when some soldiers, belonging to one of with profound pleasure ; and we confess to have been spoke. "I have another prayer to make,' said he. the roving bands of the republican army, were drawn also pleased, as well as prepossessed in her favour, by • Do not burn the castle. It was the cradle of a brave to the spot. The extraordinary beauty of Hortense finding, on the threshold of her memoirs, this strong, inan, and such an edifice should be sacred.' Having attracted the admiration of these ruffians, and they at- though certainly very foolish, proof of her affectionate said these words, he turned to Isidor, and whispered tempted to stop the embarkation. Isidor ordered them disposition and conjugal tenderness. a brief sentence in his ear, after which he departed to desist, announcing himself as the commandant of Catherine, afterwards Empress of Russia, was at with his friends.

Clisson ; but his words only bred suspicion, and he was this time grand-duchess, being wife to Peter, nephew That whisper affected Isidor most painfully. He compelled to draw his sword and repel them by force. and heir-apparent of the reigning sovereign Elizabeth. became deadly pale, and staggered back, as if struck More of the wretches came to the spot, however, and The circumstance which first drew the notice of Caby a cannon-shot. The sound of fire-arms recalled the unhappy lovers were both seized and hurried off therine to the Princess Daschkaw is worthy of nohim to activity, if not to composure, and he rushed out to Nantes, which was close by, for examination. The tice. “At the period of which I am speaking, there to discover the cause. Alas ! the poor Vendeans had anxiety of any person to escape was in these times fit were not two women in the empire, excepting the been observed by others of the investing band, and, cause for apprehension and execution.

grand-duchess and myself, who occupied themselves before a word of explanation could pass, had been shot On that day (continued Lormet) I myself had been at all in serious reading; here was a point of mutual on the spot. Immediately afterwards, the whole of thrown into prison. I was seated on a bench amid a attraction." The grand-duchess had abundance of the soldiers entered the castle, and a search oom- crowd of other unfortunates, not one of whom had time to devote to the amusement, for she was hated inenced, in which the young commander, contrary to even a hope of life, when my attention was attracted and deserted by her husband, a person described by his usual custom, appeared to take the inost active by a conversation close behind me. We shall at least the princess, and with justice, as an annoying blockshare. Under the plea of anxiety to full his duty, he die together, Isidor,' said a low female voice. “No, head. The two principal features in his character allowed no one to search but with himself. The task no, you shall not dió, Hortense !" was the reply ; 80 at length was finished, and then the troop, according to much youth, and beauty, and innocenco, must find * Memoirs of the Princess Darchkem, &c. Henry Colborn their usual custom, proceeded to set the place on iro. grace even with these monsters. If you love me, | London. I vols. 1840.


were, a strong love of all things military, and an in- quented this hotel, that I seriously set about upbraid farrier, a carpenter, a magistrate, a lawyer-In short, tense admiration of the Prussians, whose sovereign he ing M. Rebender, our chargé d'affaires, for allowing she daily practises every species of incongruity ; coractually termed “ the King my Master.” He was such an abominable monument of our disgrace to exist. responds with her brother, who holds the first post in perpetually surrounded by a band of officers, “who He gravely replied that it was quite out of his pro- the empire ; with authors, with philosophers, with had been for the most part corporals or sergeants in vince to repress grievances of such a nature ; but, Jews, with poets, with her son, with all her relatives ; the Prussian service, the truant sons of German shoe- madam,' said he, you are not the only one whom these and yet appears as if she had her time a burden on her makers, and such as had risen from the very dregs of battles have offended : Alexis Orloff, when he passed hands. She gives me continually the idea of her being the people. With these personages cover punch, through Dantzig some tiine ago, was at this same hotel, a fairy ; and protest it is not jokingly that I say so, tea, and tobacco,” and engaged in ridiculous games, and was no less

indignant at the pictures than yourself. for

the impression never quits me for a moment. the grand-duke passed his whole time. The Princess Why did he not, then, buy them,” said I, ‘at any price, The princess died in 1810. To the memoir of her Daschkaw was compelled to be sometimes present at and throw them into the fire ? Were I a twentieth life, there is appended a considerable amount of corthese entertainments, and was so little able to conceal part as rich, I would do so in a moment ; but, as that is respondence, and also an interesting narrative of the her contempt for the entertainer, as to give him replies not the case, I must have recourse to a plan which editor's own stay in Russia. Were it but for this now and then that caused his very familiars to stare, will, perhaps, answer as well.' As soon as our resident narrative alone, the work would be well worthy of the and exclaim,“

What a spirit that woman has !left us, I commissioned two gentlemen, MM. Woltch public notice. We conclude with an extract illusWhen the Empress Elizabeth was on her death-bed, koff and Schtellin—both belonging to our embassy at trative of Russian despotism :—“It is well known the prospect of danger to the grand-duchess Cathe- Berlin, whither they afterwards accompanied us--to that, during the reign of Peter I., it was the custom rine, from the accession of her husband to power, buy me some oil colours, blue, green, red, and white ; of that tyrant to punish those nobles who offended greatly alarmed the Princess Daschkaw. The revolu- and as soon as supper was over, and we had well barri-him, by an imperial order that they should become tion that overturned the government of a great em- caded the doors, these gentlemen, who knew how to fools ; from which moment, the unfortunate victim, pire, was concocted by this active and energetic handle a pencil

, assisted me in regaining these lost however endowed with intellect, instantly became the woman, who, on hearing that the empress was cer- battles, by changing the blue and white of the con- laughing-stock of the whole court; he had the privitainly dying, proceeded, in the middle of a winter quering Prussians into the green and red uniforms of lege of saying every thing he chose, at the peril, hownight, to the palace of the grand-duchess. The latter our Russian

heroes. It cost us the whole night to ever, of being kicked or horsewhipped, without daring was in bed. “. My dearest princess,' said she, “before achieve this twofold victory; and it must have occa- to offer any sort of retaliation ; every thing he did was you tell me what brings you out at such an extraor- sioned no little surprise and curiosity among the good ridiculed, his complaints treated as jests, and his sardinary hour, endeavour to warm yourself; you are, people of the house, to find that three of our party casms sneered at, and commented on, as marvellous indeed, too negligent of your health, which is so pre- were thus locked up together, and

their dull room, proofs of understanding in a fool. The Empress Anne cious to us all.", She then bade me get into the bed, hitherto the refuse of the yawning traveller, lighted surpassed this abominable cruelty, but sometimes and having well muffled up my feet, she at length up all night, and suddenly become the theatre of some mingled in her practices so much of oddity, that it allowed me to speak.” In this somewhat odd position, mysterious mirth. For my part, the idea so enchanted was impossible not to be entertained. Once she dethese two women first openly spoke of overthrowing me, that I was like a truant child, both fearful and creed that a certain Prince G— should become a the succession to the throne of Russia.

triumphant at the frolic. The next day, I had my hen, to punish him for some trifling misdemeanour; and Peter, however, at first obtained the sceptre peace- trunks unpacked in this same field of battle, as the for this purpose, she ordered a large basket, stuffed ably. Immediately afterwards, he began to annoy and only excuse I could offer for keeping every one out of with straw, and hollowed into a nest, with a quantity disgust every body. His passion for military parade it but those of our party and the two companions of of eggs inside, to be placed conspicuously in one of proved ludicrously troublesome to various respectable my prowess.”

