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cumstances, it appeared that the greater part of the there,” says he, "most of the boys were employed in the government will have discovered some humane instruction had been purely mechanical. “I remarked,” cutting screws for the railroad which the government and advantageous mode of transplanting them to those observes Mr England in his Report," that the amount was then constructing between Berlin and Leipsic; districts in our colonies where their services at some of acquirement in the mechanical elements of instruc- and there were but few who could not maintain them- honest labour will be in regular request. Be this as tion (the art of reading and repetition from memory) selves by their labour. As I was passing, with Dr it may, and taking the establishment at its present formed quite a contrast to the degree of actual know- Koff, from room to room, I heard some fine voices stage of progress, I have no hesitation in naming it ledge possessed either of moral duty or religious prin- singing in an adjoining apartment, and on entering I as one of the most beneficial institutions of the ago, ciple; the table showing that only half the number of found about twenty of the boys, sitting at a long table, and reflecting the highest honour on the government readers, and a third of repeaters, of the church cate- making clothes for the establishment, and singing at who designed and supports it. chism, could give even a little account of the meaning their work. The doctor enjoyed my surprise, and on of the words read, or sounds in use. And of these it going out, remarked, 'I always keep these little rogues appeared to be very often the strength of the intellect singing at their work, for while the children sing, the
STORY OF THE RUNAWAY SLAVE. exercised at the moment, that, by dint of guessing, led devil cannot come among them at all; he can only sit GEORGE ST CLAIR, the descendant of a respectable to the meaning of terms, and not the result of prior out of doors there and growl; but if they stop singing, English family, succeeded in early youth to a consiteaching and reflection. With our present list the in he comes." Singing ought to be introduced, as a derable property in one of our West Indian colonial proportions stand thus : 85 can in some degree read, branch of elementary instruction, into every school in settlements. His parents resided in England, but, at 120 repeat some or all of the church catechism, but the country.
the age of sixteen, having been attacked by some unonly 58 can give even a little account of sounds used ; The means taken by the Rev. Mr England, in con- pleasant pulmonary symptoms, he had been sent out and of this intelligent class several have had so little junction with the teachers, to instruct the boys in to try the sanatory influence of a more genial clime instruction as to be included neither among the rea- religious knowledge, both through the week and on than that of his nativity. Three years afterwards, he ders nor repeaters." These are facts which throw a Sundays, need not be particularised; and the degree became, by his father's death, proprietor of the estate flood of light on the insufficient methods of elementary of moral advancement will be understood from some upon which he was then resident, and, having acquired instruction at the common schools in England. One subsequent details. From the schools we were con- a liking for the country, he took the resolution, al. hundred and ten boys have been day-scholars for 1 ducted to the large mess-room, where the whole in- though now perfectly well
, of making it his permayear and upwards to 12 years, and of these only 85 are mates were at dinner, which consisted of boiled meat, nent abode. Shortly after this determination was found, on admission to Parkhurst prison, able to read bread, and potatoes; and was eaten standing and in adopted, an incident befell him, the ultimate conseeven a little ; and only the smallest fraction of them silence, under the eye of the sergeant attendants. The quences of which, we imagine, will have some interest know any thing of the meaning of what they read ! offices adjoining are disposed as a kitchen, washing; for our readers. Let this fact ring in the ears of the English people, house, &c., and I was told that all the boys are obliged At the time to which we refer, the slave-trade exwhose indifference to the institution of an improved to wash their own clothes, and, in fact, to execute all isted in full vigour in the tropical colonies of Britain. order of schools on a right national basis, irrespective the servile offices in the establishment. The sleeping Mr St Clair, though of a warm heart and generous of sect or party, is one of the most reproachfúl facts rooms are in two or three distinct buildings, of two feelings, and noted, moreover, for his kindness to those in their history.
storeys. The rooms are disposed in rows, each opening whom circumstances had made his bondsmen, acted It being seen that, whatever has been the previous to the outer air, by which means there are no passages like his neighbours in regard to the sale and purchase degree of schooling of the young convicts, they are all in the building; the upper rows of rooms are entered of these unfortunates, when occasion required. It pretty much on a level of ignorance and moral de- by a hanging gallery half way up the outside. Besides chanced, that, about the date alluded to, he had occa pravity, one of the first steps towards their improve- saving space, this arrangement prevents all communi- sion to go to the slave-market of the town adjoining ment is to set them to school in the institution, cation by speech between the rooms, and renders each his estate, being requested by his overseer to procure commencing afresh with the alphabet, and so on to apartment airy and readily open to inspection. Light an additional worker. Mr St Clair was not so far reading, writing, arithmetic, along with general in- is admitted by a small window over the door. Each seared by habit as to like the scenes which a slavestruction. To afford me an idea of the mode of teach- room contains a small bed, and on the wall hang a market usually exhibited ; but, in the present instance, ing, I was conducted to the school-rooms, which adjoin printed card with a short prayer and a few religious there were but a few negroes to be disposed of, and the governor's residence. These consist of a series of admonitions, also a small bag containing a comb, for nearly all of them were single men, who were compaairy apartments, fitted up with forms and benches, the use of the inmate. Good behaviour entitles each ratively cheerful, or at least resigned to their fate. and having the walls to a certain height smoothly boy to the use of a book from a library of well-selected Our young proprietor soon fixed upon a tall, stout, coated with black-coloured mastic, to resemble slate works, and it was pleasing to observe that in most of well-formed young negro, as a proper person for his or black-board. The business of instruction, which the cells there was a volume lying upon the bed. These purpose. On inquiry, he found that the man had is committed to two masters, may be defined as con- books are sought for and perused with increasing in- been for some time in the colony, but by his side sisting altogether of speaking by the master to the terest, and therefore the procuring of them is a power- stood a young negress, more recently arrived, and who pupils, while they are placed in a gallery before him, ful motive to good conduct. From evening to morn- was his wife, or, it may be, but his bride. The same and of causing the pupils to write with chalk upon ing, each boy is locked up in his separate apartment, hard fate had brought her from her native land, the wall, and in their own words, that which has been all the rest of the day being devoted to some useful which had previously caused his exile. They met in told them by the teacher. Each boy learns his alphabet employment in school, in the work-rooms, and in the the market, and received one another with tears of by drawing it with his own hand letter by letter on the open ground.
