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Solent in the vicinity of Cowes. Southward, the scene nooks and on prominent bushy knolls, ornamental and choose to remain within the establishment; and is limited to the face of the enclosed fields which de- cottages and houses ; and in one place, under the sha- to the juvenile poor it affords instruction, and fits scend from the higher downs between us and the dow of the pendant cliff, there is now building a them for a useful trade or occupation in the world.
handsome town of detached villas, called Ventnor. Eighty acres of land are attached to the house, and coast. A more charming, soft, simple prospect, calling The friable sandstone cliffs near Blackgang abound in divided into fields and gardens which are cultivated by up ideas of peaceful quiet, industry, and comfort, can marine fossil remains. From a mass of rock which the inmates. The institution has proved an effective scarcely be pictured in the imagination. The ruins of had fallen from the summit, a height of about three cure of utter destitution and misery. the old castle, on which we have taken our seat, and hundred feet above the level of the sea, I procured lighted up with the mellow tinge of an evening sun, ferent
kinds. The millions of years that must have some remarkably fine specimens of fossil shells of dif
MACONOCHIE ON THE CONVICT SYSTEM help to awake additional fancies in the mind. Wo elapsed since the sandstone of the cliff was a soft mass
IN AUSTRALIA. have the wide expanse of the fortification before us, in the bed of the ocean, who can number or imagine !
CAPTAIN MACONOCHIE, a person of enlightened and covering at least twenty acres of ground, and plainly Pursuing the winding, and up-and-down route generous character, well known to men of science in showing what an important feudal stronghold the beneath the crags on our left, with the glittering ex- this country, about five years ago accompanied his place once had been. The whole is now completely panse of the channel on our right, we are at length friend Sir John Ross to Van Diemen's Land, in the dismantled, and in a state of broken ivy-clad ruin, removed from the sea, and celebrated for its chine. dividuals who had long held the chief influence in the with the exception of the house and offices, of compa- Chine is a word often heard in the Isle of Wight, colony,
to retire from a situation
in which he could ratively modern date, belonging to the keeper, in the and applies to a ravine of sandy strata of different not look with official indifference upon almost every inner court. Descending the broken stair of the keep colours. The chine at Shanklin, I understand, was species of selfish injustice. Fortunately, the home to these offices, we are conducted into one in which is once pretty ; now, it is a dell with dirty brown sandy government appreciated his value, and three papers a draw-well of 300 feet in depth. Water is drawn sides, not more interesting than a tolerably deep
rail. drawn up by him, on the convict discipline of the
way outting, its variegated colours, if they ever existed, Australian colonies, were laid before Parliament in from it by a bucket and windlass, wrought by an un- having been obliterated by damp, or a muddy stream April 1838. Captain Maconochie has more recently fortunate donkey, who is obliged to enter and turn conveyed into it from the village.
in Van Diemen's Land printed a volume,* in which, round a wheel, on the principle of a squirrel in a cage. Ryde, at the eastern extremity of the island. Ryde presents a series of short articles on various connected
From Shanklin, a journey of an hour brings us to besides a summary of those parliamentary papers, be This poor creature, who, on performing his task, was
is a town of beautiful villas, with some business subjects, all of them marked by enlarged and humane glad to scramble out, and betake himself to a nibble streets, lying on the face of a pleasant woody hill, views. The object of the whole is to enforce the pro of the green grass which grows plenteously in the and commanding a view of Portsmouth on the main priety of substituting for the present harsh and decourt-yard, was, it seems, preceded in office by an ass land opposite. The town is provided with a very long grading mode of convict management, a system in who worked the wheel for the space of fifty-two years, wooden jetty or pier across a wide expanse of sandy which, while punishment is duly administered, moral and even then died in perfect health and strength, by beach, which is visible at low water; and hence steam influence shall be called into play for the purpose of accidentally falling over the ramparts of the castle. Portsmouth, Southampton, and various other places. boats ply at frequent intervals, in connexion with producing reformation.
Captain Maconochie's account of the present sysOne of its successors was a pensioner of the Duke of The Isle of Wight, of which we now had made a tem, and of the evils flowing from it, is very striking. Gloucester, uncle of George III., who settled on it pretty comprehensive inspection, both in the interior
“ Prisoners are, on their first arrival in the penal an aliment of a penny loaf a-day; a bounty which and coasts, possesses a few interesting points worthy colonies, assigned to private service at the will of it gratefully enjoyed for a long period of years. The of the visit of tourists, particularly Alum Bay, Under public board, which endeavours, as it best can, to diswater of the well, which was brought up for us to taste, natural beauties and fertile qualities have been con
according to certain conventional rules laid down for is pure, cool, and pleasant, being the produce of springs siderably
of it is of a commonplace its guidance. In the assigned service thus entered on in the solid rock.
character, consisting of low bare hills or downs, with no wages are allowed to be given ; nor is any other On the northern side of the court, near the keeper's the inferior slopes disposed as small arable farms; moral impulse employed, excepting the remote hope of house, are the dilapidated walls of the edifice in which and it possesses little ornamental wood to composé indulgence after four, six, or eight years, according to
their original sentence. Until these elapse, the labour Charles I. was confined, after he had fallen into the poor yellowish clay, in many places ill-drained, and imposed is strictly coerced, or slave labour ; and also hands of his subjects. The window, with its iron under a backward state of cultivation. I understand, though accompanied with a fixed minimum amount of bars, through which he on one occasion attempted to however, that the more energetic landed gentry and physical maintenance and support, sufficient to place escape, is still pointed out : the apartment is entirely yeomanry are making efforts to improve both the above want, it is yet subject to all the discomfort and gone. A not less interesting spot is the open tilting tillage and the live stock of the island. The roads moral degradation incident to such a condition. The ground on the east, and exterior to the court-yard. are good, though, very narrow and uneven ; and beins men are lodged in, outhouses, six, eight, or more,
under a stable roof; they sleep here on truckle bed This ancient place of arms is a beautiful lawn, with pleasing traits in the rural scenery. The climate of steads, generally without undressing; the floor is banks on all sides for spectators, the whole being in the island is usually reckoned to be somewhat more carthen, and often very soft; they cook and eat in the as good preservation as when filled with the chivalry mild, pure, and salubrious than that of the mainland ing, always in the roughest manner; and they are and fair daughters of Vectis. The broad green knoll on which the castle stands, prevalence of marine breezes, I should imagine this master can get enforced, on appeal to a magistrate, by
ture two or three degrees higher in winter, from the subject to the most severe regulations, which any has been the site of a fortification since the period the distinction to be rather fanciful. The island
contains equally severe punishments. This is the usual picture Romans were in possession of the island, and has been many remarkably pleasant places of private residence in the country districts; in the towns there is more maintained by successive dynasties of Saxons, Nor- for invalids and others, and also a plentiful supply of comfort (sometimes in the case of a good house-sermans, and English. In the year 530, the castle was
vant there is even too much, consistently with a state hotels for transient visiters; but there are several drawbacks on comfort which it may be as well to
of punishment), but there is much more temptation. captured by Whitgar, a general under Cerdic , king of state. In few places are there any walks on a level Not being allowed
wages, yet desirous of procuring the West Saxons, and hence received the name of surface fit for valetudinarians---scarcely any con- indulgences, the prisoners too often steal to obtain Whitgarsburg, which was afterwards shortened into veyances are to be obtained but open cars-and the means; and all fly to liquor, whenever they can obtain Garsbruk, and that, in its turn, was transformed into expense of living at boarding-houses or inns is exces- it, to drown humiliation and care. the present appellation of Carisbrooke. The village parts of the Continent for the sum which he will be may ask for, and, according to the report made of him,
At the end of the several allotted periods each man sively high. A tourist may travel a month in some which arose at the base of the mount, was, in these an- compelled to dissipate in a week in the Isle of Wight. may obtain, or be refused, a ticket of leave ; but in cient times, the capital of the island, but in the course The same thing almost may be said of travelling in this there is necessarily much uncertainty. The reof events it gradually lost this character, and the any part of the south of England.
