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ing its appearance less miserable and disgusting. The at least over it, and which were intended to bow down replacing it, previously to the final attempt at fixing child was in consequence admitted into the hospital, to the vessel at a very gentle slope, as the column de- it in its site. where, under the most discouraging circumstances, an

scended to the vessel. On the 19th of June, at four The architect, in the beginning of September, operation was planned and performed by its distin- in the morning, all was ready for the embarkment of brought his work safely to a conclusion, placing it guished chief surgeon, Mr Ferrall. We are of course the column. Ten capstans, placed on the transverse on its pedestal amid the acclamations of the Russian unable to give any professional detail of the proceeding, mole already spoken of, began, at a given signal, to people. A statue was afterwards placed on the top but, incredible as it may appear, all the natural deficien- act upon the massive freight; while sixty workmen of it, and the Alexandrine Column now stands in the cies of feature were under this gentleman's skilful manage

were placed at the cables which aided in the operation, northern capital, a credit to the nation and to its crecment supplied from the flesh of the adjacent parts, and and also in keeping the ship in its place. The column tors. As a monolithic pillar, it has no equal among the infant, at the time to which we refer, when it was

was set in motion; every thing went on well and the erections of modern times. little more than a year old, already exhibited the appear securely; it had just touched the sides of the vessel, ance of perfect health and of a well-formed face. When when, in a moment, an accident occurred which threw

LETTER OF AN AUSTRALIAN SETTLER.

all into consternation. The beams upon which the the child was first seen by the parents after the decided column rested in its passage, cracked; the alarmed Any thing beyond common experiences which children success of the operation, it would, as we were assured, workmen fled; and the column, breaking at once see for the first time, never fails to make a permanent be quite impossible to describe the excessive joy of the through the whole of the supporting beams, fell with impression upon them. I [the reader must underpoor mother, as on her knees she presented to the anxious father the altered infant, now become a really well-look- end in the boat and the other sunk deep in the bed of stand that one of the editors of this paper now speaks ing and comely child. Such, we repeat, are among the the sea.

in his proper person) can never forget the first time best and noblest triumphs of the profession.”—Leinster Independent.

It was some time before the architect and his work. I beheld a scientific instrument used. It was a theomen could look about them. When they did so, it dolite belonging to a gentleman who was taking levels

was gratifying to discover that not one life had been along the vale of Tweed, with a view to the construcTHE ALEXANDRINE COLUMN OF ST lost, notwithstanding the numbers about the spot at tion of a railway between Glasgow and BerwickPETERSBURGH.

the moment. Without delay, the superintendant of work which never was commenced. This was in the THE Alexandrine Column, on monumental pillar consequence of the weight falling obliquely on it, the early days of railways, about the year 1810 or 1811, erected by the Russian czar, Nicholas, in honour of vessel was turned over sideways, and partly forced into when they were not so readily entered upon as they his brother Alexander, is one of the most magnificent the clayey bed of the sea. The whole power of the are now: Mr K a land-surveyor settled in Roxobjects of its kind in modern times. Like the power machinery was applied

to raise the column to a fair burghshire, had been

employed to make the necessary and empire of Russia itself, the Alexandrine column and proper position on the vessel. The 400 fatigued surveys through Peeblesshire, and when he came, in is, in conception and execution, massive and colossal, labourers could not have accomplished this alone, but the course of his operations, to the little sequestered and impressive to the mind and eye from mere material bulk. The various processes attending its erec

it chanced that some visitors of distinction had arrived town in which I spent my first years, he became tion form a very remarkable history, interesting from from St Petersburgh to witness the operations, and acquainted with my father, who was then almost the difficulties, foreseen and unforeseen, which stood in diate assistance of 600 soldiers from a garrison near singular in the place for a love of science ; a feeling patience and skill of the architect and his assistants

. hours of almost incredible toil, the column was safely valuable instruction. At his request, our surveying The architect himself

, M, de Montferrand, a French raised, and laid straight upon the vessel. The latter friend erected his theodolite in the street, and exman by birth, has left such a history behind him. We machine, to the delight of all, floated lightly and easily plained its uses to my brother and myself, to oựr intranslate, for the entertainment of our readers, some of with its burden. the most important passages in this narrative.

finite pleasure, and with the effect of awakening in The Alexandrine Column is a monolithe, or formed

On the 1st of July, after four days' slow sail in the

our minds a reverence for the instruments of exact of a single stone. It is a fine species of granite, capable Gulf of Finland, the vessel was safely towed into the science, and indelibly impressing upon us a pleasing of taking on a beautiful polish, and of a red colour, required place in the harbour of St Petersburgh. The recollection of the kind demonstrator himself.

I am tempted to mention these circumstances, in being also exceedingly durable. The column, which column and its vessel were now visited by immense is circular, and sculptured, generally speaking, after crowds, the grandees and royal family of the country order to give the greater assurance of the genuineness the Doric style, measures twelve feet in its greatest among the number. The next operation was to of a very interesting letter, which it has been thought diameter, and eighty-four feet in height. It is thus convey the stone to land. For this purpose, a new

worth while to communicate to the public in this twelve feet higher than the obelisk of Luxor, one of work of great strength, inclined in its shape, had to sheet. Having lost much capital in farming in his the finest ancient erections of this character, and it be constructed, into the particulars of which it is need native county, Mr K emigrated in 1824, with a weighs thrice as much as the same Egyptian pillar. less to enter. Suffice it to say, that on the 12th of number of sons and daughters, to New South Wales,

The Alexandrine Column was cut from the quarries July the debarkation of the monolithe took place. A where, his scientific acquirements having recommended of Pytterlaxe, in the neighbourhood of St Petersburgh, great crowd had assembled to witness it. The empe- him to the friendship of the governor, Sir Thomas in the year 1831. These quarries are situated no great ror and empress appeared on the scene. The signal Brisbane, he very quickly found himself settled in an way from the shores of the waters enveloping that region was given, and the importance of the operation may agreeable and lucrative situation on the Emu Plains. and the Russian capital. While the stone was in the be guessed by the fact that all the workmen fell in The letter in question is one written by Mr Kcourse of being excavated, a vessel was also in prepara- voluntarily and simultaneously on their knees before at his settlement of Cardross, Goulburn, on the 5th of tion for the conveyance of its enormous mass from its venturing on the task, and prayed for its success. Four- July 1839; the object of which was to acquaint one native site to that chosen for it in St Petersburgh.

This teen capstans were set in action to move the column, of his sons, who still resides in this country, with his vessel was broad and flat-bottomed, one hundred and while six were devoted to the keeping of the vessel, present circumstances. It was of course not meant forty-seven feet long, and calculated to draw only about otherwise bound also, in its place. The result was for publication; but as it possesses a general interest, seven feet of water under a weight of two million six fortunate. Slowly, and amid profound silence, the

as an account of the career and present situation of a hundred thousand pounds, a weight considerably column began to move, and in ten minutes, without prosperous emigrant, it is here, with the permission of exceeding

that of the monolithic shaft. With a greater accident, it was safely brought to a spot beneath the his friends, laid before the public :draught, it could not have traversed the numerous window of the palace, whence the empress had beheld “ We [Mr K— and one of his sons named James] shallows in the line of its intended course. On the the scene.

have been striving very hard for the last twelve years, 5th of June 1832, this vessel, in itself a work of huge An inclined plane was now to be made, to bring it chase of land and live stock. We have now as much

and vesting what money we could realise in the purbulk, was brought to anchor near to the quarries of up to the level of the spot, where its pedestal was

stock as is required for the foundation of a splendid forPytterlaxe.

