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scenes of rural peace and innocence, may serve as coun- in the overthrow of his sister's son, Ugolino retired words simply mean that death came to cure the mortal teractions to the solicitations of vice, to the blandish- for a time to his country seat, but, as soon as he heard agony, or whether the poet intends to give a dreadful ments of sensual pleasure, and all the snares which an of the expulsion of Nino and the Guelphs, he returned hint that fasting drove the count to a banquet which in pure and sinful world would have laid for our souls ?" to the city, and was received with great rejoicing: nature revolts at, and which seemingly will not sustain Owing to the exertions of the Society for the Protection

At the same time, the Pisans were in great alarm life, it would be difficult to say. “Three days I called of Footpaths, the vicinity of Manchester affords the for the consequences of the Tuscan league against them, aloud,” says the count. This would appear to be of which they avail themselves in great numbers. Liter" although, being chiefly attached to the Ghibelline founded in truth, for the historian Villani tells us, pool wants thesc advantages, and its corporation offered cause, they delighted in the banishment of Nino. In that Ugolino was heard to utter " loud cries" for a an annual”sum to the proprietors of the Botanic Gardens, this extremity, they felt the necessity of a powerful priest, but none was allowed to approach the place. on the condition of having the grounds thrown open to and skilful head, or dictator, and pitched upon Ugolino The same writer thus describes the veritable end of the public on Sunday ; but, unfortunately, through the as the person most able to reconcile them with the all. “ In a few days, they died of hunger. All the influence of some leading members, the proposition was Tuscan league, or to command them in the field, should five, when dead, were dragged out of the prison, and rejected. Whether common sense may triumph on some necessity call them there. They therefore named the meanly interred; and from thenceforward the tower futuro occasion, we cannot, of course, conjecture; but count captain-general, the office to be held for ten was called the TOWER OF FAMINE, and so shall ecer be." assuredly there is not a day in the week when the lower years. Ugolino contrived to obtain peace with the If human imagination can conceive any thing more ranks of Liverpool are subjected to such corrupting in- enemy, but not till he had caused all the fortresses of terrible than the real end of Ugolino and his children, fluences as on the Sunday. The cause is obvious: the the Pisan territory to be opened by his creatures to it is the punishment which Dante has assigned in the poor man has no home in which he can enjoy his day of the Luccese and Florentines. That this was a condi- after-world to the main agent in the earthly tragedy, rest, and abroad he has only to choose between a place tion in his treaty, he dared not openly avow. “From Roger degli Ubaldini, the Pisan prelate. Many reaof worship and the alehouse. It is very desirable that that time (says the historian Sismondi)

he sought only ders will be aware that Dante, in his Divine Comedy fact is that they do not, and that any attempt

to compel to strengthen his own despotism, by depriving the fa word not bearing the sense now commonly given to them aggravates the evil. Keeping every park, garden, magistrates of power, and by intimidating the arch- it), has fancied himself conducted through the infernal and place of recreation shat, will not add a single indi- bishop Roger degli Ubaldini, who held jointly with regions by a guide, who points out to him a great numvidual to the congregations in places of Worship, but it him the highest rank in the city. The nephew of ber of the most noted evil-doers of preceding times, fearfully augments the crowds collected on such spots as Ubaldini, having opposed him with some haughtiness, undergoing fitting and varied punishments for their the progress of buildings and of enclosures has yet left was killed by him on the spot with his own hand.” crimes. In one region, he saw many doomed beings open: circumstances coerce the poor to join these crowds, His violence soon rendered him obnoxious to the par- suffering their award in prisons of ice, enclosing, in and vice is the inevitable consequence. What man tisans on both sides, but his bravery and ability bore whole or part, their bodies. At one spot, he says, shall there be among you that shall have one sheep, and him through for a time. It was in 1782 that the “ I beheld two spirits by the ice if it fall into a pit, on the Sabbath day, will he not lay Guelphs had been exiled ; and six years afterwards,

Pent in one hollow, that the head of one hold on it, and lift it out ?' But the cellars, the lodging: Ugolino, finding himself endangered by the growing

Was cowl unto the other; and as bread houses, the dens of vice, and the filthy haunts to which hatred of the Ghibelline chiefs, resolved upon the recall

Is ravened up through hunger, the uppermost the poor are perversely confined on the Sabbath day, are of the Guelphs. He gave his son secret charges re

Did so apply his fangs to the other's brain,
Where the spine joins it. Not more furiously

On Menalippus' temples Tydeus gnawed,
could fall. Justly, then, may the indignant question be specting their introduction into the city ; but his pro-
asked — How much is a man better than a sheep?""
ject was discovered, and the Ghibellines, secure of the Than on that skull and on its garbage he.

Oh, thou! who show'st such beastly sign of hate As far as our own experience is concerned, we should partialities of the citizens, called them hastily to arms.

'Gainst him thou prey'st on, let me hear,' said I, say that the efforts made to prevent appearance out-of- | The Pisans rose at the summons, and proceeded to the

• The cause." * * * * doors on Sunday, causes much in-door drinking in the large seignorial palace to seize Ugolino. It is at this point His jaws uplifting from their fell repast, towns in Scotland. In passing through by-streets on that the history

of the count assumes a character which That sinner wiped them on the hairs o' the head,

Which he behind had mangled, then began : Sunday, to or from church, we frequently observe the calls forth the deepest sympathies of the reader.

Thy will obeying, I call up afresh strongest indications of intemperance within doors. Ugolino, with his sons, grandsons, and adherents,

Sorrowe past cure. * * Know, I was on earth barred the gates of the palace against the besiegers on Count Ugolino, and the archbishop he UGOLINO OF PISA.

the 1st of July 1788. For some time all the force of Ruggieri."

the city contended with him in vain; he defended The count then proceeds to tell the story of his fate, The name and story of Count Ugolino of Pisa have himself like an old lion brought to bay. At length, as the reader has had it already laid before him. been made famous by the Italian poet Dante, and finding themselves unable to vanquish the obstinate From what has been detailed, few will wonder that Chaucer has also given poetic immortality to the resistance opposed to them, the citizens set fire to the the story of Ugolino should have attracted the notice same melancholy tale. Count Ugolino de Gherardeschi his sons, and two of his grandsons, were dragged forth In one famous performance, Sir Joshua Reynolds has was one of the victims of the civil broils which agitated by the exasperated Ghibellines, and thrown into the taken up the story of Ugolino in the dungeon, at the Italy in the middle ages, and are known in history by tower of the Sette Vie, on the Piazza of the Anziani, moment when the count is sitting, stupified into stone, the title of the Wars of the Guelphs and Ghibellines. where they were confined in one apartment. The key and a little Anselm” clasps his arm, exclaiming, These names were of Germanic origin, being the dini," from whom (says Sismondi) was expected the are grouped around, one fainting in the arms of an

was given over to the custody of the Archbishop Ubal- “Father! what aileth thee ?" while the other three family designations of two powerful and princely vigilance of an enemy, but the charity of a priest.” other. In another picture, Fuseli has taken up the houses of that country, one of which has had the ho- What the prelate's sense of charity was, became soon tale at a moment somewhat later, when one son nour, in modern times, of supplying a line of sovereigns apparent. For some weeks, Ubaldini allowed his (Gaddo) has flung himself in a perishing state across to Great Britain. It was more, however, on account wretched prisoners a pittance of food, but at length his father's feet, and the others are drooping around. of the importance of the causes of which these names the Arno, and consigned his victims to a slow and paintings. The count of Fuseli is more expressive,