cord kept of prisoners' conduct only embraces offences, of resi
no official notice being taken of good ordinary beharise of Newport, in a more advantageous situation dence for many families in retired life and easy cir- viour, as diligence, sobriety,obedience, honesty, fidelity; farther down the Medina, finally deprived it of its cumstances, the number of this class of its
inhabi- zeal, or the like ; and thus, as only that appears which distinction and importance. Newport
, in the present tants having greatly increased within the last twenty has drawn down magisterial censure, a careless fellow, day, as I have said, is a remarkably neat town, with or thirty years. The population is now
about 40,000, however good his disposition and intentions, especially evidently a fair share of trade, and is the place of resi- nearly a fourth part of whom belong to Newport, and if he has had an indifferent master, may have a long dence of many respectable families. During our stay, another fourth to Ryde and
Cowes. The latter town, list against him, while a thorough villain, more happily we made excursions to several places in the neigh- at the mouth of the Medina, directly opposite the circumstanced, or perhaps from the very power of bourhood besides Carisbrooke ; among the rest, to port, and seat of a rather distinguished and numerous
deception which his practice in villany gives him, may estuary of Southampton water, is the principal sea
have few or none. When the ticket is obtained, a been a principal motive for my visit to this part of admiral, and other honorary functionaries ; the pre- residence, and receive wages ; but under a recent the government prison at Parkhurst, to see which had yacht club. The island possesses a governor, vice particular district is assigned, in which the recipient England. An account of what fell under my obser- sent vice-admiral is the Earl of Yarborough, whose vation here, will form the subject of the next article. elegant mansion of Appuldurcombe, which is kindly statute, he is not allowed to acquire property, He
must attend frequent musters, and may not change Having thus fairly exhausted Newport and its spection of visiters, forms a leading attraction in the his residence without informing the police. He must neighbourhood, we proceeded southwards, on a more southern part of the island.
also constantly sleep at home, and return thither lengthened excursion, to follow out the line of coast Attending with some degree of care to its internal before eight o'clock every evening: For very trifling from Blackgang Chine to Shanklin. This division
of arrangements, and being of easily manageable,dimen- irregularities he is liable to have his ticket suspended, the southern shore comprises scenery more interesting sions, the Isle of Wight may be described as in a
or entirely taken away; in either of which cases he is than what is seen farther west at Freshwater Gate generally thriving and comfortable condition. You
no usually sent to hard labour in a road-party, thus falland Alum Bay. The incessant action of the waves of where see any mendicant vagrancy or external marks ing back on the worst, and not on the best, form of the British Channel is here producing the usual effects moted by a strict exclusion of all persons likely to be proportion of ticket-of-leave men are thus interrupted,
of destitution. This gratifying state of affairs is pro- previous treatment. And, practically, a very largo of high bare cliffs and formidable land-slips, down to the verge of the water. For a distance of about five a burden on society. Placards on the walls denounce
often on very slight occasions, in their labour and purmiles, there is a section of the coast, called Undercliff, sellers, exhibitors of white mice, or wandering musisevere penalties on all “ beggars, pretended match suits, even in this their comparatively free position.
As the periods of sentence respectively expire, with which presents a very peculiar appearance. The wash- cians," who are found within the limits of the island, and
or without having obtained tickets of leave, and howing away of the substratum on the shore, has caused captains of vessels are warned not to bring them over.
ever abandoned in character (if only they escape an the face of the hill all along to slide down in dis- But other and more effectual means are adopted for extension of time under a colonial sentence), the priorderly masses to the shore, but preserving a ver- extirpating poverty. The whole island, as respects soners become entirely free, and mix as such with dant and shrubby surface, and leaving the remaining pauperism, is reckoned as one parish,
and is provided the remainder of society ; of which whole system the mihalf of the hill to form a bold, precipitous, and naked with a large workhouse for the reception of all pau
nute features and consequences may be thus classed :background. A road winds along on the top of While furnishing a tranquil shelter to the infirm and pers whatsoever, situated a short way from Newport.
The degree of punishment inflicted by it is in every the fallen land ; and here also, in this somewhat peril- helpless poor, this house of industry gives employment Subjects connected with the Australian Penal Colonies By
* Australiana. Thonghts on Convict Management and other ous situation, are built, in various delightful sunny l at out or in-door labour to all who are able to work, 1 Captain Maconochie, R. N. K.H. London: J. W. Parker. 1821
“ One sees
case quite uncertain. A bad master may make it covery of a "wide immeasurable ocean,” at all the by the striking together of their antlers, the swift fearful ; a good or weak one may greatly mitigate it. points which they triod. This obstacle of course com- canoes dashing in amongst them, the terror of the Much also depends on the personal character of the pelled them to pause, and renounco the object imme- frightened animals, the danger of the huntsmen, the criminal himself, as will be presently explained ; but, diately in view. But in their various routes on the shouts of warning, advice, or applause from their in general, the amount of suffering is much greater land, they saw enough to render their expedition one friends, the blood-stained water, and all the accomthan it appears to be, or than it is thought in England, of profound interest, both to themselves and to others. panying circumstances, form a whole which no one or than is at all proportionate to minor offences. The little that was formerly known on the subject of can picture to himself without having witnessed the
It is on the persons guilty of these, at the same Northern Siberia, must have often led reflecting minds scene.” time, and even on the most innocent of them, that the to wonder in what manner life could be sustained in Sometimes the rein-deer hunt fails, and then the punishment chiefly falls ; for the physical endurance regions so cold and dreary. Here (says Admiral importance of the animal to the natives is shown by is trifling compared with the degrudation, and other Wrangell) there is nothing to invite. Endless snows the most deplorable consequences. On one occasion, moral suffering inflicted ; and it is the best men who and ice-covered rocks bound the horizon. Nature lies when Admiral Wrangell was present, the natives, feel these most acutely.' The previous habits of old shrouded in almost perpetual winter. No one attempts who were waiting in a state of almost utter starvaoffenders may in most cases, even before their arrival, the cultivation of any vegetable, nor could success be tion for the appearance of the herds, “ were filled have inured them to filth, slovenliness, suspicion, con expected.". This must be understood as referring to with joy, by immense numbers of rein-deer approachtempt, and the habit of submitting to, and command the vegetables capable of sustaining man, and which, ing the right bank of the river opposite to Lobasnoje
. ing their tempers under, such treatment ; while a indeed, do yield his chief sustenance in almost all parts never saw such a multitude of these animals. At a comparatively good man writhes under every thing of the world. Happily, however, there are in Siberia distance, their antlers resembled a moving forest. approaching to indignity, and is unable to conceal or grasses and wild fruits, in sufficient abundance to Crowds of people flocked in on every side, and hope restrain the feelings excited by it.
înaintain a great variety of the lower animals ; and it beamed on every countenance as they arranged themThe very bad are thus little punished—if, indeed, is here that nature has given compensation to man for selves in their light boats to await the passage of the their situation be not in many cases even improved; the poverty of useful vegetation. “Countless berds deer. But whether the animals had seen and were while the less bad, up even to the very good (of whom of rein-deer, elks, black bears, foxes, sables, and grey terrified at the crowds of people, or whatever the reathere are some), are punished with extreme severity, squirrels, fill the upland forests; stone foxes and wolves son may have been, after a short pause, they turned, and almost universally degraded and demoralised. roam over the low grounds. Enormous flights of left the bank, and disappeared among the mountains. Every feeling of self-respect is speedily lost amidst swans, geese, and ducks, arrive in spring, and seek The utter despair of the poor starving people was the humiliations and inconveniences inflicted ; and deserts where they may moult and build their nests in dreadful to witness. It manifested itself among these irritation, recklessness, insubordination, disgraceful safety. Eagles, owls, and gulls, pursue their prey along rude children of nature under various forms. Some punishment, furious resentment, drunkenness, theft, the sea-coast; ptarmigan run in troops among the wept aloud, and wrung their hands ; some threw themand prostitution, complete the sacrifice of many a bushes; little snipes are busy along the brooks and selves on the ground, and tore up the snow; others, human being born to better things, and whom misfor- in the morasses ; the social crows seek the neighbour- and amongst them the more aged, stood silent and tune and imperfect political institutions, more than hood of men's habitations; and, when the sun shines motionless, gazing with fixed and tearless eyes in the crime, or original bad dispositions, have thus irre- in spring, one may even sometimes hear the cheerful direction where their hopes had vanished. Feeling coverably ruined.