mingled joy and grief. Mr St Clair had not witwall, in imitation of large printed letters held up to The teaching of the boys some useful kind of trade, nessed this scene, but he was informed of the partihim by the master. The faculty of designing figures is or labour, by which they may earn an honest subsist- culars by others. thus at once brought into operation, and impresses the ence on returning to society, is one of the most admi- The two slaves belonged to different masters, and form and name of the letter on the memory. With a rable arrangements connected with the institution. Mr St Clair became in the first instance the legal piece of chalk in his hand, and facing the stripe of The trades now in regular course of teaching in the owner of the negro. Pitying the poor coloured pair, black-wall, the pupil enters with alacrity upon his prison, are those of tailors and shoemakers. Such he immediately sought, against the counsels of his course of self-instruction. He has something to work painting and whitewashing as have been required, have overseer, who was along with him, to purchase the with and handle, and we all know the delight which been done by the prisoners ; as also some carpenter's negress, and prevent their separation. To this he was youth experiences in being allowed to labour in this work ; but the latter occupation, as well as that of the urged at once by his own feelings, and by the entreatmanner. The result, I was informed, is surprising. smith's work, presents many temptations to criminal ing looks of the unfortunate Africans. But Mr St The alphabet is mastered in a few days; then follows boys, in the use of tools for improper purposes, and if Clair allowed his wishes to become too clearly appathe chalking of words and sentences ; next comes the carried to any extent, might cause much difficulty, rent, and those persons into whose temporary possesformation of letters used in penmanship; and in six by want of a regular supply of work.. Tailoring and sion the young negress had fallen, took advantage of months the boy is not only a good reader, but a toler- shoemaking are not open to these objections, and at the circumstance to ask an exorbitant price. The able writer of a copy-book. Remarkably well-written these trades eighty-four boys are now (or were lately) overseer, a man familiarised to the ways of the country, pages, in a small hand, were shown to me as having employed for a few hours daily. The time allotted remonstrated with his master against such a payment. been the work of boys who, only a very few months to out-door labour, either on the land attached to the Mr St Clair hesitated, and, while he did so, the female previously, could barely stammer over the alphabet, prison or within the walls, as occasion may require, slave became the property of another. or name words of the simplest character. Both Cap- is about two hours every afternoon, except in wet It is disagreeable to have even to mention such a tain Woollcombe and Mr England spoke in terms of weather, when the boys are employed in such work thing as the sale of human beings, but it is essential high approbation of this mode of teaching, which I inside the prison as can be provided, such as cutting to our story that the particulars of this event should believe is quite new. “ The black wall," says Mr and tying wood for lighting fires, making mops from be understood. Mr St Clair, to use a common expresEngland in one of his reports to Lord Normanby, old junk for prison uses, &c. In 1839, about four acres sion, never repented of not completmg this bargain but “presents a never-failing fund of interest to a boy. of land were sown with oats, and produced a profit once, and that was always. More particularly did he feel We find it able to tempt onward even the most indolent of L.24, 5s., independently of the straw retained for disposed to regret his indecision, when his new negro and dull, who, placed stiffly in a class, with a spelling the use of the cattle. About 1100 bushels of potatoes worker fell under his eye on the estate. He had given card and slate, would incur continual punishment for were also raised for the use of the prison, and about especial orders that the poor African should be well listlessness, and scarcely make any progress. There 1500 were planted for consumption. At the end of treated every way. The man proved an excellent appears to be something peculiarly attractive in the the same period, the quantity of hay made by the worker, and was most diligent in his duties, but he quiet freedom for mind and body which wall-writing prisoners, and on the premises, was estimated at 30 associated little with his companions, and always exat once allows and prompts. No sooner does the tons. The total value of work done in 203 days in hibited a degree of sadness and reserve, which either young hand grasp the chalk, than the play upon the 1839, at both in and out door labour, was L.194, ex- indicated a mind above his condition, or evinced his features indicates that much has been, through the clusive of what was gained by mending all the cloth- sorrow for the loss of the mistress of his affections. medium of the gallery, implanted, and is working in ing and shoes which were in use, and casual labours. Mr St Clair, when he looked at the man, could not the mind, and that much also will, ere long, be drawn Being conducted into the work-rooms, I was shown a help imagining that both causes operated on his mind, out by the instrumentality of the wall; and the in- pile of jackets and other articles of attire, and also and at last began to take so deep an interest in him as terest, my Lord, is kept up till the close. Often have a quantity of shoes, all which had been made by the to resolve upon purchasing his wife at any cost, and I watched the tone of the school; and in place of boys, and seemed of good workmanship. Captain reuniting the two. The female slave had been taken restless countenances, anxious for the clock to strike, ! Woollcombe expected shortly to be able to undertake to the neighbouring estate of Mr Lightburn, and have seen the prisoners still busy, with their composi- | a contract for clothing for the army.
thither Mr St Clair betook himself, with a view of tion ever extending as they write; or else comparing, The institution having been in operation only a year sounding his neighbour proprietor upon the subjeet with an interest that cannot be mistaken, their own and a half, there is as yet little opportunity of judging of a purchase or exchange. "He found his friend Mr and their neighbour's work.”*
of the moral and intellectual advancement of the in- Lightburn not unwilling, for a sufficient price, to part In carrying forward the business of instruction, mates ; but from what is seen, the best results are with the negress, and that price Mr St Clair was willperfect silence is enjoined, and, except at periods of expected. One thing is remarkable; all the boys who ing to give. The matter was not finally settled on out-of-door exercises, the prisoners are not allowed to have been conversed with on the subject, beseech that that occasion, but our young and generous colonist speak to each other. All are taught to sing, and, as at the expiry of their period of confinement they may held the compact to be perfectly understood, and rode appears from the Report, “ singing is found
to have a not be sent home to their parents, or place of birth, home with feelings of great satisfaction, anticipating most beneficial moral effect, and to be a powerful where they say they could not, with the best resolu- the pleasure of bringing the separated pair together auxiliary in softening and preparing the mind for tions, avoid falling into the hands of their early assoinstruction.” This corroborates what is stated by ciates. What is to be done with these unfortunate His views were doomed to be frustrated. On that an enlighted educationist in reference to a manual children, is the most difficult matter of consideration very night, Gomez, as the negro had been named, dislabour school for reclaiming juvenile offenders at connected with the plan of the penitentiary; it is appeared from the St Clair estate, and at the same Berlin, under the care of Dr Koff. “When I was only intended, as I have said, that they should ind time the female slave also fled from the adjoining one
vidually remain in the prison two or three years, and of Mr Lightburn. Of the latter circumstance Mr St * Parliamentary Report: Parkhurst Prison. 1840. I should anxiously hope that, before their removal, Clair soon heard, for his neighbour held by the bar
on the morrow.
gain as a thing virtually completed, and the other, not his generally declining condition, could not fail to be mitting the parents, and the young ones remained as being able conscientiously to deny this, found himself widely known. He had ever been well liked, and his hired servants ever afterwards. bound to make his engagement good. A search was misfortunes were the subject of general talk and Need we say what was the consequence of this new ordered for the fugitives, but it proved fruitless ; and general commiseration. The latter feeling was greatly horde of cultivators upon the estate of Mr St Clair ? all that came out on inquiry was, that the other ne- strengthened when it became known that the mar- Under the government of Gomez, the fields soon regroes on the two estates suspected two or three secret riage of two young people who had loved one another sumed their former aspect, and the proprietor became meetings to have taken place between the missing par- from their infancy, namely, Captain Lightburn and a “comfortable” man, if not quite so rich as before. ties, notwithstanding all the intervening obstacles. Miss St Clair, was decisively broken up from the same Mr Lightburn speedily lost all hope, also, of getting
Considering the purposes which he had had in view; cause, the father of the lover having forbidden the a bargain of the property, and was content to let it it was natural for Mr St Clair to regret this event, and union. Mr Lightburn, it was known, was not a bad come into his family in a more pleasant and respeche did so the more, as the interminable woods and wilds man, but he was avaricious, and had formed the hope, table way, namely, by the interinarriage of his son of the interior, which must have given shelter for the it was supposed, of getting a great bargain of the with the beautiful and dutiful heiress. time, he thought, to the fugitives, were but too likely remaining St Clair property through his neighbour's And so ends this TRUE STORY. to prove their grave. It was not that starvation could necessities. This expectation had led him to break readily overtake them, for, in that rich clime, the his promise.