the priest cruelly threw the key of the dungeon into Ugolino is, of course, the prominent figure in both became the watchwords, than through the intrinsic most horrible death. From that hour no human eye and has an aspect more befitting the horrors of his consequence of the families which then bore them, saw them, at least in life. The details of Ugolino's condition, than that of Sir Joshua, whose Ugolino, as that the terms Guelph and Ghibelline attained to miserable end, with that of his sons and his little an able eritic has said, with some show, at least, of such celebrity in the annals of Europe. The pope grandsons, have been so finely imagined by Dante, truth, is too like a “ famished mendicant, deficient in and the Franconian emperors, the

successors of Char- that it would be unpardonable to fashion forth the any commanding qualities of intellect, and regardless lemagne, began to struggle for ascendancy in Germany than his. The spirit or shade of Ugolino himself, Having only small engravings of these pieces before

conjectural horrors of that extremity in other words of his dying children who cluster around his knees." and Italy about the twelfth century, and it chanced under circumstances to which we shall presently us, it would be presumptuous here to expatiate on that the Guelphs took the side of the church, while allude, is made the narrator of the story; and as the their merits or defects. Both have been allowed to be the Ghibellines adopted the imperial cause. At a captives could be heard in their dungeon, though not great works, and, on the whole, worthy of the extragreat battle fought in 1140, these two names formed seen, the poet may have had some slight facts to aid ordinary and fearful story which they were intended the war-cries of the contending parties, and the use of his fancy in his delineation. “Know, I was on earth to illustrate. them, from that time, became permanent, as has often Count Ugolino," says the spirit of the Pisan noble ; been the case with titles or epithets originating in a and then, after mentioning his confinement, as well as

HEIR-LOOMS. similar incidental manner. When the great cities of the terrible dreams that indicated both to himself and

The term heir-looms has occasioned much dispute, but Italy, such as Venice, Genoa, Milan, and Pisa, sprung his children their coming fate, he says,

the rule which is recognised appears to be this: no up into wealth and influence, their citizens were for

chattles personal are capable of being entailed; bv.t the centuries divided between the church and imperial

“When I awoke

law recognises a power of descent in such things as appoar

Before the dawn, amid their sleep I heard parties, and in the factious wars and disturbances

to be necessary to support the dignity, uphold the splen

My sons (for they were with ine) weep and ask that arose in consequence, Guelph and Ghibelline For bread. Right cruel art thou, if no pang

dour, or continue the importance, of an estate or inheri

tance. The word loom is a Saxon word, signifying a limb constituted the watchwords of the combatants in the Thou feel at thinking what my heart foretold. field and in the senate. Though the cities in question

Now had they wakened; and the hour drew near,

or member; and thus heir-looms are limbs or members had freed themselves from the political dominion both

When they wero wont to bring us food; the mind

of the inheritance, and which generally cannot be sepaOf each misgave him through his dream, and I

rated from it without detracting from its value. Thus of emperor and pope, yet the countenance of either of Heard at its outlet underneath locked up

the ancient jewels of the crown are held to be heir-looms, these potentates was influential enough to affect the The horrible tower: whence, uttering not a word,

because the loss of them would materially detract from balance of power among the petty native princes and

I looked upon the visage of my sons.

the grandeur of the inheritance and the dignity of the nobles, who struggled with one another for authority

I wept not; so all stone I felt within.
They wept; and one, my little Anselm, cried,

sovereign for the time being. Deer in a park, fish in a in the numerous republics of Italy.

• Thou lookest so! Father, what ails thee? Yet

pond, charters, deeds, court-rolls, and other documents In the second last decade of the thirteenth cen- I shed zo tear, nor answered all that day,

necessary to verify titles of estates, together with the tury, Pisa, then the third maritime power in Italy, Nor the next night, until another sun

chests in which they are kept, become heir-looms, and was violently agitated by the contests of the Guelph

Came out upon the world. When a faint beam

pass with the land. Plate and other valuables, presented and Ghibelline factions for political superiority. The

Had to our doleful prison made its way,

to a peer for public services, have been held to be heirneighbouring towns of Florence and Lucca, with other

looms, as being necessary to the dignity of the several The imnge of my own, on either hand

inheritors of the honours of him by whom they were cities of Tuscany, were under

the Guelph domination, Through agony I bit; and they, who thought and formed a league against Pisa. At this juncture,

I did it through desire of feeding, rose

received. Sucht, also, is the case with things which canUgolino, a nobleman well advanced in life, and Count

O'the sudden, and cried, Father, we should grieve

not be separated from the inheritance to which they Far less, if thou would'st eat of us : thou gav'st

belong: as chimney-pieces, pumps, ancient fastened tables of the Gherardeschi, a mountainous country between These weeds of miserable flesh we wear;

and benches, and whatever might be considered as raLeghorn and Piombino, used his great power among

And do thou strip them off from us again.'

tional appendages to the freehold. Thus tombstones, his fellow-citizens of Pisa te advance himself to the Then, not to make them sadder, I kept down

monuments, and coat armour hung in a church, come supreme authority. The count was of a Ghibelline

My spirit in stillness. That day and the next

under the same designation, together with any ensigns of family, but he had united his sister to a Guelph house,

We were all silent. Ah, obdurate earth!
Why open'det not upon us? When we came

honour that may hang with them. For though the church and his nephew, Nino di Gallura, was then chief of To the fourth day, then Gaddo at my feet

be the parson's freehold, and these are annexed to the that party in Pisa. Thus divided, as regarded family

Outstretch'd did fling him, crying, "Hast no help

freehold, yet they were placed there by consent, for the ties, between the two factions, Ugolino appears to have

For me, my father? There he died; and e'en

advantage and honour of the ancestor and family of the played off the one against the other to raise himself,

Plainly as thou seest me, saw I the four

heir, and exist therefore for his benefit. So that the

Fall one by one 'twixt the fifth day and sixth; till finally, he joined his power to that of Ruggieri

parson, though he is not liable for any damage that may

Whenee I betook me, now grown blind, to grope or Roger degli Ubaldini, archbishop of the city, and

be done to them, which has not occurred through his

Over them all, and for three days aloud a great Ghibelline chief, in order to expel Nino di

Calld on them who were dead. Then fasting got

special act, or those of his agents, yet he cannot take Gallura and all his followers from within the walls.