the principal rooms at court. The prince was conold gentlemen who had all their days been peaceful The princess visited Scotland in 1778, and placed demned, on pain of death, to sit upon this nest, and civilians. " I could not help smiling when I perceived her son for a time at the University of Edinburgh, render himself to the last degree ridiculous, by imithe old prince Troubetskoy, who was at least seventy under the charge of Principal Robertson. “The very tating the cackling of a hen. This same empress was years of age, suddenly metamorphosed into a military names (says she) of Robertson, Blair, Adam Smith, very fond of the Countess Tchernicheff

, and frequently character, and now, for the first time in his life, arrayed and Ferguson, are sufficient to denote the privilege ordered her into her presence, to divert her by her in full uniform, braced tight as a drum, booted and and pleasure I enjoyed in their society.” She herself amusing conversation. This poor lady became, howspurred, and prepared for desperate combat. This was universally admired, alike for her wit and exten- ever, exceedingly unwell, and her legs swelled so viofearful vision was one of the dauntless warriors of the sive intelligence, as for her qualities

of heart, her up- lently, as to make it quite a martyrdom for her to court of Peter.” These and many worse propensi- rightness, and her benevolence. On returning to stand. The empress, never conceiving the possibility ties of the czar offended and alarmed the country, Russia, she received many marks of favour from of a subject being tired in the presence of her soveand paved the way for the revolution. This event Catherine, and at last that all-powerful personage, reign, and not wishing to deprive herself of the enterwas finally effected by a dashing stroke of the Princess having the belief, not unsupported by personal expe- tainment she experienced in her society, for a long Daschkaw. Having sounded the Ismaeloffsky guards, rience, that women could manage all sorts of affairs as time saw her suffering before her eyes, without offerand found their disposition favourable, she boldly well as men, actually named the princess “ Director ing the slightest relief. One day, however, perceiving ordered them out to receive the empress-consort, on of the Academy of Arts and Sciences !" To do the her ready to faint, and vainly trying to support herself, her entering the capital from Peterhoff. The guards princess justice, she obstinately resisted this nomina- first on one foot and then on the other, yet still forc obeyed; they received Catherine with shouts, and, tion. “ Appoint me (said she) directress of your ing her spirits into gaiety, the empress took compasbeing joined by the people, at once proclaimed her the majesty's washerwomen, and you shall see with what sion on her poor favourite, and said, “Thou mayest head of the empire. Peter was thrown into confine- zeal I am capable of serving you.” But the empress lean upon that table, and Anna Ivanovna (her mament, and was soon after most barbarously murdered. was peremptory, and the princess was obliged to suc- jesty's chief attendant) shall stand before thee, and The princess assuredly had nothing to do with this cumb. Once satisfied of the necessity for assuming screen thee from me, so that I may not see thy attimatter, and she also declares the empress entirely the office, she turned to the duties of it with her usual tude.'. With this anecdote of a female despot, we innocent of all share in it. Such may be the case, promptitude and good sense. Accompanied by the close these entertaining memoirs. but it is undeniable that the Orloffs, on whom thé illustrious Euler, she took her place at the head of the princess lays the guilt, were both before and after- Academy, and addressed them in a harangue full of wards the unworthy favourites of the empress. In point and force. The Academy was then in a state

POETRY OF GEORGE BUCHANAN. whatever manner it may be palliated, the murder of at once of decay and corruption. “I am resolved to The scholarship, integrity, and general talent of Peter reflects indelible disgrace on Catherine. allow not the smallest peculation (said she) in the George Buchanan, are universally acknowledged; but

We have perhaps spent too much time upon this offices." The academy was in debt, and that deeply, few persons are aware that his character had its soft matter, but our excuse is, that the compassing of this and its publications had been stopped. The princess as well as its stern features, and that he was a drarevolution, by which Russia was saved from a probably again published the Transactions of the body, and, in matic and lyrical poet whose strains must have still long career of gross tyranny, was the great event of order to pay the debt,“ had recourse to the expedient been familiar to his countrymen, if they had chanced the Princess Daschkaw's life. She lost her husband of offering those books for sale which were issued from to be expressed in a language readily and generally early, and in 1769 made a journey through Europe, the academic press, at thirty per cent. lower than the intelligible. He had studied the Greek and Roman which she repeated a few years afterwards, chiefly for established prices. From this source I had soon the poets, not as a pedagogue, but as a man of poetic the benefit of her children's health and education. means of paying these debts, of raising the stipends feeling and power, and it was rather his misfortune She visited France, and became intimate with many of all the professors, and also of establishing three new than his choice that, neglecting his own homely ver distinguished persons, among others Diderot and courses of lectures in mathematics, geometry, and nacular, he composed his verses in Latin. We proVoltaire. On being first introduced to the latter, she natural history, which were delivered gratuitously:" pose to introduce, in this place, a few specimens of found him in very bad health. “ He was supported In short, the princess put the academy to rights in his poetic talents, in an English dress, that our readers into the room by his valet-de-chambre, and placed on one year, without any external aid whatever. An may form some acquaintance with those portions of his his knees in a great chair, over the back of which he extraordinary sight it must have been to see the ablest character which we have remarked to be at present leant, and continued opposite to me in this uneasy men in the country standing idly by, totally unable to generally unknown. Here, of course, we must fail in posture during the whole of supper-time. This sort help themselves, while this talented woman was ac- a great measure to convey a due impression of the of constraint, perhaps, disappointed a good deal the tively and successfully labouring to relieve them. exquisite felicity of his language ; but it may be posexpectations I had formed from this visit.” On first The Prinoess Daschkaw survived her mistress, and sible to give some notion of the style of his ideas. hearing the princess speak, he behaved most charac- was exiled under Paul, a doom from which she was

He has many sprightly and graceful lyrics addressed teristically. - " He disconcerted me excessively by freed by Alexander. She spent the greater part of “ to Neara,” some of them in a strain only too volupraising up his arm in a theatrical manner, and with a her advanced life at Troitskoe, her estate near Mos- tuous for modern taste. Whether this was a creature tone of astonishment exclaiming, “What is this I cow; and here she was living in 1803, when visited by of his imagination or the object of a real passion, his hear? even her very voice is the voice of an angel! Miss M. Wilmot (now Mrs W. Bradford) a young biographers do not inform us ; but assuredly the latter As I came only to admire him, to be flattered so ex- English lady whose relatives she knew, and who has case seems the more probable one, when we consider travagantly was certainly the last thing in my thoughts acted as editor of these Memoirs, intrusted to her for the earnestness with which he addresses her. In one, --and so I believe I told him.” Voltaire, she also the purpose by the princess. The following excellent of which we give a translation by the late Mr Robert tells us, was much afraid of the ingenious trickery of sketch of the latter in her advanced days, is from the llogg of Peeblesshire, there is, it is true, some trace of a neighbour, M. Hubert, " who had a little favourite pen of Miss Wilmot's sister :-“I wish you were to the conceit of the Cowley school, but it is elegant dog with which he used to divert himself at the see the princess go out to take a walk, or rather to and playful conceit :other's expense by making him snap at a piece of look over her subjects. An old brown greatcoat, and