note of the finch, and in autumn, that of the thrush." our utter inability to offer any alleviation to their The evil also does not stop here. Social, like me. There is also an abundance of fish in the waters; and misery, we hastened to quit this scene of wo." chanical impulses, act reciprocally. The degradation it is by means of these varieties of animal life that a The inhabitants of Siberia, in fact, enjoy life but by of one class operates injuriously on every other; and comparatively large population are fed and clothed, and fits and starts. The rein-deer, it has been seen, apit is impossible to view the state of society in the penal enabled to endure the cold and herbless dreariness of a pear but at certain seasons, and the case is the same colonies, without being made most painfully sensible of Siberian clime.
with fish. During the intense winter cold, these creathis fact.” Our author traces the effect of this slave- As in the case of the Laplanders, the rein-deer tures retire into the deepest parts of the rivers and holding system in the harsh, overbearing, and quar- furnishes to the nomade tribes of Siberia the means lakes, and are there unapproachable. When their relsome character which attaches to the free popula- of supplying all their most pressing wants. “ The stores of flesh and fish chance to run short, which tion of penal Australia ; in a depth of suspicion, and two most important epochs of the year, are the spring often happens before the fitting time, the distress of a recklessness of assertion “beyond all precedent in and autumn migrations of the rein-deer. About the the people becomes altogether fearful. civilised life ;in short, “ a disunion of society.” end of May they leave the forests, where they had them, like wandering phantoms, pale, without strength, Under a system so unfortunately arranged, adminis. found some degree of shelter from the winter cold, in scarcely able to walk ; they throw themselves greedily tration becomes extremely difficult, and every succes- large herds, and seek the northern plains nearer the on any remains of bones, skin, or aught else which may sive governor has been charged with heinous errors. sea, partly for the sake of the better pasture afforded in any way alleviate the pangs of hunger.” The com
Captain Maconochie proceeds to suggest a new sys- by the moss tundras, and partly to fly from the mos- mon form in which they usually first obtain relief, is tem of management for the convicts in Australia. quitoes and other insects, which, literally speaking, by the arrival of large flights of birds, swans, geese, He proposes that they should be kept entirely under torment them to death.
ducks, and snipes, from the south. Old and young, the care of the government, and subjected to a well- In good years, the migrating body of rein-deer men and women, all who can use a gun or å bow, regulated system of restraint and of reformation, consists of many thousands ; and, though they are
hasten to the pursuit, and, for the time, the scarcity until they have become fit to re-enter society, when divided into herds of two or three hundred eacħ, yet ends. When to these frequent sufferings from famine they should come forth as free labourers. Into the the herds keep so near together as to form only one
is added an atmospherical temperature, considered details of his plan we cannot here enter; but it is the immense mass, which is sometimes from fifty to one
mild when only eighteen or twenty degrees below the less necessary, as, since the preceding part of this hundred versts in breadth. As each separate herd freezing point, and when it is remembered that inarticle was put into types, the subject has come under approaches the river, the deer draw more closely to- numerable hosts of sharp-stinging mosquitoes fill the discussion in parliament, and a prospect has been gether, and the largest and strongest takes the lead. air during a great part of the year, it may well be held out of a complete revolution in convict manage- \ ile advances, closely followed by a few of the others, believed that the people of these regions ara characment being carried into effect by the government. with head erect, and apparently intent on examining terised by continued melancholy, if not by sullen The subject is one invested with great difficulties. It the locality. When he has satisfied himself, he enters moroseness. will be scarcely possible so to adjust the meed of the river, the rest of the herd crowd after him, and in Having usually to shift in the fishing season to the punishment, the means of reformation, the desirable- a few minutes the surface is covered with them. banks of rivers, many of the Siberian tribes occupy ness of economy, the demands of one set of the colonies,
Then the hunters, who had been concealed to lee- two kinds of habitations, their winter and their sumfor convict labour, and the fears of another set lest ward, rush in their light canoes from their hiding- mer ones. The former are small cottages of boards, convicts be let loose upon them, as to give entire places, surround the door, and delay their passage, in the shape of truncated pyramids, with sunk mud satisfaction. But it is quite clear that some change whilst two or three chosen men, armed with short floors, and window-slits fitted with plates of ice in in the present system is required ; and hence we would spears, dash into the middle of the herd, and dispatch winter, and fish-membranes at other times. The sumhope that the various parties interested in the ques- large numbers in an incredibly short time; or at mer dwellings are tents of birch bark, softened and tion will meet it in a spirit of liberality and concession, least wound them so, that if they reach the bank, it sewed together. An open hearth, with a very rude and not allow small obstacles to stand in the way of a is only to fall into the hands of the women and chil chimney, keeps these huts well furnished with smoke, reform so devoutly to be wished. dren.
which is essential to the expulsion of mosquitoes. Of The office of the spearman is a very dangerous one. the fisheries conducted at the summer tents, it is only EXPEDITION TO SIBERIA.*
It is no easy thing to keep the light boat afloat among necessary to remark, that the whole of each little com
the dense crowd of the swimming deer, which, more munity unites to erect a dam across tho river, leaving The recently published work, of which the full title over, make considerabis resistance ; the males with an opening in the middle in which baskets are placed is noted below, is one of much importance in various their horns, teeth, and hind-legs, whilst the females for the securing of the migrating fish. After the conrespects. No portion of the globe, scarcely excepting try to overset the boat by getting their fore-feet struction of the dam, the fishing is a task so easy, that even the interior of Africa, is less known to the civi- over the gunnel; if they succeed in this, the hunter the men hand it over to the women, and direct their lised world than the northern coast of Asia. This is lost, for it is hardly possible that he should extri- own attention to the chase. region being entirely in the possession of Russia, it was
cate himself from the throng ; but the skill of these by that power alone that discoveries could properly people is so great, that accidents very rarely occur.
The Siberians of the north-east, called by the tribe
names of Tungusi, Jakuti, Lamuti, and others, have, be prosecuted; and, till of late years, its rulers have A good hunter may kill one hundred or more in less in addition to their tame rein-deer, a small-sized, not been in a condition to appreciate the full value of than half an hour. When the herd is large, and gets shaggy breed of horses for work and travel. But, such explorations, either to themselves or to mankind into disorder, it often happens that their antlers like the Kamtschatkadales, the inhabitants of many at large. The matters brought to light, therefore, by become entangled with each other; they are then districts also possess a peculiar and powerful breed of Admiral Wrangell's expedition of 1820-1823, the unable to defend themselves, and the business is much dogs, by means of which a great part of their sledgeaccount of which is now for the first time laid before easier. Meanwhile, the rest of the boats pick up the journeying is effected. “ These dogs," says Admiral the world, have all the charm of perfect novelty ; slain, and fasten them together with thongs, and Wrangell,“ have much resemblance to the wolf. and of this, as well as of their generally interesting every one is allowed to keep what he lays hold of in They have long, pointed, projecting noses, sharp and character, a few extracts will suffice to satisfy the this manner. It might seem that in this way nothing upright ears, and a long bushy tail; some have smooth, reader. The north-eastern district of Siberia, visited by and the danger they have encountered; but whilst black, brown, reddish-brown, white, and spotted. They
would be left to requite the spearmen for their skill, and some have curly hair; their colour is various, Admiral Wrangell and his companions, lies between every thing taken in the river is the property of who- vary also in size; but it is considered that a good the river Lena on the west, and Behring's Straits on
ever secures it, the wounded animals which reach the sledge dog should not be less than two feet seven and the east, and extends from about the 126th to the 130th bank before they fall, belong to the spearman who a halt inches in height, and three feet three quarters degree of east longitudo, and from the 62d to the 73d wounded them. The skill and experience of these of an inch in length (English measure). degree of north latitude. The expedition was a land
men are such, that in the thickest of the conflict, when Their barking is like the howling of a wolf. They one, its main object being to settle certain doubts every energy is taxed to the uttermost, and their life pass their whole life in the open air ; in summer they which prevailed as to the existence of a great arctic is every moment at stake, they have sufficient pre- dig holes in the ground for coolness, or lie in the water continent north of the Siberian seas. An extensive tract of the Siberian coast was traversed by the party blows so as to kill
the smallest animals outright, but selves by burrowing in the snow, and lie curled up,
sence of mind to contrive to measure the force of their to avoid the mosquitoes : in winter they protect themin the course of their enterprise, in order to enable only to wound the larger and finer ones, so that they with their noses covered by their bushy tails. The them to cross the ice northwards, at various points, in may be just able to reach the bank. Such proceeding female puppies are drowned, except enough to presledges ; and the result of these journeys was the dish is not sanctioned by the general voice, but it seems, serve the breed, the males alone being used in draught. * Narrative of an Expedition to the Polar Sea in 1820, 1821, 1822, nevertheless, to be almost always practised.