erected, in the centre of a square; and 600 carpentune for those I leave behind; and in regard to land, we °Preparations on a vast scale had been previously ters addressed themselves to this task. The inclined have abundance, and I only wish to obtain 850 acres more, made for the embarkation of the columnar shaft. Å plane was 490 feet long, and 100 feet in breadth, and, to render my establishment on the sea-coast one of the mole or causeway had been carried into the sea to the at its greatest eleration, rose to thirty-five feet. The most perfect in the colony : this must fetch a high price length of thirty fathoms, forming in itself a goodly same difficulty which obstructed the rolling of the at auction, still it is worth double to me that it would be pier, and requiring considerable labour. It was raised column to the water, impeded its progress up this plane. to any other purchaser. upon stakes, driven into the sea-bed, and consisted of This was the inequality in thickness, and it was always Our different estates at present stand as follow :strong interlaced or crossing beams, the interspaces necessary, when the thick end of the column got in ad

to wit, Ist, Cardross, where I now reside, contains 2000 of which were filled with stones. At the end of this vance, to make it pause and revolve upon itself till the acres, with 200 acres in cultivation; my grant.-2d, mole, a transverse embankment was formed, and by lesser end was brought forward also. After a time, the Cardross Grange, adjoining the above, contains 1000 acres, the side of this, or rather inside of it, the vessel was inclination was safely surmounted, without any accident with

100 acres in cultivation; a purchase.--3d, Maxton moored. It was necessary, however, first to deepen happening to the wood-work. Before the passage of the 200 acres in cultivation ; grant to James.-4th, Straththe channel by two feet, in order to admit of the free inclined plane, it ought to be mentioned, workmen, to allen, adjoining on east, late Howey's, contains 960 acres, passage of the vessel. On the transverse mole were the number of 150, were busied in giving the finish to with 150 acres in cultivation ; a purchase, 1000 guineas.placed the capstans by which the embarkation was to the figure of the column. When he had brought it 5th, Raine Ville, on Fish River, near Bathurst, contains be effected. By land, preparations on an equally large to the top of the plane, the architect then prepared a 2000 acres, with 200 acres in cultivation ; a purchase.--scale were made in the meantime. In order to ad car for its transportation along the horizontal space 6th, St Boswell's adjoining, and east from the last lot, vance the column from the spot where it had been which still lay between it and the proposed site. This contains 1221 acres, with 70 acres in cultivation ; a purformed, it was necessary to clear the intermediate car was in two pieces, and in all eighty-two feet long chase.—7th, Mount Jervis, on Jervis's Bay, twelve hours' ground, about a hundred yards in oxtent, and very by eleven in breadth. It had seventy-two cast-iron sail from Sydney, contains 2560 acres ; just commenced rocky and uneven. The exploding, cutting, and smooth wheels, and was composed of metal-bound beams. By improvements. -- Total, 11,741 acres. On Cardross we ing required for this purpose, was in itselta great work. means of this machine, the column was securely moved have a post wind-mill, fine garden and vineyard of 2 acres, When a pathway had thus been made, the stone was to the necessary spot.

the scenery and surface soft and undulating and 800 slowly raised by the action of eight powerful capstans, Perhaps the hardest task of all now commenced.

acres of rich land might be cultivated without removing and propelled a little way, rolling over and over This was the conception and erection of the great breadthways. The greater diameter of one end made scaffolding by means of which this immense mass of James and the captain (another son) have been there

I intend making Mount Jervis my principal residence. this a difficult process, for the narrow end, rolling over stone was to be safely lodged on its pedestal, there to since February, busy in clearing and inclosing a fine park less space, necessarily fell behind. A peculiar appli- remain till time should work its fall. This scaffold- and policy of 150 acres, with vineyards and orangery of cation of the capstans, with the assistance of strong ing, we shall only say, was 154 feet high, and partly 5 acres, paddocks for tobacco, maize, hops, &c. &c., and iron wedges, was required to bring it forward to a composed of mason-work, and partly of wood." The laying the foundation of an observatory on the exact straight line. After four hundred men had laboured mason-work formed an inferior platform, and on this parallel of 35 degrees south latitude, and 150 degrees 50 at the task for fifteen days, without any intermission, sixty capstans of great power were placed for the minutes of longitude east from Greenwich. This estate mole, in a direction parallel with the sides of the the appendages belonging to it, was first tried, and which is perhaps the finest harbour in her majesty's dothe column was at length placed at the end of the raising of the column. Each of these machines, with commands thirty miles of sea-coast, namely, fifteen miles vessel upon which it was to be lodged.

found to resist a weight of 60,000 pounds. The correThe column now lay transversely upon twenty-eight spondent ropes were made by machinery, each rope age and ride in safety from every wind. The site of the

minions, where the whole British navy may find anchorbcams, thirty-five feet long, and two feet square, the containing 522 threads of hemp, so strong that every mansion cannot be excelled in grandeur by any place I ever end of which passed from the mole to the vessel, or thread sustained singly a weight of 180 pounds. With

saw. There is a natural port, called Bunda by the natives, such preparations, the placing of the column could just under my windows, at a quarter of a mile's dis* As this is translated from the French, it is probable that the

not fail to be successful. Yet the architect took the tance, where vessels of 200 tons anchor within a cable's weights and measures mentioned are French, which differ a little precaution to try all his apparatus more fully, by length of the shore. The bay and coast abound with from the British.

raising the column twenty feet in the air, and then I fish of every delicacy and variety-oysters, both rock

a tree,

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and mud, schnapper, mullet, breaan, whiting, and a thou- reports of the Scottish parishes which were completed as it was in 1791 ; the materials which it contains sand other varieties. You may often see balf a dozen about fifty years ago, and are again in course of pub- the same. The sole difference consists in the uses to whales sponting about in the bay in the calving season. lication, furnish excellent materials for such an in- which they are applied. In the first place, the present Part of my northern boundary is formed by an extensive quiry; and what are the changes which they exhibit? generation possess much more intelligence; education and picturesque lagoon or lake, two and a half by one and

In the first place, it may be observed, that since is both more general and better conducted, and parish a half miles in extent, which abounds with wild geese, 1791 the wages of agricultural labour have undergone libraries, and private collections of the best authors, in vast numbers, also plenty of mullet, perch, and bream. 2 rise of from 50 to 100 per cent. At that period, every where afford

the means of obtaining information

on all subjects. This enlargement of mind has led to Whatever we want for breakfast or dinner is brought in from 8d. to 1s. per day was about the average summer by the black

fellows absolutely in loads. We have the wages of a country labourer, out of which he had to better arrangements in every department of business ; chief or king (Wagamy), and his two black queens or jins, provide himself with

every thing. The summer wages banishing superstition, it has diffused more correct always with us, who have their camp just beside us: he of the same class at present run from Is. 6d. to 28. views of the solemn truths and duties of religion, and can command us the services of a dozen more of his In some counties they are a little higher, and in it has withdrawn our countrymen from the gross and tribe when they are wanted to shoot, fish, strip bark, or others a little lower, but these rates may be considered expensive indulgences of former times, to cheaper and go in their canoes messages for many miles by sea ; they a fair average. The wages of the manufacturing more refined recreations. In the second place, our are the most faithful, gentle, and useful blacks I ever met classes are in general much higher than those of agri- tradesmen have become much more dexterous at their with. King Wagamy has been a-whaling in the Pacific, culturists; and manufactures, which in 1791 were in different occupations. They are not only more rapid, has been at New Zealand, Hobart Town, and other places, their

infancy, now employ a large portion of the popu- but they are enabled to execute works to which their and speaks English very correctly. They have their slops lation. The wages of tradesmen have also undergone predecessors were altogether unequal. In the third and rations of flour, tobacco, tea, and sugar, served out to

a similar rise. While the whole

of our industrious place, they are more industrious ; many no doubt are them by us every day, and goverment furnishes each of classes are thus receiving much greater wages per day still subject to indolent habits, but, generally speaking, them a blanket every winter. Their value to us in catering, than their predecessors in 1791, their employnient has there is much less time now thrown away in absolute in shooting and throwing the spcar eannot be surpassed. become much more constant, and the wages earned by idleness than at the former period. To all this must be They bring in a kangaroo for soup whenever wanted. each individual in the course of the year have risen in added, that our countrymen have not been wanting in Wagamy is a most portly figure as he walks about armed a much higher proportion. No less remarkable an economy. The capital of the country has very much with his double-barrelled musket, shot belt, and powder improvement has taken place in the pecuniary circum- increased. It is from the savings of individuals that Aask, with my two noble kangaroo dogs Camp and stances of their employers. Many, in fact, of our most this increase has arisen, and the growth of Savings' Tweedo following along, with the two jins carrying his respectable commercial men, have, much to their credit, Banks is a proof that these economical babits reach to tomahawk, boomurung, fishing lines, and spears; he has raised themselves from the humble rank of operative a very humble class. generally a bark canoe ready for launching in every creek tradesmen to the possession of splendid fortunes ; and These causes combined are quite sufficient in our and inlet.