My wreck of mind, and all my woes, cheese, which, after two or three twists in his mouth, a silk handkerchief about her neck worn to rags, is

And all my ills, that day arose, turned out so exact a likeness of Voltaire, that one her dress; and well it may be worn to rags, for she

When on the fair Neæra's eyes, would have said it was a miniature copy of the famous has worn it eighteen years, and will continue to wear

Like stars that shine, bust of Pigal.” it as long as she lives, because it belonged to her friend

At first, in hapless fond surprise,

I gazed with mine. Another incident of her travels, of a still moro Mrs IIamilton. There is an originality in her appeardiverting description, may here be cited :-“At Dant- ance, in her manner of speaking, in her doing every

When my glance met her searching glanco

A shivering o'er my body burst, zig, where we were to remain a couple of nights, we description of thing, which distinguishes her from

As light leaves in the green woods dance, lodged at the Russian hotel, the most considerable in every creature I ever knew or heard of. She helps

When westert breezes stir them first; the place. On being shown into the large cating-room, the masons to build walls, she assists with her own My heart forth from my breast to go,

And mix with hers, already wanting, I was struck with two pictures, the subjects of which hands in making the roads, she feeds the cows, she

Now beat, now trembled to and fro, were battles lost by the Russian troops, who were composes music, she writes for the press ; she talks

With eager fondness leaping, panting. represented in groups of dead and dying, or on their out loud in the church, and corrects the priest if he is

Just as a boy, wh ourice woos him, knees, supplicating mercy of the victorious Prussians. not devout ; she talks out loud at her little theatre,

Folding his young limbs in her bosom, I was so scandalised at the figure my countrymen here and puts in the performers when they are out in their IIeeds not caresses from another, made, in the sight of travellers of all nations who fre- | parts ; she is a doctor, an apothecary, a surgeon, a But turns his eyes still to his mother,

When she may once regard him watches,
And forth his little fond arms stretches;

beautiful—a lamentation over the fallen state of Israel, named Victoria. Nothing has yet happened in her reign Just as a bird within the nest

by a band of Hebrew maidens, who serve in this play but the rebellion of Canada. Viscount Lord Melbourne That cannot fiy, yet constant trying,

the purpose of the chorus in the Greek drama :- is her favourite minister.-F. J."
Its weak wings on its tender breast
Beats with the vain desire of flying.

Oh! river Jordan, whose clear wave
Our vales of beauty waters,

A WORD OF ADVICE TO YOUNG LADIES. Thou, wary mind, thyself preparing

Hear those who now an answer crave, To live at peace from all ensnaring,

A choir of Judah's daughters:

[We find the following admirable paper in the New York That thou might'st never mischief oatch,

And thou, whose leaf-enshrouded peak

Mirror, April 18, 1840, in which it is stated to be a selection from Placed'st you, unhappy eyes, to watch

With snows is never hoary,

a popular work by Mrs Parrar. It abounds in good sense, and With vigilance that knew no rest,

From out thy palmy forests speak,

we recommend it to the careful perusal of our young femalo Beside the gateways of the breast;

Oh Sion, mount of glory! But you, induced by dalliance deep,

Shall ever our tear-laden eyes

readers.) Or guile, or overcome with sleep,

Behold that blissful morrow,

What a pity it is that the thousandth chance of a Or else have, of your own accord,

Which frees our land from foreign ties,

gentleman's becoming your lover should deprive you Consented to betray your lord ;

And breaks her bonds of sorrow? Both heart and soul then fled and left

The noble race of Israel pines,

of the pleasure of a free, unembarrassed, intellectual Me spiritless, of mind bereft.

By base oppressors wounded,

intercourse with all the single men of your acquaintThen cease to weep; use is there none,

And they who spurn'd proud Pharaoh's lines ance! Yet such is too commonly the case with young To think by weeping to atone;

Of chariots, spear-surrounded

ladies who have read a great many novels and romances, Since heart and spirit from me fled,

Who passed the Red Sea's stormy crowd

and whose heads are always running on love and lovers. You move not by the tears you sbed ;

Of billows, deep-divided,
And 'mid the desert sands unplough'd

Some one has said, that “matrimony is with women But go to her, entreat, obtain :

Without dismay abided

the great business of life, whereas with men it is only If you do not entreat and gain, Then will I ever make you gaze

Who bore without alarm the sight

an incident”—an important one, to be sure, but only Upon her, till in dark amaze

Of monstrous giant racesYou sightless in your sockets roll,

They of the timid Ammonite

one among many to which their attention is directed, Now drag the chariot-traces!

and often kept entirely out of view during several Extinguish'd by her eyes' bright blaze, As I have been deprived of heart and soul.

No greater shame than this, the base

years of their early life. Now, this difference gives To serve with tame devotion !

the other sex a great advantage over you; and the best It is not unworthy of remark, that Milton allades to

But Thou, great Sire, whose voice allays

way to equalise your lot, and become as wise as they this heroine of Buchanan in the well-known passage

The dark and troubled ocean,
Or can from slumbering calm upraise

are, is to think as little about it as they do.
“ To sport with Amaryllis in the shade,

Its waves to wild commotion

The less your mind dwells upon lovers and matriOr with the tangles of Neara's hair."

Who shak'st the firm and stable land

mony, the more agreeable and profitable will be your

Down to its deep foundations, The Ode on tlie First of May is one of the most

intercourse with gentlemen. If you regard men as And of the mobile, starry band

intellectual beings, who have access to certain sources poetical of the productions of Buchanan. It has been

Controllest the mutationsbeautifully translated by Archdeacon Wrangham, as

Oh, let the ills thy people bear

of knowledge of which you are deprived, and seek to follows:

Avert thine angry glances,

derive all the benefit you can from their peculiar And free us, by thy helping care,

attainments and experience—if you talk to them as Hail! sacred thou to sacred joy,

From all our sad mischances.

one rational being should with another, and never To mirth and wine, sweet First of May ! To sports, which no grave cares alloy,

We propose to add but one other specimen : it is a remind them that you are candidates for matrimony The sprightly dance, the festive play!

description, by a messenger, of the conduct of the will enjoy far more than you can by regarding Hail! thou, of ever-circling time

Hebrew maid, when, in accordance with her father's them under that one aspect of possible future admirers That gracest still the ceaseless flow !

vow, she prepares to die at the altar. The translation and lovers. When that is the ruling and absorbing Bright blossom of the season's prime,

of the above and of the following piece is from a thought, you have not the proper use of your faculties; Aye bastening on to winter's snow! manuscript by Mr Thomas Smibert

your manners are constrained and awkward, you are When first young Spring his angel face

When the doom'd maid before the altar stood,

easily embarrassed, and made to say what is ill-judged, On earth unveil'd, and years of gold Gilt with pure ray man's guileless race,

Her cheek, unused to meet the common eye,

silly, and out of place; and you defeat your own views Was deeply mantled o'er with modest blood,

by appearing to a great disadvantage. By law's stern terrors uncontrollid:

Like Indian ivory stain'd with purple dye,

However secret you may be in these speculations, Such was the soft and genial breeze,

Or roses mingled with the lily's snow;

if you are continually thinking of them, and attaching Mild Zephyr breathed on all around;

But on her face, along with this chaste glow, With grateful glee, to airs like these

An air of dauntless resolution shone,

undue importance to the acquaintance of gentlemen, Yielded its wealth th' unlabour'd ground.