Those born in winter enter on their training the foland 1823, by Lieutenant (now Admoral Wiringel of the Russian character, and
quite indescribable. The
and training is a parti;
thousands of swimming rein-deer, the sound produced | cular art, and much skill is required in driving and
guiding them. The best trained dogs are used as in circumference, though he was obliged to exert four of the imperial line, and, from the way in which these leaders; and as the quick and steady going of the team, times the strength requisite for the purpose, in conse- sovereigns were selected, many of these anecdotes are usually of twelve dogs, and the safety of the traveller, quence of the awkward way in which he applied his entitled to belief. depend on the sagacity and docility of the leader, no powers to the task. He lifted a stone roller, weighing Froissart, a writer of undeniable honesty, speaks of pains are spared in their education—so that they may eight hundred pounds, by means of a chain fastened a companion-knight to the Earl of Foix, one Orlando always obey their master's voice, and not be tempted to it, using his hands only, and standing on a frame Burg, who, being hurried for fuel one cold day, went from their course when they come on the scent of above the roller. But, perhaps, of all Topham's feats, down a long flight of steps, and, finding asses loaded game. This last is a point of great difficulty; some the most surprising was his lifting of three hogsheads with wood in the court, seized the largest of them, times the whole team, in such cases, will start off, and of water, weighing in all one thousand eight hundred burden and all, and never stopped till he had laid ass no endeavours on the part of the driver can stop them. and thirty-six pounds, in the presence of multitudes of and all from his shoulders on the fire-a position, On such occasions, we have sometimes had to admire spectators assembled to witness the exertion.
however, not long kept by the ass at least, as may be the cleverness with which the well-trained leader en- The attention which Topham devoted to athletic believed. In the French “ Bibliotheque des Gens do deavours to turn the other dogs from their pursuit ; if exhibitions, and the habits to which these exhibi- Cour,” we are told of a man named Barsabas, who other devices fail, he will suddenly wheel round, and tions naturally led, had the effect of withdrawing was a soldier of Louis XIV.'s guards, and who, on by barking, as if he had come on a new scent, try to his mind from serious business, and he became a one occasion when the king's heavy coach of state induce the other dogs to follow him. In travelling bankrupt. After this event he travelled over the stuck so fast in the road that all the oxen and horses across the wide tundra, in dark nights, or when the country, and gave regular displays of his muscular that could be yoked to it were unable to pull it out, vast plain is veiled in impenetrable mist, or in storms strength in the majority of the provincial towns. applied his single strength to it from below, and lifted or snow-tempests, when the traveller is in danger of The famous William Hutton of Birmingham, when it out of the place. A man was about to fight with missing the sheltering powarna, and of perishing in i resident in his native Derby, witnessed Topham's Barsabas, and when the two were holding out their the snow, he will frequently owe his safety to a good feats, and has not disdained to give an admiring hands, the strong fellow seized the fist of the other, leader; if the animal has ever been in this plain, and record of them in his writings. Hutton's statement and, by a gentle squeeze, utterly disabled him from has stopped with his master at the powarna, he will is characterised by his wonted clearness and accuracy. using the limb. Barsabas could snap horse-shoes in be sure to bring the sledge to the place where the hut “Topham, being obliging enough to allow his person two as easily as wafers. He went in one day to a lies deeply buried in the snow; when arrived at it, he to be examined, was found to be extremely muscular; village farrier's, and said he wished for horse-shoes, will suddenly stop, and indicate, significantly, the spot what were hollows under the arms and hams of Several were shown to him, and he broke them to where his master must dig.
others, were filled up with ligaments in him.” After pieces one by one with his fingers, saying they were Nor are the dogs without their use in summer; they mentioning that Topham was above thirty years of uselessly
brittle. The farrier stared, but proposed to tow the boats up the rivers, and it is curious to ob- age, and had a slight limp in consequence of the make stronger ones. While beginning to the task, serve how instantly they obey their master's voice, fracture of his leg, caused by drawing against the Barsabas took up the large anvil, and held it under either in halting or in changing the bank of the river horses, the writer proceeds: “The performances of this his cloak. When the anvil was sought for, he set it On hearing his call, they plunge into the water, draw wonderful person, in whom was united the strength down, on which the farrier, seeing
such miraculous the towing-line after them, and swim after the boat to of twelve men, consisted in rolling up a pewter dish feats, as he thought them, ran off with the exclama the opposite shore ; and, on reaching it
, replace them- of seven pounds, as a man rolls up a sheet of paper ; tion, that the devil in person was in his smithy. selves in order, and wait the command to go on. Some- holding a pewter quart at arms' length, and squeez- Barsabas, the French work tells, once met his match, times, even those who have no horses will use the dogs ing the sides together like an egg-shell"; lifting
two however. He went into a rope-shop in Flanders, his in fowling excursions, to draw their light boats from hundredweight with his little finger, and moving it native region, and sought to purchase some strong one lake or river to another. In short, the dog is fully gently over his head. The bodies he touched seemed ropes. Several being presented to him, he snapped as useful and indispensable a domestic animal to the to have lost their power of gravitation. He also broke them like pack-thread, and said," they were very bad.” settled inhabitant of this country, as the tame rein- a rope, fastened to the floor, that would sustain twenty "I will give you better ones," said the woman who deer is to the nomade tribes. They regard it as such. hundredweight.”.
was selling the articles, “ if you have money to pay for We saw a remarkable instance of this during the Hutton mentions other feats, similar to those pre- them.” Barsabas immediately produced several crown terrible sickness, which, in the year 1821, carried off viously enumerated here, and continues thus :- pieces. The woman took them up, and broke two or the greater part of these useful animals. An unfortu- “ Weakness and feeling seemed fled together. Being three of them as easily as Barsabas had snapped the nate Juhakir family had only two dogs left out of a master of music, Topham entertained the company ropes.
“ Your crowns are as bad as my ropes,” said twenty, and these were just born, and, indeed, still with Mad Tom.' I heard him also sing a solo to the the woman, smiling. The astonished visiter made blind. The mother being dead, the wife of the Juhakir organ in St Werburgh's church, then the only one in inquiries, and found
a solution of the mystery of the determined on nursing the two puppies with her own Derby; but though he might perform with judgment, woman's strength, in the fact that she was his own. child, rather than lose the last remains of their
former yet the voice, more terrible than sweet, seemed scarcely sister! They had not met from infancy, and had both wealth. She did so, and was rewarded for it, for her human. Though of a pacific temper, and with the left the place of their nativity. two nurselings lived, and became the parents of a new appearance of a gentleman, yet he was liable to the and vigorous race of dogs." insults of the rude. The hostler at the Virgin's Inn,
THE TESTAMENT. Notwithstanding the length to which these notices where he resided, having given him some cause of disand extracts have run, we find that we have yet given pleasure, Topham took one of the kitchen spits from but a very imperfect idea of the uncommon and abun- the mantel-piece, and bent it round the man's neck At an early hour of the day, while morning, indeed, dant interest of the contents of this volume, which like a handkerchief ; but as he did not choose to tuck was yet struggling with the night for mastery, Horace reflects honour on the Russian service. We can but the ends in the hostler's bosom, the cumbrous orna- Morand entered the house of his uncle, and, with the point it out, however, to those who would know ment excited the laughter of the company till he con- confidence of a privileged relative, proceeded directly more of the subject, and feel assured that the indica- descended to untie the cravat. Had he not abounded to the sleeping apartment of which the old man had tion will be held as a favour by those who avail them- in good nature, the men might have been in fear for been an involuntary tenant for some weeks back. An selves of it.