SIR SAMUEL ROMILLY. earth produced fruits of itself in abundance, as fabled The very negroes of the neighbourhood were ento do in the golden age, and even clothing was a work raged at this conduct of Mr Lightburn. A group of The Memoirs of the Life of Sir Samuel Romilly, requiring little labour or skill; but then the greater them were standing in the street of the district village written chietly by himself, and arranged by his sons, part of the country was infested by animals deadly to one day, and showing teeth at a great rate against form one of the most interesting works of the day, man. These reflections increased Mr St Clair’s regret him, when one of them suddenly said, “Massa Sanelare whether regarded as a piece of biography, or as a deat the flight of Gomez. But time, that throws its pall nebber do berry well after him no buy Gomez' wife. scription of the career of a man in public life.* For over all mortal things and feelings, banished ere long Ah, you no mind Gomez. Nebber mind, me am old. the sake of those who may not have it in their power the remembrance of the fugitive. Mr St Clair saw Me mind dem well.” One of the others present, also to peruse the original, and also that we may attract to many summers and winters pass away after the date an old negro, turned upon the speaker at these words, the work the attention of those who are placed in of this event. He married, had children, and became and exclaimed, “What you say? Massa Sanclare berry more fortunate circumstances, we beg to offer the fola widower. Of his children, one daughter alone sur- good man—dat is, good for white man. Him buy lowing brief sketch. vived to mature years. She, however, was a creature Gomez' wife dat indontickle night Gomez run away, Samuel Romilly was descended, through both his fitted to supply the place of many children, being and him nebber know noting at all about it.” Here parents, from respectable families, expatriated from singular alike for her beauty and excellence of dispo- a second interruption took place. Unnoticed to any the south of France at the commencement of the eighsition. It was the more fortunate for her father that of the others, this conversation, with all that had teenth century, on account of their attachment to the such was the case, as in his advanced years, or, at least, preceded it, had been overheard by an elderly stranger Protestant religion. The father becarne a jeweller in when he had reached the age of fifty, misfortunes negro, a wild-looking being, with a head of white London, and followed that profession with success durbegan to fall thick and sore upon him, and he greatly wool, and a garment of the rudest and scantiest de-ing his life, being a man of good abilities and the most needed a domestic comforter. His mishaps were partly scription even for the tropics. This man called on estimable character. His children were numerous, but to the law. A litigious
neighbour-one of the severest having listened to it with an air of suppressed eager-mother being attiicted with ill health ; and, at this to be ascribed to the weather and climate, and partly the talkers to repeat their words. They did so, and few survived to mature years. Samuel, born in 1757, pests that can befall a little community-involved Mrness, he turned away, and disappeared. St Clair in contests which his open and unsuspecting character but little fitted him to conduct with success, or
Scaroely a week afterwards, a strange scene took early point of his career, impressions were made upon
his mind which well deserve attention, as having even to escape from without great disadvantage. It is place at Mr St Clair's dwelling. The proprietor was
materially influenced his after-career. On reaching needless to enter into the details, however, of Mr St seated along with his daughter in the cool of the nearly the prime of life, he wrote a biographicas Clair's misfortunes. It is enough to mention that his evening at an open balcony, the father more depressed sketch of his youthful days for his own gratification ; patrimonial property dwindled away very considerably the tenderest patience to soothe and cheer her parent. open, he thus refers to the period in question :-“ It in his hands, and even the portion which remained
“All will be well yet, dear father,” said she repeat- is commonly said to be the happy privilege of youth became comparatively valueless to him. His slaves, being property of a peculiarly available kind in those edly; "all will be well. Do not give way. Something to feel no misfortunes but the present, to be careless countries, were parted with by degrees, to an extent and active." The duteousness of the speaker deserved of the future, and forgetful of the past. That happy Clair bitterly lamented the separation, as much from to behold, soon afterwards, a string of negroes, more small landed estate saved from the wreck. Mr St far off. Great was the surprise of the father and child my earliest infancy, my imagination was alarmed, and kind feeling towards his people, as from a regard to his own diminishing fortunes ; nor was the regret less than twenty in number, troop in before them, headed apparitions ; and they had a much greater effect
me than is even usual with children; at least I judge by one old negro, and a female advanced also in years. in name. In short, the latter years of Mr St Clair observation was necessary to discover that the whole tion. The images of terror with which those tales . He
abound, infested my imagination very long after I reckoned by his neighbours a falling man, and many group, who
presented the appearance of a regular gra: had disearded all belief in the tales themselves, and in prophesied that his all would go from him, and his composed of individuals of both sexes, were all mem
the notions on which they are built ; and even now, final days be penniless.
bers of one family, the heads of which were the two although I have been accustomed for many years to “ I can scarcely bear to see you so cheerful. Do you clad, but evidently redundant in health and animation with some shame, confess that they are sometimes very "My poor İlelen," said he one day to his daughter , old negroes alluded to. All of them were scantily pass my evenings and my nights
in solitude, and withknow what you have lost? Í fear you cannot compre- They knelt before the surprised St Clairs, and all of unwelcome intruders upon my thoughts
. hend it, or you would be more downcast.”." I know them followed the example of the elder ones in exI comprehend it well, dear father," was the daugh claiming, “ Pardon, massa ! pardon, massa !"
I had other apprehensions, and some of a kind which ter's reply; " but I can look it all in the face and yet
are commonly reserved for maturer years. I was be cheerful. Besides, I know that much of your care A light broke suddenly on Mr St Clair's mind. He oppressed with a constant terror of death, not indeed and vexation is about me, and I wish to show you that came down to the group, and exclaimed, “ You are for myself
, but for my father, whose life was certainly it is uncalled for. I do not vex and fret myself be- Gomez !” “ Yes, massa ! pardon !”. We shall not much dearer to me than my own. I never looked on cause I am no longer an heiress. If we have but enough weary the reader with the explanation of Gomez in his countenance, on which care and affliction had to live upon, and while you are with me, I am con- his own words. On the occasion of his flight with his deeply imprinted premature marks of old age, without tented and happy-yes, happy." The father was wife, he had gone far inland, and, when almost des- reflecting that there could not be many years of his silent for a moment, and then continued the conver- pairing of life, had lighted on a small colony of blacks, excellent life still to come. If he returned home later sation. « Ah! I question if we shall even have enough runaways like himself, who had fixed themselves in a than usual, though but half an hour, a thousand accilong, my poor girl. The remnant of our property is secluded spot, and who there kept themselves in ex- dents presented themselves to my mind; and, when falling to wreck for want of proper cultivation, and istence, for many years, by mutual
aid. Of this settle- put to bed, I lay sleepless, and in the most tormenting more of it must be sold, I fear, to save the rest. But, ment Gomez became a member, and continued so for anxiety, tíll I heard him knock.” This uncommon Helen, my love," proceeded he, after a pause, “ have many years. During all that time, he had only once sensitiveness of disposition, partly natural, perhaps, you thought how this must affect you otherwise ? or twice, and with great caution, visited the frequented but most certainly fostered 'also, to a large degree, Can you bear up against the cruel blow which must districts of the colony. On the last occasion, he had by the unfortunate morbidness of fancy alluded to, come upon you in another way than by pecuniary heard tidings about Mr St Clair which made a deep tended ultimately to produce consequences most unlosses—though caused by them ?" “ You allude to impression on him. The runaway negro had a warm happy for Romilly himself, as well as for his country, my engagement with Captain Lightburn, father," said and generous heart, and he never had forgotten the to which he had made his life of the deepest value. A Miss Št Clair, with a light and flitting blush, yet such kindness of his old master, to whom, moreover, he was warning to parents, and all employed about the young, a one as is called to the cheek of youthful maiden by intelligent enough to know, he was regularly bound is thus to be drawn from this case, in which we see one subject alone. “Yes, I do, my dear,” replied the by a legal payment, or oatlay of money, on the other's one of the most powerful of human intellects unalterfather. “My poor Helen, be prepared for the worst. part. As his family grew up, their outlawed and pre-ably affected by erroneous treatment in mere infancy. Mr Lightburn, too, has at length become cold, or carious condition, as a runaway race, had often in. When a little further advanced in life, Romilly was rather inimical, to your sinking father; the son will clined him to give himself up, and, after hearing of sent to a very inferior school, selected seemingly bedo the same, or will not, at least, be permitted to do Mr St Clair's distresses, he went back to his colony cause it had been once kept by a French refugee, and otherwise."" No, no, you wrong him," said the young with a fixed resolution to return to his master, and because many persons of that description (who were lady hastily. “Captain Lightburn has written to me; relieve his wants by the hands of himself and his fa- always very intimate among themselves, and attended he is to be home in a few days, and he has pressed me mily, which numbered twenty-one members. Even a common place of worship) still sent their children to consent to the immediate fulfilment of our engage- these formed still but a part of his family, for two or thither. The miserable creature who kept this semiment, though his father, by letter, had requested him three of his elder children had united their fortunes nary was a tyrant to all but a few
boys of the more to break it off at once, as he best may. Do him justice, with those of other young persons of the original co- affluent class, among whom Romilly was numbered ; dear father ; such is the purport of his letter. I lony, and a few young, merry-eyed, white-teethed, but the latter gives us a remarkable proof of the received it yesterday, but did not wish to vex you by grinning creatures, slung at the backs of the stronger early excellence of his disposition, by telling us that disclosing it.” “ And have you answered it, Helen e members of the party, had a right to call old Gomez he was wont to“ burn with shame at not being among asked Mr St Clair. “I have, sir," said the young grandfather.
