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good priest I recounted the history of my confinement. conceived so valuable, that a patent was taken out for

ODDS AND ENDS. The result was, that he advised me to publish my it in 1811 by Mr Blenkinsop. It consisted, as the

COLLECTED FROM VARIOUS SOURCES. prison experiences. The idea startled me at first. writer well remembers, of a rack placed on the outer Political passions seemed to me yet too ardent in Italy side of the rail, into which a toothed wheel worked,

CHANCE DEFINITIONS. and all over Europe, for such a publication. My inten- and thus secured the progressive motion of the cartions will be misinterpreted,' said I ;'enemies will deny riage. It was, however, wholly useless-it was an

Looks—The first billet-doux of love. Happiness my statements, though I speak the exact truth; and my impediment: the simple adhesion of the wheels with a fugitive and chimerical being, which every body runs repose will be destroyed. There are two kinds of the surface of the rails upon which they are moved after, but no one catches. Sensibility-A gift of heaven, repose,' answered the good father; the repose of the being by an immutable law amply sufficient to secure the to multiply the pleasures and pains of life. Wisdom brave man, and that of the pusillanimous. The last is advance, not only of a heavy carriage, but of an enor- A shield that preserves its possessor from the perils unworthy of you. In this book which I counsel you to mous load dragged after it.— Wade's British History.

with which his desires surround him. Society-A state write, you will exhibit the noble support derivable in

of constant slavery, in which no one lives for himself adversity from a holy trust in God, a good conscience,

THE BATTLE OF MORGARTEN.

or to himself. Absence–The sister of death. Loveand a right cause. Think of it well. If you have been

“In the year 1315, a rural tribe, of certain valleys begirt with An egotism, divided by two. Military Glory-Smoke permitted to earn a little reputation in literature, it is, high mountains, called Schwitz, revolted from its allegiance, and on ruins. Indifference-Absence of all sentiment, or doubtless, that you may be encouraged to compose a

withheld the tribute and service due to Duke Leopold of Austria, the feeling of the worthless. Music-An universal work which will benefit your fellow-men. Avoid the who, being much angered, collected an army of 20,000 men. language, which harmoniously relates the reminiscences sloth of pusillanimity. The good abbé's language made vouring to pass into their country, was much hindered by the

of the heart. Honour_The soul's patrimony. Beauty me reflect on the subject. I spoke of it to my mother, height and steepness of the mountain. For the knights on horse

-A flower without smell when no quality of the heart who was not learned, but of sound judgment. I see back, boiling with desire of action, and crowding into the first accompanies it. danger in it,' said she, “and tremble. But pray, my son ranks, entirely prevented the infantry from ascending. But the

HUMAN WEAKNESS. -pray that your mind may be directed into the right by the difficulty of the way, went down against them from their All men fear, dislike, and grieve; all men desire, course. Shortly afterwards, we spoke on the subject lurking-places, and, attacking them like fish in a net, slew them hope, and rejoice ; though, of course, different men feel again. "I believe that the work will have its utility, and without resistance."-Vitodurani Chronicon. that it should be written.' "To the work, then, my

those passions unequally. All men, however, are not

THE EVENING BEFORE THE BATTLE. son,' was the reply:

susceptible of love, of hatred, of envy, or of despair.

Why are those watchfires gleaming bright, I wrote with a pleased activity the first chapters of

The strongest men, too, have their various weaknesses. Morgarten, on thy beacon height?

Johnson united moral credulity to mental vigour, and my Imprisonment, and took an opportunity, one day, And why are lights 'mid the evening gloom, of reading them to an old friend, on whose judgment I Flitting like spirits from tomb to tomb ?

he dishonoured his strength by arguing for victory placed some value. He was alarmed for me, and coun

Why through the calm of each Alpine dell

rather than for truth.

Do the warlike notes of the trumpet swell? selled me to suppress the work for some ten or fifteen And why is the scared flocks' mournful bleat

READING IN CHILDHOOD. years, till all parties were in a state of quietude. So

Drown'd in the trample of hurrying feet?

Reading without intelligence injures the brain and many friends were of the same opinion, that even

Why doth the war-whoop, wild and shrill, when the manuscript was completed, I would probably

Re-echo from the snow-clad hill,

stomach mechanically; reading with intelligence injures have allowed it to lie by for some years, but for my

And the sentry pace his lonely round,

both in the less direct manner of nervous excitement; O'er thine ancient hallow'd battle-ground?

but either way, much reading and robust health are mother. Obey your conscience, my son,' said she ; The morn shall tell. That morning came,

incompatible. Only let a child eager for knowledge be act according to your sense of right, and fear no- Usher'd by smoke-wreath and by flame!

read to instead of allowing him to read himself, and the thing.'