the safety of their persons, and the women for that of aged nurse was seated on a sofa in the chamber, half
their pewter-shelves, for he could instantly double up slumbering through long fatigue. The windows were TOPHAM, AND OTHER STRONG MEN.
both. One blow with his fist would for ever have yet closed; but on the table stood a single light, which
silenced those heroes of the bear-garden, Johnson and showed, through the half-open curtains of the bed, THOMAS TOPHAM, “ the Strong Man,” as he was Mendoza." His strength not being particularly ap- the wan figure of the elder Morand, or what had been usually called, was born in London about the year parent at first sight, his ordinary and non-professional that person, for the body was now a piece of inanimate 1710. He was bred to the trade of a carpenter, and, displays excited the more astonishment. Two strangers, matter. The old man had sunk into his last sleep
of powerful make and quarrelsome temper, entered his some hours before. although his stature never exceeded five feet ten, soon
tavern one day, and, after evincing much insolence, The noise which Horace Morand made on entering became remarkable for the extraordinary vigour of his would fight with the quiet and patient landlord. He aroused the nurse. She rose, and with a melancholy muscular powers. His passion for athletic exercises was at length obliged to seize them respectively by the air said, “ Good morning, Mr Horace. You come to led to his deserting his regular trade, and adopting nape of the neck, when, in spite of the most violent see your uncle once more. Look at him. He smiles that of an innkeeper. At his house of the Red Lion, struggles, he coolly noited their heads together, till as if he but slumbered pleasantly; but his eyes will on the City Road, he gave the first public display of like manner, on the occasion of a race-exhibition, being garet,” returned the young man. “You have watched
they asked pardon of all present in abject terms. In re-open no more.”. “ Console yourself, my good Mar. his astonishing powers, by pulling against a horse, with annoyed, along with others, by a carter who would long, and have need of rest ; go and take it, and I will his feet placed on a low wall for support. He next force his waggon into the scene of the sport, Topham remain with
uncle." But, sir," said the nurse, tried his strength against two horses, but received a took hold of the back of the vehicle, and dragged it " I was desired" “ Go for a little while to rest," lasting injury in one of his legs, though to a certain back, horse, man, and all, till the way was sufficiently replied the youth, interrupting her ; “go, my good extent successful in the accomplishment of the .pro- cleared ; the carter, in the mean while, striving to Margaret, fear nothing ; I will not quit the room." posed feat. These exertions were made by way of rival push his horse forward, yet not daring to lay a finger And, as he spoke, he pushed the attendant, with ling those of a German performer who came to this on the man who was giving this terrible proof of gentle violence, from the chamber.
He then sat country, and drew against two horses with success. strength. But, as is shown in Sir D. Brewster's Treatise on Natu
down on the sofa, and, glancing for a moment at
Annoyed, like Sampson, by a wife of uncongenial the deceased relative, hé drew the curtains together, ral Magic, the German executed the feat not by sheer dispositions, Topham fell into distresses, and died in as if unwilling to have any witness of his reflections. strength, as in Topham's case, but by a skilfully ar- the prime of his age.
“At last he is gone," said the young man, " and I ranged piece of mechanism, which disseminated the strain through the lower part of the trunk. Other per- men of whom we have authentic accounts. Yet very
Topham appears to have been one of the strongest am rich !"
This opening reflection was followed after a time formances of the German, such
as his allowing stones striking things are told of the men of antiquity, of by occasional glances at the bed. Finally, Horace Moto be broken on his body, and the like, were managed which some must be true. Regarding various indivi- rand rose, and drawing open the curtains to the short in a similar way, by artifice more than strength.
duals who filled the throne of the Cæsars, in particular, est extent possible, he introduced his hand to the head Topham trusted only to his unaided muscular wonderful stories are told ; and these are the more of the bed, and brought it out again, bearing a bunch of powers, and by their means he effected the following likely to be correct, as the Roman soldiery put their keys. Closing the curtains anew, the young man went very wonderful tasks. With his fingers, he rolled up favourites into the imperial chair chiefly for personal hurriedly to an escritoire in the room, and applying a very large and strong pewter dish. Thrusting the and physical qualities. Maximin, the emperor, was a key, as if the objects were things familiar to him, bowl of a very thick tobacco-pipe under his garter, his so strong in body, that he drew loaded waggons with opened the repository in question. There was gold in legs being bent, he broke it to pieces with the tendons ease. He struck out the teeth of a horse with his fist, it; there were family jewels; there were title-deeds, of his ham. He broke a similar bowl between his first and by a kick broke its thigh. He crumbled stones and other such papers. These were not what the and second finger, by pressing them together sideways. between his fingers, and cleft young but stout trees seeker wanted ; but he ultimately found the article A table, six feet long, with half a hundredweight with his hands. Caius Marius, another of those no- in demand. It was a will. Stirring, up the fire, the fastened to the end of it, was lifted by him with his minated to the empire by the soldiers, is said to have youth sat down by it with the precious document in teeth, and held for a considerable time in a horizontal stayed with his fourth finger a cart drawn by horses, his eager hands, and read thus :position. He struck an iron poker, a yard long and and to have drawn it backward in the same way. With “ I nominate and appoint my nephew, Horace Mothree inches thick, against his bare left arm, between single fingers of his two hands, acting against one rand, my general legatee.” the elbow and wrist, till the instrument was bent so as another, he could break strong cords twisted together. “ Excellent !” cried the heir, with a degree of joy nearly to form a right angle. Taking another poker The Emperor Aurelian is stated by a credible author, which he thought it unnecessary to conceal : “ I, then, of the same kind, he held the ends of it in his hands, Flavius Vopiscus, to have been of great stature, and am the inheritor, as the law and the rules of society and placing the middle against the back of his neck, of such marvellous strength, that he slew, in one indicate. By my faith, it was fit time !” As he spoke, made both ends meet before him, after which he pulled engagement with the Sarmatians, no less than forty- Horace, who for two years had dreaded that his uncle it almost straight again. He broke a rope two inches nine men. Similar feats are told of other members would forget family ties in the love borne to strangers,
drew one hand across his now cheerful brow, and read
“Can you suspect my honesty ?" answered Horace. The whole force of a thunderbolt could not have “I know nothing of all this.”
prostrated a human being so completely as this dis“I give and devise twenty thousand francs to Garot “I found you here alone,” said the notary, preserv- closure did the profligate, who now saw himself stripand his wife Margaret, who have served me for thirty | ing an air of cold firmness; “ but I wish to impugn no ped of a splendid fortune by his own villanous act. years with devoted fidelity.” “Twenty thousand franks one's good faith. Listen to me, however. Your youth | At a period subsequent to these events, M. Martin to these people!" was the passing thought of the young has been a dissipated one, nay, as your uncle thought, and the generous boy Gustave bestowed a settlement heir. “Why,” said he, “they are rich enough already a vicious one. You know that your conduct drove on Horace Morand, in such a way as to secure to him with what they have picked up during these same you from your uncle's house. He intended to disin- the necessaries of life ; but it was only after he had thirty years. Never mind. It is an old man's folly. herit you. I interposed, and reminded him that you been brought to confess, in abject terms, the story of I will pay this, since I can't help myself.” The read- were the son of an only brother whom he loved, and his guilt, and to describe the whole train of feelings ing was continued.
of a sister-in-law to whom he had promised to watch under which he had acted. These the reader has had “ To Pierre, my man-servant, I give ten thousand over your welfare. I succeeded in reconciling you pictured forth to him here, and in such away, we hope, francs. I leave ten thousand francs, also, to my friend with your uncle. Since that time, now two years ago, as to have interested him in some degree, as well as to M. Martin, notary; and it is my wish that the sum you have been well-conducted, or seemingly so. Heaven have impressed him strongly with a sense of the value should be devoted to the dowering of his daughter only knows if your reformation was sincere—your of the maxim,“ Honesty is the best policy." Eugenie, my godchild.”
uncle never believed it." “ Ten thousand francs to Pierre !” thought the “ Did my uncle do me that injustice ?” cried Horace. young man—“to an old rascal who ought rather to be “ He had the belief to which I refer,” continued M.