the land rentals of the country have in many cases opinion to account for the very great increase which Now for our live stock. We have 1000 head of horned tripled and quadrupled, and scarcely any where less has taken place in the produce of the country, and the cattle, depasturing on land rented from government at than doubled.

general comforts of its inhabitants. With the machiBoorowy, about 150 miles west from this ; 150 head at

If we look again at the articles of necessary con- nery furnished by the skill, dexterity, and industry of home here; 350 head at Jervis's Bay ; being 1500 head in all, of cows, heifers, bullocks, and steers of a fine breed. sumption which must be purchased, we find the pre- modern tradesmen, from the capital thus accumulated, One of my grass-fed bullocks, Strawberry, five years sent average price of oatmeal, potatoes, and wheat, one man is enabled to throw oft as much cotton thread old, was slaughtered at Sydney in 1835, and weighed little if at all different from their prices in 1791 ; every as two hundred could produce sixty years ago. Weav1470 pounds, sinking the offal. His picture, in oil, was article of dress is both much cheaper and much better; ing, bleaching, printing, have made similar progress. drawn by Mr Hippkiss, and presented by your brother and many foreign products, which at that period were Hence the low price of all kinds of cotton fabrics, and William to a gentleman in Van Diemen's Land. within the reach of few, are no longer

esteemed luxu- hence, too, the multitude supported by that branch of Our sheep stock at the different stations amounts ries, but so much reduced in price as to be enjoyed by manufacture. The same may be said of all our other in whole to 5500, all Merinoes and fine woolled. My all; yet, with these low prices, our merchants and manufactures. Agricultural machinery may not be as last clip, 14,000 pounds, sold in Sydney at is. 8d. per manufacturers have made their fortunes, and our yet quite so perfect, but the improvement of all the arts pound, and brought me L.1166, payable in three and six farmers, notwithstanding the high rents and high connected with agriculture has been very great, and months after delivery. Our cattle profits bring nearly as

wages paid by them, and the comparatively low prices the works which have been executed in that period 3 overseers, 3 gardeners, 15 farming men, 1 blacksmith, cumstances than in 1791. So much for the food and divided and fenced-much of what was waste has been much more. We employ. 30 shepherds and watchmen which they receive, are in much better pecuniary cir: have been wonderful. Great part of the land has been 1 carpenter and wheelwright, 2 brick-layers, 2 grooms, clothing of the population at these two periods. and 2 house-servants, being 49 in all; of whom 7 are

reclaimed-the best implements of husbandry in the frce, and the remainder prisoners or ticket-of-leave

The rents paid for lodging do not admit of being world have been introduced - ploughing has been holders. The expenses are enormous, besides what we compared in the same way, the accommodation being brought to perfection, the proper succession of crops lose by pilfering and stealing ; but the annual female entirely different. But we can be at no loss to per has been carefully studied, and in the opinion of Mr increase of our sheep, horns, and horned stock, which we ceive that in this respect even a more wonderful Dudgeon, since 1784, by a mere change in the rotation, never sell, helps well. Each man has a weekly ration of change has taken place for the better. We have the produce has in many places been increased tenfold 9 pounds of beef or mutton, 10 pounds of flour, a quarter before our eyes some of the town-houses occupied, at -almost universally the thrashing-machine has superof a pound of tea, 2 pounds of sugar, 1 ounce of tobacco, the former period, by people of the highest distinc- seded the imperfeet and expensive mode of separating and 2 ounces of soap, with two full suits of slops every year. tion ; these houses are now possessed by persons in a the grain by hand-labour-and, finally, the live stock Thank God, we have got on hitherto without ever allow- very humble rank, not a few of them by beggars ; of the country has completely changed its character. ing ourselves to borrow or run into debt, and we have while, in the same towns, families in very moderate As we are indebted for all this to the improved intelliL.1000 vested in bank shares, which yield a dividend circumstances are in possession of houses greatly supe- gence, dexterity, industry, and increased capital of our yearly of 164 per cent."

rior to what they ever were. The country-houses of countrymen, so are we also for our improved lodging, Such have been the felicitous consequences attend the higher orders have been either entirely built or and improved means of transit by common roads, ing the step which MrK- was induced to take about altogether renovated within that period. In many steam-boats, and railroads, which have made it an easy fifteen years before the date of his letter. It only counties new steadings have been erected almost on matter

for districts the most remote to exchange their remains that we caution our readers against receiving every farm, superior

to the former mansions of the surplus produce, and to command the luxuries of the the history of this gentleman as any thing more than proprietors; and the accommodation of the cottars, most distant climes,

single fact. He has been prosperous; but we do though still very inferior to what we could wish, is If the remarkable improvement which has taken not know how far he may have

been so in consequence now greatly better than most of the farm-houses of place in the circumstances of the great body of the of his own particular talents and cast of mind, of his that period. There can be no doubt, then, that all people is sufficiently accounted for by their improved family circumstances, or of good fortune. Similar classes are now infinitely better fed, clothed, and use of the materials afforded by Providence, we beprosperity might befall others; but it cannot be ex- lodged, than the population of 1791. The consequences lieve that the misery which is still to be found in some pected to be the fate of all.

are apparent in their improved health. Ague and districts may, with equal certainty, be traced to the

many other complaints then prevalent have either neglect or misuse of means quite as well adapted to NATIONAL ADVANCEMENT BY A PROPER disappeared or become greatly mitigated, and there is the supply of their wants, and many have little idea USE OF MEANS.

scarcely a parish which does not lay claim to great to what extent this negligence prevails.. THE following valuable paper is extracted from a

salubrity of climate, and adduce in proof the longevity The reports from the Lewis [an island of the

of its inhabitants. Many of the reporters state that Hebrides) state that the huts of the peasantry are pamphlet recently published (Blackwood, Edinburgh) morals and religion have advanced along with these in general indescribably filthy. There is only an under the title of the Ninth Annual Report of the physical improvements, and almost all declare that in annual sweeping of their houses. The people and Proceedings of the Glenkens Society, for Improving these respects their flocks are deserving of commen- cattle are under

the same roof, and on the same area. the Condition of the Working Classes.” The Glenkens dation. Indeed, the solemn stillness of a Scottish Very few of the country dwellings have a single pane Society, to which we have already oftener than once Sabbath, and the almost total absence of military from of glass. There is one hole in the roof to allow the made reference, is one of truly philanthropic character, the country, would attest the high moral and religious excess of smoke to escape, and another on the top of and it has the merit, too rarely allied with benevo- character of the nation to a stranger unacquainted the wall; the latter at night, or during a storm through lence, of doing good by right methods, its great aim with the language.

the day, being stopped with a wisp.