THE BATTLE.

whole of the mechanical mischief is avoided ; and again, The work was published, and, during the two follow

let him be freely conversed with in a desultory manner,

The dawning sunlight beams ing weeks, many regarded me as guilty of an act of

O'er Morgarten's hills of snow!

in the midst of active engagements and out of doors; crime, or of great folly. Some said that I had pub

'Tis reflected back by a thousand streams;

and then, while an equal amount of information is conlished a book disgraceful to our age of enlightenment,

But brighter yet in lurid gleams

veyed, and in a form more readily assimilated by the and that my reputation was gone; others wrote to me,

From the valley stretch'd below.

mind, nearly all the mischiefs of excitement, as springto say, that every tragedy of mine, which might thence

On the mountain's hoary brow,

ing from study, are also avoided. In a word, let books forth be represented, would be unmercifully hissed by

By the tombs of their fathers dead, the partisans of philosophy. Many who knew me turned

How many a Switzer's holy vow

in the hands, except as playthings, be as much as posHath bound him to shed his life's blood now,

sible held back during the early period of education.away their heads on meeting me, to avoid speaking. All

Where his sainted sires have bled !

Home Education. this was on account of the homage rendered to religion

PEACE. in the work. These clamours, however, soon fell to the

Fiercely the Austrian foe

Rolls, like the coming tideground, and a great number of my adversaries, seeing

Peace is the natural effect of trade. Two nations

As deep, as surely, and as slow, my book generally well received, confined themselves to

His myriads o'er the plains below,

who traffic with each other become reciprocally depenthe task of warring on me in secret, and endeavouring

And up the mountain side.

dent; for if one has an interest in buying, the other has to undermine me in the estimation of men who honoured

But mark, upon the steep

an interest in selling; and thus their union is founded me with their friendship. But the work was reprinted

Of Morgarten's loftiest height,

on their mutual necessities.—Montesquieu. abroad. Men pardoned the extreme simplicity of the

A dusky spot is seen to sweep
(Like darksome dreams o'er the soul of sleep)

WILL YOU TAKE A PINCHI style, on account of the incontestible character of vera

On its snowy breast of white. city stamped upon every page. I received many flat

“Will you take a pinch ?" said an acquaintance, tering letters on account of it from compatriots and

It stays its meteor course

offering his snuff-box to a fishmonger. “No, I thank

O'er the Austrian tyrant's path ; strangers.

you,” replied the latter, “I have just had one from a And a distant murmur, deep and hoarse,

lobster." My good abbé rejoiced as much as I in the success

Tells to the foul invading force of the work which he had suggested. You ought, Helvetia's gathering wrath.

BREVITY AND WIT. said he, moreover, to profit by the favour you have

Deep in Morgarten's snow

It is said that short dumpy people are more humogained with the public, to give them a little treatise on

The heavy horsemen sank;

rous than long lank folks, on the ground that brevity is morals. Write a discourse to youth. Animate them

And many a gallant steed lay low,

the soul of wit. to noble sentiments; I promise you that it will be read.'

And, struggling in his dying throe,
Broke the disorder'd rank.

AN ILLUSTRATION BY WAY OF DEFINITION. Again I referred the suggestion to my mother, and saw

'Twas then that from the height that she approved of it. Her only caution was, “This

“ Pray, what is nonsense ?" asked a wight, who talked

That dark spot burst in flamebook should breathe nothing but benevolence; avoid

little else. “Nonsense?" replied lais friend ;“why, sir,

Like thunderbolt across the night, the tone of satire which moralists are too apt to catch.'

As swift, as deadly, and as bright,

it's nonsense to bolt a door with a boiled carrot !" My Discourse upon the Duties of Man' originated in Morgarten's heroes came!

CLEVER SCHOLARS. this manner, and had the same success with my narra

On through the van they dash

“ The boy at the head of the class will state wbat were tive. Some journals abused it, but as usual, I kept a

The pierced battalions reel! profound silence. Was this patience ? No, I cannot

Then, rapid as a lightning flash,

the dark ages of the world.” Boy hesitates. “ Next 'Mid trumpet clang and weapon clash,

-Master Smith, can't you tell what the dark ages say it was; but all explanation or remonstrance would

Upon the flanks they wheel have been fruitless with men determined to make me

were?" "I guess they were the ages just before the Vain though the battle-cry

invention of spectacles.' out a wicked man.

