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gorm of the disorder must remain in the veins. When what they had beheld in the first girl, and, on the led to the discovery of the period at which the unfor

tunate merchant had been robbed ; and this period summer recurred, the malady again took possession of 17th, six more became affected in the like manner.

was found to correspond with the date of the disthose formerly afflicted, and it was necessary again to The work was now stopped, under an impression that

a pestilence had been introduced into it through the appearance of a man named John Moon, long in the resort to music. Thus, in time, the cure of the Ta medium of a bag of cotton. A physician was sent for employment of Frenois. Of this man, on whom sus rantati became a kind of public festival of annual from Preston; and before he arrived, three more picion not unnaturally fell, nothing could be learned occurrence. Crowds attended these festivals, which were seized. On the morning of the 19th, there were on inquiry ; but, shortly after the dirision of the late became scenes of great general excitement, and many, in all twenty-three girls affected, besides one man, merchant's property, Mioon reappeared in the colony.

who had been much fatigued by holding the girls. When taken up and examined respecting the cause particularly of the female sex, caught the malady, Five other girls, working at a factory at Clitheroe, of his flight, ho stated that he had been sent by his nut from the poison of the spider, but “from the five miles distant, were affected merely by hearing of master to France to recover certain sums due to the mental poison which they eagerly received through what took place at Hodden Bridge. The physician merchant there, in which mission he had been un. the eye.”

cured them by an electrical machine, and by assuring successful ; and he further averred, that if Clodomir Tarantism lasted in full vigour in Italy till the seven

them that the malady was entirely nervous. Pheno- Frenois, in his existing correspondence, had thrown

mena similar to these took place in 1801 at Berlin. any injurious suspicions upon him (Moon), the whole teenth century, at which time it might be said to be

A patient affected by tetanic spasms being introduced was but a pretext to account for deficiencies of which at its height. From the end of the seventeenth cen

into the Charité Hospital there, and falling down at the merchant himself was the sole cause and author. tury it began to decline, until at length it was confined her entry in strong convulsions, six other patients, at This declaration, made by a man who seemed to fear to single cases, as it now is. One great cause of the sight of her, became affected in the same way, and by no inquiry, and whose worldly circumstances remained decline seems to have been the frequency of cases of degrees eight more were attacked in the like manner. to appearance the same as they had ever been, had the

effect of silencing, if it did not satisfy, the examinators, imposture. These, being detected in great numbers, While their new ailment continued, their former comthrew discredit orer the whole, and, the “conceit" plaints were banished, returning, however, after the and the affair soon fell in a great measure out of the being thus shaken, people became less liable to be convulsions had been cured, which was chiefly effected public recollection. by the use of opium.

Things remained for a short time in this condition, affected by the real disorder. The spirit of the eigh

The various cases which have now been adduced, when, one morning, Mr William Burnett, principal teenth century, which was inquiring and anti-enthu- make it, we presume, quite plain, that there is a creditor of the late Clodomir Prenois, heard a knocko siastic all over Europe, must also be acknowlodged to spasmodic disease, to which human beings are liable ing at his gate at a very early hour. He called up have been unfavourable to a malady which perhaps under certain predisposing

circumstances, and which one of his servants, who went down and opened the took its origin in, and was all along supported by, reli- may be propagated through the medium of morbid door, and immediately returned with the intelligence gious extravagance.

sympathy, or, to speak more properly, the imitative that a stranger, who seemed desirous of keeping his Yet even during this cold period, there have not faculty in a state of disease. Amongst the predispos- person concealed, wished to speak with Mr Burnett been wanting comparatively isolated instances of simi- ing causes to this malady, the first is certainly nervous in private. Mr Burnett rose, threw on his dressinglar affections. In 1731, the grave of the Deacon Paris weakness, whether it may arise from great physical gown, and descended to the parlour. He saw there (the zealous opponent of the Ultramontanists), in the sufferings, or from the long-continued operations of a stranger, of tall person, seated in an easy and famicemetery of St Medard at Paris, became the scene of a harassing superstition, or be simply a natural cha- liar attitude upon a sofa, with a number of the Mora. a singular popular mania. Many individuals were

racter of the individuals affected. Such, we should ing Post in his hand. The back of the visiter was there seized with convulsions and tetanic spasms, think, must have equally been the state of the op- turned to Mr Burnett as he entered. Rather sur causing them to roll upon the ground like maniacs, pressed and superstitious peasantry of Germany in the prised to see a stranger conduct himself so like an old while their countenances and limbs were thrown into fourteenth century, of the over-tasked monotonously friend of the house, Mr Burnett said aloud, “Sir, may the most violent contortions. Crowds flocked to wit- labouring girls in the Hodden factory, and of the I beg to know your business with me mu ness this spectacle, and the number of the patients at under-fed and lonely people of the Shetland Islands. The stranger turned round, and advanced to salute length became so great that the king found it neces- It may also be induced in persons of better condition, his host warmly and courteously. Mr Burnett started sary to issue an order to shut up the cemetery, or, as a by protracted exposure to addresses in which the back, and uttered a loud exclamation of surprise and wit expressed it, to forbid further miracles in that place. most enthusiastic eloquence is employed to work upon alarm. Well he migkt; før before his eyes stood his There can be no doubt that these proceedings were the the feelings. When many are in the requisite con- friend and debtor, Clodomir Frenois, whom he had consequence of the fervour to which certain devotees dition

of nervous weakness, the disease passes from one beheld, nearly a year before, a matilated corpse, and were wrought up by the controversy on account of the bull“ Unigenitus.” The enthusiasm and the convulsions are what we have seen. to another by morbid sympathy, and the consequences whom he himself bad followed to the grave !

What passed at that interview between Mr Burnett are said to have been kept up by a small and obscure If these be the proper inferences from the facts and his strange visiter, remained for the time a secret. sect till the Revolution. The preachings of Whitfield, stated, it becomes clear and indubitable that many of Mr Burnett was observed to issue several times, pale and those of several other divines of the like fervour the fervours which take place under the hallowed and agitated, from his dwelling, and to visit the maof manner, were attended, as is well known, with simi

name of religion, do not proceed either from the good gistrato charged with the conduct of the criminal prolar effects both in Britain and America. In 1760, a

or evil spirit, as opposite sects have represented them, cesses of the colony. In the course of that day, while sect originated in Cornwall, who acquired the name but are mere results of natural laws operating on the John Moon was regaling himself with tea under the of Jumpers, in consequence of its being a regular part nervous system. On the importance of this deduc-palm-trees of his garden, along with a Circassian feof their devotional exercises to work themselves, by tion we noed not pause to make a single remark. male whom he had bought some time previously, he the use of certain unmeaning words, into a spasmodic

was arrested and taken to prison by the officers of state, in the course of which they jumped with strange

justice. On the following day, he was brought before gesticulations, until they were exhausted.