COAL-MINES-MODE OF WINNING AND turned to the door without his wages ! Ten thousand Martin ; " and it was with difficulty that I extracted
WORKING THEM. francs to M. Martin, an old notary, who has a beauti- from him a promise, some time back, to appoint you ful villa at Ville d'Avray, and wealth enough of his his general legatee, a promise which, as I have said, The first step, preparatory to sinking the shaft of a own! Ah, this is no dower, my worthy uncle
, but a he informed me of his having fulfille.” After a brieť coal-mine, is to ascertain the depth of the bed or straremembrance to Madame Martin. Scandal is some- pause, the notary proceeded : –“But, supposing that tum of coal from the surface, and its probable thicktimes right. I won't pay a penny of this. I will see no will were found, you would be heir-at-law, and ness; and this is done by means of the process of boring, M. Martin, and tell him what a disgrace it would be would come into possession of all
, as the nearest re
which we shall describe. If, however, there are already in him to take money in this shape, and what the lative. What would you then do p» « Do !” exclaimed pits in the neighbourhood of the place selected for the world or at least the scandal-loving part of it-might the youth what should I do but enjoy the fortune site of a new colliery, the necessity of boring is presay of him.” The reading was continued.
left to me?” “True," said the notary, “but your vented; for in that case, sections of the strata that “I bequeath to Victoire Dubois, daughter of uncle often expressed his resolution to provide for occur between the surface and the coal are generally brave friend, who died for his country, forty thousand certain persons, his domestics, for example, and to obtained from the owners of the existing coal-pits. francs, and request that M. Martin will do his endea- leave them with the means of comfortably enjoying
The process of boring is usually performed in the vour to have her well married, and give her the said life after his own decease." " If he had really had following manner. The
boring rods are made of iron, sum as a dowry.” The reader of the will sat silent for this desire,” returned Horace, coldly, “ he would have from three to four feet long, and about one inch and
a half square, with a screw at each end, by which they a time, with gloomy brow. “To a young workman at taken the means to assure its fulfilment.”
“ It is necesParis," continued the testament, when the reading was
sary, moreover,” pursued the notary, without heeding increases in depth. The chisel which perforates the
are screwed together, and other rods added as the hole resumed, “by name Gustave, whom my nephew Horace this remark, “ that I should disclose a secret to you, strata is about eighteen inches long, and two and
a half knows well, and in whom I am much
interested, I Mr Horace. Your uncle had a child, though never give the sum of one hundred thousand francs."
“ You calumniate my uncle, sir," said the broad at the end, which being screwed on at the lower
end of the rods, and a piece of timber put through an “Give to this stranger lad a hundred thousand nephew, I do not believe him capable of having so
eye at the upper end, they are prepared for work. The francs ! Never he shall never have a fraction of this tinued M. Martin; " and you yourself know the child, operation is performed by lifting up the boring rod, sum." Horace Morand threw down the will as he spoke, and rose hastily; He took several turns through boy poor Gustave is ; and your uncle not only meant time turning it a little round, by a continuance of cold one of November, he threw up the window,
to establish him in life, but also proposed to disinherit which motion, a round hole is made through the
and gazed abroad. Before him lay an immense park, filled yourself
, and leave all to this boy, at the time when hardest strata. The borers can fix on handles for two,
three, or four persons, to work as they find it neceswith stately trees, and, beyond
them, a wide range of you incurred his deserved displeasure.”
. fertile plains, verdant in spite of the season, and spotted
After they get down to a certain depth, the on to other matters, if you have more to say, and let is erected over the spot where the boring is going on, with numerous flocks and herds, the best in all Nor
us have done with this useless talk." mandy. Through the country rolled the beautiful waters of the Seine. "All this is mine," said the young notary ; " I know there is a will!”
“ The will !—the will! young man,” returned the for the sake of giving increased facilities to the ope
rations. When the chisel becomes blunt, it is taken man; “I am the natural inheritor of it--the only relative of its last possessor. Why should I give away pected some little token to come your own way!”
Perhaps, sir,” said Horace, sneeringly, “ you ex
out, and a scooped instrument called a wimble is put
on in its stead, with which the dust or pulverised any part of my rights to dower another man's daughter, and pension a young tradesman, for an old man's freak! little difficulty
in restraining himself. But he comThe aged notary seemed for a moment to have some
matter worn off the stratum in the last operation is
brought up. By the substance brought up by the This will robs me. Without any such document, the law, as it should do, would give me all. No: I will manded his
temper, and proceeded earnestly to address wimble, the borers know exactly the nature of the not yield up my family rights in this way:" The new have a fortune sufficient for
all my wants ; but, în pity sensible by handling them), they perceive the least the heir. “ You know well, that, for my own part, I the working of the rods (of which they soon become
stratum they are boring in; and by any alteration in heir wrought himself up by these sophistries to a dark to these faithful old servants, conduct yourself generemain to him after all, and that his own conduct as frame of mind. He forgot that vast wealth would rously and honourably, young man, and respect also variation of the strata. The principal part of the art & nephew had long been scandalously,
bad, though, of this rich heritage to these domestics, and to your observing and registering every change and circum
the blood of your uncle. Assign some small portion of boring depends upon keeping the hole clean, and
uncle's son. seemingly attentive to his uncle, and regardful of his repent of having revived in your uncle's breast the
Be humane, be just. Do not make me
In the year 1805, Mr James Ryan, an Irish gentleadvices. All this the young man forgot , and he showed affection of a relative, and having prevented your dis- man, took
out a patent for an improved method of characterised in proper language. After moving vast heritage of his father. Gustave, I know, would ment for boring, by which a core, or solid unbroken about for a time in increasing excitement and pas- have compassioned you, had circumstances been re-piece of each stratum, was cut, and by other tools sion, he suddenly seized the will and threw it into versed. Come, Mr Horace,” continued the old notary, in which it stood in the strata. By this method, it the flames.
with earnest and kind tones, and even with tears in his He was watching its expiring ashes when a knock eyes—"come, let us search again for this will. Per- will be seen, the direction of what coal-miners call the came to the hall door. Horace hastened to close the haps you may help me to find it. Come, Mr Horace !" dip* (a circumstance so essential towards determining escritoire, and replace the keys, after which he him
l'he young heir assumed the appearance of a desire the best place to sink an engine-shaft for draining the self went to the door to receive the visiter. This was
to satisfy the notary, notwithstanding the shade of bed of coals intended to be worked), as well as the M. Martin, the notary alluded to in the will, and suspicion implied
in his words and manner. Again quantity and precise nature of the strata or coal meawho, informed by message of the late death, had come
the parties turned to the escritoire, where M. Martin sures, are correctly ascertained. Mr Ryan likewise to behold his friend Morand once more, and to take said the document should be ; but the search was, of invented a new system of ventilating mines, which counsel relative to the deceased's affairs. The notary course, fruitless. “You see, sir,” said Horace,“ that
was originally tried, in the year 1816, in some of the was a man almost as old as the defunct, and his man- the thing which we seek does not exist. You must collieries of Staffordshire, for which he obtained from ner was peculiarly affecting as he knelt down at his have misunderstood my uncle, or else he himself must
the Society of Arts one hundred guineas; but Mr entrance before the bed, and took the hand of M. have been incapable, when he last spoke to you, of just Ryan’s method of ventilation never came into universal Morand, kissing it respectfully and tearfully. He then thought or comprehension.”. turned to Horace, and, with the ease of a man of busi
“No, young man, no,” replied the notary. "Oh think,
It may readily be conceived, from these observaness, passed to necessary affairs.
reflect! I know youth is rash. Think well, sir. Are tions, that boring is of the most essential use and im"I am sorry,” said he, at the outset, with candid you certain there is no will ?"" " I only yield, M. Mar- portance in coal-mining, for by it the adventurers, firmness, " to see you alone here, Mr Horace. Such a tin, to the evidence before me, and so must you,” an- previously to the sinking of a pit
, are enabled to prothing is somewhat contrary to forms, where third swered the young man coldly'; and, as he spoke, he
cure the most valuable data on which to proceedparties are interested.”.,“ Third parties !" said the turned away, with the air of one who has already con- being informed beforehand of the nature of the vaother, sharply: “ Yes, third parties,” replied Martin. descended too far, and will continue his forbearance rious strata through which they have to pass before “ You will find a will , Mr Horace.” “Possibly enough,” no more,
reaching the coal, and knowing, to an inch almost, the said the young man. “It is certain, sir," answered “Well, well !” said M. Martin, in severe and altered depth of the stratum of coal from the surface, and the notary.