the victims of the master's injustice.” He also lady ; “I fulfilled his father's wish by setting him Such was the story that Gomez told, and which he made the observation, that the ill-conduct of the boys formally at liberty, and expressed my intention never closed by the reiterated cry of “ Pardon, massa ! par- increased in proportion to the cruelty exercised upon to consent to any step of which his father was not don !" Mr St Clair, for many reasons
, was deeply them. After learning, at this school, scarcely any cognisant." “ That is my own, my good Helen," affected by this event. But his first answering ex- thing but a little French, Samuel was taken away, exclaimed Mr St Clair, folding her in his arms. “And clamation was, “ No! no! I can never hold myself and various schemes were proposed for his settlement can you bear up against this shock, my sweet child ?”' entitled to a 'right over this family." The simple in life. The profession of an attorney was thought of, Miss St Clair was silent for a few moments, and her creatures, however, cried at his refusal, and laughed as also that of a merchant, and several others. For tears fell fast in the meanwhile. “ Yes, dear father, when they gained his permission that they should at tunately, obstacles sprung up for the moment in the I will try. And fear not," continued she more cheer least serve and work for him. And
upon these terms way of all these proposals. We say fortunately, befully, it is my duty, and I will be supported in the of voluntary servitude did the healthy and happy race cause by being temporarily taken into his father's own struggle !"
of Gomez enter upon the St Clair estate. The proThe partial sale of Mr St Clair's properties, and I prietor of it, however, insisted upon formally mand
* Three vols. London: Murray. 1840.
office, young Romilly was left with such leisure as many years survive me, it may be a source of great | Sir Samuel was destined, through these causes, to attain enabled him to supply a great existing deficiency, and satisfaction to turn over these pages; to learn or to success only to a very limited extent in his lifetime, his educate himself. He became an unlimited reader. His recollect what I was, what I have done, with whom I toils were not thrown away. Almost by him alone, was father's easy or rather wealthy circumstances gave the have lived, and to whom I have been known. Such the public
mind prepared by slow degrees for the adopyouth the power of purchasing books and entering is the information that these pages will afford, and tion of a more humane penal code, and for the reforma. libraries at will, and he used the privilege to the ac- they will, I fear, afford nothing more. Of instruction of abuses in the civil laws. Latterly, his sons, quisition of extensive general information. Nor was tion there is but little that they can supply: what to animated by similar humane considerations, have been this all. He had formerly begun to learn the Latin shun, or what to pursue, is that of which a life, so instrumental in carrying into effect several of his prolanguage, but he now made himself a good classical little chequered with events as mine, can hardly pre- posed meliorations; and others, who admit themselves scholar, and read all the best works of antiquity. In sent any very striking lessons. I have been in no to be pupils of Romilly, have been successful in effectshort, he fairly educated himself, as so many other trying situations ; the force of my character has never ing similar improvements. In short, if the entire men of talent have done.
been called forth; I have fallen into no very egregious abolition of oapital punishments seems now to be a Sir Samuel's picture of his family-circle at this faults, and I have had the good fortune to escape thing nearly attainable, we owe it in a great measure period, consisting of his parents, his brother, his sister, those situations which generally lead to them; but, to the twenty years' labours of Sir Samuel Romilly. and himself, is a delightful one. Their house, in High from the pious affection which may have been instilled In 1818, his beloved wife fell grievously ill, and the Street, Marylebone, was not large, and a casual ob- into my children's minds, they may set a considerable brief entries
in Sir Samuel's diary of this period show server might have imagined their comforts to be few. value, and
take a lively interest
was entwined with hers. “ But those who had mingled in our
family, and had rest of mankind, must appear altogether insipid and On the oth of October she had become slightly better, hearts to feel in what real happiness consists, would have indifferent... It is, therefore, to enjoy conversation and the diary then records that the writer slept formed a very different judgment. They
would have with my children, at a time when I shall be incapable for the first time after many sleepless nights." She found a lively, youthful, and accomplished society, of conversing with any one, and to live with them, as relapsed, and died on 29th October; and, three days blest with every enjoyment that an endearing home it were, long after I shall have descended into the afterwards, his finely-fibred intellect being disarranged can afford ; a society united by a similarity of tastes, grave, that I proceed with this narrative of my life. by the heavy calamity, Sir Samuel Romilly terminated dispositions, and affections, as well as by the strongest It is surrounded by these children in their happy in his own life, leaving a reputation,
both as respects ties of blood. They would have admired our lively, fant state ; cheered with the little sallies of their wit ; public or private character, excelled by that of no varied, and innocent pleasures ; our summer rides and exhilarated with their spirits ; become youthful, as it man among his contemporaries. walks in the cheerful country, which was close to us; were, by their youth ; and transported at sometimes our winter evening occupations of drawing, while one discovering in them the dawnings of their mother's of us read aloud some interesting book, or the eldest virtues ; it is in the repose of a short period of leisure SOME GOSSIP RESPECTING THE CARSE of my cousins played and sung to us with exquisite after unusual fatigues in my profession ; it is in a fine
OF GOWRY. taste and expression ; the little banquets with which season, in the midst of a beautiful country, with some we celebrated the anniversary of my father's wedding, of the richest and most luxuriant scenes of nature | UNPREPARED as our English readers may be for the and of the birth of every member of our happy society; spread before me; it is in the midst of all these sources announcement, there are two or three plains in Scotand the dances with which, in spite of the smallness of enjoyment and of happiness, that I sit down to this land. One, and perhaps the principal one, is the of our rooms, we were frequently indulged. I cannot pleasing employment.” recollect the days, happily I may say the years, which Such a passage as this it is impossible to curtail, Carse of Gowry, a broad stripe of almost perfectly thus passed away, without the most lively ennotion. though, by quoting it, we leave to ourselves but little level land, stretching along the north side of the Firth I love to transport myself in idea into our little par. space for noticing the events of Romilly's public life. of Tay, and forming part of the county of Perth. It lour with its green paper, and the beautiful prints of After visiting the Continent, he was called to the is about fifteen miles in length, and in some places Vivares, Bartolozzi, and Strange, from the pictures of bar in 1783, and entered on the midland circuit in four or five in breadth, the hills of Fife rising on the Claude, Carracci, Raphael, and Correggio, with which the following year. In 1784, he also translated a its walls were elegantly adorned ; and to call again to pamphlet of Mirabeau, whose warmest friendship, as
south beyond the Firth, while, to the north, there is a mind
the familiar and affectionate society of young well as that of Dumont and other distinguished fo- similar range of moderately high hills, dividing the and old intermixed, which was gathered round the reigners, he afterwards enjoyed, as their correspon- district from Strathmore and the Stormont, two simifire; and even the Italian greyhound, the cat, and the dence with him, in these volumes, sufficiently proves. larly level tracts of less extent; beyond which, again, spaniel, which lay in perfect harmony basking before Lord Lansdowne was one of the first British statesmen to the north, rises the great rampart of the Gramit. I delight to see the door open, that I may recog- whose notice he attracted, and by that nobleman he pians. At the lower or east end of the Carse of nise the friendly countenances of the servants, and, was early offered a seat in parliament. But this and Gowry, is Dundee, from which the smoke of numeabove all, of the old nurse, to whom we were all en- other similar offers he declined, from a dislike to rous factories is seen perpetually rising. At the deared, because it was while she attended my mother enter the house but as an independent or popularly upper or west end, about the place where the river that her health had so much improved.”