Wood is so being to direct and encourage the humbler classes to do good to themselves, and that simply by making a it has not arisen from the adoption of Godwin's quantity to make a good roof. *.* Whence this astonishing improvement ? Certainly scarce and so dear that it cannot be had in sufficient

The roofs have no proper use of the means which Providence has placed principles of political justice, for they have been eaves. The thatch in general is made of stubble or within their power. The report is the composition of entirely forgotten. Neither can we derive any aid potato stalks, which are spread on the scanty wooden Mr Grierson of Garroch, the society's secretary, to from Malthus in answering this question, for although roof, and bound by heather or straw ropes, which again whom it does great credit :

the country has had the benefit of his theory for the are at each side of the roof fastened by stones, called “ All are agreed regarding the leading points in greater

part of that time, all his cautions have no way anchors, resting on the top of the broad wall. On physical science. They have been ascertained by dili- retarded the

progress of population. In 1755, the this wall it is no unusual sight to see sheep and calves gent observation and careful experiment, and no room population of Scotland was 1,255,663, and in the thirty- feeding, and making a short passage into the byre has been left for doubt. But if we turn from these six years which expired in 1791, it had only advanced through the roof. The doors of the houses are so low, subjects to the investigations which have been under- to 1,514,999, being an increase of 259,336. But in the that whoever would gain admittance must humble taken with the view of improving the condition of the succeeding thirty years which expired in 1821, it had himself, and continue in that posture till he reach the mass of mankind, nothing can be more striking than become 2,093,456, showing a rise of 578,457, consider- fire, which is always in the middle of the floor, and the contrast. Here philosophers of the highest name ably more than double that which had occurred in the very often he must grope his way, or be led by the have arrived at conclusions directly at variance with preceding thirty-six years. In the next ten years

, hand. From the slightness of the wooden rafters, one another, and in some instances not a little as- ending in 1831, it had increased to 2,365,807, the

addi- much straw or stubble cannot be laid for thatch, but tounding to the common sense of plain men. Is there tion in that period being 272,351, considerably beyond just sufficient to exclude

the daylight. The thatch is no rule, then,

to direct us in this matter? We see the increase in the whole thirty-six years from 1755; not expected at first to keep out much rain until it is different communities, in circumstances apparently and, since 1831, the progress of population has cer- properly saturated with soot, but to compensate for altogether similar, possessed of very different degrees tainly not been less. Yet, rapid as its progress has this defect, the inmates are practical chemists ; they of comfort ; and we see differences equally great in been during the whole period from 1791 down to the keep plenty of peats on the fire ; the interior is soon the situation of the inhabitants of the same country present time, contrary to all the prognostications of filled with smoke ; the smoke and increasing heat at different periods of their history. May the pro- Malthus, the increase of the means of subsistence has repel the rain, for a great proportion of what falls on bable causes of these differences not be discovered, and been greatly more rapid still.

the roof is returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. suggest what ought to be sought and what avoided, The general opinion is, that this prodigious improve- These houses after a smart shower appear like so many and may the actual truth not be ascertained in this ment can be ascribed to nothing but a better use of salt-pans or brew-houses in operation.' as in other matters, by experiment? The statistical the gifts of Providence. The country is the same now This account is said to apply very generally to the

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habitations of the whole of the small farmers. Good | And even that portion of the community who have It would be impossible to describe the shades of exmanagement of any kind is not to be expected from done most, we feel assured, are capable of doing a great pression that passed over Darby Moore's face during this people whose domestic habits are so barbarous. They deal more, and of adding still further

to their own piece of eloquence; the merry twinkle of his keen grey depend upon the produce of the place for almost every comforts and the comforts of society. The knowledge eye; the movement of the muscles which contract, thing. Even their clothing is almost exclusively of of the wisest comprehends but a small portion of the expand, and twist his mouth, the action of his hand, their own manufacture. Their time, when occupied riches of creation, and the most dexterous are far from which does duty for two ; the slirug of his shoulder, and at all, is devoted indiscriminately to the mixed avo- having reached perfection. It follows that the most the anxious leer from under his eyelid, to see how the

hint about the twopence takes. cations of husbandry, fishing, kelp-making, grazing,' effectual way of benefiting either an individual or a

“ Darby, I do not think I ever gave you more than a &c. Their agriculture is wretched. The women are community, is to induce them to cultivate those miserable slaves ; they do the work of brutes, carry mental attainments which are alike necessary for the penny at a time in my life.com

Well, the masther gives me a penny, and yer honour the manure in creels on their backs from the byre to conduct of business and the enjoyment of leisure, and gives me a penny, and sure that's twopence ; bedad ! if the field, and use their fingers as a five-pronged grape those arts which are required for converting to use yer ladyship will give me the twopence now, I'll tell the to fill them. The thatch of the houses saturated by the materials within their reach. The desire for this masther next time---if yer ladyship wishes it---if not, why, the smoke with sooty particles is considered valuable, would make them industrious, and if industrious they as the fool said, 'We'll let it stand a penny for Jolinny, for every summer the roof is stripped, and the inner could scarcely be otherwise than economical. a penny for Jacky."" layer of straw, which contains the soot, is carried But how is the aversion to labour, either mental Darby, as he says himself,“ is not altogether becarefully to the potato or barley field, and strewed on or bodily, with which all are more or less infected, houlden to sweepin';" he has been a souldier"–talks the crop: Small tenants and cottars generally till the to be overcome? We must answer this question by with contempt of the Frencli," and declared the other ground by the Chinese plough of one stilt or handle, another. What has been the motive for all the exer- day," that the Almighty never created but one rcal man club shod with iron at the point, and a pin at the upon this country! Not certainly the mere pressure God bless him!” So Darby has a pension. What it is, and the cas-chrom, a clumsy instrument like a largo tions already made which have wrought such a change in the world (harrim' her majesty, for whom he had great ancle for the labourer's foot. It is a disgrace to see of physical want, for we see many spend their whole he has never been heard truly to declare; it may be much, women working with it. No sickle is used for the lives in a state of misery without making the slightest it may be little: if you inquire, he has the most ingenious barley among the small tenants. The stalk is plucked, effort to relieve themselves ; neither has it been the way of telling and not telling. the ground is left bare.' The return is very scanty wish for expensive animal enjoyments, else the " The pension, ma'am:

Oh, bedad ! it's little I get in some places, occasionally insufficient for the con struggle would end when the means of gratifying for the beautiful arm--flesh, blood, and bone, it was, my sumption of the population. It can excite no surprise that wish have been realised. But the desire to rise lady, that I lost that, with all these discomforts, the inhabitants of the becomes stronger with every advance. The grand

* For my country's cause, Lewis, in the opinion of a medical man resident on motive for all these exertions has plainly been to com

And England's glory!" the spot, may be said to die at an early age. Still mand that respeet which never fails to accompany as the song says.”, they are deeply attached to the land of their birth ; a success in any honourable undertaking. It is equally “ But how much is it, Darby ?" great proportion of them are altogether uneducated, prized by the humble artisan and the rich merchant; “Faix! my lady, it's a mere nothing, and the wife and and it is said that the people of Barvas even keep and the labours of both only require a beginning ; as

childre to the fore." their children from school, sest, being thus made ac- a few pounds saved by the merchant lead to the accu

“But how much ?" quainted with better countries, they should be induced mulation of thousands, so one difficulty conquered by at the figures; and I'm thinkin' they do me out of some a

“To my sorrow, my lady, I've no larning-l've no hane to leave their own inhospitable home.

While the inhabitants of the Lewis are left in their till he arrives at proficiency. The great object, then it. Yo see I managed tingly, until afther Miss Joy, round present wretched condition, by neglecting to cultivate is to give the first impulse; and experience has shown,

,

"How was that?" the means of subsistence which are within their reach, that if a man can be induced to place himself in comthere is another much more numerous class who are petition with others of his own standing at any kind twice a day, and though the baste (horse) was nothing but

* Why, ye see, her sweetheart always came to see her from time to time reduced to even greater want, of work whatever, that object will infallibly be gained. a hack, still I'd a regular sixpence to hould it. She's through total mismanagement of these means after The expedient has accordingly been resorted to in all married now, and faith I don't think he's plazed with his they have been realised. We allude to a large por ages. Sometimes this stimulus has been applied to bargain ; for when they come to see the onld lady and tion of the manufacturing classes, who, though earn- promote the arts of war, sometimes those of peace- gentleman in the shay--which is more responsible to ing much higher wages than the best paid of the sometimes to the fine arts, sometimes to the useful. hould than the baste- I never get any thing but copagriculturists, are such slaves to intemperance, that we are indebted to it for the unrivalled excellence of pers!” they and their families are frequently left without the our ploughmen, for our improved management of

Pray admire Darby's “ taot;" it is so Irish ! how well necessaries of life. In fact, those among them who green crops, for all our improvements on stock, and he manages to turn curiosity from his pension to Miss have the best wages are most prone to this vice, and, we see no reason why it may not be applied with equal Jor that was the proprietor of the sliny" that is and as a necessary.consequence, are really the most miser- success to every art which can benefit society. Were the bridegroom's probable unhappiness, either presont able. The child is fixed upon a loom or in a mill at the whole population trained by these means to the nine or ten years of age without the vestige of educa- arts required for converting to use the materials

The little match-children who made up such a piteous tion ; he is placed among seniors as ignorant as him- afforded by each locality, we do not think it possible story to our cook, about their father having left his bones self, and learns like them to consume in intoxication that any portion of them could remain without pro- that the battle had been fought more than twenty-three whatever spare money and spare time may be at his fitable employment; and were the same care taken in years ago, and she was so angry, that, even at the risk of disposal--the rest of the Sabbath forming no excep- the cultivation of their minds, their labour would be spoiling our dinner, she pursued the urchins, and found tion. Not unfrequently the father of a family makes applied with infinitely more effect, and a security them in the very act of dutifully sharing the pie-crusts his home the scene of his debauch, and assumes his would be obtained against the misapplication of their and meat she had bestowed, with my old friend Darby wife and children as his associates. means."