The mastery of grief."

them away, without being subject to an action from the As it would have been a disgraceful act to join openly

heir for trespass.-Tyas's Legal Hand-Books: Personal Thus closes Ugolino's story. Whether the last | Property

And in four countenances I descried

says he,”

To one who loves so well his native land

A FEW PLAIN OBSERVATIONS ON suddenly, and going unceremoniously out of the room; keep tight; for as often as one leak was apparently

tossing any thing from you with affected contempt stopped, another broke out, and thus baffled the skill of POLITENESS.

or indifference ; taking any thing without thanking all interested. In the meantime, the side not exposed to A REFINED species of civility is sometimes expressed the giver ; standing in the way when there is scarcely the rays of the sun remained perfectly sound. I then by the term politeness, which is an exterior indication room to pass ; going before any one who is looking at suggested to Mr Kennaway (the master caulker of her

majesty's dockyard at Portsmouth), who had previously of good breeding or good manners, and may be de- a picture or any other object ; pushing against any one

given the subjeet consideration, the advantage likely to fined as that mode of behaviour which not only gives without begging pardon for the unintentional rude 6c derived

from altering the colour of the ship's side from no offence, but which affords agreeable sensations to ness; taking possession of a seat in a coach, theatre, black to white. Captain Hastings having approved of the our fellow-creatures. In our intercourse with the or place of public meeting, which you are informed alteration, the ship was painted a light drab colour where world, this species of civility is imperative. We pos- belongs to another; intruding your opinions where it was black before, upon which the leaks ceased, and she sess 110 right to give offence, by language or actions, they are not wanted, or where they would give offence; has now continued perfectly tight for more than twelve to others; and we are bound to conduct ourselves leaving acquaintances in the street, or a private com- months; and, indeed, I can confidently state, that the agreeable to the reasonable and set rules of society. pany, without bidding them good-bye, or at least ship will last as long again in her present situation, as she Suine severe writers on morals have confounded polite- making a bow to express a kindly farewell ; slapping had begun to shrink and split to an astonishing extent ness with insincerity. They seem to imagine that the any one familiarly on the shoulder or arm ; interrupt. when the outside surface was black, which has entirely act of speaking gracefully to another, is necessarily ing any one who is conversing with you ; telling long ceased since the colour has been altered."—Atheneum. mere grimace, or an empty flourish signifying nothing. and tiresome stories ; whispering in company; making In inany instances, with insincere people, this may be remarks on the dress of those about you, or upon

TO THE WILD BEE. the case, but it is not so with those of well-regulated things in the room; flatly contradicting any one, inminds. It is always better to speak politely, that is, stead of saying, "I rather think it is otherwise," "I One of my boyhood's dearest loves wert thou,

Melodious rover of the summer bowers; with extreme propriety and delicacy, than bluntly, am afraid you are mistaken,” &c. ; using slang expres

And never can I see or hear thee now, coarsely, or impertinently. We say, cultivate polite- sions, or words of a foreign language ; acquiring , Without a fond remembrance of the hours ness of manner by all means, for it is refined citility, habit of saying, “ says she," "

you know,"

When youth had garden'd life for me with flowers! and will spare both ourselves and others much unne- you understand,” &c. ; helping yourself at meals Thon bringest to my mind the white-thorn bough, cessary pain. without first asking if you may not assist others to The blooming heath, and fox-glove of the fells;

And, strange though it appear, Civilised society has in the course of time instituted something which they would like ; picking your teeth

Methinks in every hum of thine I hear certain rules in the code of politeness, which, though with your fork, or with your finger ; scratching or bf clittle actual value, it is every one's duty to learn, touching your head ; paring or cleaning your Mails A breeze-born tinkling from my country's own blue-bells

Most sweet and cheering memories are these because, by knowing and acting upon them, we can before company; mentioning the price of any article make life glide on much more smoothly and pleasantly of food or drink which you are offering to guests ; Who loves its mountains, rivulets, and trees, than if we remained in ignorance of them. These asking questions or alluding to subjects which inay With all the flowers that spring from nature's hand,

And not at man's elaborate command. rules are sometimes called the rules of etiquetle. We give paint to those you address ; neglecting to answer

Yet, ah, they are no more than memories: shall here mention a few of the more important of letters. It would be easy to enumerate many other

For I have dwelt perforce this many a year these social regulations : things which should be avoided as savouring of bad

Amid the city's gloom, 1. Honour to the female sex.- -Women are physically manners, but these will be sufficient to indicate the And only hear thy quick and joyous boom, weaker than men. They are unable to defend them- principle of politeness, and if that be understood, there when thou my dusky window haply passest near. selves from insult or injury, and it would be considered can be no difficulty in knowing how to act with deli- No longer can I closely watch thy range indelicate for them to do so, even if they possessed the cacy and discretion in all the concerns of life.

From fruit to flower, from flower to budding tree, power. For these and other reasons, it is only simple 4. Gentility and vulgarity.-By attention to the rules Musing how lover-like thy course of change,

Yet from all ills of human passion free. politeness and a sign of good sense to render any little of good breeding, such as wo have just alluded to,

Though thou the summer's libertine may be, service to women, to assist them when they appear in the poorest man will be entitled to the character of a

And, having reft its sweetness, may estrange any difficulty, to speak respectfully of them and to gentleman, and by inattention to them the most wealthy Thyself thenceforward from the flow'ret's view, them, and to give them honour whenever it can be individual will be essentially vulgar. Vulgarity sig

No sting thou leav'st behind reasonably required. It will be observed, therefore, nifies coarseness or indelicacy of manner, and is not

No trace of reckless waste with thee we findin what is called good society, that women are treated necessarily associated with poverty or lowliness of and sweetly singest thou to earn thy honey-dew. with exceeding delicacy and deference : they are of. condition. Thus, an operative artisan may be a Oft have I marvell’d at the faultless skill

With which thou trackest out thy dwelling-cave, fered the best seat, or the only seat if there be no gentleman, and worthy of our particular esteem;

Winging thy way with seeming careless will other; allowed to walk next the wall, or at the while an opulent merchant may be only a vulgar From mount to plain, o'er lake and winding wave: farthest point from danger, in the street ; never clown, with whom it is impossible to be on terms of The powers which God to earth's first creature gave, rudely jostled against in a crowded thoroughfare ; friendly intercourse. Vulgarity of manner is often Seem far less fit their purpose to fulfil and are always parted from with a respectful bow. exhibited, in its most offensive form, by persons ori- Than thy most wondrous instinct-if, indeed,

We should not think it shame, All this is considered essential in good manners, and finally of humble birth and breeding, who have risen

To designate by such ambiguous name attention to it will not in the smallest degree degrade to wealth by the force of fortuitous circumstances. The bright endowments which have been to thee decreed. any man in the opinion of the world. At the same | It is not uncommon to hear persons of this class,

Hurtful, alas ! too oft are boyhood's loves. time, as respects the women who receive these atten- particularly ladies, speaking of my coach,” “my, The merle, encaged beneath the cottage eaves, tions, it is expected that they will not “ give them- louse," " my governess," " my family,""" my servants, The pecking sparrow, or the cooing doves, selves foolish airs,” or presume on the forbearance “ my furniture," and so forth ; all which is pure rul- The chattering daw, most dexterous of thieves, and kindness of the stronger sex. In fact, no female garity, and indicates a low tone of breeding, and weak That oftentimes the careful housewife grieves, will do so who is acquainted with good manners, or understanding on the part of the speaker. A man or

And nimbly springs aloof when she reproveswishes to avoid being despised.

Happier by far these pets of youth would be, woman of refined taste never alludes to matters of

Had they been left alone, 2. General courtesy and respect. It is incumbent on dress, domestic convenience, or things strictly per- To human care or carelessness unknown, every one to be courteous or respectful in his inte- sonal, and rather endeavours to direct conversation Roaming amid the woods, unheeded still and free! course with neighbours, acquaintances, or with the into those channels in which all may harmoniously Well, too, for thee, wert thou thus left, poor Bee ! public generally. To inferiors, speak kindly and con- join.