elected member. A number of years also elapsed ere ceases to be navigable, and in one of the most beautiful The autobiographical sketch from which these ex- he rose at the bar; and here the cause was one not spots in the country, is placed the "fair city" of tracts are taken, brings down the life of Romilly only less honourable to him. He never concealed his early Perth. The ordinary road between these two towns to his twenty-first year, though not written till after formed wishes for the reform both of our civil and passes through the whole length of the Carse, with he had arrived at the age of thirty-nine, and had been criminal laws, and in the eyes of employing attorneys (to all appearance) scarcely a rise or fall of a single at the bar for twelve years. One of the most inte- such sentiments were any thing but recommendatory. foot from end to end. resting points in these volumes consists in the contrast However, Romilly's abilities ultimately overcame ali This fine plain, being composed, as far as the soil of feelings and circumstances, which the opening of obstacles. In 1798, being then evidently in the way is concerned, of a deep clayey alluvium, is, in the the second and distinct autobiographical sketch exhi- to abundant wealth, as well as to the highest profes- proper season, one sea of waving grain of the richest bits, as compared with the first. In commencing his sional honours, he married Miss Gerbett, of Knill kind, excepting that here and there the eye rests first sketch, he says, “ I sit down to write my life ; Court, Herefordshire, with whom he had formed ac- upon a gentleman's mansion, thickly ensconced in the life of one who never achieved any thing memor- quaintance in a way that he must himself describe to wood, or upon a scarcely less comfortable-looking able, and who will probably leave no posterity.” He the reader. “Some miles from Bowood is the form suite of farin-buildings, beside which, perhaps, several continues to say, that a subject so uninteresting could of a white horse, grotesquely cut out upon the downs, stacks of last year's grain may be observed, even while never attract any readers but himself : “ It is for and forming a land-mark to a wide extent of country. the crop of the present year is yellowing unto the myself I write, for myself alone.” Written in 1813, To that object it is that I owe all the real happiness harvest. No stone enclosures harshly break up the the second sketch thus opens :-“ After an interval of of my life. In the year 1796, I made a visit to wide expanse into formal squares, but at the utmost seventeen years, I am about to resume the task of Bowood. My dear Anne, who had been staying there a low hedge-row divides field from field—the more writing my life-a task undertaken in very different some weeks with her father and hor sisters, was about general demarcation, even where the estates of diffecircumstances, and with very different views, from to leave it. The day fixed for their departure was rent proprietors are concerned, being merely a sunk those with which I now resume it. When I began to the eve of that on which I arrived ; and, if nothing drain. Only in two or three places does the ground set down the few events of my unimportant history, had occurred to disappoint their purpose, I never rise at all above the general surface; and it is remark. I was living in great privacy ; I was unmarried, and should have seen her. But it happened that, on the able that most of these places bear names in which it seemed in a very high degree probable that I should preceding day, she was one of an equestrian party the syllable inch occurs-as, for example, Inchsture, always remain so. My life was wasting away with which was made to visit this curious object; she over- Inch Martin, &c. Inch is Gaelic for island. [Strange few very lively enjoyments, and without the prospect heated herself by her ride ; a violent cold and pain in to say, it signifies the same thing in some of the that my existence could ever have much influence on her face was the consequence. Her father found it aboriginal languages of North America.] It is there the happiness of others; or that I should leave behind indispensably necessary to defer his journey for several fore believed that all these places were at one time in mo any trace by which, twenty years after I was dead, days, and in the mean time I arrived. I saw in her the condition of islands, while the adjacent country it could be known that ever I had lived. But since the most beautiful and accomplished creature that was a deep flow or morass, or perhaps covered with that period, and within the last few years, I have been ever blessed the sight and understanding of man. A the waters of the Tay. That the carse was at one in situations that were more conspicuous; and though most intelligent mind, an uncommonly correct judg. time in the latter state, tradition loudly avers ; it has never been my good fortune to render any im- ment, a lively imagination, a cheerful disposition, a and such is said to have been the case_since the portant service, either to my fellow-creatures or to my noble and generous way of thinking, an elevation and country at large began to be inhabited. Places are country, yet, for a short period of time at least, some heroism of character, and a warmth and tenderness even pointed out on the face of hills above the carse, degree of public attention has been fixed on me. It of affection such as are rarely found even in her sex, on the north side, where rings used to confine vessels is, however, with no view to the public that I am in- were among her extraordinary endowments. I was had been found rivetted in the rock. It is certain duced to preserve any memorial of my life, but wholly captivated alike by the beauties of her person and that this fine region continued to be a mere morass from private considerations. It is in my domestic the charms of her mind. A mutual attachment was till within a century from the present time. The life that the most important changes have taken place. formed between us, which, at the end of little more inhabitants, instead of the race of intelligent and For the last fifteen years, my happiness has been the than a year, was consecrated by marriage."
afluent farmers they now are, were then a set of constant study of the most excellent of wives ; a In 1806, when the Whig party, to which he had boors, who contended for a wretched maintenance woman in whom a strong understanding, the noblest attached himself, came into power, Romilly became with a soil of wet clay, and were generally known as and most elevated sentiments, and the most courageous Solicitor-General, on which occasion he received the the Carles (that is, churls] o' the Carse. A story goes virtue, are united to the warmest affection, and to the honour of knighthood, though greatly against his that a certain laird, provoked out of all patience by utmost delicacy of mind and tenderness of heart; and will; he also now entered parliament for Queens- their rude and intractable nature, declared in his all these intellectual perfections are graced and adorned borough. During his short tenure of office, he gave anger that he believed he could make better men out by the most splendid beauty that human eyes ever universal satisfaction, and afterwards maintained the of the clay with his own hands. Not long after, he bcheld. She has borne to me seven children, who are esteem of all men, as a representative of the nation, got bogged in going home, and, after some hours of living ; and in all of whom I persuade myself that I up to the period of his decease. He distinguished vain struggling, was fain to ask the help of a carle discover the promise of their, one day, proving them- himself, above all, as an advocate of humanity in our whom he saw passing. Ah, yes,” said the hob-nail, selves not unworthy of such a mother. Some of them criminal code, and reformer of our civil laws. For “ I see you are making your men: I'll not disturb are of so tender an age that I can hardly hope that I many years, in session after session of parliament, he you." shall live till their education is finished, and much less laboured unweariedly in his liberal and benevolent We must not be too ready to sneer at such traditions that I shall have the happiness to see them established course, endeavouring to lessen the severity of the as the above. The modern doctrine of changes of level in life ; and of some it is not improbable that I may laws against felony, forgery, and other branches of in the earth's surface gives it considerable credibility. be taken from them while they are yet of such tender crime, then punished capitally in almost every case. It could have only required an elevation of some ten years that, as they advance in life, they may retain But the reigning king was a stern upholder of the or twelve feet (such an elevation as often takes place but little recollection of their father. Io these, and existing laws, and all the chief legal dignitaries of the in South America at this day) to convert the Carse of Even to my dear wife, if, as I devoutly wish, she should time opposed themselves to Romilly's views. Though | Gowry from the condition of a broad estuary to its present state. Perhaps the elevation is still gradually, speare, not to Dalrymple, that we revert for the story | was christened by that name accordingly, at the very though imperceptibly, advancing, just as it may
be a of the usurper, while endeavouring to realise it on the moment when, for its sake, the parents were ruined. slow and unobserved sinking which is causing the sea ground where it is said to have taken place. It is re- This child lived to fight in the insurrection of 1745-6, to aggress upon the coast in some other districts. inarkable how correct in general the bard of Avon has after which he skulked a long time in the HighThis supposition derives some countenance froin an contrived to be with respect to the geography of his lands in company with Young Locheil. Escaping all old popular saying with regard to two large boulder play; and this has led to a surmise that he may have these perils, he lived to purchase back the family stones which lie within the water-mark at Invergowry, visited the spot in person, possibly in the capacity of property by means of his wife's fortune; and the near the bottom of the Carse, and go by the name of a member of the company of players which Elizabeth government, in 1824, restored the title to his son. In the Gows of Gowry. It is said of these stones, from is known to have sent to Scotland to regale James VI., the house are still shown some remains of the bed which the sea is supposed to be gradually receding, and which appears to have acted at the neighbouring occupied by the old chevalier, and also the camp bed “ When the Gows of Gowry come to land,
city of Perth. It is, however, quite possible that which Prince Charles carried about with him in his The day of judgment's near at hand."
Shakspeare may have attained all this correctness by more romantic campaign, besides a great quantity of The prophecy is laid in the name of Thomas the merely adhering closely to the legend he found in medals and other interesting memorials of the exRhymer. As such it is, of course, of no value ; but, Hollinshed's Chronicles.
patriated family of Stuart. if it be an indication that the stones appear from time Amongst the hills overlooking the Carse are several The people amongst the hills are a more primitive to tiine to be somewhat nearer the land, the couplet places noted in the popular accounts of Sir William people than those of the Carse, and retain many oldis not unworthy of notice. At Invergowry, it may Wallace. Kilspindy is now a small parish village, but world stories which, in another situation, must have here be remarked, is one of a series of sınall harbours was formerly the site of a castle : it lies at the open- long ago been obliterated. There is a lonely ruined constructed along the Firth of Tay about sixty years ing of one of the little glens which pervade this range tower in this mountain district, called Evelick Castle, ago, for the shipping of rural produce, and which have of hills, about half way up the carse. Henry the Min. till a recent period the scat of a branch of the family of been of great service in advancing agriculture in this strel relates that, when Scotland was subjugated by Lindsay. One of the last Lindsays of Evelick married beautiful region.