And while all wept, she tearless stood alone;

it will most certainly show itself in your manners and With downward gaze, prepared to meet her fate,

conversation, and will betray a weakness that is held So fresh, so fragrant is the gale,

While all the people mourn'a her sad estate.
Which o'er the Islands of the Blest

in especial contempt by the stronger sex.

Some there recallid the father's recent deed,
Sweeps ; where nor aches the limbs assail,
Through which the land from bondage had been freed,

Since the customs of society have awarded to man
Nor age's peevish pains infest.

Then thought how dark would be his home, and lone,

the privilege of making the first advance towards Where thy hush'd groves, Elysium, sleep,

With that bright flower, its pride, for ever gone! matrimony, it is the safest and happiest way for woman Such winds with whisper'd murmurs blow;

Some mourn' the dark vicissitudes of fate,

to leave the matter entirely in his hands. She should So, where dull Lethe's waters creep,

Which makes awhile the heart of man elate,
They heave, scarce heave, the cypress-bough.

Then tempers all his hopes with sharp annoy,

be so educated as to consider that the great end of And clouds with years of grief his day of joy.

existence-preparation for eternity--may be equally And such, when heaven with penal flame

Others bewail'd the victim's piteous case

attained in married or single life, and that no union Shall purge the globe, that golden day

Thought of her youthful loveliness and grace,

but the most perfect one is at all desirable. MatriRestoring, o'er man's brighten'd frame

Her starlike eyes and flowing hair of gold,

mony should be considered as an incident in life, which, Haply such gale again shall play.

And heart above a woman's nature bold. Hail, thou, the fleet year's pride and prime !

It seem'a, indeed, as Heaven had deign'd to shed,

if it come at all, must come without any contrivance Hail, day which Fame should bid to bloom !

In that last hour, new charms around her head; of yours, and therefore you may safely put aside all Hail, image of primeval time!

As the sun's splendour deepens, when he laves

thoughts of it till some one forces the subject upon Hail, sample of a world to come!

His burnish'd tresses in the western waves;

your notice by professions of a particular interest in Or as the rose, when days of flowers are o'er,

you. Buchanan also wrote a longer and more elaborate Seems to the sense still sweeter than before. poem on May-day, which has never, as far as we know, So, standing thus upon the verge of death,

Lively, ingenuous, conversable, and charming little been published in an English form. Of this poem the

Prepared and willing to resign her breath,

girls, are often spoiled into dull, bashful, silent young late Professor Christison of the University of Edin

Untouch'd by fear, she drew the awe-struck gaze, ladies, and all because their heads are full of nonsense

And solemn silence fell on all, and deep amaze. * * about beaux and lovers. They have a thousand burgh was an enthusiastic admirer : he used to recite

Lifting her eyes to heaven, the high-soul'd maid

thoughts and feelings which they would be ashamed portions of it to his class, at the same time pointing With holy lips, and steady accents, pray'd : out its many beauties. From a manuscript transla

“Eternal Sire, and Architect of all,

to confess, though not ashamed to entertain ; and their

Incline an ear unto thy servant's call; tion by Mr Hogg, we present a few of the descriptive

pre-occupation with a subject which they had better Look down in pity on this erring race,

let entirely alone, prevents their being the agreeable passages :

And let my spirit meet a Father's grace.

and rational companions of the gentlemen of their Now sports invite, and with them move along

Oh! if thine ire still unappeased remain, The freakish dance, and soothing love and song,

Whate'er the doom reserved to cleanse the stain

acquaintance which they were designed to be. And joy, which not its usual check restrains,

Of leaving thee for gods of stone and clay,

Girls get into all sorts of scrapes by this undue In riotous indulgence boundless reigns. * *

May this my blood the hand of justice stay!

preoccupation of mind ; they misconstrue the comThe stormy clouds float now in fleecy wreaths,

Oh! that not once alone the stream could flow !

monest attentions into marks of particular regard, and Among the leaves a breeze more gentle breathes ;

If Judah's land may buy redemption so,

thus nourish a fancy for a person who has never once Robes of a lovelier groen the earth array

Let all thy anger, Lord, descend on me, More plenteous foliage the woods display,

Although a thousand deaths the price should be !"

thought of them but as an agreeable acquaintance. And o'er gay fields are cattle sporting gay ;

Then cried she to the priest, who shook with fear, They lose the enjoyment of a party, if certain beaux The horse, from toil set free, upon the plain

" Approach ! there is no cause for terror here!

are not there whom they expected to meet ; they Gambols, and tosses oft his flowing mane.

Throw ope the gates that shut the soul in clay,

become jealous of their best friends, if the beaux Now in the shade, the shepherd, stretch'd along,

And let my spirit leave this earthly day, Dispels solicitude with artless song,

That so my parent's vow from all may pass away!"

are there, and do not talk to them as much as they

wish ; every trifle is magnified into something of imOr lists its murmurs as the stream flows by, Or sleep invites 'mong fragrant grass to lie.

portance—a fruitful source of misery-and things of The angler, sitting by the placid brook,


real importance are neglected for chimeras. And all Watches his slender tremulous line; his hook,

The following very luminous “Description and History this gratuitous pains-taking defeats its own ends! That tells its errand, lingers to repair,

of England," was lately written as a school essay by a The labour is all in vain ; euch girls are not the most Or loosens ravellid lines with cautious care. young lady in London, of cleven years of age :

popular; and those who seem never to have thought To the tree planted near, the vine-twig cleaves,

“ The chief town of England is London. It is a merry about matrimony at all, are sought and preferred And clothes its naked trunk with borrow'd leaves; busy place. There are a great many people in it. It is before them. The apple blossoms paint the grove; the vine

very sooty. There are no fields in London, but it is full Prepares its clusters ; rich in prospect shine

We have been shown, in the most striking manner, The sunny fields, and Tityrus prepares

of houses; and there are several parks and squares for For you white lilies, Thestylis, and bears

the people to walk in. The country is quite different by Miss Edgeworth, how “ maneuvring” to get husFruits of a mingled gold and purple hue,

from London. It is full of fields, which are divided by bands defeats its own aims in the old country; and its In basket wove of shrubs on which they grew;

hedges. There are four seasons in England: spring, want of success here is even more complete. Where The swallow and the nightingale he brings,

summer, autumn, and winter. In spring, the leaves of there is a fair chance of every woman's being married And pigeons with their young beneath their wings. * *

the trees become green, and there are buds to the flowers. who wishes it, the more things are left to their natural One of the dramas of Buchanan is formed upon the In summer, the flowers are in blossom, the birds sing, course the better. Where girls are brought up to be death of the Baptist, which our poet represents as and the fruit, which was green in spring, gets quite ripe. good daughters and sisters, to consider the developechiefly brought about by two priests of the temple. England has had thirty-two kings, besides three queens. ment of their own intellectual and moral natures as In these personages there can be no doubt that The kings' names are William the First, who built the the great business of life, and to view matrimony as a Buchanan described bigots of his own age and of the Tower of London, and made