“ Go to your seats." Rung high among the foeAfter having composed twelve tragedies, of which I Though many a steel was glancing high,

THE POOR MAN. have only published eight, I have ceased to write for

And the flower of Switzer chivalry

When a poor man attempts to rise-attempts to show the stage, not feeling myself possessed of a rich enough

Lay stretch'd upon the snow !

that there is no monopoly of genius, and that God hath mental fund for the delineation of character. In my

For far upon the plain

given as free and noble a soul to the lowly as to the youth, I had fondly hoped to place my name beside that

A dust-cloud marks the way

great-he is not only opposed by the class above him, of Alfieri; but I have awakened from that illusion, in

Of the coward hearts, whose blood should stain
The snow, where, trophies grim, remain

but envy and scorn are but too often his portion among spite of the applause I have gained. I occupy myself

Their dead lord and his warrior train

his fellows. They do not like to see themselves outstill with writing verses, but chiefly odes or elegies, to

Of that disastrous day.

stripped by one whom they have reckoned no better express my devotional feelings. I have also laboured

Yet the shout of victory

than themselves, and instead of encouraging, they damp for some time upon two historical tales, but have, in

Rings feebly o'er the hill,

his ardour, and grieve his heart with sneers, and cold, both cases, felt my ardour cooled, on beholding the in

For the patriot hearts which that morn beat high, because envious, counsel. The next class above him finite distance at which I was left by pre-existing works

For vengeance and for liberty, of this nature.

Chill'd in the strife of that dreadful day,

love not to see a man who has nought to boast of but a Upon the heath lie still!

noble soul, no treasures save those of mind, presuming In short, I write much, but it is more for my own

to take his place among them, and there is one universal satisfaction, than in the confidence of producing any

THE NIGHT AFTER THE BATTLE.

shout of " keep him down !” This upward struggle thing of value. At last I take up my pen, and, not There is a mourning o'er Morgarten's waters,

which the poverty-struck. genius has to endure the knowing what to do with it, begin to a History of my There is a wailing in her wilder'd dells ;

struggle against prejudice, and misrepresentation, and own Life.”

And many a maiden of Helvetia's daughters

want, has daunted many a mind, and discouraged many Her tale of anguish to the wild wind tells.

a breast, and has kept many a man formed to be a light MISCONCEPTION ON RAILWAYS. A stranger ear, amid those sounds of sadness

to the world in poverty and darkness to the end of his It is a singular fact in the early history of locomotive Which came upon the night wind heavily, carriages, that their projectors assumed the existence

In vain had listen'd for the notes of gladness

days. Because of this, many a noble spirit has concealed of a difficulty which is now known to be wholly ima

The triumphing which tells of victory.

its own flame of brightness ; many noble and free men, ginary; and resorted to sundry laborious contrivances

of whom the world was not worthy, have gone down

Nought is heard save the death-song, sad replying for overcoming an obstacle that had no existence, and

To the wind's moanings o'er that midnight wild,

into the grave, with all the wisdom of their souls untold which Nature herself, had she been asked, would have

Where many a maiden watch'd a loved one dying,

“ have

died, and made no sign." accomplished for them. They assumed that the adhe

Or mother sorrow'd o'er her bleeding child. sion of the smooth wheels of the carriage upon the

Oh, war! when holiest, oh, infernal still !

LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by W.s. equally smooth iron rail must necessarily be so slight,

Is this the ending of that death-won day,

Orr, Paternoster Row; and sold by all booksellers and newsthat, if it should be attempted to drag any considerable

To give a freedom to the lonely hill,

men.-Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars.

But snatch the souls which should be free away? weight, the wheels might indeed be driven round, but

Complete sets of the Journal are always to be had from the that the carriage would fail to advance because of the

Too true, alas! Morgarten's wilds may tell

publishers or their agents ; also, any odd numbers to complete continued slipping of the wheels. The remedies devised

How many a hero sleeps beneath her snows;

sets. Persons requiring their volumes bound along with title for this fancied counteraction were various. One was

For memory fails to mark the lonely dell

pages and contents, have only to give them into the hands of any Which gives the victors of that day repose.

bookseller, with orders to that effoct.