In chase of thee and thy congeners all, siderately, so as to relieve them from any feeling of

How oft have I coursed o'er the fields with glee, being beneath you in circumstances ; to equals, be

INJURIOUS EFFECTS OF BLACK PAINT.

Despite all hindrances of hedge or wall plain and unaffected in manner; and to superiors,

That in my onward way might chance to fall: show becoming respect, without, however, descending by Mr L. Thompson, published in the Transactions of

The following is abridged from a paper on this subject

But, ah, though fervently admiring thee,

Thy piebald stripes, perchance, or golden hues, to subserviency or meanness. In short, act a manly, the Society of Arts. courteous, and inoffensive part, in all the situations in which will prove the injurious effects of black paint, more and all for thy sweet bag, so rich with balmy dews

“There is nothing," he observes,

Bring sudden pause to thy harmonious brenth, life in which you may be placed. Society, for good and than by observing the black streaks of a ship after having sufficient reasons, which it is needless here to explain, been in a tropical climate for any length of time. It will

Nor could the beauty of thy carthen home, has ordained certain modes of address, and certain be found that the wood round the fastenings is in a state

In a green bank beneath a fir-tree made, exterior signs of respectfulness, which it behoves us to of decay, while the white work is as sound as ever : the

With its compact and overarching dome,

Enveloping thy treasure-stores in shade support and personally attend to. In eastern coun- planks that are painted black will be found split in all

Nor the fine roadway, serpentinely laidtries, as of old, it is the custom to uncover the feet and directions, while the frequent necessity of caulking a ship

Nor all thy lovely cups of honied combto sit down, in token of respect, on going into the pre- in that situation, likewise adds to the common destruc- Protect thee from the instruments of ill, sence of kings, or on entering any religious edifice or tion; and I am fully persuaded, that a piece of wood Who forced thy tiny cave,

And made a place of peace and joy a grave, private

dwelling. In our country, the custom is en: again, if exposed to the weather, as a similar piece painted Killing thy race, though stil admiring while they kill tirely the reverse. It is an established mark of respect black, especially in a tropical climate. I have heard many to uncover the head and to stand, in the situations

Vainly against the thoughtless plunderers, which we have mentioned, and to this point of etiquette for nothing on wood, as it possesses no body to exclude men of considerable experience say, that black is good

Didst thou direct thy poison-pointed sting;

With branches from the super pendent firs, we are bound to adhere. We must not, from any the weather. This is, indeed, partly the ease ; but a far

They beat thee down, and bruised thy little wing: crotchet of our own, violate the rules or customs which greater evil than this attends the use of black paint,

Thy queen, although a strangely gifted thing, society sanctions and enjoins, as long as these rules and which ought entirely to exclude its use on any work out

Saw ruin fall on all that once was hers, customs are not opposed to reason and sound morals, of doors, namely, its property of absorbing heat.

Nor could the hand of fell destruction check:

Thy cells, of honey reft, and only refer to such trivial arrangements as taking Wood having a black surface, will imbibe considerably In one confused, sod-mingled mass were left, off our hat, making a bow, shaking hands, or other more heat in the same temperature of climate, than it and thou, thy home and works, lay whelmed in one sad wreck. matters equally unworthy of deliberate consideration. that surface was white : from which circumstance we may

Hence, though the wild flowers of my native hills None but persons of a silly, eccentric turn of mind, easily conclude, that the pores of wood of any nature

Before my mind at sight of thee arise, think of disputing about these trifles. On the same

will have a tendency to expand, and rend in all direc- And though my sense their fancied fragrance fills, principle, give every one the title, which, by law or

tions, when exposed under such circumstances. The And their bright bloom delights my inner eyes, courtesy, he usually receives.

water, of course, being admitted, causes a gradual and Yet painful thoughts the while my breast chastise 3. Personal behaviour.-A well-bred man is always ing from every ehange of weather. Two circumstances,

progressive decay, which must be imperceptibly increas- Oh, could poor man accomplish what he wills, known by the perfect ease and tranquillity of his which have fallen under my own immediate notice, de

I would live o'er my days of youth again,

If but to cherish thee, manner. These are points to be carefully cultivated. serve mention. The first was the state of H.M. Sloop And have thy memory unmix'd with aught of pain !

With kindness unalloy'd, thou little busy Bee, Acquire, if possible, an easy confidence in speaking, so Ringdove, condemned by survey at Halifax, Nova Scotia, as never to appear abashed or confused, taking care, in the year 1828. This brig has been on the West India But still to me thou art a thing of joy! however, not to fall into the opposite error of forward- station for many years. On her being found defective,

And the sweet hope is mine, that this new age ness or presumption. Persons moving in the highest and a survey called, the report was to the effect that the

Shall see thee saved from all such sore annoy. circles of society never allow themselves to appear wood round all the fastenings was totally decayed in the

Following a path alike benign and sage,

The Man doth now his faculties engage
disturbed or vexed, whatever occurs to annoy them. wake of the black, while that in the wake of the white
Perhaps there may be an affectation of indifference in Ship Excellent, of ninety-eight guns (formerly the Boyne),

In teaching early wisdom to the Boy.
was as sound as ever. The next instance relates to H.M. Youth now shall love thee, and have no desire

To hunt, or hurt, or kill; thing like fidgetiness or boisterousness of manner is moorings ; consequently, the starboard side is always The happiest, merriest member of the summer choir !

And thou henceforth shalt safely roam at will, 'disagreeable to all who witness it. Carefully avoid the following things in personal be- winter. In this situation her sides were painted in the exposed to the effects of the sun, both in summer and

T.S. haviour :-Loose and harsh speaking ; making noises usual manner of a ship of war; namely, black and white, London: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by W.S. in eating or drinking; leaning awkwardly when sitting; of which by far the greater part is black; this latter rattling with knives and forks at table ; starting up portion on the starboard side I found it impossible to

ORR, Paternoster Row; and sold by all booksellers and new men.-Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars.

Too often then did death

*

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alent at THE DANCING MANIA.

as the their last strength was gone, they fell to the ground, attraus m.

ed in By accident we have lately encountered an extremely usually in a state of violent tympany or inflation, and riod, it max.

re, curious and interesting book, bearing the title quoted apparently in the agonies of death; but when a cloth mies, and time on any

come bolow.* The subject treated is the Dancing Mania, the author having in other treatises (which we have soundly kicked or buffeted, they recovered, and were

was this result, that at length those who wandered to by the afflicte. IX pero. the Middle Ages " n the preface to be reale For about the countries thibiting their appalling

mandata especially those when he before us, he speaks of having collecte de materials for got swathing bands tied round them to be ready for make me and tailor; be the history of other prevailing diseases of that period; uso

. A stick inserted into this band, and twisted once sants became to victime. The

or twice round, restored them to temporary soundness. great, that they would daat sa works.