"My late friend told me of its existence tones, “ I must do my duty." He then went to the likewise its quality and thickness. The boring notes yesterday, some hours before his death. The docu- door, and called on the servants.
All of them speedily of collieries are consequently of the utmost value and ment will be discovered in that escritoire (here the appeared at his summons ; and, while Horace Morand importance to parties interested in coal-mining. notary pointed to it), and it is your duty Mr Horace, looked on with a cheek now grown pale in spite of
Having ascertained, by means of boring, the probable as my late friend's instructions make it also mine, to himself, through a sense of alarm inspired by the depth, thickness
, and other attendant circumstances search for this valuable document without delay. It notary's change of manner, the following words fell of the
bed of coal, the next process is to sink a perpenis proper, likewise, that all the servants of the house, from the lips of the latter individual. “I have called dicular shaft (round or square) from the surface, so as to who may be interested, should be present at this you all hither to learn that, two years ago, M. Morand intersect the various strata containing the
, and as search." “ Certainly; do what you conceive to be deposited a wil in my hands. By that will, he disin- many
of the beds as are considered to be worth
working. necessary," replied the nephew, in an easy, natural herited his nephew, M. Horace Morand; and, with a steam-engine and shaft are usually at the same time manner. And accordingly, all the domestics then the exception of legacies to servants and others, de- erected, for
draining the water from the coal. The
site of the shaft of a coal-mine is determined by the present in the house, were assembled to aid in the vised his whole fortune to a young man, Gustave proposed examination. The search was most minute, whom he named general legatee. Authority was for inclination and direction in which the bed of coal lies. but fruitless. At the close, the old notary sent away mally given to me to produce this will, and see it fulall the servants, and, on being alone with Horace, said filled, in the event of no later one being found to exist * The coal-strata are seldom or never found to lie in an exactly to him, calmly, “ It is impossible that a will should at the testator's decease. Such being the case, I pro- parallel position with the surface, but generally have an inclinanot exist. Your uncle some time since assured me duce this will as instructed ; and my care must now
tion or descent to some particular part of the horizon, which
miners call the dip. If this inclination be towards the east, it is that he would make it, and yesterday he told me that be to see it executed, and to do justice to Gustave and called the east dip, and so on, according to the point of the comhe had fulfilled his intent.”, all others concerned."
pass to which the strata incline.
« In every mineral plane," says Dr Ure,* " the incli- the main shaft, those different workings are made to and also of the hunting-horn, and contrived to effect nation and direction [of the coal stratum) are to be communicate with each other by means of other shafts, her retreat without accident. She now fastened the noted; the former being the angle which it forms with called staples, which are sunk down at intervals be- doors of the bandits' apartment with the bolts which the horizon, the latter, the point of the azimuth or tween the seams of coal. Thus the reader will per- are often placed outside of the doors of Mexican horizon towards which it dips—as west, north-east, ceive, that in the course of time, the bords of the mine, houses, then flung over her the cloak of the brigand, south; &c. The direction of the bed is that of an increasing both in number and length, and a commu- placed his hat upon her head, and with the hatchet horizontal line drawn in its plane, and which is also nication being kept up from time to time from one and hunting-horn in her hands, sallied from the court. donoted by the point of the compass. Since the lines bord to another, by means of those transverse passages The night was utterly dark. She reached the border of direction and inclination are at right angles to each or headways, the workings begin very much to assume of the pine-wood, and drawing a few low tones from other, the first may be always inferred from the second; the appearance of a regularly built city or town-the the horn, was immediately answered by a prolonged for when a stratum is said to dip to the east or west, bords, running parallel with each other, at a distance whistle. “A band of ten men issued from the woods : this implies that its direction is north and south." of eight yards asunder, forming so many main streets, she retreated before them towards the house, contrir
The process of sinking the shaft and of draining the and the headways the cross streets by which they ing, with much address, to let herself be seen no more water is called, in mining language, winning the coal; communicate. The writer of this paper recently saw distinctly than was necessary to enable the robbers to and when the sinkers arrive at the first workable seam a beautiful model, exhibiting all the workings and follow her. When they were sufficiently near, she of coal, they are said to have won
ramifications of a coal-mine, in the museum of the contrived to exhibit the glare of the axe ; and enjoinGreat rejoicings, such as the firing of cannon, &c., Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society. ing silence with the motion of her hand, led the band usually take place in the neighbourhood of a colliery The porsons employed in working a coal-mine en- into the court. In obedience to her sign, they entered when a new stratum of coal has been won; at least counter a variety of difficulties, dangers, and vicissi- silently into a large chamber, and closing the door such is the custom throughout the coal-field of Nor tudes, which our limits will not permit of our noticing upon them, she drew the bolts so gently that the thumberland and Durhamn. The following mode of at length at present. The principal evil attending bandits had no suspicion that they were imprisoned. celebrating an event of this kind at Gosforth colliery, upon coal-mining, that arising from imperfect ventila- Then, without a moment's delay, the intrepid near Newcastle, on the 6th of February 1829, may be tion, we have already described in a recent number
ran to the apartment of the marquis, and recited for its novelty. It is from the pen of a corre- this Journal.*
lated to him the whole of her proceedings. Guided spondent of the Penny Magazine (July 1838). “On
by the advice of Pepita, the marquis awakened Don the Saturday previous to the circumstance I am about
PEPITA, THE HEROINE.
Cæsar, who, mounted on one of the best mules, set off to relate, the miners employed in sinking a pit at Gos
instantly for Acayete, to procure the assistance of a forth reached the coal. T'wo years and a half had been
[From the New York Mirror, January 25, 1840.] detachment of cavalry stationed in that village. spent in sinking this pit, the shaft of which was cut In the autumn of 1832, the Marquis de Bevenuccho, The marquis armed the two domestics, and, listenthrough 160 fathoms of solid rock; and therefore the his daughter Francisca, Don Cæsar, his intended son- ing at the door of the apartment where the two chiefs event was considered as one of great importance in the in-law, Pepita, Francisca's maid, and two male ser- were confined, ascertained that they had awakened, and surrounding vicinity. Among other rejoicings which vants, occupied one of those huge coaches drawn by were endeavouring to effect their escape. The scene took place on this occasion, was a ball, which was held ten mules which are frequently to be met with on the now became one of intense anxiety. Shortly, all in in the mine, at the depth of about 1100 feet below the road from Mexico to Vera Cruz. The destination of the building were roused, and a confusion of voices surface! The ball-room is stated to have been in the the party was Paris ; the marquis was a widower, and arose on all sides. Gomez (the chief) and his lieuform of an L; its width 15 feet, base 22 feet, and per- Francisca was his only child. While the lumbering tenant, uttered shouts of rage, and their appeals were pendicular 48 feet. The company, to the number of vehicle in which they started on their journey was answered by their companions as they exerted themtwo hundred and thirty, of whom about one hundred descending one of the roughest defiles of the Pinol, a selves to break the doors of their prison. The marquis, were ladies (!) began to assemble at the mouth of the violent jerk put its construction to so severe a test as Pepita, and the servants, shouted likewise in every mine at half-past nine o'clock A.M., and continued to to threaten its entire ruin, unless repairs were imme- tone they could assume, threatening with death the descend the pit until one o'clock p.m. Immediately diately made. What was to be done? The coachman first who should offer himself to their aim, and affecton their arrival at the bottom of the pit, each indivi- informed the travellers that they could reach, at a ing to present a force far beyond their actual number. dual proceeded to the face of the drifts, and hewed a short distance from the spot, a posada, which, though But we must leave the posada and its inhabitants for piece of coal, as a remembrance of this perilous expedi- not much frequented, and greatly dilapidated, was
a moment to follow the track of Don Cæsar. tion, and then returned to take part in the festivities still habitable, and a place where they could pass the This young man, one of the most brilliant among of the ball-room. An excellent band, composed en- night. This plan was accordingly adopted, and the the cavaliers of Mexico, although skilful in the matirely of miners, was in attendance. As soon as a party, bemoaning their misfortune, reached the posada nagement of a well-trained steed, was but little accussufficient number of guests were assembled, dancing at the moment of sunset. It was a desolate habita- tomed to the government of a mule. He was in despair commenced, and was continued without intermission tion, surrounded by broken walls, ruined towers, and at the slowness of his progress, and overwhelmed with till about three o'clock P. M., when they began to gloomy pines, which gave it the air of a chateau of the most fearful presages. What would become of ascend the pit, which all of them accomplished in romance. The marquis and his family took posses- his friends above all, of his betrothed, the pretty perfect safety, highly gratifiod with the subterranean sion of a large chamber, Pepita rested as well as she Francisca_if the brigands should escape from their amusements in which they had partaken. The colliery could in a closet, and the servants, wrapped up in confinement before his return? The day began to at which this novel entertainment took place is now their cloaks, slept just where sleep happened to over
break before he could gain the environs of Acayete, one of the most extensive in Northumberland." take them.