A MODERN ROMANCE OF REAL LIFE. the criminal court, accused of robbing the late ClodoIn the last age a disorder, locally termed convulsion. In explanation of the subjoined narrative, which is of trust and violence. Moon smiled at the charge,

mir Frenois, the crime being conjoined with breach lago of Shetland. The disorder was traced to a very translated from a foreign newspaper, it is necessary with all the contidence of a man who had nothing to simple circumstance, namely, the falling of an epi- to remind the reader that the island of Mauritius, fear. The judge having demanded of him if he conleptic woman into a fit during service in one of the appertaining at this day to the English, was originally fessed the crime, the accused replied, that the charge churches

. The minds of the congregation being pro colonised by the French, and that the population yet was altogether absurd ; that clear testimony was neindividuals immediately experienced palpitation and consists in a great measure of persons of that nation, far from there being any such evidence producible

, faintness, and then fell into a motionless and ap- to whom, by a formal treaty between the powers con- neither the widow of the deceased, nor any one person parently cataleptic condition. For years afterwards, cerned, their ancient laws and usages were preserved in his service, had ever heard the pretended robbery especially during summer, similar occurrences fre- without any material alterations.

even once mentioned by Frenois during his life. quently took place, but not always with the same

About ten or twelve months ago, the Sieur Clodomir

“Do you then affirm your innocence ?" repeated symptoms, for women especially often fell into convulsions, and raved furiously, writhing their bodies Frenois, a rich merchant of the island, was found the judge gravely, after hearing all that the other had into various shapes, and uttering the most dismaleries dead and frightfully disfigured in his own habitation. To say will arouch my innocence,” replied Moon, It would have been easy perhaps to counteract these His body was discovered lying on the floor, with the “ even before the body of my late master, if that be to his charge, finding the service much impedod by doubt

as to the cause of the catastrophe was dispelled old colonial law.} disorders. A sensible clergyman, newly introduced head and face mutilated by means of a pistol, and all necessary:" [Such a thing often took place under the cold water to be a cure for the malady, he should in by the discovery of the fatal weapon by the side of some peculiar emotion, " t is before your late master

judge future order every person so affected in church to be the corpse, and also of a paper in the handwriting that you will have now to assert your innocence, and instantly carried out and plunged into the neighbour of the deceased. This paper contained the following may God make the truth appear!" ing lake. From that time tlie malady was heard of words : “ I am ruined !-a villain has robbed me of Å signal from the judge accompanied these words, no more in that congregation. ague, was prevalent about the same time in Forfar be my portion, and I cannot await or survive it. I to the bar with a slow and deliberate step, having his

A disorder of an analogous kind, called the leaping twenty-five thousand livres sterling'; dishonour must and immediately a door opened, and Clodomir Frenois shire. According to a writer in Sir John Sinclair's leave to my wife the task of distributing among my eye calmly but sternly fixed on the prisoner, his late Statistical Account of Scotland, “ Those affected with creditors the means which remain 'to us, and I pray servant. A great sensation was caused in the court it first complain of a pain in the head, or lower part that God, my friends, and my enemies, may pardon by his appearance. Uttering shrieks of alarm and dancing, at certain periods. During the paroxysm, be in eternity! (Signed) CLODOMIR Frenois.” of the back to moich surrealed convulsion:fits, or fits of my self-destruction ! Yet another minute, and I shall horror, the females present tied from the spot. The they have all the appearance of madness, distorting

deringly confessed his guilt. For a time, no voice their bodies in various ways, and leaping and spring- Great was the consternation caused by this tragic was heard but his. However, as it became apparent derived its vulgar name. Sometimes they run with alluded to in the note had never been made public. manded that the identity of the merchant be estaing, in a surprising manner, whence the disease has event, which was the more unexpected, as the loss that a living man stood before the court, the advocate some place out of doors, which they hare fixed on in The deceased had been held in great esteem over the blished, and the mystery of his existence explained. their own minds, or perhaps mentioned to those in colony as a man of strict honour and probity, and He said that the court should not be biassed by what company with them, and then drop down quite ex- was universally lamented. His attached widow, after might prove to be a mere accidental likeness between tual remedy; but when the fit of dancing, leaping, or her grief too overpowering to permit her to mingle of extraordinary terror, was not to be held of much hausted. Cold bathing is found to be the most effec- endeavouring faithfully to fulfil his last wishes, found a person living and one deceased ; and that such an runring, comes on, nothing tends so much to abate the violence of the disease as allowing them free scope longer with the world, and took the resolution of con- weight. « Before being admitted here as accuser or to exercise themselves, till nature be exhausted.” secrating her remaining days to the services of religion. witness," continued the advocate, addressing the re

At a cotton manufactory at Hodden Bridge in Two months after the sad end of her husband, she suscitated merchant, “ prove who and what you are, Lancashire, on the 15th

February 1787, a girl put a entered a convent, leaving to a nephew of the late and disclose by what chance the tomb which so lately mouse into the breast of another who had a great merchant, a physician, the charge of completing the its tenant, and restored you to the world in life and dread of mice. The girl was immediately thrown into a fit, and continued in it, with the most violent distribution of the effe of Frenois among his cre- health !" convulsions, for twenty-four hours. On the following ditors.

This firm appeal of the advocate, who continued day, three more girls were seized with fits similar to A minute examination of the papers of the defunct, Steadfast to his duty under circumstances that would have closed the lips of most men, called forth the fol- her the beloved being for whose sake she had quitted all seasons of the year. A failure of the crop, or even lowing narrative from Clodomir Frenois. “My story the world. She was released from her ecclesiastical an improvident use of an abundant supply, frequently, may be soon told, and it will suffice to establish my vows, and rejoined her husband, no more to part till however, causes the nocessity of resorting to the use identity. When I discovered the robbery committed the grave really claimed one or other of them as its of other species of food ; and oatmeal, eggs, butter, by the accused, he had then fled from the island, and due.

lard, dripping, and herrings, are then partially though I speedily saw that all attempts to retake him would

sparingly substituted for it, particularly in the months prove fruitless. I saw ruin and disgrace before me,

of May, June, and July, when the old crop is ex. and came to the resolution of terminating my life REPORT RESPECTING THE IRISH POOR. hausted, and the new is not yet ready for digging, an before the evil day came. On the night on which this THE Sixth Annual Report of the Poor-Law Commis- operation which generally commences about the first determination was formod, I was seated alone in my sioners has just been published. Only a few pages are week in August. Milk, after being skimmed, as in private chamber. I had written the letter which

was devoted to matters connected with England ; but from the state of buttermilk, in the districts where dairy found on my table, and had loaded my pistol. This what is said, the gratifying fact may be learned, that farms abound, is also much used; the quantity condone, I prayed forgiveness from my Maker for the the new law is in all places working well, and fulfill- sumed being regulated by the nature of the district act of despair I was about to commit. The end of the ing the expectations of its projectors. The rule, which and the consequent supply, which varies according to pistol was at my head, and my finger on the lock, is inflexibly

acted upon in all the combined parishes the season of the year, being of course least plentiful when a knock at the outer door of the house startled or unions, of placing relief for the able-bodied upon the in the winter months. When the supply of milk fails, me. I concealed the weapon, and went to the door. simple alternative of coming into the workhouse, has water becomes the only beverage of the working class ; A man entered, whom I recognised to be the sexton been attended with the best results. Masses of indi and their dry meal of potatoes has then a relish im of the parish in which I lived. He bore a sack on his viduals are now employed, and living as independent parted to it by the addition of a herring, which is shoulders, and in it the body of a man newly buried, labourers, who formerly relied

upon a parish allowance generally eaten by the heads of the family, the chil: which was destined for my nephew, the physician, in aid of their wages. The demoralising practice of dren dipping the potatoes into the sauce in which it then living with me. The scarcity of bodies for dis- giving money in aid of wages to able-bodied labourers, was cooked. Illness appears to be most prevalent at section, as the court is aware, compels those who are is not yet altogether abolished, but it is annually declin those seasons of the year when water is used as the anxious to acquire skill in the medical profession to ing, and will ultimately be unknown. At the present only boverage. Frequently lard with salt is boiled in procure them by any possible secret means. The time, there are still 799 parishes in England and Wales water, and the potatoes dippod into this mixture, sexton was at first alarmed at having met me. • Did which have not been brought under the operation of which is called dip. my nephew request you to bring this body ? said I. the Poor-Law Amendment Act, containing a popula- Labourers employed by farmers, who are obliged, No,' replied the man ; 'but I know his anxiety to tion of more than two millions of souls.