Moore. This was not to be borne ; she called them littlo The amount thus squandered is almost incredible.

story-tellers, but not in those words and their father The value of ardent spirits consumed in the parish

took their part.

THE ROAD-SWEEPER. of Stevenston in Ayrshire, with a population of 3681,

"I ax yer pardon, ma'an, but here is some of what yo exceeds the whole land rental of the parish, L.3836

[BY MRS S.C. HALL.]*

gave them, God bless ye !" and he held up the remains In Lochwinnoch, in Renfrewshire, 'as in the neigh- THERE he stands, leaning against the palisades opposite of

a shoulder of mutton. "That's a bone, ma'am. Sorra

a much mate on it; ye'll not say that's not a bone !" bouring parishes, three or four times more money is a long rambling

edifice, called, time out of mind, Bexpended in this manner than is required to support of the long crossing," his broom resting on his arm--for Hall. There stands Darby Moore, the legitimate sweeper

“Certainly not."

“Well, then, the childre tould no lie; they said their the churches and schools, and all the religious and he has but one---and the corresponding sleeve of his coat father left his bones at Waterloo, and so I did. God help charitable institutions.' In Glasgow there is a spirit pinned by a large corking-pin to the fold of his red waistshop for every fourteen families. In 1834, it was given in evidence to the Committee of the House of coat; his hat is so evidently, if not of Irish manufacture, they tould no lie, ma'am. It wasn't their fau't, ma'am, Commons on drunkenness, that the amount thus was not Darby Moore, or we had never heard his melli

twisted by Irish hands, that, even if our sweeper's name if ye could'nt understand English." squandered in that city alone was nearly equal to fluong brogue, no doubt could be entertained as to where the whole amount expended on public institutions of he came from--the brim of the hat is bent over his left

MY NEIGHBOUR. Bharity and benevolence in the entire United King-eye, impressed by the mark of his finger and thumb, There are some troublesome neighbours who are the dom. It was ascertained by this committee that , pinched in by perpetual bowing, so as to have a knowing plague of a man's life. They borrow your umbrella

when throughout England, Ireland, and Scotland, there is roguish twist ; the crown has disagreed with the round, you want to go out, come and pay you a visit when you a place for retail of spirits for every twenty families, or they have come to an almost separation by mutual want to work at home, play the French horn when you and the conclusion at which they arrived was, that, consent. I have seen “ a handful of hay,” symptoms of want

to go to sleep, and give a party on the very evening

you want to finish a tragedy. My neighbour has none looking at the value of grain destroyed, the abstraction bone, peeping throngh tho slit—nay,

even staring out of these faults,

but he contrives to incominode me every of labour from

its proper employment, the property for Darby says, " that sorra a pocket has he, but the moment. He pries into every thing in my room, destroys sacrificed by sea and land, the deterioration of mental and physical powers, the increase of pauperism, and to his coat !" crown of his liat; for Judy says she can't affoord pockets my papers, and devours my breakfast. "Batter, cheese,

poultry, game, almost every thing is acceptable to him; spread of crime, and the retardation of all kinds of improvement, the loss to the country from this

The weather has been so fine, that one might imagino and he never eats bread when he can get cake. He is

“ Othollo's occupation o'er." cause alone 'might be fairly estimated at little less

neither a landowner nor elector, he pays no rent for liis

apartments, yet lives very comfortab!y. My neighbour than L.50,000,000 per annum, exceeding the wholo Not so--in winter Darby sweeps the mud from the is very gentlemanly in his habits, but never comes home revenue of Great Britain, and ten times greater

than long crossing," and in summer

waters the dust. I found til after midnight, and is fond of serenades and nightly the amount of the poor-rates. The evil is complained he had been so liberal of the pure fluid, that I said,

meetings with the objects of his affections. In other of in all parts of the country, but the manufacturing mud."

" Darby, why, you have converted the dust into respects, his character is good; he is neither a fop nor a classes are its principal victims. No wonder that • Mud! oh, ma'am dear! do ye call that sprinkling no malice towards those who treat him ill, and if you

bully, and avoids rather than seeks quarrels. He beare extensive misery should be the consequence, but the mud? Och hone! well, but my ladies is hard to plaze! turn him out at one door, he will come back by the other. existence of this misery will not be received as a proof The pleasure I takes in making the long crossing' agree He goes from house to house, making bimself comfortablo that the produce of the country has been insufficient able-just a little thickening, and softening, and cooling, wherever he goes, and staying till he is tired, without for the support of its population. It has evidently and to call it mud! Oh my, my! Well, to be sure ! ever waiting for an invitation. Familiar as he is with not arisen from a deficiency of produce, but from the Why, thin, how would yer honour like it? Sure, it isn't your provisions, only take the trouble to put the stoppers destruction of what has been produced.

in regard of the halfpence I get--and sure enough the in your decanters, and he will not meddle with them. Our conclusion, then, on the whole, would be, that sight of a silver fourpence would do the sight of my eyes He is always well dressed, his boots never crcak on the the same Providence which brought man into the good—'tisn't

in regard of the halfpence, but the
honour floor, for their soles are of the

finest chamois, and the world has provided amply for his wants, and that if of sweepin' for the best and handsomest ladies, and the upper leathers of India-rubber. My neighbour, thongu they remain unsatisfied or imperfectly satisfied, it is finest gentlemen in England, that's what I think of ; and, he knows I must wear a coat out at the elbows, never because man does not apply the materials afforded to my lady,

if yell plaze to bespake the natur of the damp, wears any thing but the softest furs. He never lays in the uses for which they were intended. Had the I always says to Judy, • Judy, says I, the Irish Indy All this I have to put up with. In fact, I think myself energy of the present generation been possessed by always brings me good luck ; if it's only twopence she lucky, if le does not invite his friends to his nocturnal their fathers, they would have enjoyed equal comforts. gives me, it's the regular seed of wealth---it grows, so it orgies, but contents himself with abusing hospitality Were the inhabitants of the Lewis endowed with the does, God bless her!' And now, my lady, how would rummaging among my furniture, and plundering my intelligence, dextcrity, industry, and economy, which you like the long crossing' to-morrow?" distinguish a large portion of our countrymen, their

Jarder. My neighbour is one of those personages who

must be well treated. It is well known that whenever miseries would be at an end ; to also would those of

* We extract this little sketch of a point in town-life from the he leaves a residence, it is sure to tumble down 80011. the manufacturing classes, could they only be taught Britannia, a London weekly newspaper, to which it had been this troublesome neighbour, dear render, is-a inousto apply the money in their hands to its proper use. contributod by Mrs liall.

From the French

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LINES

BATTLE SCENES.
thing was going forward in the lines in which he ought

THREE BAD HABITS.