Doomsday-Book. He also good, only when it comes

unsought, and marked by faith which he had himself deserted ; that he thus made a law which divided the land between earldoms, such'a fitness of things, inward and outward, as shows made a shrewd guess at the characters of the perse- by an arrow whilst he was hunting in the New Forest

. it to be one of the appointments of God, they willfully cutors of an earlier day, no reader of the present age He built Westminster Abbey

for his dining-room,

which enjoy their years of single life, free from all anxiety can doubt, for characters absolutely identical are every was two hundred feet long. He reigned thirteen years. about being established, and will generally be the first where seen around us. The tragedy of “ Jephthah," He was the brother of three other

boys, the youngest
of sought in marriage by the wise and

good of the other as might be expected from the subject, is of tenderer whom died young. His father ascended the throne in sex ; whereas those who are brought up to think the interest, and presents many eloquent passages. The 1066. Henry the First reigned twenty-one years. Oliver great business of life is to get married, and who spend following extract contains perhaps one of the most Cromwell had a son. The queen who is now reigning is I their lives in plans and maneuvres to bring it about,


are the very ones who remain single, or, what is worse, is the greatest enemie hee hath the world.” Such heart," that he still denied all, and resolutely declared make unhappy matches.

an eulogy, from such a quarter, could not but pamper that “all he had done and said before was only done Hew strange a thing it is, in the constitution of the conceit of “the Scottish Solomon."

and said for fear of the paynes which he had enEnglish and American society, that the subject, of all The following further points in the deposition of dured.” As, according to this fashion of justice, te others the most important and the most delicate, Agnes Sampson are worthy of notice. Item, She confess or not to confess was quite the same thing, the should be that on which every body is most given to went with the witch of Carrieburn, and other witches, poor schoclmaster of Saltpans was soon afterwards joke and banter their friends. Much mischief has to the kirk of Newton, and taking up dead folks and strangled, and then burned on the Castlebill of Edinbeen done by this coarse interference of the world in jointing them [cutting off fingers, &c.], made enchanted burgh (January 1591). what ought to be the most private and sacred of our powders for witchcraft. Item, She went with other Much about the same time that Agnes Sampson earthly concerns; and every refined, delicato, and witches in a boat, the devil going before them like a made her confessions, some cases occurred, showing high-minded girl, should set her face against it, and, rock of hay. Item, The devil, in the shape of a dog, that witchcraft was an art not confined to the vulgar by scrupulously refraining from such jokes herself, gave her responses concerning her laird's recovery, A woman of high rank and family, Catharine Ross, give no one a right to indulge in them at her expense. and endeavoured to put awa ane of the ladies' daugh- Lady Fowlis, was indicted at the instance of the

Well-educated girls have a wide range of topics, ters. Item, She raised a universal great storm in the king's advocate for the practice of witchcraft. On which afford plenty of agreeable and useful discussion sea when the queen was coming to Scotland, and inquiry it was clearly proved that this lady had endeabetween them and their gentlemen friends; and it is wrote a letter to that effect to a witch in Leith. Itom, voured, by the aid of witchcraft and poisonis, to take much better to talk with them, and with your female She used this prayer in the healing of sickness :- away the lives of three or more persons who stood friends, of things and of people-of books, pictures,

All kinds of ill that ever may be, &c.

between her and an object she had at heart. She was and the beauties and wonders of nature-than of Miss

desirous to make young Lady Fowlis possessor of the A—'s spoiled complexion, or Mr B—'s broken The repetition of these and such like verses by the property of Fowlis, and to marry her to the laird engagement, or the quarrel between Cand D- confessing witches, has been matter of frequent sur- of Balnagown. Before this could be effected, Lady If you are familiar with the works of great minds, prise. But it must be remembered that a code of Fowlis had to cut off her sons-in-law, Robert and and spend much time in reading them, or if you love witchcraft, extensively known and accredited, existed Hector Munro, and the young wife of Balnagown, nature and scientific researches, you need not be told at that day, regular forms and rules for its exercise besides several others. Having consulted with witches, to avoid gossip, you will have no relish for it. If not having been laid down in the course of time. It Lady Fowlis began her work by getting pictures of possessed of much mental cultivation, you may yet must be recollected, also, that these poor creatures, the intended victims made in clay, which she hung find topics enough without talking of people ; and it though guiltless of all supernatural intercourse, had up, and shot at with arrows shod with flints of a paris so difficult to do that, without sinning against truth really pretended to the gift of healing by charms and ticular kind, called elf-arrow heads. No effect being or charity, that it is best to avoid it whenever you can. incantations in many cases, and had to invent or thus produced, this really abandoned woman took

learn formulas for the purpose. Besides, we find to poisoning ale and dishes, none of which cut off the SKETCHES OF SUPERSTITIONS.

these doggrel scraps chiefly in the revelations of proper persons, though others who accidentally tasted

Agnes Sampson. She, it is stated, could write, and them lost their lives. By the confession of some of WITCHCRAFT IN SCOTLAND.

of course could read also ; and hence she is to be the assistant hags, the purposes of Lady Fowlis were The mania respecting witchcraft-for such it might regarded as a person who had had superior oppor discovered, and she was brought to trial; but a local be called—which sprang up into vigour throughout craft code, as well as superior capabilities for filling of her purposed victims, Hector Munro, was then tried southern Europe in consequence of the edicts of Inno-up deficiencies on the spur of the moment. In her in turn for conspiring with witches against the life of cent and Leo, spread in time to Scotland, and ac

confession she implicated one Doctor Fian, otherwise his brother George. It was proved that a curious quired strong possession of the public mind during called John

Cunningham, master of the school at ceremony had been practised to effect this end. Hec. the reign of Queen Mary; At that period, an act Saltpans, in Lothian, a man whose story may be tor, being sick, was carried abroad in blankets, and was passed by the Scottish parliament for the sup- noticed at some length, as one of the most curious and laid in an open gravo, on which his foster-mother ran pression and punishment of witchcraft; but this instructive in the whole annals of Scottish witch- the breadth of nine riggs, and, returning, was asked only served, as the papal bulls bad done, to concraft.

by the chief attendant witch, " which she chose should firm the people in their maniacal credulity, and to

Mrs Sampson deposed that Dr Fian was always a live, Hector or George pe Śhe answered, "Hector.” countenance and propagate the general delusion. In prominent person at the witch-meetings, and Geillis George Munro did die soon afterwards, and Hector terms of these ill-judged statutes, great numbers of Duncan, the marvellous

trump-player, confirmed this recovered. The latter was also acquitted, by a propersons, male as well as female, were charged with

assertion. having intercourse with the devil,convicted, and burned

Whether made through heedlessness or vincial jury, on his trial.