In the course of a few months, wandering bands of the walls and corners of V:.**. which for five centuries occasionally broke forth in over the Netherlands. Wherever they appeared, the Roaring and foaming 22 they were -... En ope, took it origin in an accidentai hivatances peoples Hocked the real them in ea tacia con chocolat vice on Christmas eve, at the convent-church of Kolbig, villages, they took possession of the religious houses ; high-leaps, their strength might be near Bernburg, by brawling and dancing , whereupon processions were every where instituted on their

une hausted Mantin after wearing themselves dance and scream for a whole year without ceasing. No one doubted that the disease was of the nature of revel. The afflicted had some strange antiether When we consider the superstitions of that age, we a demoniacal possession. The priests, against whom They could not endure to see any one woeping is cannot be much surprised

to learn that the men dia they poured forth threatenings and imprecations, had when they have a red garment, they flew at the to

ers as infuriated cattle do, and endeavoured to a allow, and were at length only relieved from the curse an end to the malady, because some of the afflicted them in pieces. The malady became nearly eztinek by the intercession of two pious bishops. The story were heard to declare that they designed to enter the about the beginning of the seventeenth century. adds, that four of them died of exhaustion, and that bodies of the nobility and princes, and, through these,

Varieties of the dancing mania appeared in other the survivors were never afterwards free from a to destroy the clerical order. The exertions of the parts of Christendom during the middle ages. trembling in their limbs. priests were effectual, for exorcism was a powerful

There is in Apulia, in Southern Italy, a harmless This tale was of course told as a remarkable instance remedy in the fourteenth century. About ten months species of spider, called the tarantula. About the of the punishment of impiety, and we may well believe after its appearance, the disease had in a great measure

same time that the dancers appeared in Germany and that it greatly impressed the minds of the people. ceased in Belgium.

on the Rhine, the people of Apulia seem to have beThe idea of frantic screaming and dancing, thus ren- It was about the same time advancing along the come possessed by a nervous dread of the bite of this dered familiar, became, of course, a ready shape or Rhine. At Cologne five hundred, and at Metz little insect. Jence arose one of the strangest delumodel for the conduct of persons under more than usual eleven hundred, were affected at the same time. The i sions that ever possessed the human mind. Those religious excitement, or who were, from whatever cause, streets of the latter city were filled with the dancers, who were bitten, or supposed themselves to be bitten, in an unsound state of mind. There were probably and the crowds of all sorts of people from town and “ generally fell into a state of melancholy, and apmany repetitions of the Kolbig scene within no long country who flocked to behold and join in their wild peared to be stupified, and scarcely in possession of time after its occurrence ; but we have no authentic revels. Children quitted their parents, servants their their senses. This cor.dition was, in many cases, notice of any such before the year 1237, when upwards masters, mechanics their workshops, and housewives united with so great a sensibility to music, that, at of a hundred children were seized with this frenzy at their domestic duties, to partake in the disorder which the very first tones of their favourite melodies, they Erfurt, and thence proceeded dancing and jumping pervaded this rich commercial city. Many of the sprang up, shouting for joy, and danced on without along the road to Arnstadt. When they arrived at wandering dancers are understood to have been in intermission, until they sank to the ground exhausted that place, they fell exhausted to the ground, and, postors, who assumed the character for the sake of and almost lifeless. In others, the disease did not according to an account of an old chronicle, many of adventures and maintenance ; but these propagated take this cheerful turn. They wept constantly, and, them, after they were taken home by their parents, the disorder as successfully as the truly afflicted, the as if pining away with some unsatisfied desire, spent died, and the rest remained affected to the end of their susceptible being every where prepared to fall into a

their days in the greatest misery and anxiety. Others, lives with a perpetual tremor.

frenzy of which they heard so much. In the Rhenish again, fell into morbid fits of love ; and instances of It was more than a century after the date last men- cities, as in Belgium, it at length in a great measure

death aro recorded, which are said to have occurred tioned, when the dancing manis assumed for the first exhausted itself, and for a time fell out of notice. under a paroxysm of either laughing or weeping." time the appearance of an epidemic. Certain persons The time when this mania appeared in Germany, At the close of the fifteenth century, this malady of both sexes, who had travelled out of Germany, was remarkable in that country for civil disturbances. had spread over Italy, and the virulence of its sympintroduced it, in 1374, into Aix-la-Chapelle. They The barons were incessantly at war with each other, toms was increased. Nothing short of death was exappeared in the stroets and in churches, dancing and the people suffered tremendous oppressions. In pected from the bite of either the tarantula or the wildly in circles, until, nature being exhausted, they the early part of the year, the Rhine and Maine had scorpion ; and all who fancied they had ever been so sunk to the earth. From these persons it spread to overflowed their banks, and wrought grievous havoc bitten, became victims of the disease. Sunk in proothers, and was soon propagated all over the Nether in the country. There was consequently considerable found melancholy, they never betrayed the least senlands. In individual cases, the first symptoms were suffering from want. These causes may be presumed sibility, except under the influence of music. At the epileptic convulsions. Those affected fell to the

to have given at this particular time an unusual ten sound of the flute or cithern, they awoke, as if by en. ground senseless, panting and labouring for breath. dency to a delirious disease, which superstition always chantment, opened their eyes, and, moving slowly at They foamed at the mouth, and suddenly springing kept more or less alive. Another circunstance is to first, according to the measure of the music, gradually ap, began their dance amidst strange contortions. be taken into account. St John's fostival had for hurried on to the most passionate dance. For hours they would dance deliriously in circles, in many ages been celebrated with rude dances, probably generally observed that, on these occasions, the most the open streets, regardless of the bystanders and of in allusion to the dancing of lerodias at his death. rustic people showed a grace in their movements all external objects, but wrapt apparently in internal | This saint had therefore become associated in the which never was obscrved under other circumstances visions, for they frequently shrieked out the names of popular mind with the dancing mania. Now, his in persons of their class. Musical pieces devised for spirits and of divine persons, and some would exclaim fostival takes place in July, and we find it was in that the afflicted were called Tarantellas ; some of them that they saw the heavens open before them. After month that the disease was introduced under such are preserved, and extracted into Dr Hecker's work. continuing their spasmodic dancing and raving till flagrant circumstances into Aix-la-Chapelle.

Dancing was sought for in this disorder as a means of

The dancing mania made another conspicuous ap- | relieving it. It was supposed that, by the exercise, The Epidemios of the Middle Ages. From the German of

pearance in the towns of Belgium and tho Lower the poison of the bite was diffused over the body, and J. F.C. Hecker, M. D., professor at Frederick William's Univer

Rhine in 1418, when bands of the afflicted passed not only made loss intensoly virulent, but expelled to sity at Berlin. Translated by B. G. Babington, M. D. London: along from place to place, accompanied by musicians some extent by perspiration, though it was still thought She woul, Gilbert, and Piper. 1836.

playing on bagpipes, and by innumerable spectators that, as it could not be thus altogether thrown off, a

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It was says he,”

A FEW PLAIN OBSERVATIONS ON

suddenly, and going unceremoniously out of the room ; | keep tight; for as often as one leak was apparently

tossing any thing from you with affected contempt stopped, another broke out, and thus baffled the skill of POLITENESS.