There are three weaknesses in our habits which are The following is an account given by Major Bevan, in his to bear a part. With a mind endued with strength supework, “ Thirty Years in India,” of a scene which occurred of sickness, and calling all the vigour that he could

muster very common, and

which have a very prejudicial influence at the conclusion of a battle in which he was engaged :— to his aid, tottered with feeble pace to the field of action, indulgence of the moment, instead of doing at once what

“ Near midnight, when about to retire to rest, an order arriving at a late hour upon the hill. Exhausted, pale, ought to be done. This practice almost diminishes the was received from the commander-in-chief to detach an and like onc risen from the dead, he resumed his former beneficial effects of our actions, and often leads us to officer and one hundred pioneers for the purpose of col- place ; and scarcely had he joined the group assembled abstain from action altogether; as, for instance, if at this lecting the wounded, and also such arms and accoutre- in the front, when, by a fatal bullet, this spirited young season of the year there is a gleam of sunshine, of which ments as could be found on the field of battle. This man was numbered with the slain."

we feel we ought to take advantage, but we have not the severe duty devolved upon me, as the other officers were

resolution to leave at the moment a comfortable seat or all laid up from the fatigue they had undergone through

an attractive occupation, we miss the most favourable out the day. Several palanquins belonging to the headON HARVEY'S PICTURE OF THE COVENANTERS WORSHIPPING,

opportunity, and, perhaps, at last justify ourselves in quarters and staff were kindly sent to bring in the

AMONG THE HILLS OF SCOTLAND.

remaining indoors on the ground that the time for exerwounded, as none of the public dooly boys could be pro

[BY S. C. HALL.]

cise is past. One evil attendant upon the habit of procured, they having dispersed in search of plunder.

crastination is, that it produces a certain dissatisfaction The scenes of woe and misery I experienced during this

It came from out the silent glen

of the mind which impedes and deranges the animal

The mingled prayer of armed men ; dark and dismal night, in my progress over the field of

Their swords in sheath for one calm day,

functions, and tends to prevent the attainment of a high battle amidst the carnage of the day, will never be effaced "And let us worship God," they say.

state of health. A perception of what is right, followed from my memory.

They met--- in fear, but not of man;

by a promptness of execution, would render the way of The groans and screams of the wounded and dying

In hope---but not of human aid ;

lise perfectly smooth. Children should be told to do constantly struck my ear, as also the piteous wailings of

In faith---that dreads no mortal ban;

nothing but what is reasonable, but they should be taught the wives, daughters, fathers, or sons of those who had

In trust---mid perils undismayed.

to do what they are told at once. The habit will stand fallen, or the cries of others in search of their missing

As wearied travellers seek the brook,

them instead all their lives. The second weakness is, when

They ask refreshment from the Book !' relatives. With these heart-rending sounds were often

we have made a good resolution, and have partially failed

The fountain gives them strength for strife, mixed the wild execrations of the dying, who were at

And Freedom will be bought with life.

in executing it, we are very apt to abandon it altogether. tempting to repel the marauders who came for the pur- No Temple made by human hands

For instance, if a person who has been accustomed to rise pose of plunder and rapine.

Is that in which tho Pastor stands;

at ten, resolves to rise at six, and after a few successful We found many bodies of our own soldiers in a perfect

Around him mighty mountains rise,

attempts happens to sleep till seven, there is great danger state of nudity, which plainly evinced they had not Pillars to yon vast roof, the skies;

that he will relapse into his former habit, or probably escaped those indignities offered to the dead and dying

But Freedom consecrates the glen ;

even go beyond it, and lie till noon. It is the same with by the profligate followers of a camp.

And girlhood, boyhood, age, and youth,

resolutions as to economy or temperance, or any thing Our enemies were treated in the same manner; the

Utter or breathe a stern " Amen"

else ; if we cannot do all we intended, or make one slip,

To words that Reason stamps with Truth ; wretches who wandered over the field in search of plan

For God and Nature bade them be

we are apt to give up entirely. Now, what we should der spared neither friend nor foe when there was a pro- All---like their free forefathers---free;

aim at is, always to do the best we can under existing spect of booty. We rescued a considerable number of

Such message yon good Pastor brings--

circumstances; and then our progress, with the excepthe wounded from this lonely death, the most terrible to A message from the King of kings !

tion of slight interruptions, would be continual. The the imagination ; but several of them had fallen victims

Say, grandsiro--thou should'st know it best...

third and last weakness to which I allude, is the practice to the cowardly assassins or the inclemency

of the weather
Say, matron, with the babe at breast;

of cating and drinking things because they are on the before we could afford them rescue or relief. The ground

Say, girl.--thy lover still is near-..

table, and especially when they are to be paid for. How was soft clay, which had been saturated by the heavy

Can Patriot-passion banish fear?

seldom it happens that two men leave a few glasses of rains and trodden into a quagmire by the passing and

Old man, what councils thy grey hairs?

wine in a decanter at a coffee-house, though they have

Mother, what dost thou tell thy son? repassing of men, animals, and carriages ; a misty, drizzl

both had enough! and the consequence of not doing so

Boy, knowest thou what thy father dares ? ing rain fell incessantly, and these circumstances rendered

Girl, say how must thy heart be won ?

is frequently to order a fresh supply; but, at any rate, our toil exceedingly difficult and tedious. We had to

All answer, with a shout and sigh,

even the first small excess is pernicious. Excess, howwait a considerable time for the return of the palanquins

“ Go strike for freedom---do or die !

ever slight, either in solids or liquids, deranges the powers from the field-hospital, whither our wounded were con

Nor let your children's children name

of digestion, and of course diminishes the full benefit of veyed, so that the morning dawned ere our task was

Old Scotland's mountain-men with shame !"

any meal. A very small quantity will cause the differcompleted.

Thanks, Painter, for a lesson taught!

ence between spending the remainder of the day profitThe scenes which I witnessed in the hospital were Thanks for a pictur'd store of thought!

ably or agreeably, and in indolence and dissipation.Acarcely less harrowing to the feelings than those in the

Thus Art works out her great design,

The Original. field. Dr A. and the rest of the medical staff employed

Shapes the rough ore of Nature's mine;
Gives Beauty a perpetual youth ;

TRAVELLING IN AMERICA. all that skill and energy could suggest for the relief of the

Bids Virtue teach and never tire;

He who is of the silver fork school, will not find much sufferers. I saw them perform several very difficult ope

Shows that a halo shines round Truth;

comfort out of the American cities and large towns. rations and amputations, and especially one on Licute

Tells what to shun and what desire;

There are no neat quiet little inns, as in England. It is nant II., whose knee was severely shattered. He sustained

And makes Example bear to ages--

all the “rough and tumble" system, and when you stop the operation with unflinching courage, but expired soon

More forceful than a thousand pages--

at humble inns, you must expect to eat peas with a twoafter it had been completed. Few, indeed, of those who

Of good or ill, a painted story

pronged fork, and to sit down to meals with people whose had received gunshot wounds survived, for the fractures

To warn froin shame or win for glory.

exterior is any thing but agreeable, to attend upon yourthey had suffered were generally so extensive as to bring --From the Art-Union.

self, and to sleep in a room in which there are three or on lock-jaw. Many young aspirants for military fame,

four beds (I have slept in one with nearly twenty), most dazzled by the pride, pomp, and circumstance of glu

AFFECTATION IN ENGLISH MANNERS,

of them carrying double, even if you do not have a com rious war,' would have their ardour sadly damped by The following remarks on the love of affectation and panion in your own. witnessing the scenes on the field and in the hospital of show in English fashionable life, are made by Count de A New York friend of mine travelling in an extra with Mahedpoore." Melfert, in his “ Impressions of England :"

his family, told me that at a western inn he had partiCaptain Patterson of the 50th, or Queen's Own regi- "If, in order to attain pleasure and really to enjoy it, cularly requested that he might not have a bedfellow, ment, presents in his “ Adventures" a description of what it was only necessary to make continual sacrifices of time and was promised that he should not.