These disgraceful proceedings were not without on the Castlehill of Edinburgh and elsewhere. This malice, these averments

decided Fian's fate. He was continued during the earlier part of the reign of seized, and after being used with the accustomed paine their parallel in other families of note of the day. James VI, whose mind, unfortunately for the more by thrawing of his head with a rope, whereat he would Lord Cliftonhall, was burned at the stake in 1591, hav.

provided for those offences inflicted upon the rest, first, Euphemia Macalzean, Adaughter of an eminent judge, aged of the female part of his subjects, was deeply confess nothing;" and, secondly, being urged" by fair ing been convicted, if not of witchcraft, at least of a impressed with the flagrant nature of the crime of meanes to confesse his follies," which had as little long career of intercourse with pretenders to witchwitchcraft. In 1590, James, it is well known, made a effect ; " lastly, hee was put to the most severe and craft, whom she employed to remove obnoxious per voyage to Denmark to see, marry, and conduct home cruell paine in the world, called the bootes, when, sons out of her way-tasks which they accomplished in person, his appointed bride, the Princess Anne, after he had received three strokes, being inquired if by the very simple means of poisoning, where they Soon after his arrival, a tremendous witch conspiracy he would confesse his actes and wicked life, his tongue did accomplish them at all. The jury found this vioagainst the happy conclusion of his homeward voy would not serve him to speake ; in respect whereof, lent and abandoned woman, for such she certainly was, age was discovered, in which the principal agents the rest of the witches willed to search his tongue, guilty of participation in the murder of her own god. appeared to be persons considerably above the vulgar. under which was founde two pinnes thrust up into father, of her husband's nephew, and another indiviOne was Mrs Ágnes Sampson, commonly called the the heade, whereupon the witches did say, now is the dual. They also found

her guilty of having been at Wise Wife of Keith (Keith being a village in East charme stinted, and showed that those charmed

pins the Wise

Woman of Keith's great witch-convention Lothian), who is described as “grave, matron-like, and settled in her answers.

were the cause he could not confesse any thing; then of North Berwick ; but overy witch of the day was On this occasion, the king was he immediately released of the bootes, brought compelled to admit having been there, out of compliwas induced by his peculiar tastes to engage personally before the king, and his confession was taken.” Ap- ment to the king, to whom it was a source of agreeable in the business of judicial investigation. He had all palled by the cruel tortures he had undergone, Fian terror to think himself of so much importance as to the accused persons brought before himself for examination, and even superintended the tortures applied get up a story that should bring him to a speedy overthrow him., Euphemia Macalzean was a burnt in

seems now only to have thought how he could best call for a solemn convocation of the powers of evil to to them to induce confession. The statements made death. He admitted himself to be the devil's " regis- assis, quick, to the death." This was a doom not asby these poor wretches form a singular tissue of the ter," or clerk, who took the oaths from all witches at signed to the less guilty. Alluding to cases of this ludicrous and horrible in intimate union. “The said. Agnis Sampson was after brought again various persons. In proof of the latter statement he Quarterly Review remarks,

" in the trials of Bessie their initiation, and avowed his having bewitched latter class, a writer (already quoted) in the Foreign before the king's majestie and his council, and being instanced the case of a gentleman near Saltpans, Roy, of James Reid, of Patrick Currie, of Isobel examined of the meetings and detestable dealings of whom he had so practised upon, he said, that the Grierson, and of Grizel Gardiner, the charges are printhose witches, she confessed, that upon the night of victim fell into fits at intervals. This person, wha cipally of taking off and laying on diseases either on All-Hallow-even she was accompanied, as well with the persons aforesaid, as also with a great many other

seems to have been either a lunatic or afflicted with men or cattle ; meetings with the devil in various witches, to the number of two hundred, and that all St Vitus's dance, was sent for, and being in his shapes and places ; raising and dismembering dead they together went to sea, each one in a riddle, or and fell into madnesse, sometimes bending himself, crops ; scaring honest persons in the shape of cats;

majestie's chamber, suddenly hee gave a great scritch, bodies for the purpose of enchantments; destroying sieve, and went in the same very substantially, with and sometimes capring so directly up, that his heade taking away women's milk ; committing housebreakflaggons of wine, making merrie and drinking by the did touch the seeling of the chamber, to the great ing and theft by means of enchantments, and so on. way in the same riddles, or sievos, to the Kirk of admiration of his majestie.” On these and other ac- South-running water, salt, rowan-tree, enchanted flints North-Berwick, in Lothian, and that after they had counts Dr Fian was sent to prison, but he contrived (probably elf-arrow heads), and doggrel verses, gene landed, took hands on the land, and danced this reil, soon after to escape from it." “ By meanes of a hot rally a translation of the creed or Lord's Prayer, were or short daunce, singing all with one voice,

and harde pursuite,” he was retaken, and brought be the means employed for effecting a cure." Diseases, Cummer, goe ye before, cummer, goo ye;

fore the king, to be examined anew. But the unfor- again, were laid on by forming pictures of clay or wax; Gif ye will not goe beforo, cummer, let me.'

tunate man had had time to think, and, like Cranmer by placing a dead hand, or some mutilated member, At which she confessed that Geillis Duncan did goe under somewhat similar circumstances, resolved to in the house of the intended victim ; or by throwing before them, playing this reil or daunce upon a small retract the admissions which the weakness of the body enchanted articles at his door. A good purpose did trump, called a Jew's harp, until they entered into the had drawn from him, and to suffer any thing rather not save the witch ; intercourse with spirits, in any Kirk of North-Berwick. These made the king in a than renew them. He boldly told this to the king; shape, being the crime. wonderful admiration, and he sent for the said Geillis and James, whom these records make us regard with Of course, in the revelations of the various witches Duncan, who upon the like trump did play the said equal contempt and indignation, ordered the unfortu- inconsistencies were abundant, and even plain and daunce before the king's majestie, who, in respect of nate man to be subjected to the following most horrible evident impossibilities were frequently among the the strangeness of these matters, took great delight to tortures. “ His nailes upon all his fingers were riven things averred. The sapient James, however, in place be present at their examinations."

and pulled off with an instrument called in Scottish of being led by these things to doubt the whole, was In the sequel of Agnes Sampson's confession we a turkas, which in England are called a payre of only strengthened in his opinions, it being a maxim of find some special reasons for the king's passionato pincers, and under everie nayle there was thrust in his, that the witches were all extreme lyars.” Other liking for these exhibitions, in addition to the mere two needles over, even up to the heades ; at all which persons came to different conclusions from the same love of the marvellous. The witches pandered to his tormentes, notwithstanding, the doctor never shrunk premises, and before the close of James's reign, many vanity on all occasions, probably in the vain hope of a whit, neither would he then confesse it the sooner men of sense began to weary of the torturings and mitigating their own doom. Agnes Sampson de. for all the tortures inflicted on him. Then was hee, incremations that took place almost every day, in town clared that one great object with Satan and his agents with all convenient speed, by commandement, convaied or country, and had done so for a period of thirty years was to destroy the king; that they had held the groat again to the torment of the bootes, wherein he conti- (betwixt 1590 and 1620). Advocates now came for North Berwick convention for no other end ; and that nued a long time, and did abide so many blowes in ward to defend the accused, and in their pleadings they had endeavoured to effect their aim on many them, that his legges were crusht and beaten together ventured even to arraign some of the received axioms occasions, and particularly by raising a storm at sea as small as might bee, whereby they were made unser- of " Daemonologie" laid down by the king himself, in when James came across from Denmark. “ The viceablo for ever." Notwithstanding all this, such was a book bearing that name. The removal of James to witches demanded of the divell why he did beare such the strength of mind of the victim, or, as King James England moderated, but did not altogether stop, the batred to the kingi who answered, by reason the king termed it, “ so deeply had the devil entered into his witch prosecutions. After his death they slackened