Edward, the elder Wallace fled with his eldest son to a sister of the famous Earl of Mansfield ; and one of Many fine mansions are interspersed throughout the Lennox, and that then the mother, with her the children of that pair married Alan Ramsay, the the Carse. The traveller, advancing from Dundee, second son, William,
celebrated portrait-painter. The place is now desofinds the first of any note in Castle Huntly, a stupen- “ To Gowry passed, and dwelt in Kilspindy.
late, and the property has been divided amongst heirsdous old fortalice which formerly belonged to the The knicht, her father, thither he them sent
female. With a wild and tragic tale respecting EveStrathmore family, and now to a gentleman named
To his uncle, that with full gude intent
lick, we shall conclude this long chapter of chit-chat. Paterson. The next is Rossie Priory, the seat of Lord
In Gowry dwelt, and had gude living thereSinnaird—a modern specimen of the monastic style,
Ane aged man, the whilk received them fair."
Some ages ago, the laird of Evelick, being a widower with one son,
married a widow who also had a son about at least in externals. Errol, the seat of Mr Allan, Young Wallace was then placed at school in Dundee, the same age. The young people grew up together; and Murie, the seat of Miss Spence Yeaman, are con- where, however, bis indignation at the insolence of the but the lady's child soon saw that he was a very diffespicuous near the centre of the district. Farther on, English garrison led to his killing the son of a distin- rent person in the eyes of the world from his stepwe have Glendoig, the seat of Mr Craigie, some of guished officer, and he had then to fly for his life. brother. Envy and deadly malice then took possession whose predecessors have been eminent in the law. Escaping from the town, he made for Kilspindy, and of him, and he one day beguiled the other youth into Megginch (one of the ancient islands of the Carse) is on his way is said by tradition to have rested for a
the neighbouring glen of Pitroddie, the same lonely the residence of a family, the ladies of which have little at the village of Forgandenny, where a poor man dell where Wallace had found refuge from the Engbeen remarkable during several generations for their named Smith and his wife refreshed him with cakes lish. Having there induced his brother to lie down beauty, and the rank which some of them thereby and milk. Little more than forty years ago, the de- upon the ground, as for the purpose of measuring their attained. A certain “ bonnie Jeany Drummond” of scendants of Smith showed the stone on which the comparative lengths, he cut the throat of the unsusMegginch, who, according to a song in her praise, hero had sat by their ancestor's door, and perhaps do pecting youth, and then, in an agony of fear and “ towered 'aboon them a'," became Duchess of Athole, so still. While skulking under the protection of his remorse, rushed home to the castle of Evelick, where by which alliance she gave occasion to a former lover, uncle, he is said to have concealed himself occasionally he shut himself up in his own room. The story goes a Dr Austin, to write the well-known complaint, “For in a cave within the glen of Pitroddie, near Kilspindy. on to relate, that his mother and step-father saw him lack of gowd she's left me.” Seggieden, the residence We had lately the curiosity to visit this glen, and to no more, and that he continued in his room, fed by of a branch of the Hays of Kinnoull
, is a little way inspect the cave. The glen is wild and lonely, with his nurse through a small window, until he was taken farther west. In that house is kept an old family-piece steep furzy slopes, and a little rill trickling at the to Edinburgh by the officers of justice, and there tried in the shape of a drinking cup, which every successive bottom. In the face of a porphyritic rock overhang- and condemned to death. His original doom was to laird was expected to drain at a draught, in order to ing the rivulet, there is a long slit, which was probably be hanged ; but his mother gave a sum of money to prove his being worthy of the honours of the family. at one time masked with brushwood. On entering obtain for him the less ignominious death of decapiThis is alluded to in an old local proverb, the sense of this opening, we find that from the rock hanging over tation, and he thus perished accordingly. which, we must own, is somewhat obscure.
in a screen-like fashion in front, there is room both to “ Suck it out, Seggieden,
stand and lie in the interior. This, according to traThough it's thin, it's veel pledged."
dition, was the lair of the brave youth who was des- SKETCHES OF SUPERSTITIONS. But by far the finest house in the whole district is tined thereafter to “rescue Scotland thryse.” At the
WITCHCRAFT IN ENGLAND. Kinfauns, the seat of Lord Gray, a very ancient Scot- distance of about a couple of miles to the westward, tish baron, one of whose family is noted in Mary's sad and within a similar opening of the hills, are the re- WITCHCRAFT was first denounced in England, by history under the name of the Master of Gray. This mains of the ancient tower of Balthayock, the residence formal and explicit statutes, in the year 1541, in the superb modern castle is felicitously placed on a terrace of that family of Blairs, of which Wallace's friend and reign of Henry VIII. Previously to that time, many about a hundred feet above the level of the Carse, with chaplain, Mr' Robert Blair, was a scion. We lately witch-trials had taken place, and severe punishments lofty wooded heights on both sides, and fine cultivated felt no small surprise at learning that this family still had even been inflicted on the parties concerned; but slopes extending behind, while the front coinmands exists, and in possession of its original property, though this was occasioned by the direction of the arts of one of the most beautiful views in the country, com- it has removed its residence to a small modern man- sorcery, in these particular instances, against the lives posed of the Tay winding gracefully through its rich sion in the neighbourhood. The old tower is now re- and well-being of others, and not from the legal crimivale, and the Fife hills rising at no great distance be- duced in height, but what remains is of great age and nality of such arts themselves. Shakspeare has made yond. So elegant a house, so beautifully situated, and vast strength : a plain dwelling adjoins, on which we some early cases of this nature familiar to us, and in adorned with so many objects of taste, it has rarely found a coat armorial, with the initials Á. B., and the particular that of the Duchess of Gloucester, who, for been our fortune to visit. The principal floor is com- date 1578. The poem of Blind Harry, we may only conspiring with witches against the life of the reigning posed of a magnificent suite of apartments, compre- remind our readers, professes to be constructed on the sovereign, Henry VI., was compelled to do public hending, besides a dining-room and two drawing- basis of a history of Wallace compiled by Mr Robert penance, and imprisoned for life. But, as has been rooms, a splendid vestibule and gallery, full of statuary, Blair. Kinfauns is another place associated with the said, the mode of prosecuting the guilty purpose was &c., a gorgeous library, a billiard-room, and a room name of Wallace. The ancient castle, which stood on here altogether a subsidiary matter. If a person waved which Lord Gray calls his “workshop," seeing that the site of the present, was the seat of Thomas Longue- his hat three times in the air, and three times cried it contains the tools, machines, and philosophical in- ville, a noted French pirate, whom Wallace over- “Buzz !" under the impression that by that formula struments, with which he amuses his leisure. In all powered at sea, and converted into an ally, and who the life of another might be taken away, the old law of these rooms there are pictures by the first mas- seems to have been the ancestor of a family named and law-makers (as, for example, Selden, who states ters, constituting in themselves an attraction of the Charteris, long settled at Kinfauns. There still exists this very case), considered the formulist worthy of highest order. One by Guercino, in the principal in the modern castle a two-handed sword, which inva- death as a murderer in intent; and, upon this prindrawing-room, the Denial of Christ by Peter," is riable tradition describes as having formerly belonged ciple, the trafficking with witches was punished in certainly one of the most arresting pictures we have to Wallace.
early times. ever chanced to behold. Lord Gray has spent a life- One of the most picturesque of the openings in the Witchcraft, however, by and bye assumed greater time in collecting the many beautiful works of art of Gowry hills is occupied by the old mansion of Fingask, statutory importance, in England as elsewhere. Henry all kinds with which his house is adorned.