by the terms of their contract, to feed them, are, in obtain one for dissection, and took it upon me to come The bulk of the volume is devoted to proceedings many instances, better off than those who receive full and offer him this body. For mercy's sake,' con- in Ireland, in reference to the extension of the law to money wages, and cater for themselves. Butter, eggs, tinued the sexton, do not betray me, sir, or Í shall that country. The business of sectioning the country milk, and even meat, are occasionally furnished them; lose my situation, and my family's bread.'

into unions, and building a workhouse in each, has but if left to his own resources, the labourer rarely While the man was speaking, a strange idea entered been actively carrying on throughout the past year. tastes animal food. Porridge, composed of oatmeal my mind, and brought to my despairing bosom hopes The number of unions declared up to the 25th of boiled in water, with salt and pepper, is a frequent of continued life and recovered honour. I stood for a March 1840, is 104, and 30 more will probably com- substitute for potatoes. few minutes absorbed in thought, and then, recollect- plete the total number of unions into which Ireland There is little doubt that the pernicious custom of ing myself, I gave two pieces of gold to the resurrec- will be arranged. The formation of unions was fol- whisky-drinking has hitherto abridged the domestic tionist, the sum which he had expected. Telling him lowed by elections of guardians by the rate-payers; comforts, by tending to deteriorate the quality of the to keep his own counsel, and that all would be well

, I and the new measures seem generally to have produced food used by the families of the peasantry. It would be sent him away, and carried the body to my cabinet. satisfaction in the various districts. Sixty workhouses premature to reason upon the future effects likely to The whole of the household had previously been sent have been contracted for, and are now in progress of be produced by the reformation in this respect lately out of the way on purpose, and I had time to carry erection. The houses of the old charitable founda- introduced; but from inquiries which I am constantly into execution the plan which had struck me. The tions are likewise in the course of being remodelled making at the village shops, where groceries as well as body was fortunately of the same stature as myself, to meet the arrangements of the new system, which spirits are sold, I find that there is an increase in the and like me in complexion. I knew the man ; he had has already, or will very shortly, come into operation sale of the former, more than in the ratio to the den been a poor offender, abandoned by his family. Poor in the Dublin and Cork unions. The various boards crease of the latter, and that tea, coffee, and bread, are relic of mortality !' said I, with tears in my eyes, of guardians concur in representing, that as soon as now purchased by the poor for consumption in their

nothing which man may do can now injure thee; the workhouses in their respeetive jurisdictions are cabins, and public coffee-shops are established in most yet pardon me if I rudely disfigure thy lifeless sub- ready for the reception of inmates, all public beg- of the towns. stance. It is to prevent the ruin of not one, but ging and mendicant vagrancy should cease ; and to Perhaps it may not be out of place to state here, twenty families !

And should success attend my accomplish this desirable object, they express a hope that there is also a remarkable improvement in the attempt, I swear that thy children shall be my chil that a vagrant act will be passed, similar to that dress of those who were formerly addicted to drunken. dren, and, when my own hour comes, we shall rest which applies to England. It may seem hard that ness; and this, in conjunction with the fact stated together in the tomb to which thou shalt be borne paupers should not be allowed to seek alms from the above, affords a proof that the poor generally are bebefore me !!”

charitably disposed; but in all matters of this kind ginning to appreciate those comforts which an abstiAt this portion of the merchant's narrative, the we must consult general, not individual, advantage. nence from intoxicating liquors has now placed within most lively interest was excited in the court, and testi- Beggary is a disgrace in a civilised community: "It their reach. fied even by tears from many of the audience. Frenois argues that society is in a wrong condition. Tho least The number of meals eaten during the day by the thus proceeded "I then stripped off my clothes, that can be said of it is that it is a nuisance, and is labouring class is very generally regulated by the foland dressed the body in them. This accomplished, I practically a tax on the benevolent for the support of lowing circumstances, namely, the season of the year, took the pistol, and with a hand more reluctant the poor, while the more churlishly disposed, but not the locality, the supply of fuel, and the supply of food. than when I had applied it to my own person, I fired the least wealthy, escape. Thus, in Dublin, under the In the short days in the months of November, De. it close to the head of the deceased, and at once caused old state of things, the entire charge for the poor fell cember, and January, in manufacturing towns, and at such a disfigurement as rendered it impossible for the exclusively on the benevolent. We rejoice, therefore, times when turf is scarce and dear, the supply of pokeenest eye to detect the substitution which had been that by the law as now constituted for Ireland, every tatoes falling short, and employment scarce, supper is made.

householder in ordinary circumstances will be coin frequently omitted ; but at other times, and under Choosing the plainest habit I could get, I then pelled to pay his fair share for the support of his poorer different circumstances, particularly where hard ladressed myself anew, shaved off the whiskers which I brethren. The establishment of workhouses, to which bour has to be performed, a third meal is partaken of. was accustomed to wear, and took other means to alter every man, woman, and child, in a state of destitu- The quantity of food consumed by able-bodied and disguise my appearance, in case of being subjected tion, may resort for relief, is the only effectual remedy women is almost invariably less than that consumed by any accident to the risk of betrayal. Next morn- against the nuisance of begging, because it leaves no by able-bodied men, but in quality it is precisely simiing saw me on board a French vessel on my way to a excuse whatever for the application of the mendicant, lar. Males up to sixty years of age consumo fully as distant land-the native country of my ancestors. and permits us with a safe conscience to refuse his much as young men in the prime of life, and those

The expectations which had led me to the execution request. The country which possesses no workhouses above sixty very little less. The same proportional of this scheme were not disappointed. I know that or other establishments for the ready relief of the consumption of food is also observable in women. John Moon, the man who had robbed me, and who pauper, and yet prevents public begging, commits a There is more difficulty in obtaining any correct data now stands at the bar of this court, had formed con- monstrous crime; in fact, it consigns myriads of un- as to the relative consumption of food by children of nexions in this island, which would in all probability fortunate creatures to pinching penury and starvation. all ages; but from the best information I can obtain, bring him back to it as soon as the intelligence of my We are not overlooking here that the more important I am led to suppose that those upwards of ten years of death gave him the promise of security. In this I benefit of a poor-law is its supporting the moral tone age roquire fully as much as a full-grown woman to sushave not been disappointed. I have been equally for of the humbler orders of the people, keeping them tain them, at the period of life when muscular expan. tunate in other respects. While my unworthy ser- above that degree of want which induces despair and sion and a rapid digestion require equivalent support." vant remained here in imaginary safety, I have been recklessness, and the effects of which have already Mr Hawley here adds a table, showing the quantity successful in discovering the quarter in which, not been more frightfully exemplified in Ireland than in and nature of the food consumed by individuals in daring at first to betray here the appearance of wealth, any other country.