On liis retiring, came under his observation during the war in the Penin- and money, then the English would be the gayest people he found his bed already occupied, and he went down to

in the world--the people who best know how to amuse the landlady, and expostulated. Well," replied she, sula, which is equally affecting. As the narration of themselves. The persons in different classes who thus - it's only your own driver ; I thought you would'nt mind such incidents may be of use in creating a just horror of run after pleasure, are indeed innumerable in England; it hin!" Another gentleman told me, that having arrived war, we here offer it for the perusal of the reader :- is like a determination, a continual desire, a real entéte at a place called Snake's Hollow, on the Mississippi, the

“Soon after nightfall, and when the clash of arms was ment. Let it cost what it may, gaiety must be had: but, bed was made on the kitchen floor, and the whole family no longer heard, an interment of the dead took place, through all these efforts, the coldness and reflectiveness and travellers, amounting in all to seventeen, of all ages and many a poor fellow, who had a few hours before been of the national character always pierce ; and one might and both sexes, turned into the same bed together. Of full of life and strength, was now deposited in his narrow almost suspect that this undeviating constancy only arises course this must be expected in a new country, and is a bed. The remains of Major Stanhopo were lowered to from the impossibility of ever attaining the desired end. source of amusement rather than of annoyance, the grave by his brother officers and comrades, with their in the highest, as well as in the least distinguished Murryat's Diary. sashes. He had worn this day a suit of new uniform, society, I have always received the same impression :

NITRIC ACID IN RAIN WATER. and a pair of bright silver epaulets; in which, with his there exists always in every reunion a restraint, an indif- In the celebrated French scientific periodical, the military cloak around him, upon the same hour as his ference too marked (particularly towards those who do “ Annales de Chimie,” there was published some years lamented chief, he was consigned to an honourable tomb. not form the same clique, and in that case it goes so far ayo an account of some interesting experiments made by

While we were engaged in the performance of this as to become rudeness); there is a want of general ease M. Leibig on rain water, with the view of ascertaining melancholy duty, the Honourable Captain Stanhope of and of general amiability, and this only becomes the more its various impurities. Among other foreign matters a the Guards, aide-de-camp to Sir John Moore, rode up, apparent from one's seeing all the trouble which has been perceptible quantity of nitric acid, combined with lime directed by the torch-light, to the mournful group. It taken that every one should be gay, very gay, and very or ammonia, was found in all the specimens of rain water was the first intimation which he received of his brave much amused; which, alas ! happens but rarely, not to collected during storms. The saine was the case with relation's fate. Dismounting, and overcome with grief, say never.

regard to snow and hail. Small traces of iron, mangahe took a last farewell; and having obtained his ring, One might add, on the subject of the fashionable circles, nese, and muriate of soda, are generally found in rain together with a lock of hair, he tore himself hastily away that the principal thing is not precisely to enjoy per- water during thunder-storms. The formation of the from the heart-rending scene.

sonally, but to have it believed that you do so that nitric acid in rain water is referred by M. Leibig to the On our march across this ground, an incident occurred every body should know or think you do so, this is the agency of the electric fluid in passing through the atmo which made a deep impression on the minds of those important thing. There is not a brilliant party in Lon- sphere. It is well known that nitric acid and common air who happened to be present at the time. Across the don, or at one of the magnificent country seats, or at the are composed of the same elemental gases, oxygen and pathway, and on either side, men and officers were lying ; mansion of a man of fashion, which is not immediately nitrogen-but of course they are combined in different and one of the latter was extended on his face among the detailed in the newspapers ; even the great dinners are proportions in the two different substances. heath and brush wood, so close to where we passed, that described. After a royal drawing-room, the name and Major Malcolm Mackenzie of the 70th, prompted as it toilet of each lady who appeared is mentioned, one after In Number 413 of the Journal, published December 28th last, were by intuition, suddenly dismounted to ascertain who another; ribands, laces, feathers, diamonds, pearls, even appeared a paragraph quoted from a newspaper, and entitled was the individual. Stooping to observe the features, to the kind of silk or satin of which the dress was com- " Railway Compensations," referring to the Directors of the Luthat were partly concealed by the long broom, he started posed, how it was trimmed, with the technical and scien- natic Asylum of Glasgow. We have been satisfied by documenback with grief and consternation, on perceiving that the tific expressions in French

of the Parisian marchandes des tary evidence, that the statements made in that paragraph are young soldier, who had thus fallen an early victim, was modes--all is printed in the papers, and sometimes fills not correct; and we have therefore to express our regret for his brother, Lieutenant Colin Mackenzie, of the same two or three of their enormous pages: if the occasion be

having added to their publicity. regiment. a fancy or masked ball (where no masks are worn), then with the best intentions, copied a paragraph from a London

We may at the same time state, that we some time ago, and A party of the officers of the 50th, wiwo were collected the dress of the gentlemen shares the same publicity, newspaper, purporting to describe some remarkable cures in in a knot discussing the affairs of the eventful day, were even to the form and colour of their inexpressibles ; every deafness, performed by a doctor of medicine whose name was quickly seen by those marksmen, who, from behind the thing being thus exhibited to the face of day, placed un- mentioned, and which we are now satisfied had been originally rocks, despatched with deadly aim a few rifle missiles, der the public eye, and detailed to attract the attention put in circulation as a quackish puff. The very vile practice of each with its billet ; and the balls were so faithful to of the millions-even of those who, banished to the which nearly all newspapers are guilty, of inserting paid puffs, their errand, that the congress was soon dissolved, some Indies

, receive and devour the English papers

. There renders it extremely difficult to know what is true from what is of the members being sent to that bourne from

which must exist then, I think, more vanity and show, prepared false, in our public prints. In future, we shall endeavour to be no traveller returns, and the remainder wounded. Among for public effect, than for the pleasure of the moment ;

more cautious in quoting any piece of information from thein those who fell on this occasion, was Lieutenant Hugh besides, it is absolutely de rigueur in the supreme bon ton

which appears worthy of a wider circulation than their pages Birchall, of the fourth battalion company, which he had to have an air of indolence, satiety, and nonchalance, commanded for some time. Having fallen ill, he was in which implics that all this is not enough, that show and London: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by W.S. his bed at Elisonda when the battle commenced; and magnificence are so habitual that they are become quite ORR, Paternoster Row; and sold by all booksellers and news. hearing the noise of musketry, he thought that some fatiguing."

men.-Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars.

afford.

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[graphic]

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF “CHAMBERS’S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,"

“CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,” &c.

NUMBER 420.

SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 15, 1840.

PRICE THREE HALFPENCE.

STORIES OF THE IRISH PEASANTRY. not aware that he had done what was exceedingly to declare, heading his declaration with an oath that BY MRS S. C. HALL.

improper, exclaimed, “ As good a right to justice as would have shaken into atoms the whole bench of

me! Oh, mother honey, hear to that! You who Middlesex magistrates, that “if they did not keep “Mind not high things : but condescend to men of low estate."

Sr PAUL.

lived under his honour's father and grandfather the peace, he would give them forty-eight hours in GOING TO LAW!

a’most before the world was a world, hear to his honour Limerick jail.” Part the First.—Showing how John Leahy, commonly called saying that Abel Carr, the circumvinter, the depopu “ Axing yer honour's worship’s pardon,” observed Johnny the Giant, would go to law.

lating vagabone, the fella' who could never count back Abel Carr, speaking with great rapidity in a thin “Well, well, John Leahy, will you just stick to the

to his grandfather, the half-withered little leprehawn, shrill voice, bringing his other leg into the room, and one point, and before you take an oath, explain to me

that's grow'd up like a musharoon under our noses, edging round so as to interpose the worthy magiswhat you want to swear to ?”

the little insinuating bla’guard, stealing my beautiful trate's person between himself and his foe, “axing John Leahy, a tall muscular Irishman, stood before strame of spring wather, turning it away from my yer honour's pardon, it's you ought to be sint there, or the gentleman who put this question (a good-natured meadow, and laying claim to as beautiful a half acre pay a fine—that is, if the swearing of a justice of pace magistrate, Mr Richard Russel, who resided for the of bog — not only axing the right of turbary, but is as sinful as the swearing of a poor man, which in shooting and hunting season on his estate called wanting the half acre, to the very foundation of the coorse it is not; if it was, yer honour's worship would'nt Russel Court, not quite three miles from the ancient earth-only jist, mother honey, think of his honour's have rapped out sich a one as that, yer honour !" city of Limerick); John Leahy stood before the fox- saying that that scum o' the earth has as good a right