[ocr errors]

more considerably. Only eight witchcraft cases are the flames ! And for what? For an impossible crime ! were furnished with wings, which carried them through

the Record as having occurred between 1625 And who were the victims, and who the executioners ? the air to a great distance. As an example of this deand 1640 in Scotland, and in one of these cases, The victims, in by far the majority of cases, were the scription of seeds, it would be sufficient to mention those remarkable to tell, the accused escaped. The mania, aged, the weak, the deformed, the lame, and the blind; of the mahogany and bignonia grandiflora. Some seeds as it appears, was beginning to wear itself ont. those to whom nature had been ungentle in her out

also possessed clastic balls, or balloons, to aid their transever, which it gradually did during the latter part of to poverty and wretchedness ; exactly that class of cells, one of which was inflated with air, while the other

As the spirit of puritanism gained grength, how. ward gifts, or whom years and infirmities had doomed port through the air, and ensure their proper contact the reign of Charles I., the partially cleared horizon miserable beings, in short, for whom more enlightened contained the seed, and by its weight descended on that became again overcast, and again was this owing to times provide houses of refuge, and endow charitable side towards the earth. There were other plants which ill-judged edicts, which, by indicating the belief of the institutions, aiming, in the spirit of true benevolence, actually planted their own seeds, the tips of the branches great and the educated in witchcraft, had the natural to supply to them that attention and support which to which the seed pods were attached gradually bending effect of reviving the frensy among the flexible po- nature or circumstances have denied them the power towards the earth, and forcing the seeds into the ground. pulace. The General Assembly was the body in fault of procuring for themselves. Often, too, was the The falling seeds of the cannon-ball tree," which on this occasion, and from this time forward the clergy victim a person distinguished by particular gifts and flourished in tropical climates, as they rebounded from were the great witch-hunters in Scotland. The As endowments ; gifts bestowed by the Creator in kind the earth, sounded through the forest like the

running sembly passed condemnatory acts in 1640, 43, 44, 45, ness, but rendered fatal to the possessor by man.

fire of musketry; and the balls, which were perfectly and 49, and with every successivo act, the cases and These were the victims of witchcraft. The execu

spherical, presented the appearance as if military had convictions increased, with oven a deeper degree of tioners were the wisest and greatest of their time. hermandia sonora, there was a circular orifice below, and

bivouacked around the spot. In the seed-vessels of the attendant horrors than at any previous time. « The Men distinguished above their fellows for knowledge the seeds were disposed at intervals within, so that as old impossible and abominable fancies,” says the and intelligence, ministers of religion and of the laws, the breeze whistled through spaces between the seeds, the review formerly quoted, “ of the Malleus were revived. kings, princes, and nobles—these and such as these tree became vocal, and was known to the negroes of the About thirty trials appear on the Record between judged of the crime, pronounced the doom, and sent West India islands by the familiar name of “ Jack in the 1649 and the Restoration, only one of which appears the poor victims of delusion to the torture, the stake, Box.” A friend of his had informed him that there was to hare terminated in an acquittal ; while at a single and the scaffold.

valley in Barbadoes called, from the number of these eireuit, held at Glasgow, Stirling, and Ayr, in 1659,

trees which it contained, " The valley of Jack in the seventeen persons were convicted and burnt for this


Box," and that he had often sat at its entrance listening crime." But it must be remembered that the phrase The following notice of a lecture on this interesting sub- the branches, as the zephyrs Huttered in the woods or

with delight to these natural Æolian harps, strung among * on the Record” alludes only to justiciary trials, ject, delivered a short timo ago by Mr Murray to the swept between the hills. which formed but a small proportion of the cases members of the Birmingham Athenæum, appears in a really tried. The justiciary lists take no note

of the late Birmingham paper: commissions perpetually given by the Privy-Council After a brief recapitulation of his previous lecture, Mr to resident gentlemen and clergymen to try and burn Murray noticed some important advantages which had

VIEW OF A CLASSICAL SCHOOL. witches in their respective districts. These commis- resulted to man from a close examination of the structure The extent to which classical education, as it is called, ions executed people over the whole country in mul- and physiology of the products of vegetation. Amongst has long been carried in this country, to the almost situdes. Wodrow, Lamont, Mercer, and Whitelocke, other interesting facts, he stated that the peculiar form entire exclusion of instruction of every other kind, has prove this but too satisfactorily.

and shape of the trunk of the oak imparted to Smeaton been more than once commented on in this periodical, The clergy continued, after the Restoration, to pur- the idea of his wonderful structure, the Eddystone Light- and the injurious consequences of the practice pointed sue these imaginary criminals with a zeal altogether house. He also adverted to the structure of floating out. While admitting

the standard writings of Greece deplorable. The Justiciary Court condemned twenty breakwaters, which were exact copies from nature, being and Rome to be fair adjuncts to an elegant educapersons in the first year of Charles II.'s reign constructed on the principle exhibited in the forms of the tion, or, in other words, to constitute an agreeable (1661), and in one day of the same year the council white wateralily.etchin_noticing incidentally the great branch of the belles lettres, the custom of imbuing issued fourteen new provincial commissions, the aggre- attained, Mr Murray adverted to the great sycamore, or

the mind of youth with that species of knowledge gate doings of which one shudders to guess at. To mammoth tree, from Salt River, bordering on Kentucky alone, and neglecting all those departments of it calcompute their condemnations would be impossible, for and Indiana The inner portion of this giant trce, which culated to be of use in after-life, was reprobated as victim after victim perished at the stake, unnamed

is supposed to be some thousand years old, had long alike absurd and deleterious. If, in common with and unheard of. Morayshire became at this parti- since decayed, and there were large apertures in it which many able contemporaries, we held this opinion forcular period the scene of a violent fit of the great were used as doorways. Before cutting, it measured merly, we must say, that something has recently fallen moral frenzy, and some of the most remarkable ex, seventy-two feet in circumference near the base, and five under our eye, which confirms it, and indeed doubles aminations signalising the whole course of Scottish or six years previously, when in a more perfect state, it its strength. Lighting on a past number of the witchcraft took place in that county. The details, measured considerably more. Amongst other extraor- Quarterly Journal of Education, we there found a though occasionally ludicrous from their absurdity, dinary circumstances connected with the history of this sketch of the daily and sessional business of one of the are too horrible for narration in the present pages.

tree, probably the largest ever grown on the American most ancient and distinguished schools of England. The popular frenzy seems to have exhausted itself continent, it is stated that it frequently served as a shel

: It was originally founded by a man of large property, by its own virulence in 1661–62, for an interval of six tercfor parties of travelers with their teams, and that whose purpose was to make it a free school