various parts of the country. It appears from this, he had lodged the whole of the stolen money. I have Two of the most instructive papers in the Report that in most places the breakfast of an able-bodied man brought it with me, and also sufficient proofs, suppos- are those on the proposed workhouse dietaries in is about four and a-half pounds of potatoes; dinner the ing his confession of this day to be set aside altogether, Ireland, by Messrs Hawley and Hall, assistant poor same, but herrings or lard are substituted when milk to convict him of the crime with which he stands law commissioners. Mr Hawley gives us the follow- is scarce ; supper is seldom taken. Women eat about charged. By the same means," continued Clodimir ing account of the common food of the people :- one pound less of potatoes daily. Rarely is bread or Frenois, with a degree of honourable pride in which “ 'I'hat the potato is the staple food of the peasantry oatmeal used. It may be said, with the trifling excepall who heard him sympathised, “ will I be enabled to is a fact too well known to require any proof; and it tions to which Mr Hawley alludes, the universal diet restore my family to their place in society, and to will hardly be necessary to state, that I have found consists of from eight to nine pounds of potatoes, and redeem the credit of a name on which no blot was left the use of this vegetable to prevail in all parts of my two and a half pints of skimmed or buttermilk daily. by those who bore it before me, and which, please God, district. The grand object of the peasant, when plant. The weight is calculated with the potatoes raw; there I shall transmit unstained to my children, and mý ing the potato, is to raise the largest crop on the is a loss of two ounces in every pound in boiling. children's children."

smallest extent of land ; and with this view the sorts In jails, hospitals, and houses of industry, from six to John Moon, whose guilt was thus suddenly and called lumpers and whites are generally preferred, eight ounces of oatmeal made into porridge are in strangely laid bare to the world, did not retract the as being most prolific ; they are, however, of a very many instances substituted for the potatoes at breakconfession which he had made in the extremity of his inferior and a watery nature, and the loss in cooking fast; and sometimes a kind of potato soup is given for terror, and, without separating, the court sentenced reduces them in weight much more than the superior dinner. There is, therefore, reason to believe, that him to confinement for life in the prisons of the kinds ; but as the gross produce of these potatoes, on hitherto the diet afforded in jails and hospitals bas colony.

any given portion of land, is considerably greater than been superior to the ordinary food enjoyed by the The news of Clodimir Frenois's re-appearance spread that of any of the other sorts, they continue to hold humbler orders out of these establishments. rapidly, and the high esteem in which his character the preference. The market value of the several sorts We now come to Mr Hall's report, which consists was held led to an universal rejoicing on the occasion. corresponds with their quality, and the cheapness of of suggestions for the adoption of the guardians in the He was accompanied from the court to his home by a the lumpers and the whites, the two sorts above Dublin unions. “ The essential principle to be atdense multitude, who welcomed him with prolonged mentioned, furnishes another reason for their general tended to,” he proceeds to observe, “in framing a shouts. It would be vain to attempt any description use..

dietary for a workhouse, appears to be, that the food of the feelings of the wife, who thus saw restored to The potato is eaten at every meal, and throughout a pauper, maintained at the public cost, should not

up

be more abundant or better than that of the poor man extent make general principles yield to what is locally | into which the vapour rises, and to which an airmaintaining himself in independence by his industry. expedient. At the same time, it is not to be over- pump is attached. The steam for heating is conIn England it has been found very difficult to preserve looked that the Irish diet, even where it consists only ducted from a boiler to a racant space between the this principle ; it was almost impossible, in many dis- of two meals, is one of far superior aggregate weight outer and inner shell of the lower part of the pan. tricts, to prescribe a diet less abundant, and of inferior to any other diet which has ever been statistically The vessel is thus kept quite close, and impervious to quality, than that of the majority of the labouring ascertained. The diet of the working people of Bri- the outer air. All things being prepared for boiling, classes, and at the same time sufficient to keep the tain in general is about twenty-four ounces of solids the air-pump, wrought by a steam-engine, begins to inmates of the workhouse, belonging to the same per day, chiefly meal, and only in small part animal work, and draws off the air in the pan, as well as the classes, in health and strength. It is well known to food. Against this, nine pounds of potatoes, watery vapour which arises in the ebullition. By particular all who have accurately inquired into the matter, that as the root is, makes a good appearance. We must arrangements in the process, all that is valuable in the diet ordered or allowed by the poor-law commis- own, indeed, that we are a good deal surprised at the withdrawn vapour is condensed and saved as it sioners for the English workhouses, is in many, not learning the aggregate weight of the Irish peasant's passes out, so that nothing is lost to the manufacto say in most instances, superior in quality, and more daily diet. In weight it is immense, and we suspect turer. Except for the care taken in this respect, the nutritious than the ordinary diet of the poor ; a fact that, though unvaried, and attended by little relish loss incurred by pumping off the saccharine vapour attested by the improvement generally observable in or relief, it must be, upon the whole, where there is would be immense. The withdrawal of the atmothe condition of the inmates, within a short period open-air exercise along with it, healthy and sustaining. spheric pressure from the surface of the liquid, allows after their admission into the workhouse.

it to boil at a temperature of about 150 degrees, at Such being the case in England, it must be expected

which the good qualities of the sugar are no way

VISIT TO A SUGAR HOUSE. that the difficulty of regulating the dietary of the

deteriorated. Having boiled the proper length of paupers, so as not to hold out the additional induce- A short time ago curiosity led us to visit an establish- time, the contents of the pan are allowed to escape ment of superior food to those who may be already ment for the refining of sugar, and we were equally by opening a plug beneath, and fall into an open disposed, by the prospect of shelter and clothing, to pleased and surprised to observe the extraordinary im- vessel for their reception on the floor below. The livelihood, will be even greater in Ireland. And yet, provements which in latter times have taken place in called the cooler, because in it the liquid was cooled exactly in proportion to the difficulty of adjusting the that branch of manufacture. What with improved down from 220 to 180 degrees, the latter being the diet according to this principle, is the necessity of modes of clarifying and boiling, the art of sugar refin- temperature at which crystallisation may best be being careful to do so; because, where subsistence is ing has been almost entirely altered in character within effected. In the present day, the cooler has become precarious, scanty, and unwholesome, and, such as it the last twenty or thirty years.

a heater, for with the aid of steam enclosed round its is, not to be obtained without severe exertion, a supply of food, even of tolerable quality and in mode

Sugar, as is generally known, arrives from the place the liquid from 150 to 180 degrees. The thick and

sides, it is now used for elevating the temperature of rate quantity, yet provided regularly and without fail, of its produce in a brown or raw mass, which is a

viscous syrup being now fully prepared, is transferred becomes almost irresistibly attractive to the poor. concretion of the juice of the sugar-cane, divested of from the heater, in copper ladles, to the moulds in Where such is the case, there is great danger of those its molasses or uncrystallisable syrup. This coarse which it is to cool and become firm. These moulds given that none but the actually destitute are relieved; material

, on being brought to the establishment of the are of unglazed brown earthenware, and conical in and when once pauperism becomes on the whole, and refiner, is in the first place put into a vessel with water, size of the loaf which is required, or from about twelve in the estimation of a large portion of the poorer classes, and subjected to a process of purification ; but this to twenty inches in depth. They are supported in rows more eligible than independence, evils which cannot early stage of the manufacture possesses little interest, on the floor, or in a frame with the broad open end upbe contemplated without dread are sure to follow.

and we therefore pass on to the socond, which consists permost; in the narrow pointed tip below, there is an tasted by the Irish peasant ; and the fact of its being of bone charcoal. The manner in which the draining coarser particles. The inverted cones are now left to

It is matter of notoriety that meat is rarely, if ever, in draining the partially cleansed liquid through a bed orifice which is at first closed by a bit of twisted paper, almost universally excluded from the dietaries of public institutions, shows that the change in his habits and is performed is not always the same, there being con- cool, the temperature of the air around being gradually circumstances in life that a man undergoes when he stantly improvements and alterations upon it; it may, lowered, to assist and modify the process of crystallisabecomes an inmate of any of them, docs not render however,

be described as follows. A black granulated tion. At one time it was customary to place layers of a change of diet necessary for his well-being. This substance, bearing an exact resemblance to gunpowder, mass in the cones, for

the purpose of pressing down the almost general rule may be proved by the few tions that occur. Your assistant commissioner, Mr and made by braying charred bones, is purchased in refuse liquid ; the more improved practice now consists Phelan, whose medical knowledge and professional large quantities by sugar refiners from the manufac- of substituting for the clay certain quantities of refined experience add great weight to his opinion, when dis- turers of the article. As much as perhaps a ton of sugar liquor, which runs through the loaf, and draws cussing this point in a report on dietaries, writes as follows:-*The dietaries of prisons

are of three descrip lead, and having outlets at the bottom for the escape out the process, is carefully preserved, and forms one this substance is placed in a large chest lined with off the coloured molassy matter by the inferior orifice.