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66

DINBURG/

JOURNA

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF “ CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,”

“ CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,” &c.

Number 454.

SATURDAY, OCTOBER 10, 1840.

Price THREE Halfpence.

THE POCO.

everything greatly overpraised. Loch Lomond is no any of these people to get the least into vogue, they ALL who have read Voltaire's “ Candide” mast lare thing to the Lake of Geneva. The vale of Glencroe, would of course be instantly given up by our Poco. a lively recollection of a certain Monsieur Pococuso rugged and sublime, appears to him dull and sombre. The Poco is as peculiar in his line of politics as in

anything else. No contingency or crisis of public rante, who turns away with contempt and disgust He would have liked to see the mountain sides enfrom every thing that is presented or proposed to livened, as in Switzerland, with cottages and patches affairs ever strikes him in the same way it does other him ; whereupon the hero of the story makes the

of cultivated ground--provoking you to add in de- people. He is of no party, for that would be acknowremark, “What a great man that Monsieur Poco-spair, “and lighted with gas ;" but the Poco does not ledging somebody else to be as right as himself. Malcurante must be—nothing pleases him!” The French | understand a joke, so this passes for unsaid. His content as he is generally, he will not even join his philosopher here touches the root of a very remarkable main trick is to depreciate by comparison. You hint fellow-creatures in a discontent ; no, when there is a feature of human character. The number of those

a little approbation of Ben Lomond, which you insi- general discontent, our Poco is then malcontent with who, from an irregular self-esteem, are malcontent

nuate is nearly four thousand feet high. “Oh, my the discontented. When a large section of the comwith almost every thing, is very great. We propose

dear sir, what is Ben Lomond, or any other of your munity concentrates its attention upon some grievthat they should be called pococurantes, or, for short- Scotch hills, to Mont Blanc ? Think of fifteen thou- ance, which it endeavours to have redressed, our

Poco ness, pocos, though, we believe, the word has a more

sand feet of height, and a top of perpetual snow !" is sure to discover that the real thing which galls extensive meaning amongst the people to whose lan

When you speak in like manner of the Clyde—“Oh, them is something quite different-probably someguage it belongs.*

my dear sir, what are any of your Scotch rivers to | thing of so trivial a nature that no one besides himself The Poco is remarkable for his comments on new

the Thames or Severn ?" Were our Poco a Swiss, and ever thought of it ; like the old soldier in Scott's tale public buildings. He has but one principle-never to treated with some praise of Mont Blanc, it is ten to discovering the cause of Claverhouse's defeat at Drumadmire. Is the building a Gothic church, then it

one he would cite the Himaleh range. Were the clog, in “ that newfangled way of slinging their cararesembles a big German toy. Is it a pillar, then it is Thames or the Severn spoken of praisingly in his pre-bines.” Ministries of all kinds are alike to our hero. like a great candlestick or churn. Is it a Grecian sence, he would, in like manner, fly to the Danube. | They are always mere nincompoops. When a warchurch with a dome in the St Paul's style

, then it were he German, again, and heard the Danube ap- like policy is pursued, he apprehends the nation must is like a vast pepper-caster. There is not any one

proved of, he would not be content till he had told soon sink under the necessary additional taxes ; when building, however large in its scale or elegant in its you what a trifle it is to the Amazon. And so on. the cabinet, like Lucius, have to confess that their parts, but he has some diminutive and ridiculous object What he would do were he asked to admire the thoughts are turned on peace, then the nation is nowof a familiar domestic kind, whereunto to liken it, so as Himaleh range or the Amazon, or any other greatest a-days allowed to be kicked about by every third-rate to make it appear mean. He is also great in showing known thing of its kind, the powers above can only power-very different from the times of yore, when the inappropriateness of buildings to their objects and know; we do not. We fear such a case would dis the British lion never allowed a single hair of his tail sites, as, for instance, “How absurd to have built that tress the Poco a good deal.

to be plucked with impunity. He is always found Corinthian monument to Burns—the most Doric of

The Poco's taste in literature is very sublime. He engrossed by considerations of departments of stato all poets !” or, “ How ridiculous to set up an obelisk | condemns the whole taste of the age, leaving it of policy, which everybody else at the time supposes to be in that dense part of the town, where, to a stranger

course to be surmised that he could himself produce, in good enough order; for instance, while all manapproaching, it will look like a factory chimney!"