, for the years subsequently elapsed without a single justiciary Amongst examples of the opposite extreme exhibited in trial for the crime of witchcraft, and one fellow was

the productions of the vegetable kingdom, he noticed the ated ; but the very liberality of the founder had the actually whipped for charging some person with it. cabbage palm of tropical climates, which sometimes effect, in the course of time, of rendering the school a After this period, the dying embers of the delusion reached an altitude of 200 feet, with a stein not exceed- fashionable one, and unfitting it as a place of instruc only burst out on occasions, here and there, into a ing four inches in circumference; while some pines had tion for any but the children of the richer orders. momentary flame. In 1678, several women were con been found to attain a height of 400 feet. The lecturer Masters of the very highest erinence for scholarship demned, on their own confession,” says the Regis- next proceeded to describe that beautiful portion of the were secured by the amplitude of the funds, and the ter; but we suspect this only means, in reality, that plant, the blossom, and the mechanism exhibited in the consequence was the progressive influx of the children one malicious being made voluntary admissions in opening and shutting of flowers, in connection with the of the nobility and people of rank, whose attendance at volving others, as must often have been the case, wo temperature and hygrometry of the atmosphere. Many the seminary was in a great measure incompatible with fear, in these proceedings. Scattered cases took place lowers closed at the declino of day, and remained shut that of the poorer orders. The school, in short, is now

during night; while others changed their

hues so rapidly, almost exclusively one for the youth of the nobility near the beginning of the eighteenth century, such as those at Paisley in 1697, at Pittenweem in 1704, and ture was obliged to wait the return of successive days,

and gentry of England. at Spott about the same time. It is curious, that, as in order to depict a particular colour. The hibiscus mu

And what is here taught to the youth of the Engsomething like direct evidence became necessary for tabilis unfolded its blossoms green in the morning;

they lish nobility and gentry-those to whom the country condemnation, that evidence presented itself, and in afterwards changed to white ; about noon they became is to look for its legislators, rulers, peers, and prelates the shape of possessed or enchanted young persons, red; and in the evening they changed to a rose tint or a -those in whose hands is hereditarily vested the bulk who were brought into court to play off their tricks. crimson. All these changes had been found to be con- of the soil of England, and who consequently have The most striking case of this nature was that of nected with the varying temperature of the atmosphere. under their control the fortunes and comforts of a Christian Shaw, a girl about eleven years old, and the The distribution of colour would, therefore, be found to vast portion of their fellow-countrymen - what is daughter of Mr Shaw of Bargarran, in Renfrewshire. possess its geography on the surface of the globe. White taught, at the school in question, to this most imporThis wretched girl, who seeins to have been an ac

and blue flowers prevailed as we advanced to the polar tant classDo we find them imbued with a knowcomplished bypocrite, young as she was, quarrelled regions ; cloth of golda arrayed temperate climes; and ledge of the past history of their own country, and with a maid-servant, and, to be revenged, fell into : vermilion livery clothed the land of the sun" between enlightened as to the modes of government which have convulsions, saw spirits, and, in short, feigned herself White and blue prevailed in spring, scarlet in summer instructed in all that relates to its commerce, on

injured or benefited it ? Do we find them anxiously bewitched. To sustain her story, she accused one

and the autumn had its " sere and yellow leaf." The person after another, till not less than twenty were lecturer here incidentally adverted to the theory of some

which its welfare so largely depends? Do we find implicated, some of them children of the ages of twelve botanists who contended that flowers were merely meta- their attention called to those wonders of science, and fourteon! They were tried on the evidence of morphosed leaves, observing, that the doctrine of " mor- practical and speculative, which have raised it to the the girl, and five human beings perished through her phology,” as it was called, was totally irreconcilable first place among the nations, and the farther developer malicious impostures. It is remarkable that this very with sound logic or common sense. The independence ment of which must exert so great an effect on its girl afterwards founded the thread manufacture in of flowers and leaves could not be controverted. The future interests? Do we find them, in short, trained Renfrewshire. From a friend who had been in Hol sloe was a milk-white sheet of blossom before the leaves in such a way as becomes those who are to bo the first land, she learnt some secrets in spinning, and, putting appeared, and the almond tree blossomed tefore the

men in a great country, to be its legislators and guides them skilfully in practice, she led the way to the

ex- foliage expanded. The hazel, too, displayed the pendant in an age of knowledge and improvement, and to serve tensive operations carried on in that department of ensigns of its catkins while the leaves yet remained

as the skilful guardians of its many interests ? late years. She became the wife of the minister of rolled up in the cerements of the buds. The truth was,

For centuries, the course of education at this schow Kilmaurs, and, it is to be hoped, had leisure and grace different. In glancing at the interesting phenomenon, has been, and at this day is, something very diffe to repent of the wicked misapplication, in her youth, the chronometry of vegetation, or the opening and shut- rent indeed from

the training to which these interros of those talents which she undoubtedly possessed.

ting of plants at particular hours, Mr Murray mentioned gatories point. By quoting the daily business of the The last justiciary trial for witchcraft in Scotland the case of the ornithologalum umbellatum, which ex- forms or classes, we shall enable our readers to judge was in the case of Elspeth Rule, who was convicted panded its flowers in Paris at eleven o'clock. The same for themselves. Here is the weekly or six days in 1708, and—banished. The last regular execution interesting and curious phenomenon was also witnessed business of the sixth form, the highest or most adfor the crime is said to have taken place at Dornoch in the economy of the seed-vessels and the seeds, the vanced in the school. “ MONDAY.—Repetition of m 1722, when an old woman was condemned by David circumstances connected with the ventilation, matura- Friday's Ilorice, Satires or Epistles, 50 lines ; Latin Ross, sheriff of Caithness. But we fear the provincial tion, and preservation of which embraced a world of lyrics or Greek verses of Thursday looked over-hour records of the north, if inquired into, would show wonders in itself. Some fruits, seed-vessels, or cases, for this half-past 7 A.M. Horace's odes, 60 or 70 lines later deaths on this score. However, here may be

were of immense growth and weight, as an instance of hour 11 to 12. Homer's Iliad, 50 lines ; rest of hour, held to end the tragical part of the annals of Scottish which the lecturer mentioned that he had seen a mam

Euclid-hour 3 to 4. Roman history, one page-hour moth gourd, which weighed 180 lbs. Some seeds were witchcraft. The number of its victims, for reasons previously stated, it would be difficult accurately to

found to be enveloped in silk, others in cotton and down 5 to 6. TUESDAY is a whole holiday as respects the computo, but the black scroll would include, according protection from moisture, and insulation in reference to school ; but exercises and private reading with the

assistant masters (all upon the same subjects) go on to those who have most attentively inquired into the nected with these remarkable provisions. The seeds of during the day: WEDNESDAY.- Repetition of Friday's subject, upwards of FOUR THOUSAND persons! And by particular plants were also provided with wonderful ap- Greek play, 30 lines ; rerses of Friday looked overwhat a fate they perished ! Cruelly tortured while paratus for conveying them to the locality congenial to hour half-past 7. Virgil's &'neid, 50 lincs-hour 11 living, and dismissed from life by a living death amid | their germination

and growth ; and for this purpose some to 12. Euclid, Vulgar Fractions, Decimals, or Logio

« ZurückWeiter »