This matter, as in the caso of all droppings throughEach consists of only two meals. The first, for various of the liquid. Upon the bed of charcoal so prepared, of the varieties of the saccharine product. Being reasons, is in most use : but, from no inconsiderable there is sent a flow of syrup for the purpose of filtra- thoroughly drained, the loaves are taken from

the acquaintance with prison discipline, I am satisfied tion, and, strange to say, notwithstanding the blackness cones, and dried or baked in an oven raised to a temthat the third is the best that which would keep the of the

powder, the liquor is found to run from it very perature of from 130 to 140 degrees, by means of and new milk for breakfast, and

potatoes and skimmed nearly pure and light in colour. Much of the brown and hence the danger of fire in the old sugar-baking milk for dinner. And again, in another part of the colouring property of the sugar is thus deposited in establishments. After being baked, the loaves may same report, he says, Whether meat or broth should the charcoal

, which, after a certain length of time, be said to be ready for market, and are individually be allowed in our workhouses is a matter of doubt with requires to be washed away, when the substance is tied up in blue paper, as we see them in the shops of me, as those who are likely to become the inmates but again charred in retorts and again applied to this the grocers. rarely obtain either at their own residences, or at their

Such is a rough sketch of the modern process of own expense, except perhaps about three or four times exceedingly useful process of filtration. The ems-year." If meat be at all allowed, it should be ex

sugar refining, in which, for the sake of intelligibility, ployment of charred bones for this object is of com

we have avoided saying any thing of the different tremely well boiled, so that the soup or vegetable paratively modern date, and was the discovery of a

. It porridge prepared with it may be used at dinner in Frenchman, It has greatly lessened the expense and be understood, however, that the original raw

sugar, stead of milk, and that the meat itself will be consi- simplified the process of refining.

in the course of its refinement, produces at least four dered as of less value than such soup or porridge. I The syrup, having now undergone all its prelimi- kinds of material_double refined loaves, usually of have come to this conclusion from having frequently nary purifications, is removed to pans in which it is about ten pounds in weight each; coarser loaves of found, to my very great annoyance, that more serious to be boiled, that being necessary to cause it to granu- four or five times that weight, called lumps, which are affections of the bowels occurred within the twenty- late or crystallise. It is at this point that we see the largely used by confectioners, &c. ; a very coarse four hours after meat and broth had been used in the most remarkable improvement in the art of refining. brown sugar called bastards, which is used only by Clonmel House of Industry, than during the remainder Formerly, the boiling was effected in large open pans the humblest classes ; and, lastly, treacle or molasses. of the week.'

heated beneath by a fire. Neither open pans nor fire The produce of a hundredweight of raw sugar, in Mr Hall having submitted the subject to the consi- are now used. The boiling is effected in closed copper former times, was estimated at about sixty-four pounds deration of the guardians of the South Dublin Union, vessels by means of steam. It may here be men of double and single refined lumps, fourteen pounds of a committee of the body reported in complete agree- tioned, that little or no fire is now einployed in any bastards, twenty-eight of treacle, with six of trash er ment with the views above expressed, and proceeded branch of refining, all the heating that is desirable at deficiency. In consequence of improvements in the to suggest that therefore two meals a-day would be the various stages in the process being now accom- manufacture, but chiefly by the use of the vacuum pans, sufficient for the paupers in the workhouse, namely, plished by steam, conducted in iron tubes from large a greater proportion of refined lumps is now produced a breakfast and dinner. “They advise,” says the report, boilers kept constantly in operation. Thus we find from the same quantity of the article, to the benefit “that on two days of the week the dinner should consist heating vessels at all parts of the establishment, and on both of the maker and consumer. An idea of the great of broth made of ox-heads and shins, and other coarse wooden floors, from the garret to the cellar. A steam value of the vacuum pans may be had from the fact, pieces of beef, together with potatoes, to be mashed engine is at the same time kept at work, performing that the inventor, near the expiry of his patent, reaup therein; the allowance for each adult pauper to a variety of offices, including the raising up of huge lised, in all probability, not less than L.40,000 a year be four pounds of potatoes, weighed before cooking ; casks froin the ground to the higher floors of the for liberty to use it ; some manufacturers paid L.2000 on the other five days potatoes and buttermilk, the house.

annually for this important privilege. The patent allowance for each adult being four pounds of pota

When it was the practice to boil the syrup in open being expired, any one may now freely use the vacuum toes (weighed raw), and one pint of buttermilk. They pans, the liquid, as a matter of course, was exposed to pans. advise that the breakfast every day should consist of the pressure of the atmosphere, which prevented it The quantity of refined sugar made from any given oatmeal boiled into stirabout, and new milk; the al- from arriving at the vaporific or boiling point till it quantity of the raw material, depends not only on these lowance for each adult pauper being seven ounces of reached a temperature of 220 degrees--a pitch of heat improved processes, but on the original quality of the meal, and half-a-pint, imperial measure, of milk.” which impaired the quality of the sugar, while the sugar employed. In this respect sugars differ very Finally, they advise“ that food of the same kind, vaporisation carried off a portion of what was really considerably, some being coarse and brown in quality, but in less quantities, with a portion of bread, be pro- valuable. There are few liquid articles of food, those and others more pure and light. I was made very vided for the children; and that the sick and infirm of vegetable product in particular, which are not in- sensible of this, on being conducted into the store of be dieted according to the directions of the medical jured by being boiled at a temperature of 212 degrees, the sugar-house after having seen the various operaofficer."

but, to boil them at a less heat, it would be necessary tive departments of the concern. On a table there lay It thus appears, that, in organising the worklouse to remove the atmospheric pressure from their sur- spread out a number of samples of raw sugar ready system in Ireland, the same anxiety has been felt as face, and this would be attended with a considerable for the inspection of customers; and having obser red in England to keep the diet on a level with that degree of trouble and expense to the operator. The that these were generally of a coarse appearance, the usually enjoyed by the independent labourer out of magnitude of the scale on which sugar is prepared, manufacturer took from a drawer a small packet condoors. To the feelings of people living in this country, has permitted this to be effectually done. The syrup taining a quantity of sugar of a muci finer quality. tho two meals and no supper allowed to the Irish is poured through a pipe into a jan made of copper, “ This," I remarked," will of course bo w much dearer pauper, is no pleasant subject of reflection ; but no which is a fattened sphere in form, measuring six sugar." “ No such thing," he answered," that supar one can dispute that, to mak. the diet superior within feet in diameter, and from four to five feet deep at is much cheaper, but we cannot offer' it for maio." to what it is without doors, would be deeply injurious. the middle. On the top of this flattened round vessel Here, as in many other cases, one must to a certain thera is a raised part, resembling a kettle with a lid, sample is sugar from Brazil, and it is not allowed to