or at least can imagine, far better novels, plays, poems, kind are absorbed in the question, we shall say, of free One thing may be observed ; he is not very consistent. philosophical writings, and so forth, than any at pre- trade, our Poco is altogether occupied in considering If it is intended to place a building low, he predicts sent in vogue. Periodical literature being fashionable, the finances. “ If the finances are kept right, sir, all its effect will be lost : if, next year, another is com- he finds that men fritter away their genius in small will be right. Britain stands or falls by the finances. menced on a hill, then its effect will be to spoil the efforts ; though, of course, were it otherwise, he would No ministry ever yet throve which meddled with the hill. On a moment's reflection, we must withdraw ridicule their large and solid works, and point out that finances. That was Necker's great fault in the French the last charge against him, for in both of these re a light essay, or even a song or a ballad, had often Revolution.” In short, he is for the finances, and marks he is quite consistent with himself—in his dore more to enlighten and reform than folios of nothing but the finances ; you could not pass him in character as a Poco.

twenty years' elaboration. The productions of the conversation with a gentleman on the street, but, in the On the occurrence of any city spectacle or exhibi- day being most run upon, he furiously bewails that moment of transit, you would hear of the finances. tion, which all the people go to, expecting to have the excellent writers of the last century, the Popes, There is a possible exception to the rule that the Poco some pleasure in it, our Poco's bile is sure to be stirred. Swifts, Johnsons, &c., are now neglected ; though is of no party. Whenever any faction gets vorn down It is curious, too-he always goes like the rest. But, here, also, were the case the reverse, he would be sure to something very small, so as to cease to be of the least to appearance, it is only to find fault. Let us suppose

to rail at the miserable unattractiveness of all existing account with the nation at large, then our Poco perit is a procession-say the queen going in state to open

authors. The clever novelist being now the crack | haps allows himself to join with it. But he is a parliament. In such a case, he by no means likes the man, he asks, “ But where are your philosophical bad partisan, being as likely to throw blame upon colour of the horses in the royal carriage : George writers ? Scott and Bulwer are very good as story. his own people as upon any other. At all their deIV's horses were a great deal better. Then the so

tellers ; but we have now no Adam Smiths.” Of feats, however clearly these may be owing simply to vereign of England was considered entitled to hate course, were it otherwise, he would be all grumble for the overwhelming force of the opposing majority, he a stud. As for the procession, he has seen a far better the want of graceful fiction. When Boz was compara- is sure to turn round upon them, and find the source in Blue Beard or Aladdin. A boy rogue splashes his tively obscure, our Poco was delighted with him. of their discomfiture in some little peculiarity or gaiters, and he exclaims there is no police, though

“ There,” he cried, “there is an original writer at point in their conduct, which has no more to do they actually form a large and conspicuous portion of last!" But since everybody began to admire Boz, with it than the last change of the moon. He so the crowd. You drop with him into the National his tone is quite changed. He speaks of “that prac- dearly loves to give blame and find fault, that noGallery; but he has long done with pictures. There tice of selecting characters from the lowest scenes of thing, however intimately associated with him, can is no genuine art now-a-days

. All fash, and Hare, life, and the effect which it must have in taking be free from the exercise of his ingenuity in that way. and daub. In the evening, you conduct him to the down the public taste ;” and shows that, after all, he were the very wife of his bosom to fall and break opera. It is one of the best nights of the season, is a writer who sees only the minutiæ of external ap- her leg, he would find it to be her own blame, from and a crowded house. But never was heard such pearance, all the fine workings within escaping him. wearing that large bonnet. singing, or seen such dancing. Besides, there is some Of course, if we could suppose Mr Dickens to have An affair like the meeting of the British Association thing confoundedly shabby in that plan of giving backs written his many clever books without public appro- gives great scope for his peculiar passion. It is well to only one-half of the seats. And then the whole bation, our Poco would have been quite indignant at known that the meetings of this body have at every affair is a humbug—a parcel of rascally foreigners the age for allowing se bright a genius to languish in place occasioned a general feeling of satisfaction both come to pick our pockets.