or indifference ; taking any thing without thanking all interested. In the meantime, the side not exposed to A REFINED species of civility is sometimes expressed the giver ; standing in the way when there is scarcely the rays of the sun remained perfectly sound.' 1 then by the term politeness, which is an exterior indication room to pass ; going before any one who is looking at suggested to Mr Kennaway (the master caulker of her

majesty's dockyard at Portsmouth), who had previously of good breeding or good manners, and may be de- a picture or any other object ; pushing against any one

given the subject consideration, the advantage likely to fined as that mode of behaviour which not only gives without begging pardon for the unintentional rude- lc derived

from altering the colour of the ship's side from no otrance, but which affords agreeable sensations to ness ; taking possession of a seat in a coach, theatre, black to white. Captain Hastings having approved of the our fellow-creatures. In our intercourse with the or place of public meeting, which you are informed alteration, the ship was painted a light drab colour where world, this species of civility is imperative. We pos- belongs to another; intruding your opinions where it was black before, upon which the leaks ceased, and she sess 110 right to give offence, by language or actions, they are not wanted, or where they would give offence; has now continued perfectly tight for more than twelve to others; and we are bound to conduct ourselves leaving acquaintances in the street, or a private com- months; and, indeed, I can confidently state, that the agreeable to the reasonable and set rules of society. pany, without bidding them good-bye, or at least ship will last as long again in her present situation, as she Some severe writers on morals have confounded polite- making a bow to express a kindly farewell ; slapping had begun to shrink and split to an astonishing extent ness with insincerity. They seem to imagine that the any one familiarly on the shoulder or arm ; interrupt. when the outside surface was black, which has entirely act of speaking gracefully to another, is necessarily ing any one who is conversing with you ; telling long ceased since the colour has been altered." --Athenæum. mere grimace, or an empty flourish signifying nothing. and tiresomne stories ; whispering in company; making In many instances, with insincere people, this may be remarks on the dress of those about you, or upon

TO THE WILD BEE. the case, but it is not so with those of well-regulated things in the room ; flatly contradicting any one, inminds. It is always better to speak politely, that is, stead of saying, "I rather think it is otherwise," “I One of my boyhood's dearest loves wert thou,

Melodious rover of the summer bowers; with extreme propriety and delicacy, than bluntly, am afraid you are mistaken,” &c. ; using slang expres

And never can I see or hear thee now, coarsely, or impertinently. We say, cultivate polite- sions, or words of a foreign language ; acquiring a

Without a fond remembrance of the hours ness of manner by all means, for it is refined citility, habit of saying, “ says she," *

you know,"

When youth had garden'd life for me with flowers! and will spare both ourselves and others much unne- you understand,” &c. ; helping yourself at meals Thou bringest to my mind the white-thorn bough, cessary pain. without first asking if you may not assist others to

The blooming heath, and fox-glove of the fells;

And, strange though it appear, Civilised society has in the course of time instituted something which they would like ; picking your teeth

Methinks in every hum of thine I hear certain rules in the code of politeness, which, though with your fork, or with your finger ; scratching or A breeze-born tinkling from my country's own blue-bells. of little actual value, it is every one's duty to learn, touching your head ; paring or cleaning your nails

Most sweet and cheering memories are these because, by knowing and acting upon them, we can before company; mentioning the price of any article

To one who loves so well his native landmake life glide on much more smoothly and pleasantly of food or drink which you are offering to guests ; Who loves its mountains, rivulets, and trees, than if we remained in ignorance of them. These asking questions or alluding to subjects which may

With all the flowers that spring from nature's hand,

And not at man's elaborate command. rules are sometimes called the rules of etiquetle. We give paid to those you address ; neglecting to answer

Yet, ah, they are no more than memories: shall here mention a few of the more important of letters. It would be easy to enumerate many other

For I have dwelt perforce this many a year these social regulations : things which should be avoided as savouring of bad

Amid the city's gloom, 1. Honour to the female ser.-Women are physically manners, but these will be sufficient to indicate the And only hear thy quick and joyous boom, weaker than men. They are unable to defend them- principle of politeness, and if that be understood, there when thou my dusky window haply passest ncar. selves from insult or injury, and it would be considered can be no difficulty in knowing how to act with deli- No longer can I closely watch thy range indelicate for them to do so, even if they possessed the cacy and discretion in all the concerns of life.

From fruit to flower, from flower to budding tree, power. For these and other reasons, it is only simple 4. Gentility and vulgarity.—By attention to the rules Musing how lover-like thy course of change,

Yet from all ills of hunan passion free. politeness and a sign of good sense to render any little of good breeding, such as wo have just alluded to,

Though thou the summer's libertine may be, service to women, to assist them when they appear in the poorest man will be entitled to the character of a And, having reft its sweetness, may estrange any difficulty, to speak respectfully of them and to gentleman, and by inattention to them the most wealthy Thyself thenceforward from the flow'ret's view, them, and to give them honour whenever it can be individual will be essentially vulgar. Vulgarity sig

No sting thou leav'st behind reasonably required. It will be observed, therefore, nifies coarseness or indelicacy of manner, and is not

No trace of reckless waste with thee we findin what is called good society, that women are treated necessarily associated with poverty or lowliness of And sweetly singest thou to earn thy honey-dew. with exceeding delicacy and deference : they are of condition. Thus, an operative artisan may be a

Oft have I marvell’d at the faultless skill

With which thou trackest out thy dwelling-cave, fered the best seat, or the only seat if there be no gentleman, and worthy of our particular esteem;

Winging thy way with seeming careless will other; allowed to walk next the wall, or at the while an opulent merchant may be only a vulgar

From mount to plain, o'er lake and winding wavo: farthest point from danger, in the street ; never clown, with whom it is impossible to be on terms of The powers which God to earth's first creature gave, rudely jostled against in a crowded thoroughfure ; friendly intercourse. Vulgarity of manner is often Seem far less fit their purpose to fulfil and are always parted from with a respectful bow. exhibited, in its most offensive form, by persons ori

Than thy most wondrous instinct-if, indeed,

We should not think it shame, All this is considered essential in good manners, and ginally of humble birth and breeding, who have risen

To designate by such ambiguous name attention to it will not in the smallest degree degrade to wealth by the force of fortuitous circumstances. The bright endowments which have been to thee decreed. any man in the opinion of the world. At the same It is not uncommon to hear persons of this class,

Ilurtful, alas! too oft are boyhood's loves. time, as respects the women who receive these atten- particularly ladies, speaking of my coach,” “my, The merle, encaged beneath the cottage eaves, tions, it is expected that they will not “ give them- house," " my governess," "my family,""" my servants,

The pecking sparrow, or the cooing doves, selves foolish airs,” or presume on the forbearance “my furniture," and so forth ; all which is pure

rul- The chattering daw, most dexterous of thieves, and kindness of the stronger sex. In fact, no female garity, and indicates a low tone of breeding, and weak

That oftentimes the careful housewife grieves,

And nimbly springs aloof when she reproveswill do so who is acquainted with good manners, or understanding on the part of the speaker. A man or wishes to avoid being despised.

Happier by far these pets of youth would be, woman of refined taste never alludes to matters of

Had they been left alone, 2. General courtesy and respect. It is incumbent on dress, domestic convenience, or things strictly per- To human care or carelessness unknown, every one to be courteous or respectful in his inte- sonal, and rather endeavours to direct conversation Roaming amid the woods, unheeded still and free! course with neighbours, acquaintances, or with the into those channels in which all may harmoniously Well, too, for thee, wert thou thus left, poor Bee ! public generally. To inferiors, speak kindly and con- join.