“ For what reason !" I inquired. “Because that fide

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be introduced into this country except at such a heavy received a great imple asring the ine Serpente

hat hisduty as amounts almost to a prohibition. We can France, and other parte de Santanen

nd awe buy it for 228. 6d. per hundredweight, but being 1838, in France alone, the winner of these loaded with 63s. of duty, we are compelled to purchase from this source, was hy ons, and eller har

riod of that West India sugar which you see on the table, tablishments in this brasan sé nou were at 54s. 3d., which, with 25s. 3d. of duty, is raised to up in various districts e Prom and son 795. 6d." The effect of this augmented war an * *

VI. In the compass of a few words, here was delivered bours has been to check Britaas eterna emin

the one of the most striking lectures on political economy the price of sugar on the best se mere

ope. which it had ever been my fortune to hear. A single what it is in England. We belisco, let me te instant had served to explain that very incomprehen- ropean countries, the best lump saw

ely sible affair, the high price of sugar, of which Mrs obtained at 4d. per pound, exclusive de mar dreta uma

1 Balderstone had latterly been making such doleful may be chargeable upon it. As the paper on a complainings. This high price, it seems, had arisen Britain, from a regard for their colonia, ru settore from no general scarcity of the article ; there had been cultivate beet-root sugar, nor import reut only a shortcoming in the West India colonies, and kind from foreign countries for home startup.com the people of Great Britain had been such extraordi- they accordingly must endure the pecuniary nus aut nary simpletons as to continue buying bad sugar in privations which such acts of self-denial impa war limited quantities from that quarter, at 54s. per hun-them. dredweight, rather than buy a better article from Brazil, or any where else, at 22s.6d, Did ever any RECENT PROCEEDINGS IN AND RESPECTIV, one hear of such a piece of absurdity? Before leaving the establishment, my friend enlight

NEW ZEALAND.
ened me with a few more details respecting the sugar THE public at large have probably a very vague and ***
trade. It was a subject I had never before known
the effect of novelty. Perhaps the reader may allow ing New Zealand. We shall endeavour to bring to klasyon
me to retail a few particulars for his advantage. gether such particulars of these proceedings as may m";*

Up till the year 1839, there was no material reduc- form an historical outline of what we cannot but con- darisasi
tion in the quantity of sugar imported from the West sider as among the most important transactions in the
Indies, East Indies, and Mauritius, but in that year
quite a new state of things arose ; there was a falling way of colonial settlement that have taken place in age to this site
off in the imports from thence to the extent of from our time.
8000 to 9000 tons; the usual imports of 210,000 tons It may be mentioned, in the first place, that the once in rearranger
having fallen to 201,900 in one year. We are at the New Zealand Association, of whose designs we gave
same time informed that there will be a much greater

some account in the Journal for December 9, 1837, monly quick. le gum de
deficiency this present year. Fortunately, while there
has been a decrease in the production of West India ceased to have a distinct existence soon after that Cape Farewell, the
sugar, there has been an increase in that of Siam, Java, period. That association, as well as an earlier one Island, and which feronse momentos
and the Phillipine Islands, where the culture is carried called the New Zealand Company, and a private co-
on by free labourers. Lately, there were 10,000 tons of partnery named the New Zealand Colonisation Con- time in standing throw
and not from a British colony, it could not be bought; pany, which was established in August 1838, may be she anchored in Ship (en
except, as above mentioned, at prohibitive duty said to have merged in a co New ZEALAND Core Muz? visits to the island. Colores
pulsory labour, being thus practically excluded from conspicuous association of individuals for promoting pearance at a distance" a
the home market, while the scarcity of colonial sugars emigration to that part of the world.

barren mountains stretching away funny continues to increase, the result is that we are volun

When this company started into existence sixteen But, “ on nearing the land, you be mine

they reach those covered with eraman tarily paying more than double price for all the sugar

obuv andre other words if the people thoughts propter martesa e performing or dific mean condividualse ; and covered to the hero bighest price samwe duty Chaise laid upon them. West hundite to this circumstance, in some measure, we may attri- verdurea pe Iship Courses in the norther, sier har et go they would have it for 47s. 9d. per hundredweight, bute

the remarkable success it met with. From

the beautiful place. The water, tranquil interesting instead of 85s. 60.-in plain terms, every poor man

lake, has ten fathoms' depth within a 1.4 ben pa ng appears that by this our fancy for buying from a dear an extensive territory adjoining the Kaipara and might have for 7d. that for which he now pays ls. It / Colonisation Company, merged in it, it inherited the shore, which is covered to the watts ***

an evergreen forest, consisting of every saray Am instead of a cheapo shop, we are absolutelyogiving Hokianga, harbours in the northern island, which digenous tree and shrubs

, so thick as to be intern away about L.4,000,000-some say L.5,000,000,an- territory had been recently purchased by the Coloni- penetrable, and presenting to the eye an undularin nually. We are assured that if the present self-im- sation Company, but not surveyed. While

as yet the carpet of verdure reaching to the summit of the mus than L.6,000,000.

new company had formed no other connexion what- 1200 to 1500 feet. The birds, as in the time of the This magnificent self-denial on the part of John ever with New Zealand, but entirely upon the faith immortal English navigator, fill the air with their Bull is only equalled by his generosity to other nations. of being able to purchase land and effect settlements, notes, the mingling of which he has aptly likened Though he will not buy cheap foreign sugar for his it issued proposals to sell, to intending colonists, what the tinkling of small bells ; and the sea teers with with it to their heart's content. Foreign sugars—the sections of land in what was to be the principal settle- consisted of hake, cole-fish, spotted dog-fish, gurnet, own, use, he has no objection whatever to supply others it might be said as yet not to posses, namely, 990 fish, of which we caught enough with hooks and lines produce of free or compulsory labour, it is all the same which

are imported in large quantities to be manu- ment of the company, wherever that might be pitched, founder, and joe-fish, all of which are eatable. factured into refined loaves in bonded warehouses. each section to consist of 100 aores of country land, It being Sunday, after the ship was moored and the London is the great seat of this trade. The sugar is and one acre of town land ; 110 similar sections being decks cleared, I dismissed the natives, with a request brought in ships up the Thames, landed on wharfs reserved for the use of native settlers. Thus, the first that they would come early to-morrow with what they and, after being refined by those processes of art which principal settlement was to consist of 1100 sections in had for sale, and went on shore

with the naturalist and

other gentlemen of the expedition. The little beach, I have already described, is again put on board ship, all, or 111,100 acres. Let the reader mark, these with its springs and rivulets, retains, at the distance and sent abroad to any country which will buy it. sections bad as yet no geographioal situation ; the of nearly seventy years, vestiges of Cook's visits, in By this arrangement, fine lump sugar, such as we are whole settlement was as yet, we might say, in the the timber cut down but not used by him, the wild buying here for 1225. per hundredweight, or le per clouds. Nevertheless, within seven weeks from the radishes and cabbages, and the space cleared for his

forge and workshop. 378. or 38s., or something like 4s. or 5s. below what issue of the proposals

, purchasers had come forward

The wood is almost impenetrable on the sides of the we are paying for common treacle !!!

for all the disposable sections, and the company had hills from the web of supplejacks and creepers ; but These things appear so inconsistent with ordinary in its treasury, as the purchase-money, L.99,990. Of for a hundred yards from the beach there is a swampy principles of action, that the mind can hardly be this sum, however, they professed to have a right to Hat, through which run three rivulets of delicious brought to that point of credulity to believe them. only a fourth part

. The remainder, L.74,992, 105.