obscurity. His favourite authors, it may be readily to the gavans and the people whom they visited. It is the same with natural objects of the kind supposed, are not the same with other men's favourite These assemblages have been in fact signalised by an which most are glad to go a good way to see. He authors. Those whom he patronises are chiefly per- overflow of kind and agreeable feeling wherever they makes a tour of the Scottish Highlands, but finds secated out-of-the-way writers — persons who were have yet taken place. This is enough to make them

perhaps killed twenty or thirty years ago by single objects of particular disgust to our Poco. Would he * Pococurante (Italian), literally a little carer, signifies one who is very careless in his general demeanour, as well as ono

articles in quarterly reviews, and have never been be pleased with what pleases so many? No: that who cares little for his fellow.creatures, and for what others are

heard of by the bulk of the world since; or indivi- | would be to reduce him to the common herd at once. accustomed to respect.

duals who have never had any but a local fame. Were He therefore takes every opportunity of railing at

1

these meetings as n ere vanity fairs. No science be put down by arguments like the above. No; ridi- | off M. d'Aubray and his whole family, the father, worthy of the name is brought into notice by them. cule must be brought to bear upon it. It is for this brothers, and sister of the marchioness. The horrible Solemn grimace in the forenoon, and eating and drink- reason that we have here applied to it a burlesque aspect of such a crime daunted not these two beings,

rare in their wickedness, and worthy associates for one ing in the

evening—that is the whole order of the appellation, being of opinion that there may be much another. The object of the scheme, of course, was to day. How finely the natives are done by these quacks force in a name, and that the Poco, of all men, will be put the marchionese in possession of all the property of -for, long since, of course, all the real men of science least able to stand out if he finds himself under a her family; and Saint-Croix, imagining himself secure withdrew from the affair in disgust. And a great stigma which raises the general laugh against him. of her affections, did not doubt but that he would be deal more to the like purpose, all intended to show It is to be hoped that many will be cured by this master of all which owned her as mistress.

The first measures taken by Madame de Brirvilliers that people, instead of allowing themselves to be happy paper ; but, of course, more will not, and Pocoism towards the execution of her design, are perhaps more at these meetings, ought to stand sulkily aloof, as he will continue to exist till the extinction of all other frightful to think of than any other part of her conduct. does—though, were the example to be followed, and human passions. Nevertheless, much good might, we With an inconceivable degree of coolness, this woman, the British Association really to-fall off in public think, be done by keeping alive the term in applica- young, well-educated, and seemingly of mild and gentle esteem, he would for certain be the very man to stand tion to the fault, a very slight reference being needed temperament, deliberately set about the trial of her up and rail at the world for its coldness towards the after the thing has once been described

and put under to the use of them upon her own family. She introduced cause of science, and the little regard it pays, and has an easily recognisable appellation. We would there- poison into biscuits, and gave them to poor persons, sver paid, to the men whose patient inquiries and ex- fore suggest, that, in all cases where a regard to good- watching the effects they produced. Her experience periments form the chief foundation of the nation's breeding will allow of it, the simple word “poco” be in this way did not seem to her ample enough, however, glory and happiness.

gently breathed whenever any one is found guilty of and, according to a custom not uncommon among beneIt is important to observe, that much of what the the offence. Let the sound proceed, as it were casually, the Hotel-Dieu, to administer in person her drugs, on Poco says is only a profession of the moment, not the from the throat, and the offender will feel the check, a large scale. Though this fact afterwards came to expression of a deeply-grounded feeling or opinion. without being under the necessity of resenting it. light, the

extent of the mischief done by her could not *For any man to be really affected by all the disgusts For still greater delicacy, one might hum the air, be decisively ascertained. Anxious apparently to withe seems to feel, would be a sad fate indeed, for then

“ Una voce poco fa,” or finger it over on an adjacent ness still more fully the course of action of the poison, literally nothing would please him, and his ordinary piano, thus suggesting the idea by a nice process of the marchioness also administered a dose to her waitsensations would be of the most painful kind. To do association. The two first bars of the air, which any sequence, but ultimately recovered. Whilst working the Poco justice, ' he is a great pretender. In his one might learn in as many minutes, would be quite so much among these fatal drugs, the marchioness, by

mistake, allowed a whole company to partake of a privacy, he reads the proceedings of the British Asso-sufficient for the purpose.

pigeon-pie, into which she had introduced her poisons. ciation with much the same feelings as other people.

& Several of them died,” Madame Sevigné tells us; All the time he is exclaiming that the country is MADAME DE BRINVILLIERS. " and the Chevalier du Guet, one of the party, lived on ruined through the incapacity of its statesmen, he is

STORY FROM THE CAUSES CELEBRES.

in agony for two or three years.” The poison being buying largely in the three per cents. 'He may appear

slow of operation, no suspicion was aroused in these to have only two or three favourite authors, and those and wealthy gentleman, who held the rank of civilMADEMOISELLE D'AUBRAY, daughter of a respectable cases.