but great was his joy when his ears were assailed by We shall now briefly describe the mode employed in The heroine of our tale, Pepita, had some suspicions the bells of a conducta. Don Cæsar presented himself working or excavating the coal. On arriving with the that all was not right. In passing before a grated immediately before the commanding officer, told his shaft at the bed of coal intended to be worked, the window, which opened upon the court, she fancied she story in a few words, and implored assistance. The sinking is suspended for a time, and the miners begin had caught a glimpse of two flashing eyes, which in officer and his men set off with him towards the hills, to work the coal by driving or excavating an horizontal stantly disappeared ; and this incident was sufficient with all the rapidity tho wild road would permit. passage, called a bord, through the seam of coal, of to excite her apprehensions. She retired, however, Their expedition was not a little increased by the hope from twelve to fourteen feet in width generally, and into her cell, and placing her mantle under her head of capturing Gomez, on whose head a price was set, the whole height of the seam, which varies in the for a pillow, was about to close her eyes, when, casting and who had hitherto baffled all the schemes laid to Newcastle coal-field from three to six feet. Another them towards the ceiling of her little dormitory, she surprise him. similar passage, or bord, is usually commenced at the remarked a ray of light glimmering through the During this time, affairs at the posada had reached same time, in an opposite direction. The first or ori- chinks of the wooden shutter. Using the utmost pre- their most critical point. The robbers had succeeded ginal bords driven in this way in a seam of coal, are, caution, she raised herself upon a table, and half with-in shattering the door of their prison so far that it was after the workings have been proceeded with for some drawing a curtain which hung before a window, she scarcely held by its hinges. Gomez and his lieutenant considerable distance, called the mother-gate, being the saw two men sitting near a table, their faces turned had taken the same course, and there was every propassages by which all the workings subsequently made from her, and lighted by a lamp which burned in the spect that the brigands would overcome all the obstain tho mine are approached from the shaft.
corner of the apartment. Pepita had enough of cles which had opposed their liberation, when Pepita, The mode most commonly employed for excavating Spanish blood in her veins to give her great preten- armed with a pistol, and concealed behind a pillar in the coal is a simple one. The miners having marked sions amongst her compatriots. She was intelligent, the court, took successful aim at the head of a brigand out the width of the bord, or passage, begin to make a faithful, courageous, and as resoluto as the maid of which showed through the opening. This incident narrow vertical fissure in each side of the bed of coal, Saragossa.
daunted the robbers. It was evident that one of their which they accomplish by means of an instrument With a glance she took note of all things in the leaders had fallen, from the deep silence that prevailed. called a pick; this done, they then make a similar chamber. It was impossible to mistake the profession Convinced, however, that they had no time to lose, excavation at the bottom, which has the effect of under of the men, for Pepita saw before them an open chest, they once more returned to their attack. The door mining the piece of coal, which being thus partially which she recognised as belonging to the marquis, and was on the point of yielding to their blows, when detached, is made to fall down in pieces, by firing å from which the bandits had drawn out the provisions Pepita caught the sound of the galloping of horses on few shots simultaneously at the top of the seam. and plato it contained. Both appeared to have done the road from Acayete. Deliverance was now sure. Masses of coal, of from sixty to eighty tons' weight, honour to the marquis's wine, and were so much The noise of horses and arms resounded soon in front may be brought down at once in this way. This opera intoxicated that she felt no apprehension of being of the posada, and before Don Cæsar had embraced tion is repeated from time to time; and the coals, and detected by them. Continuing to observe their move- Francisca, the soldiers had made themselves unresisted accompanying stones and rubbish, thus hewn out of ments with anxiety, she arranged the plan of opera
masters of the band of robbers. the bed, are put into large baskets, called cortes, and tion which she determined to pursue. For a moment
But it remained to secure Gomez and his lieutenant. conveyed on small carriages to the foot of the shaft of she felt herself chilled by terror, when the words which From the desperate character of the man, it was not the mine; and thence drawn to the surface, or in she heard informed her that the elder of the two was supposed he would allow himself to be taken without mining language, to bank, by means of a steam-engine, the famous Capador himself. She remembered at once or horse-gin, or capstan.
resistance. It was proposed by some to force the door that he was generally described as richly clothed, and and enter in a body, while others desired to try the The reader will now imagine the miners to have carrying an axe; and the man before her had an axe effect of a parley. This latter advice was followed, it proceeded some distance with the bords or passages resting between his legs, and wore a magnificently being wished, above all things, to deliver him into the above described, and that other bords have in the embroidered silk dress.
hands of the Mexican authorities. mean time been commenced, and are being driven in Pepita learned, or rather half guessed, from their Open the door to the lieutenant of the republic, a parallel direction, at a distance of about eight yards broken conversation, that the band of which they were
cried the commanding officer; for it was found, on from the first, and on each side of them. As the bords the leaders awaited in the forest for the signal which withdrawing the outer bolts, that the door was fasare proceeded with, narrow passages are driven be- was to recall them ; that this signal was to be given by tened within. tween them, at regular intervals of eight or ten yards, a hunting-horn which she noticed in the apartment;
No answer was given. and at right angles with them, so as to connect the and that, upon their junction, the travellers were to At this moment the discharge of a pistol resounded main bords with each other. These cross passages are be attacked. With joy she saw the wine of the mar- from the interior. It was followed by the faint cry called headways. The squares or parallelograms of quis was gradually gaining the mastery over them; of a woman, which seemed to issue from the apartment coal, formed by means of this series of bords and head- and, soon after, observing them buried in profound where the marquis had passed the night. All hasways, are called pillars, and serve to support the super- slumber, she quitted her
cell, descended into the court, tened in an instant in that direction, and in her closet incumbent strata, and to prevent its falling in and found out the door of the robbers' chamber, and they found the intrepid Pepita bathed in her own suspending the operations, or endangering the lives of opening it softly, made good her entry with admirable blood. But when they approached hor, she had the miners. The main shaft is frequently sunk down courage and presence of mind. She gained possession strength to point with her finger to the little window. to other seams of coal, which are worked precisely in of the cloak, hat, and well-known hatchet of the chief, The officer raised his eyes, and perceived there Gomez the same way as the first one. In this case, besides
and his lieutenant, the former armed with a sword, * Dictionary of Manufactures and Mines, VoL i p. 830.
* Accidents in the Coal-mines of Northumberland and Durham, and the latter reloading his pistol. In an instant hé No. 425.
fired on the lieutenant, who tell ; and, regaining tha