the seat of Sir Peter Murray Threipland, Bart., from | VIII.'s two acts were levelled against conjuration, The district of Gowry contains several places which whose terraces, in our opinion, the views are even finer witchcraft, false prophecies, and pulling down of no one acquainted with the history of our country can than from those of Kinfauns, the space commanded crosses. Here the charge was still something beyond visit without interest. At the back of the range of being much greater and equally beautiful, while the mere sorcery, and it was left for Elizabeth, in 1562, hills bounding the Carse on the north, is Dunsinnan, opposite hills, being more remote, give all their peculiar to direct a statute exclusively against that imaginary so celebrated in the tragic tale of Macbeth. This hill effect without any detraction on the score of tameness crime. At the same time, that princess extenuated stands detached from the rest, and, rising to a height or deficiency of wood. Fingask was remarkable in the her conduct in part, by limiting the penalty of the of seven or eight hundred feet, commands a view of last century for the Jacobitism of its proprietors. Sir crime, when stripped of its customary accessories, to the country around to a considerable distance, in- David Threipland was in the insurrection of 1715, and the pillory. The first transgression, at least, received cluding Strathmore, the Stormont, and Blairgowrie. luis lady entertained at this house the unfortunate no heavier punishment. The cases of Elizabeth's Amongst the hills bounding the distance, the atten- prince for whose sake the party had taken up arms, reign were chiefly cases of pretended possession, sometion of the visiter is always directed to Birnam, which wliile on his progress from Peterhead to Perth. The times, however, involving capital charges against those is in the immediate neighbourhood of Dunkeld, and estate was consequently forfeited, and the family dis- said to have caused the possession. In one famous fully fifteen miles distant. Dunsinnan bears on its possessed of their ancient seat. A striking anecdote is case, of which the main features were as ludicrous as face and top substantial proofs of Macbeth's history. related of the lady of the mansion on that occasion. the issue was deplorable, three poor persons, an old The remains of a waggon road are observable sloping Amidst the ruin of her husband's affairs, and while he man named Samuel, with his wife and daughter, were round the hill from the bottom to the top, being no was endeavouring to escape from the country, she gave tried at Huntingdon, for having bewitched the childoubt that by which the usurper caused his thanes to birth to a son. A few frightened friends had gathered dren of a Mr Throgmorton. Joan Throgmorton, a drag the materials for his castle. On the top are the round her at that distressing moment, and amongst girl of fifteen, and the eldest of the children, was the remains of several concentric walls and fosses, and of the rest a clergyman of the persecuted Episcopal main witness for the prosecution. She related many some large building which they had surrounded, as Church of Scotland from Perth. It was desirable to scenes, in which the actors were herself and a number well as of a well by which it is said the garrison was use the services of this gentleman while he remained of spirits sent by Dame Samuel to torment her, and şi?pplied with water. One is filled with strange feel in the house ; but the friends knew not how to pro- to throw her into fits. These spirits, she said, were ings in standing amidst these grassy vestiges of what ceed, having no instructions from the father, and being on familiar terms with her, and were named Pluck, was a castle eight
hundred years ago-a castle reared fearful of agitating the mind of the mother with ques. Hardname, Catch, Blue, and three Smacks who were ly a tyrant to defend himself from a nation's hatred, tions. The lady, hearing their whispers in her chamber, cousins. Among other things, she said that one of the and amidst whose ruins he ultimately perished. It is and comprehending that they wished to know what Smacks professed himself an admirer of hers, and beat felt, at the same time, how history sinks beneath the name should be bestowed on the child, said hastily, the rest for her sake, as in the following instance tale told, however wildly, by genius; and it is to Shak- froin her bed, “Stuart, to be sure.” And the infant related by her. One day Smack appeared before her.
“Whence come you, Mr Smack ?" she said to him. trade for many years (from 1644 downwards), the himself to the devil, on condition of being made the “ From fighting Pluck and the rest, with cowl-staves, tide of popular opinion finally turned against Hop- best dancer in Lancashire. The dissenting clergy took in Dame Samuel's back-yard,” replied Smack ; and kins, and he was subjected, by a party of indignant this youth under their charge, and a committee of soon thereafter, accordingly, Pluck and Blue walked experimenters, to his own favourite test of swimming. them fasted and prayed, publicly and almost incesin, the one with his head broken, and the other limp-It is said that he escaped with life, but, from that santly, for a whole year, in order to expel the dancing ing." How do you manage to beat them,” said the time forth, he was never heard of again.
demon. The idea of this impostor leaping for a twelveyoung lady to the victorious Smack; "you are little, The era of the Long Parliament was that, perhaps, month, and playing fantastic tricks before these grave and they are big." “Oh,” says Smack, “I can take which witnessed the greatest number of executions divines, is extremely ludicrous. But the divines up any two of them, and my cousins beat the rest.” for witchcraft. Three thousand persons are said to have played tricks not less fantastic. They became so conOf such stuff were these charges made. It would perished during the continuance of the sittings of that temptuously intimate with the demon, as to mock appear that they were either the offspring of insanity body, by legal executions, independently of summary him on account of saltatory deficiencies. A portion of on the part of the youthful Throgmortons, or that, deaths at the hands of the mob. Witch-executions, their addresses to him on this score has been prehaving begun the farce in sport or spite, the accusers however, were continued with nearly equal frequency served, but of too ridiculous a nature for quotation in found at length that they could not retreat without a long afterwards. One noted case occurred in 1664, these pages. If any thing else than a mere impostor, disgraceful confession of imposture. In part, the con- when the enlightened and just Sir Matthew Hale it is probable that Dugdale was affected with St Vitus duct of the poor Samuels was affecting, and even high- tried and condemned two women, Amy Dunny and Dance ; and this is the more likely, as a regular phyminded. After lengthened worrying, the accusers got Rose Callender, at Saint Edmondsbury, for bewitch- sician brought his dancing to a close after all. But Dame Samuel indirectly to confess her guilt, by make ing children, and other similar offences. Some of the the divines took care to claim the merit of the cure. ing her repeat a prescribed charm, which had the effect items of the charge may be mentioned. Being ca- After the time of Holt, the ministers of the law of at once bringing the children out of their fits. But priciously refused some herrings, which they desired went a step farther in their course of improvement, the old man and the daughter steadily maintained their to purchase, the two old women expressed themselves and spared the accused in spite of condemnatory rerinnocence. The unfortunate family were condemned in impatient language, and a child of the herring-dea- dicts. In 1711, Chief-justice Powell presided at a trial on the 4th April 1593, and soon after executed. ler soon afterwards fell ill—in consequence. A carter where an old woman was pronounced guilty. The
When James I. ascended the English throne, he drove his waggon against the cottage of Amy Dunny, judge, who had sneered openly at the whole proceedunfortunately conceived it to be his duty immediately and drew from her some not unnatural objurgations; ings, asked the jury if they found the woman" guilty to illuminate the southerns on the subject of witch- immediately after which, the vehicle of the man stuck upon the indictment of conversing with the devil in the craft. An act of the first year of his reign defines the fast in a gate, without its wheels being impeded by shape of a cat ?" The reply was, “ We do find her crime with a degree of minuteness worthy of the adept either of the posts
, and the unfortunate Amy was guilty of that ;", but the question of the judge profrom whose pen
it undoubtedly proceeded. “ Any one credited with the accident. Such accusations formed duced its intended effect in casting ridicule on the that shall use, practise, or exercise any invocation of the burden of the dittay, in addition to the bewitch- whole charge, and the woman was pardoned. An able any evil or wicked spirit, or consult, or covenant with, ing of the children. These young accusers were pro- writer in the Foreign Quarterly Review remarks, after entertain or employ, feed or reward, any evil or wicked duced in court, and, on being touched by the old noticing this case, “ yet, frightful to think, after all spirit, to or for any purpose ; or take up any dead man, women, fell into fits. But, on their eyes being co- this, in 1716, Mrs Hicks and her daughter, aged nine, &c. &c. &c.; such offenders, duly and lawfully con- vered, they were thrown into the same convulsions by were hanged at Huntingdon for selling their souls to victed and attainted, shall suffer death.” We have other parties, precisely in the same way. In the face the devil, and raising a storm by pulling off their here witchcraft first distinctly made, of itself, a capital of this palpable proof of imposture, and despite the stockings, and making a lather of soap! With this crime. Many years had not passed away after the general absurdity of the charges, Sir Matthew Hale crowning atrocity, the catalogue of murders in Engpassing of this statute, ere the delusion, which had committed Amy Dunny and Rose Callender to the land closes." And a long catalogue, and a black cataheretoforo committed but occasional and local mis- tender mercies of the hangman. It is stated that the logue it was. “Barrington, in his observations on the chief, became an epidemical frenzy, devastating every opinion of the learned Sir Thomas Browne, who was statute of Henry VI., does not hesitate to estimate the corner of England. Leaving out of sight single accidentally present, had great weight against the pri- numbers of those put to death in England, on this executions, we find such wholesale murders as the soners. He declared his belief that the children were charge, at THIRTY THOUSAND !" following in abundance on the record. In 1612, truly bewitched, and supported the possibility of such We have now glanced at the chief features in the twelve persons were condemned at once at Lancaster, possessions by long and learned arguments, theologi- history of witcheraft in England, from the enactand many more in 1613, when the whole kingdom cal and metaphysical. Yet Sir Matthew Hale was ment of the penal statutes against it. These statutes rang with the fame of the “ Lancashire witches; in one of the wisest and best men of his time, and Sir were not finally abolished till the middle of the eigh1622, six at York; in 1634, seventeen in Lancashire ; Thomas Browne had written an able work in exposi- teenth century, and unhappy consequences followed, in 1644, sixteen at Yarmouth; in 1645, fifteen at tion of Popular Fallacies !