Having satisfied herself, in this fearful manner, of of the obscurest class, but in reality he has a well-filled lieutenant in France, was married, in the year 1651, the kind and quantity of poison suited for her purpose, library, and indulges in a wide range of miscellaneous to the Marquis de Brinvilliers, a man of rank and Madame de Brinvilliers committed the first of her reading. As to the scenery of his native country, we fortune. She brought to him a dowry of two hundred previously purposed crimes. Her father went to his may leave our readers to judge if he can really be thousand res, and he enjoyed an annual income of country-seat at Ossement, attended at his request by thought to undervalue it, when he never allows*an vided with the means of enjoying, not only the neces- intended for him, and he took it. Violent vomitings

thirty thousand livres. The pair were thus ainply pro- this unprincipled daughter. She put poison into a broth autumn to pass without making a tour of the Cam- saries and comforts, but also the luxuries of life ; and and the severest pains were the consequence, and the berland or Scotch lakes, or of Wales, or some other every thing seemed to promise to them a long career marchioness looked on calmly, or at least with such a romantic district-ay, and takes his wife and daugh- of wedded happiness. The marchioness was remark- demeanour as prevented any shade of suspicion from ters along with him. We would advise you, also, not able for the sprightliness of her mind and the graces lighting on her. Her father lived long enough to be to be too easily led away by what he says of the opera, and her features regular

and beautiful; while the

milding there, the daughter having several times repeated or of the street sights, for he goes to the one at least ness of her manners, and the tranquillity that sat on her the dose. The two sons were next attacked, as standonce a-week, and never misses a spectacle which other brow, gave indications of a spirit unrúmed by any of ing between the marchionese and the inheritance of the people think worth seeing. Such being his habits the stormier passions of humanity. But, as the beauti- family. The mind which had calmly compassed the on these points, we may well conclude that most of ful description of the castle of Glamis, in Macbeth, with crime of parricide, had no scruple in meditating fratrithe new public buildings give our Poco as much

satis- the allusion to the quiet sweetness of the air, and the cide. One of the brothers had succeeded his father as

peaceful labours of the “temple-haunting martlet” | lieutenant-civil, and the other was a counsellor of parfaction as they give to other citizens, though, as already under the

caves, gives a more startling effect to the liament. Madame de Brinvilliers was upon friendly mentioned, he never allows himself to say one word in bloody horrors acted immediately thereafter within the terms with both of them, and she took advantage of this their praise. Here, indeed, is the hinge of the Poco's walls, so did the opening promise of this woman's life to introduce into the service of the counsellor, who lived character. To praise is what he dreads, for that, he contrast, in a fearfully vivid manner, with the after with his brother, a lacquey named La Chaussée, once thinks, takes him down. Barring that, as our Irish scenes in which she bore a part, and, indeed, in which a servant of Saint-Croix, and a fit agent for

the comshe was the principal actor.

pletion of the murderous design. The fact, however, friends say, he is much like other people in all sorts of

The Marquis de Brinvilliers was a colonel of cavalry of his having served Saint-Croix was concealed. La respects.

in the regiment of Normandy, and had seen actual ser. Chaussée, for a high bribe, undertook to poison the The pride which forbids praise where it is due, is, vice in the wars. While so engaged, he had become brothers, and, soon after entering their household, he however, a good deal to except. To speak seriously or rather one who had assumed that name, being an by the eldest. But as soon as the latter had put

it to of it, it forms, we humbly think, by no means an illegitimate member of a noble French family. The his lips, he detected something unusual in the taste, and amiable or estimable feature in a human being. To marquis, subsequently to his marriage, met Saint-Croix, exclaimed, “ Rascal; what have you given me! Would admire what is worthy of admiration, to express satis- and renewed acquaintanceship with him. The captain you have me poisoned ?” This was said, however, withfaction where the best efforts have been made to house of the marquis and marchioness, and hence flows merely referred to want of cleanliness and care on the

was soon received as a domesticated visitant in the out any idea that poison was really in the glass, and secure it, is nothing more than justice, and it is what the unhappy tale that is to be told. M. de Brinvilliers part of the servant. La Chaussée excused himself, by one man owes to another, the same as mutual for- was a dissipated man, and much abroad, by which means saying that some dregs of medicine had accidentally bearance from injury. In failing on these points, a his wife was left in the dangerous society of Saint-Croix, been in the glass, and had given it the taste comgreat law is violated, and society must to some cer

and formed a strong and criminal attachment to him. plained of.