, water, which, flowing

from the heights, here assume sive dearth of an important article of daily food, was reserved to be employed in carrying out labourers

The soil here and on the hills is very rich, being, in not to speak of other evidence, amply testifies. As to the settlement, according to what we may call the fact, the decayed vegetation of centuries, and in the a question of legislation, we have no wish to intrude Wakefield plan of colonisation, already followed in South Mat producing a thick carpet of weeds and herbage ; either an opinion or observation on the subject. We Australia. It is important to add, that priority in the but even were the land cleared higher up, which would

be a work of time, it is doubtful whether the great a few facts intimately connected with their domestic choice of sections was determined by lot.

acclivity would not prevent cultivation for the purexpenditure and comforts. It has been observed This company has had to contend at its outset with poses of husbandry, though there can be little doubt as a feature in social life, that the state of civilisa- one great difficulty. The British government refused that the vine and Indian corn might be grown up to tion and physical comfort of a people are generally to afford its plan of settlement any countenance, so

the summit.” proportionate to their use of sugar; the condition, that no provision for maintaining order in the new

It was at this time winter in New Zealand; and at least, of most European nations, might be guessed

the thermometer ranged between 40 and 56 in the with tolerable accuracy from this face in statistics. colony could be had, besides what was afforded by a

shade. “The climate," says Wakefield,“ very much Should there be any truth in the remark, we are gentleman who possessed an old commission as a jus- resembles that of the north of Portugal;

the most brought to the melancholy conclusion that the condi- tice of peace in New Zealand, derived from General lovely days bursting out in the middle of winter." tion of the people of this country is suffering a dete- Macquarie, governor of New South Wales. The Cook's Straits, where the Tory now was, lies chiefly Cioration. Although the population increases li per company, nevertheless, proceeded with their scheme, between the 40th and 41st parallels of latitude. mains the same, or, strictly speaking, is falling of. The and the government soon after found it advisable to nicating with the native chiefs ; but it was not so easy mass of the population evidently cannot keep up to send out a Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, to acquire lands,

not owing to any disinclination of the sugar pitch of domestic comfort-they fall back whose proceedings we shall have occasion to notice the natives to sell them at å moderate price, but beupon food less pleasing to the palate, and, we foar, less hereafter.

cause it was difficult to ascertain who were the proper nourishing to the system. While the allowance of sugar is gradually diminishing to the less opulent class

The whole procedure of the company, and of those owners, or the owners who could convey a sound title. of persons in England, it is increasing in a greater dealing with it, forms a singular and striking example British settlements. They have tasted the benefits of ratio in almost every other European country. As is of that confidence between parties which is only to be civilisation sufficiently, to be very anxious for ingencrally known, tho cultivation of the beet-root has I expected in even its simplest forms amidst a commu- creased intercourse with the English, and for this

be more abundant or better than that of the poor man extent make general principles yield to what is locally | into which the vapour rises, and to which an airmaintaining himself in independence by his industry expedient. At the same time, it is not to be over- pump is attached. The steam for heating is conIn England it has been found very difficult to preserve looked that the Irish diet, even where it consists only ducted from a boiler to a vacant space between the this principle; it was almost impossible, in many dig- of two meals, is one of far superior aggregate weight outer and inner shell of the lower part of the pan. tricts, to prescribe a diet less abundant, and of inferior to any other diet which has ever been statistically The vessel is thus kept quite close, and impervious to quality, than that of the majority of the labouring ascertained. The diet of the working people of Bri- the outer air. All things being prepared for boiling, classes, and at the same time sufficient to keep the tain in general is about twenty-four ounces of solids the air-pump, wrought by a steam-engine, begins to inmates of the workhouse, belonging to the same per day, chiefly meal, and only in small part animal work, and draws off the air in the pan, as well as the classes, in health and strength. It is well known to food. Against this, nine pounds of potatoes, watery vapour which arises in the ebullition. By particular all who have accurately inquired into the matter, that as the root is, makes a good appearance. We must arrangements in the process, all that is valuable in the diet ordered or allowed by the poor-law commis- own, indeed, that we are a good deal surprised at the withdrawn vapour is condensed and saved as it sioners for the English workhouses, is in many, not learning the aggregate weight of the Irish peasant's passes out, so that nothing is lost to the manufacto say in most instances, superior in quality, and more daily diet. In weight it is immense, and we suspect turer. Except for the care taken in this respect, the nutritious than the ordinary diet of the poor; a fact that, though unvaried, and attended by little relish loss incurred by pumping off the saccharine vapour attested by the improvement generally observable in or relief, it must be, upon the whole, where there is would be immense. The withdrawal of the atmothe condition of the inmates, within a short period open-air exercise along with it, healthy and sustaining. spheric pressure from the surface of the liquid, allows after their admission into the workhouse.

it to boil at a temperature of about 150 degrees, at Such being the case in England, it must be expected

which the good qualities of the sugar are no way

VISIT TO A SUGAR HOUSE. that the difficulty of regulating the dietary of the

deteriorated. Having boiled the proper length of paupers, so as not to hold out the additional induce- A short time ago curiosity led us to visit an establish- time, the contents of the pan are allowed to escape ment of superior food to those who may be already ment for the refining of sugar, and we were equally by opening a plug beneath, and fall into an open disposed by the prospect of shelter and

clothing, to pleased and surprised to observe the extraordinary im- vessel for their reception on the floor below. The livelihood, will be eren greater

in Ireland. And yet

, provements which in latter times have taken place in called the cooler, because in it the liquid was cooled exactly in proportion to the difficulty of adjusting the that branch of manufacture. What with improved down from 220 to 180 degrees, the latter being the diet according to this principle, is the necessity of modes of clarifying and boiling, the art of sugar refin. temperature at which crystallisation may best be being careful to do so; because, where subsistence is ing has been almost entirely altered in character within effected. In the present day, the cooler has become precarious, scanty, and unwholesome, and, such as it the last twenty or thirty years.

a heater, for with the aid of steam enclosed round its is, not to be obtained without severe exertion, a

sides, it is now used for elevating the temperature of supply of food, even of tolerable quality and in mode

Sugar, as is generally known, arrives from the place the liquid from 150 to 180 degrees. The thick and rate quantity, yet provided regularly and without fail, of its produce in a brown or raw mass, which is a

viscous syrup being now fully prepared, is transferred becomes almost irresistibly attractive to the poor. concretion of the juice of the sugar-cane, divested of from the heater, in copper ladles, to the moulds in Where such is the case, there is great danger of those its molasses or uncrystallisable syrup. This coarse

which it is to cool and become firm. These moulds tests becoming ineffectual, whereby some security is

are of unglazed brown earthenware, and conical in given that none but the actually destitute are relieved: material, on being brought to the establishment of the form. They are of different sizes, according to the and when once pauperism becomes on the whole, and refiner, is in the first place put into a vessel with water, size of the loaf which is required, or from about twelve in the estimation of a large portion of the poorer classes, and subjected to a process of purification; but this to twenty inches in depth. They are supported in rows more eligible than independence, evils which cannot early stage of the manufacture possesses little interest, on the floor, or in a frame with the broad open end upbe contemplated without dread are sure to follow.