in various instances, from their being left unrepealed. Chelmsford; and in 1645 and 1646, sixty persons This case occurred in 1664. For some subsequent Though among the enlightened classes the belief in perished in Suffolk, and nearly an equal number, years trials and executions were yet far from unusual. witchcraft no longer existed, the populace, in town and at the same time, in Huntingdon. These are but | Chief-justices North and Holt, to their lasting credit, country, still held by the superstitions of their forea few selected cases. The poor creatures, who usually were the first individuals occupying the high places fathers, and, having the countenance of the statutecomposed these ill-fated bands, are thus described by of the law, who had at once the good sense and the book, persecuted the unfortunate beings whose position an able observer "An old woman with a wrinkled courage to set their faces against the continuance of and circumstances laid them open to the suspicion of face, a furred brow, a hairy lip, a gobber tooth, a squint this destructive delusion. In one case, by detecting sorcery. The ban of public opinion told severely eye, a squeaking voice, or a scolding tongue, having a a piece of gross imposture, Chief-justice North threw enough upon the comforts of such poor creatures, but ragged coat on her back, a spindle in her hand, and a into disrepute, once and for all, the trick of pin- the rabble occasionally carried their cruel and ignorant dog by her side & wretched, infirm, and impotent romiting, one of the most striking and convincing oppressions to a greater length. On the 30th of July creature, pelted and persecuted by all the neighbour- practices of the possessed. A male sorcerer stood at 1751, an aged pauper named Osborne, and his wife, hood, because the farmer's cart had stuck in the gate the bar, and his supposed victim was in court, vomit- were seized by a mob in Staffordshire, dragged through way, or some idle boy had pretended to spit needles ing pins in profusion. These pins were straight, a pools, and otherwise so vilely misused, that the woman and pins for the sake of a holiday from school or work” circumstance which made the greater impression, as died under the hands of her assailants. The attention --such were the poor unfortunates, selected to undergo those commonly ejected in such cases were bent, en of the law, and the indignation of the humane, were the last tests and tortures sanctioned by the laws, and gendering frequently the suspicion of their having aroused. One man, who had taken a prominent share which tests were of a nature so severe that no one been previously and purposely placed in the mouth. in the brutal outrage, was condemned on trial, and would have dreamed of inflicting them on the vilest The chief-justice was led to suspect something in this executed. Immediately afterwards, the penal statutes of murderers. They were administered by a class of case by certain movements of the bewitched woman, against witchcraft were abrogated by the legislature, wretches, who, with one Matthew Hopkins at their and, by closely cross-questioning one of her own wit and the remembrance of them only remains, as á head, sprung up in England in the middle of the nesses, he brought it fully out that the woman placed wonder and warning to the posterity of those who seventeenth century, and took the professional name pins in her stomacher, and, by a dexterous dropping practised and suffered from them, as well as to manof witch-Anders. The practices of the monster Hop- of her head in her simulated fits, picked up the articles kind at large. kins, who, with his assistants, moved from place to for each successive ejection. The man was found It must not be imagined, we may observe in coneluplace in the regular and authorised pursuit of his guiltless. The acquittal called forth such pointed be- sion, that the present generation has no need of such trade, will give a full idea of the tests referred to, as nedictions on the judge from a very old woman pre- a warning, or is relieved by its increased enlightenwell as of the horrible fruits of the witchcraft-frenzy sent, that he was induced to ask the cause. “Oh, my ment from all chance of falling into similar errors. in general. From each town which he visited, Hop- lord,” said she, “twenty years ago they would have The nineteenth century has witnessed such imposkins exacted the stated fee of twenty shillings, and, in hanged me for a witch if they could, and now, but tors as Johanna Southcote, Matthews, and Thom, consideration thereof, he cleared the locality of all for your lordship, they would have murdered my and has seen a degree of enthusiastic and unhesitating suspected persons, bringing them to confession and the innocent son."
credence given to their pretensions by many persons stake in the following manner :-He stripped them The detected imposture in this case saved the ac- moving in a most respectable rank in society, which naked, shaved them, and thrust pins into their bodies cused. It was under Holt's justiceship, however, that shows that the credulous spirit that created and supto discover the witch's mark; he wrapped them in the first acquittal is supposed to have taken place, in ported witchcraft is not by any means extinguished. sheets, with the great toes and thumbs tied together, despite of all evidence, and upon the fair ground of the It is indeed a spirit only to be fully eradicated by such and dragged them through ponds or rivers, when, if general absurdity of such a charge. In the case of a universality of education and intelligence as can they sunk, it was held as a sign that the baptismal Mother Munnings, tried in 1694, the unfortunate scarcely be expected to exist, excepting after the lapse element did not reject them, and they were cleared pannel would assuredly have perished, had not Chief- of long-coming centuries of improvement. The subbut if they floated (as they usually would do for a justice Holt summed up in a tone so decidedly adverse ject which has been treated of here, has therefore & time), they were then set down as guilty, and doomed ; to the prosecution, that the verdict of Not Guilty was moral. In brief words, the world may learn from it he kept them fasting and awake, and sometimes inces- called forth from the jury. In about ten other trials the peril of encouraging the idea of the possibility of santly walking, for twenty-four or forty-eight hours, before Holt, between the years 1694 and 1701, the direct spiritual influences and communications in as an inducement to confession ; and, in short, prac- result was the same, through the same influences. It these latter days—a thing discountenanced alike by tised on the accused such abominable cruelties, that must be remembered, however, that these were merely the lights of reason and scripture. they were glad to escape from life by confession. If noted cases, in which the parties withstood all prelia witch could not shed tears at command (said the minary inducements to confession, and came to the
INTEMPERANCE. further items of this wretch's creed), or if she hesitated bar with the plea of not guilty. About the same pe- We extract the following observations on a cause of at a single word in repeating the Lord's prayer, she riod, that is, during the latter years of the seventeenth intemperance, from a late number of the Athenæum :was in league with the evil one. The results of these century, summary executions were still common, in “ The mode in which Sunday is spent by the lower and such-like tests were actually and universally ad- consequence of confessions extracted after the Hop- classes, appears to be a very prominent, though unsusmitted as evidence by the administrators of the law, kins fashion, yet too much in favour with the lower pected, source of juvenile delinquency. Some persons who, acting upon them, condemned all such as had classes. The acquittals mentioned only prove that the believe it to be their duty to legislate for the world as the amazing constancy to hold out against the tor- regular ministers of the law were growing too en
it ought to be, and, in the meantime, they do infinite tures inflicted. Few gave the courts that trouble. lightened to countenance such barbarities. Cases of mischief to the world as it is. Rarely has the operative Butler has described Hopkins in his Hudibras, as one possession, too, were latterly overlooked by the law, works of creation, or even of breathing the pure air of Fully empower'd to treat about
which would have brought the parties concerned to a Finding revolted witches out.
speedy end in earlier days, even though they had done heaven; yet, as is justly observed by the pious author of no injury to other people, and were simply unfortu- light than that of a book of instruction presented to the
• The Shunammite – Can we view nature in any other Hanged three score of them in one shiro?
nate enough to have made compacts with the demon Some only for not being drown'd;
sons of men, that they may learn the character of God And some for sitting above ground
for the attainment of some purely personal advantages. from all its pages, and read how the earth is filled with
For example, in 1689, there occurred the famous case the goodness of the Lord ; that the cattle upon a thouAfter he had murdered hundreds, and pursued his of a youth, named Richard Dugdale, who sacrificed sand hills, the calm pursuite of pastoral life, and the
And has he not within this year