In chase of thee and thy congeners all, siderately, so as to relieve them from any feeling of

How oft have I coursed o'er the fields with glee, being beneath you in circumstances ; to equals, be

Despite all hindrances of hedge or wall

INJURIOUS EFFECTS OF BLACK PAINT, plain and unaffected in manner; and to superiors,

That in my onward way might chance to fall: show becoming respect, without, however, descending by Mr L. Thompson, published in the Transactions of

The following is abridged from a paper on this subject

But, ah, though fervently admiring thee,

Thy piebald stripes, perchance, or golden hues, to subserviency or meanness. In short, act a manly, the Society of Arts. There is nothing," he observes,

Bring sudden pause to thy harmonious breath, life in which you may be placed. Society, for good and than by observing the black streaks of a ship after having and all for thy sweet bag, so rich with balmy dewa sufficient reasons, which it is needless here to explain, been in a tropical climate for any length of time. It wili

Nor could the beauty of thy earthen home, has ordained certain modes of address, and certain be found that the wood round the fastenings is in a state

In a green bank beneath a fir-tree made, exterior signs of respectfulness, which it behoves us to of decay, while the white work is as sound as ever : the

With its compact and overarching dome,

Enveloping thy treasure-stores in shade support and personally attend to. In eastern coun- planks that are painted black will be found split in all

Nor the fine roadway, serpentinely laid tries, as of old, it is the custom to uncover the feet and directions, while the frequent necessity of caulking a ship Nor all thy lovely cups of honied combto sit down, in token of respect, on going into the pre- tion; and

I am fully persuaded, that a piece of wood

in that situation, likewise adds to the common destruc- Protect thee from the instruments of ill, sence of kings, or on entering any religious edifice or painted white

will be preserved from perishing as long

Who forced thy tiny cave,

And made a place of peace and joy a grave, private

dwelling. In our country, the custom is en: again, if exposed to the weather, as a similar piece painted Killing thy race, though still admiring while they kill. tirely the reverse. It is an established mark of respect black, especially in a tropical climate. I have heard many to uncover the head and to stand, in the situations

Vainly against the thoughtless plunderers, which we have mentioned, and to this point of etiquette for nothing on wood, as it possesses no body to exclude men of considerable experience say, that black is good

Didst thou direct thy poison-pointed sting :

With branches from the super.pendent firs, we are bound to adhere. We must not, from any the weather. This is, indeed, partly the ease ; but a far

They beat thee down, and bruised thy little wing: crotchet of our own, violate the rules or customs which greater evil than this attends the use of black paint,

Thy queen, although a strangely gifted thing, society sanctions and enjoins, as long as these rules and which ought entirely to exclude its use on any work out

Saw ruin fall on all that once was hers,

Nor could the hand of fell destruction check: customs are not opposed to reason and sound morals, of doors, namely, its property of absorbing heat.

Thy cells, of honey reft, and only refer to such trivial arrangements as taking Wood having a black surface, will imbibe considerably In one confused, sod-mingled mass were left, off our hat, making a bow, shaking hands, or other more heat in the

same temperature of climate, than it and thou, thy home and works, lay whelmed in one sad wreck matters equally unworthy of deliberate consideration. that surface was white: from which circumstance we may

Hence, though the wild flowers of my native hills None but persons of a silly, eccentric turn of mind, easily conclude, that the pores of wood of any nature

Before my mind at sight of thee arise, think of disputing about these trifles. On the same will have a tendency to expand, and rend in all direc

And though my sense their fancied fragrance fills, principle, give every one the title, which, by law or

tions, when exposed under such circumstances. The And their bright bloom delights my inner eyes, courtesy, he usually receives.

water, of course, being admitted, causes a gradual and Yet painful thoughts the while my breast chastise. 3. Personal behaviour.-A well-bred man is always ing from every ehange of weather. Two circumstances,

progressive decay, which must be imperceptibly increas- Oh, could poor man accomplish what he wills, known by the perfect ease and tranquillity of his which have fallen under my own immediate notice, de

I would live o'er my days of youth again,

If but to cherish thee, manner. These are points to be carefully cultivated serve mention. The first was the state of H.M. Sloop and have thy memory unmix'd with aught

of pain !

With kindness unalloy'd, thou little busy Bee, Acquire, if possible, an easy confidence in speaking, so Ringdove, condemned by survey at Halifax, Nova Scotia, as never to appear abashed or confused, taking care, in the year 1828. This brig has been on the West India But still to me thou art a thing of joy! however, not to fall into the opposite error of forward station for many years. On her being found defective,

And the sweet hope is mine, that this new age ness or presumption. Persons moving in the highest and a survey called, the report was to the effect that the

Shall see thee saved from all such sore annoy. circles of society never allow themselves to appear wood round all the fastenings was totally decayed in the

Following a path alike benign and sage,

The Man doth now his faculties engage
disturbed or vexed, whatever occurs to annoy them. wake of the black, while that in the wake of the white
Perhaps there may be an affectation of indifference in ship Excellent, of ninety-eight guns (formerly the Boyne).

In teaching early wisdom to the Boy.
was as sound as ever. The next instance relates to H.M. Youth now shall love thee, and have no desire

To hunt, or hurt, or kill; thing like fidgetiness or boisterousness of manner is moorings ; consequently, the starboard side is always The happiest, merriest member of the summer choir !

And thou henceforth shalt safely roam at will, disagreeable to all who witness it. Carefully avoid the following things in personal be- winter. In this situation her sides were painted in the

exposed to the effects of the sun, both in summer and haviour :-Loose and harsh speaking ; making noises usual manner of a ship of war; namely, black and white, LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by W.8. in eating or drinking ; leaning awkwardly when sitting; of which by far the greater part is black; this latter rattling with knives and forks at table ; starting up portion on the starboard sido I found it impossible to

ORR, Paternoster Row; and sold by all booksellers and news men.-Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars.

Too often then did death

T.S.

[graphic]

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF “CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,”

“ CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE.” &c.

NUMBER 450.

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 12, 1840.

Price THREE HALFPENCE.

THE DANCING MANIA.

their last strength was gone, they fell to the ground, attracted by curiosity. For a century after this peBy accident we have lately encountered an extremely usually in a state of violent tympany or inflation, and riod, it appeared from time to time, like other epidecurious and interesting book, bearing the title quoted apparently in the agonies of death ; but when a cloth mics, and the symptoms were always of one kind. It bolow. The subject treated is the Dancing Mania, was tied tightly round them, or when they were now became known as St Vitus's dance, from a notion the author having in other treatises (which we have soundly kicked or buffeted, they recovered, and were that to that saint was commissioned the power of pot seen) considered the Black Death, and the Sweat- free from the delirium till its next attack. So usual curing it, for which reason his shrines were resorted ing Sickness, all of these having been “ epidemics of was this result, that at length those who wandered to by the afflicted. It attacked people of all stations, the Middle Ages.” In the preface to the volume about the country exhibiting their appalling malady, especially those who led a sedentary life, such as shoebefore us, he speaks of having collected materials for got swathing bands tied round them, to be ready for makers and tailors ; but even the most robust peathe history of other prevailing diseases of that period; use. A stick inserted into this band, and twisted once sants became its victims. The fury of some was 80 but we are not aware of his having published any such or twice round, restored them to temporary soundness. great, that they would dash their brains out against works.