and we therefore pass on to the second, which consists permost; in the narrow pointed tip below, there is an It is matter of notoriety that meat is rarely, if erer, in draining the partially cleansed liquid through a bed orifice which is at first closed by a bit of twisted paper, almost universally excluded from the dietaries of public of bone charcoal. The manner in which the draining coarser particles. The inverted cones are now left to institutions, shows that the change in his habits and is performed is not always the same, there being con- cool, the temperature of the air around being gradually circumstances in life that a man undergoes when he stantly improvements and alterations upon it; it may, lowered, to assist and modify the process of crystallisabecomes an inmate of any of them, does not render however, be described as follows. A black granulated tion. At one time it was customary to place layers of almost general rule may be proved by the few a change of diet necessary for his well-being. This substance, bearing an exact resemblance to gunpowder, pipeclay, in a liquid state, on the surface of the cooled

mass in the cones, for the purpose of pressing down the tions that occur. Your assistant commissioner, Mr and made by braying charred bones, is purchased in refuse liquid ; the more improved practice now consists Phelan, whose medical knowledge and professional large quantities by sugar refiners from the manufac- of substituting for the clay certain quantities of refined experience add great weight to his opinion, when dis- turers of the article. As much as perhaps a ton of sugar liquor, which runs through the loaf, and draws cussing this point in a report on dietaries, writes as

this substance is placed in a large chest lined with off the coloured molassy matter by the inferior orifice. tionbread diet, mixed "diet, and vegetable diets lead, and having outlets at the bottom for the escape out the process, is carefully preserved, and forms one Each consists of only two meals. The first, for various of the liquid. Upon the bed of charcoal so prepared, of the varieties of the saccharine product. Being reasons, is in most use : but, from no inconsiderable there is sent a flow of syrup for the purpose of filtra- thoroughly drained, the loaves are taken from the acquaintance with prison discipline, I am satisfied tion, and, strange to say, notwithstanding the blackness cones, and dried or baked in an oven raised to a temthat the third

is the
best—that which would keep the of the powder, the

liquor is found to run from it very perature of from 130 to 140 degrees, by means of and new milk for breakfast, and potatoes and skimmed nearly pure and light in colour. Much of the brown and hence the danger of fire in the old sugar-baking milk for dinner. And again, in another part of the colouring property of the sugar is thus deposited in establishments. After being baked, the loaves may same report, he says, " Whether meat or broth should the charcoal

, which, after a certain length of time, be said to be ready for market, and are individually be allowed in our workhouses is a matter of doubt with requires to be washed away, when the substance is tied up in blue paper, as we see them in the shops of me, as those who are likely to become the inmates but again charred in retorts and again applied to this the grocers. rarely obtain either at their own residences, or at their exceedingly useful process of filtration. The em

Such is a rough sketch of the modern process of own expense, except perhaps about three or four times ployment of charred bones for this object is of com

sugar refining, in which, for the sake of intelligibility,

we have avoided saying any thing of the different tremely well boiled, so that the soup or vegetable paratively modern date, and was the discovery of a

qualities of the article which are prepared. It must porridge prepared with it may be used at dinner in- Frenchman. It has greatly lessened the expense and be understood, however, that the original raw sugar, stead of milk, and that the meat itself will be consi- simplified the process of refining.

in the course of its refinement, produces at least four dered as of less value than such soup or porridge. I The syrup, having now undergone all its prelimi- kinds of material-double refined loaves, usually of have come to this conclusion from having frequently nary purifications, is removed to pans in which it is about ten pounds in weight each ; coarser loaves of found, to my very great annoyance, that more serious to be boiled, that being necessary to cause

it to granu- four or five times that weight, called lumps, which

are affections of the bowels occurred within the twenty- late or orystallise. It is at this point that we see the largely used by confectioners, &c. ; a very coarse four hours after meat and broth had been used in the most remarkable improvement in the art of refining. brown sugar called bastards, which is used only by Clonmel House of Industry, than during the remainder Formerly, the boiling was effected in large open pans the humblest classes ; and, lastly, treacle or molasses. of the week.'

heated beneath by a fire. Neither open pans nor fire The produce of a hundredweight of raw sugar, in Mr Hall having submitted the subject to the consi- are now used. The boiling is effected in closed copper former times, was estimated at about sixty-four pounds deration of the guardians of the South Dublin Union, vessels by means of steam. It may here be men of double and single refined lumps, fourteen pounds of a committee of the body reported in complete agree- tioned, that little or no fire is now einployed in any bastards, twenty-eight of treacle, with six of trash er ment with the views above expressed, and proceeded branch of refining, all the heating that is desirable at deficiency. In consequence of improvements in the to suggest that therefore two meals a-day would be the various stages in the process being now accom- manufacture, but chiefly by the use of the vacuum pans, sufficient for the paupers in the workhouse, namely, plished by steam, conducted in iron tubes from large a greater proportion of refined lumps is now produced a breakfast and dinner. “They advise," says the report, boilers kept constantly in operation. Thus we find from the same quantity of the article, to the benefit “that on two days of the week the dinner should consist heating ressels at all parts of the establishment, and on both of the maker and consumer. An idea of the great of broth made of ox-heads and shins, and other coarse wooden floors, from the garret to the cellar. A steam value of the vacuum pans may be had from the fact, pieces of beef, together with potatoes, to be mashed engine is at the same time kept at work, performing that the inventor, near the expiry of his patent, reaup therein; the allowance for each adult pauper to a variety of offices, including the raising up of huge lised, in all probability, not less than L.40,000 a-year be four pounds of potatoes, weighed before cooking ; casks from the ground to the higher Hoors of the for liberty to use it ; some manufacturers paid L.2000 on the other five days potatoes and buttermilk, the house.

annually for this important privilege. The patent allowance for each adult being four pounds of pota- When it was the practice to boil the syrup in open being expired, any one may now freely use the vacuum toes (weighed raw), and one pint of buttermilk. They pans, the liquid, as a matter of course, was exposed to pans. advise that the breakfast every day should consist of the pressure of the atmosphere, which prevented it The quantity of refined sugar made from any given oatmeal boiled into stirabout, and new milk; the al from arriving at the vaporific or boiling point till it quantity of the raw material, depends not only on these lowance

for each adult pauper being seven ounces of reached a temperature of 220 degrees—a pitch of heat improved processes, but on the original quality of the meal, and half-a-pint, imperial measure, of milk.” which impaired the quality of the sugar, while the sugar employed. In this respect sugars differ very Finally, they advise that food of the same kind, vaporisation carried off a portion of what was really considerably, some being coarse and brown in quality, but in less quantities, with a portion of bread, be pro- valuable. There are few líquid articles of food, those and others more pure and light. I was made very vided for the children; and that the sick and infirm of vegetable product in particular, which are not in- sensible of this, on being conducted into the store of be dieted according to the directions of the medical jured by being boiled at a temperature of 212 degrees, the sugar-house after having seen the various operaofficer."

but, to boil them at a less heat, it would be necessary tive departments of the concern. On a table there lay It thus appears, that, in organising the worklıouse to remove the atmospheric pressure from their sur- spread out a number of samples of raw

sugar ready system in Ireland, the same anxiety has been felt as face, and this would be attended with a considerable for the inspection of customers; and having obser red in England to keep the diet on a level with that degree of trouble and expense to the operator. The that these were generally of a coarse appearance, the usually enjoyed by the independent labourer out of magnitude of the scale on which sugar is prepared, manufactncer took from a drawer a small packet condoors. To the feelings of people living in this country, has permitted this to be effectually done. The syrup taining a quantity of sugar of a muci finer quality. tho two meals and no supper allowed to the Irish is poured through a pipe into a jan made of copper, « This," I remarked, “ will of course be a much dearer pauper, is no pleasant subject of reflection; but no which is a Cattened sphere in form, measuring six sugar.“ “ No such thing," he answered, “ that sugar one can dispute th to mak, the diet superior within feet in diameter, and froin four to five feet deep at is much cheaper, but we cannot offer it for sale." to what it is without doors, would be deeply injurious. the iniddle. On the top of this flattened round vessel "For what reason !" I inquired. “Because that fine Hero, as in many other cases, one must to a certain thero is a raised part, resembling a kettle with a lid, sample is sugar from Brazil

, and it is not allowed to

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