The scene was curious. The room was hung round hunting but most peace-loving magistrate, his long grey

to justice as me—his father, his grandfather, his great- with sporting prints, of various dates and orders of frieze coat thrown back from his ample chest, his grandfather's tenant's son, John Leahy!"

merit. Above the long narrow glass which surmounted green neckerchief, so loosely tied that the brawny

“ His honour manes no sich thing,” said Mrs Leahy, the old black marble chimney-piece, were suspended muscles of his neck, heaving and swelling with the advancing into the room by a series of curtsies ; "his a couple of fowling-pieces, crossed above a couple of impetuosity that sent the red blood rushing to his honour manes no sich thing as that, I'll go bail ! not swords ; and each side of the glass was garnished by face, were fully seen; while that face, so powerful, and

he indeed. Let me spake, and I'll lay it out afore him what I should call a horse pistol—I mean a large yet generally so pleasing in its expression, was wrought like print. We're ould tenants, yer honour; and determined pistol, done up with bright steel; not one irto painful distortion by exceeding wrath ; his nos setting a case, that yer honour will give Peggy's hus- of the finikin gilt-edged little gentlemen which I see trils were distended, like those of a war-horse scenting band, that is to be—but I'm not at that yet. Ye see in London, seeming only fit for Cupids to shoot with, the battle from afar; his large grey eyes were abso it come altogether of that vagabone threat of Aby but a sturdy, blood-thirsty looking fellow. Not even a lutely flashing ; his mouth was not only closed, but

Carr's wife before she was married — she wanted good-tempered magistrate in that fire-eating county clenched. And so firmly did he grasp his shillala, in Peggy's batchelor for her own, and the turf bog that Limerick would consider himself quite safe without a “fist” that would have served Vulcan as a sledge is'nt big enough for a”

fire-arms in his sitting-room. And the wild group outhammer, that his fingers had become perfectly white At this moment, and just as Mr Russel was going side, backed by the distant mountains, while the noble from the exertion. He had removed his hat upon enter to desire Mrs Leahy either to come to the point at Shannon—that most boisterous yet most gracious of ing the magistrate's breakfast room, but in his eager- onceorto hold her tongue-neither of which, experience rivers, foamed and fretted as it dashed over its native ness had crushed “the bran new beaver” into a most might have taught him, she would do—the servant rocks in the foreground-always confirmed my imagiunnatural shape.

forced his way through the crowd at the door to nation in the belief, that the county Limerick, rich in Mr Russel was so accustomed to these vehement answer the bell.

the bounties of overflowing nature, is still an awkward displays of temper, or whatever they may be called,

“ Unbolt the hall door," said the magistrate; “un place in which to pitch a tent, and play at Arcadians. that he proceeded very quietly to finish his breakfast, bolt the hall door directly, and call to Abel Carr to Within the magistrate's room the scene was as wild regardless of the half-open door, through which five come in."

as without ; the furniture seemed well fitted to bear or six anxious faces were seen poking one over the

“ It's not naided-many thanks to yer honour all the knocking about of careless guests; the shaggy wolfother—all friends and allies of Johnny Leahy's ; and the same. It's not naided by any manner o' manes," dog and the sleek pointer were stretched with a couple regardless also of the widely opened window that was exclaimed a squeaking voice from the open window. of superannuated fox-hounds upon the ample hearth. only between five and six feet above the level of the “ I'm here, yer honour's worship, to the confusion John Leahy seemed as though the concentrated lawn, for every now and then a head popped up, and of my inimies, and the establishment of law and jus anger of half a century had exaggerated his features, then as quickly disappeared, anxious to ascertain what tice. I'm here, yer honour !"

and agitated his entire frame ; if looks could have was going on within.

And, truly, astride on the window seat, one leg in, destroyed, Abel Carr would have been annihilated ; John Leahy remained silent after Mr Russel had and the other out of the window, flourishing his hat but he had crept round with the stealth of a cat, and put his question, not for want of words, but literally be above his shaggy crop of yellow hair, was Abel Carr, the crawl of a reptile, behind Mr Russel's chair. Mrs cause he could not speak, from the quantity and quality forming in voice, manner, and appearance, a singular Leahy's figure and face were a study ; the hood of her of those which arose to his lips, and well-nigh choked and ludicrous contrast to the Herculean Irishman genuine Irish cloak had fallen from the rich and his utterance. Mr Russel repeated the question. who complained of his “innovations.” Any one with abundant lace that garnished her lawn cap ; her

“ Well, now, let me understand what it is you want the commonest observation could perceive, that though withered arms were thrown forward in the attitude of to swear ?" At last out it came, like a thunderbolt Abel was but a pigmy to his giant foe, yet the full entreaty, and her features expressed both rage and from the angry heavens

broad forehead—the blue, cold, almost cruel eye that anxiety. Those of “ Johnny the Giaunt's” friends who “ Any thing, any thing, by the blessed book ! for satis- twinkled beneath the overhanging brows of the little liad remained in some degree outside the breakfast faction!"

man—the firm, inflexible mouth, that could close in room, had entered when Abel Carr made his descent, “Oh !" said the magistrate, upon whom the confes- its thoughts as if with the seal of death—any one, I and a little in advance of the rude group was Alice sion had no effect,“ oh! it is I suppose the old story say, could see that Abel “had a head,” while John Leahy, the plantiff's wife, as lovely a specimen of fair about the quarter of an acre; any thing particularly Leahy's powerful frame was only surmounted by a Irish beauty as ever spun at a wheel or plaited a hat. new?"

handsome “ animal developement.” Strong passions, Alice's fair hair was banded beneath a cap of finer “ If yer honour will be plazed to hear me, and listen rash, daring, were stamped upon a high but narrow texture than that of her mother-in-law ; her cloak to rason, I'll put the rights of it before you at onst ; brow, over which his rich brown hair curled in pro was of bright scarlet, and a little girl of five or six and there's my mother, poor ould craythur, without, fusion. I beg the English reader to understand, that years old clung to it so as to draw it moro than halt and two or three more neighbours, and its ourselves a few years ago no man ever went near a magistrate towards her, leaving the womanly symmetry of her that have been waiting on yer honour since break of without being accompanied, at all events to the hall mother's perfect form, which otherwise would have day, and got into the house, hoping favour from yer steps, by a tribe of “friends," who either had, or been quite concealed, somewhat exposed. There was honour, seeing you ought to lane towards ould resi- fancied they had, something to do with the affair in no bitterness, no revenge, no strong passion, written denters, that have a natural claim on the gintry.” question ; while others followed because they had no on that gentle woman's face. The one expression was

“ Hav'nt I often told you,” interrupted the magis- thing to do ; thus, two contending factions have fre- interest in her husband, towards whom her eyes were trate peevishly, “ that all this has nothing to do with quently met, and not unfrequently “done battle” directed; while the child looked with evident terror the justice of the case! Where is Abel Carr?” upon a magistrate's lawn ; this has occurred within up to her mother, and then, as if reassured by her “Oh, the little bla’guard (saving yer honour's pre- my own memory; they are better behaved now-a-days, gentleness

, advanced a little more into the room ; not, sence), it's without he is. He thought to make his and would wait, at all events, until beyond the entrance however, loosing her hold of the cloak. way in, but I did'nt want yer honour to be put in a gate. Having said so much, it can be easily imagined Mac Manus, who has painted some Irish scenes most passion with his lies—the thief of the world !-so I that when Abel Carr's “friends” saw him waving his capitally, would do admirable justice to such an intejist made bould to draw the boult of the hall door.” hat triumphantly, they set up a yell of delight and rior ; but I do not know of any living artist who cruld

“ Draw the bolt of my house against your neighbour, defiance, while “ John the Giaunt,” as he was called, faithfully set upon canvass the extraordinary beauty of who has as good a right to justice as yourself !” Mr made a plunge towards the window, which caused Alice Leahy. Her clear and lovely features were perRussel rang the bell after so saying, and John Leahy, the worthy Mr Russel to spring from his chair, and fect, and, hallowed by ar expression of the most

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