In the course of a few months, wandering bands of the walls and corners of buildings, or rush headIt seems not improbable that the Dancing Mania, these frenzied dancers had propagated the disease all long into rapid rivers, where they were drowned. which for five centuries occasionally broke forth in over the Netherlands. Wherever they appeared, the Roaring and foaming as they were, the bystanders Europe, took its origin in an accidental circumstance. people flocked around them in crowds to gratify their could only succeed in restraining them by placing In the year 1027, a few peasants disturbed divine ser- curiosity with the frightful spectacle. In towns and benches and chairs in their way, so that, by taking vice on Christmas eve, at the convent-church of Kolbig, villages, they took possession of the religious houses ; high leaps, their strength might be the sooner exnear Bernburg, by brawling and dancing, whereupon processions were every where instituted on their ac hausted. Many, after wearing themselves out, would the priest inflicted a curse upon them, that they should count, and masses were said and hymns were sung. revive in a certain time, and join once more the frantic dance and scream for a whole year without ceasing. No one doubted that the disease was of the nature of revel. The afflicted had some strange antipathies. When we consider the superstitions of that age, we a demoniacal possession. The priests, against whom They could not endure to see any one weeping ; and cannot be much surprised to learn that the men did they poured forth threatenings and imprecations, had when they saw a red garment, they flew at the wcarcontinue to scream and dance as long as nature would recourse to exorcisms, being the more anxious to put ers as infuriated cattle do, and endeavoured to tear allow, and were at length only relieved from the curse an end to the malady, because some of the afflicted them in pieces. The malady became nearly extinct by the intercession of two pious bishops. The story were heard to declare that they designed to enter the about the beginning of the seventeenth century. adds, that four of them died of exhaustion, and that bodies of the nobility and princes, and, through these, Varieties of the dancing mania appeared in other the survivors were never afterwards free from a to destroy the clerical order. The exertions of the parts of Christendom during the middle ages. trembling in their limbs.

priests were effectual, for exorcism was a powerful There is in Apulia, in Southern Italy, a harmless This tale was of course told as a remarkable instance remedy in the fourteenth century. About ten months species of spider, called the tarantula. About the of the punishment of impiety, and we may well believe after its appearance, the disease had in a great measure same time that the dancers appeared in Germany and that it greatly impressed the minds of the people. ceased in Belgium.

on the Rhine, the people of Apulia seem to have beThe idea of frantic screaming and dancing, thus ren It was about the same time advancing along the come possessed by a nervous dread of the bite of this dered familiar, became, of course, a ready shape or Rhine. At Cologne five hundred, and at Metz little insect. Ience arose one of the strangest delumodel for the conduct of persons under more than usual | eleven hundred, were affected at the same time. The sions that ever possessed the human mind. Those religious excitement, or who were, from whatever cause, streets of the latter city were filled with the dancers, who were bitten, or supposed themselves to be bitten, in an unsound state of mind. There were probably and the crowds of all sorts of people from town and “generally fell into a state of melancholy, and apmany repetitions of the Kolbig scene within no long country who flocked to behold and join in their wild peared to be stupifiod, and scarcely in possession of time after its occurrence ; but we have no authentic revels. Children quitted their parents

, servants their their senses. This cor.dition was, in many cases, notice of any such before the year 1237, when upwards masters, mechanics their workshops, and housewives united with so great a sensibility to music, that, at of a hundred children were seized with this frenzy at their domestic duties, to partake in the disorder which the very first tones of their favourite melodies, they Erfurt, and thence proceeded dancing and jumping pervaded this rich commercial city. Many of the sprang up, shouting for joy, and danced on without along the road to Arnstadt. When they arrived at wandering dancers are understood to have been im- intermission, until they sank to the ground exhausted that place, they fell exhausted to the ground, and, postors, who assumed the character for the sake of and almost lifeless. In others, the disease did not according to an account of an old chronicle, many of adventures and maintenance; but these propagated take this cheerful turn. They wept constantly, and, them, after they were taken home by their parents, the disorder as successfully as the truly afflicted, the as if pining away with some unsatisfied desire, spent died, and the rest remained affected to the end of their susceptible being every where prepared to fall into a

their days in the greatest misery and anxiety. Others, lives with a perpetual tremor.

frenzy of which they heard so much. In the Rhenish again, fell into morbid fits of love ; and instances of It was more than a century after the date last men cities, as in Belgium, it at length in a great measure

death are recorded, which are said to have occurred tioned, when the dancing mania assumed for the first exhausted itself, and for a time fell out of notice. under a paroxysm of either laughing or weeping.” time the appearance of an epidemic. Certain persons The time when this mania appeared in Germany, At the close of the fifteenth century, this malady of both sexes, who had travelled out of Germany, was remarkable in that country for civil disturbances. had spread over Italy, and the virulence of its sympintroduced it, in 1374, into Aix-la-Chapelle. They The barons were incessantly at war with each other, toms was increased. Nothing short of death was exappeared in the streets and in churches, dancing and the people suffered tremendous oppressions. In pected from the bite of either the tarantula or the wildly in circles, until, nature being exhausted, they the early part of the year, the Rhine and Maine had scorpion ; and all who fancied they had ever been 80 sunk to the earth. From these persons it spread to overflowed their banks, and wrought grievous havoc bitten, became victims of the disease. Sunk in proothers, and was soon propagated all over the Nether in the country. There was consequently considerable found melancholy, they never betrayed the least senlands. In individual cases, the first symptoms were suffering from want. These causes may be presumed sibility, except under the influence of music. At the epileptic convulsions. Those affected fell to the to have given at this particular time an unusual ten | sound of the flute or cithern, they awoke, as if by enground senseless, panting and labouring for breath. dency to a delirious disease, which superstition always chantment, opened their eyes, and, moving slowly at They foamed at the mouth, and suddenly springing kept more or less alive. Another circunstance is to first, according to the measure of the music, gradually op, began their dance amidst strange contortions. be taken into account. St John's fostival bad for hurried on to the most passionate dance. It was For hours they would dance deliriously in circles, in many ages been celebrated with rude dances, probably generally observed that, on these occasions, the most the open streets, regardless of the bystanders and of in allusion to the dancing of Herodias at his death. rustic people showed a grace in their movements all external objects, but wrapt apparently in internal | This saint had therefore become associated in the which never was observed under other circumstances visions, for they frequently shrieked out the names of popular mind with the dancing mania. Now, his in persons of their class. Musical pieces devised for spirits and of divine persons, and some would exclaim festival takes place in July, and we find it was in that the afflicted were called Tarantellas ; some of them that they saw the heavens open before them. After month that the disease was introduced under such are preserved, and extracted into Dr Hecker's work. continuing their spasmodic dancing and raving till Aagrant circumstances into Aix-la-Chapelle.

Dancing was sought for in this disorder as a means of

The dancing mania made another conspicuous ap- relieving it. It was supposed that, by the exercise, The Epidemics of the Middle Ages. From the German of

pearance in the towns of Belgium and tho Lower the poison of the bite was diffused over the body, and J.P.C. Hecker, M. D., professor at Frederick William's Univer

Rhine in 1418, when bands of the afflicted passed not only made logs intensely virulent, but expelled to sity at Berlin. Translated by B. G. Babington, M. D. London: along from place to place, accompanied by musicians some extent by perspiration, though it was still thought Sherwood, Gebert, and Piper. 1838.

playing on bagpipes, and by innumerable spectators that, as it could not be thus altogether thrown off, a

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