He was one but too ready to encourage and profit by tain, though perhaps an inappreciable extent, be the such an aberration from rectitude, and, urged

by him, less anticipating it from a sister's hands, the lieutenant

Still unsuspicious of any evil intended to them, far worse for it. If the duty be done within moderation, the marchioness took advantage of her husband's con- and counsellor kept La Chaussée in their service; and and with a simple regard to justice, no one can be duct to sue for a separate maintenance, which she ob- he was not long in making a new attempt, being urged presumed to be degraded it. Indee no one who tained. After this period, the connexion between her to it by his impatient and unscrupulous employers. was not under the influence of an excessive or morbid and Saint-Croix grew closer, so much so as to attract In April 1670, the brothers went to the country, and, self-esteem, could presume himself to be in the least of the circumstances, and perceiving the marquis to set banquet. A sweetbread pie was among the dishes,

general notice. Her father M. d'Aubray, became aware while there, partook with some other gentlemen of a danger on this score. It is also worthy of observation, be seemingly indifferent on the subject, thought that and the brothers, with one of their companions, ate that Pocoism cannot be favourable to truth. We are he would best consult his daughter's good by getting freely of it. The three were immediately seized with so constituted, that it is not possible to affect perma. Saint-Croix imprisoned. A lettre-de-cachet, or order vomiting, and suffered most severe pain, while those nently and habitually any feeling or mode of thinking, for arrest, was a thing too easily procured in those days who had not ate of the dish felt no disorder. The unwithout becoming in some degree actually influenced the young captain of horse was taken from the carriage struggled long

against the injury inflicted on it, but the in France, by any one who had interest at court; and happy brothers were of strong constitutions, and nature by it. In as far, then, as any one affects to see things of the marchioness and thrown into the Bastille. issue of that poisoning was fatal to both. The lieuin a very peculiar light, or to esteem them differently This step had a most unfortunate and unforeseen tenant languished in torment up to the 17th of June, from others, he is very apt to be really guilty, in some issue. While in confinement, Saint-Croix became ac- and then died. The counsellor survived the poisoning measure, of misjudging them. The very necessity of quainted with an Italian

named Exili, a man who fol three months, and followed his brother to the tomb. appearing consistent will force him often to act to. sively studied in that age, and turned largely

to profit and, in both cases, a portion of the stomach and intes

lowed the mystery of compounding poisons, one exten- An examination was made, respectively, of the bodies, wards such things in the way he speaks of them, and and account. Exili initiated his fellow-captive into the tines was found in an ulcerated and blackened state. thus serious error may be induced. Besides, the mere secrets of the art, and, when both of them were libe- The physicians did not hesitate to declare that the speaking of things in a particular false way, is likely rated, at the end of a year, the diabolical instructions brothers had been poisoned, but suspicion never pointed to mislead many who, not having the power of judging adept as his teacher. On his release, Saint-Croix had was generally looked upon as the cause. So well bad

were continued, until the pupil became as great an to the true source, and indeed some unhappy accident for themselves, are ready to view every thing as they not failed to renew his intercourse with

the marchio- La Chaussée played his part, that the counsellor, totally find others viewing it: to such persons the affected ness, but with so much circumspection, that even the unsuspicious of the man to the last, had left him a small disdain of the Poco must appear as sound as the sober father was deceived, and kept up a friendly footing with legacy. judgment of the impartial man, and his folly will lead his daughter. When they met in private, Saint-Croix "Three victims were thus removed. There were yet to error accordingly.

communicated to the marchioness the secrets taught two other persons, however, who stood between the While, in every point of view, we think Pocoism is Animated by cupidity and a desire of vengeance, this of their full desires, namely, Mademoiselle d’Aubray

him by Exili, and his lessons were not thrown away. wretched authors of these crimes and the attainment to be condemned, we are well aware that it is not to wretched and guilty pair concerted a scheme of cutting and the Marquis de Brinvilliers. On the life of the

latter, the marchioness, eager to remove all obstacles public penance; after which she was put into a cart, has been a great relief to the owners of unproductive from the way of her union with her paramour, con- and carried to execution between a priest and the properties. They were bound to give the prescribed trived to make several attempts ; but, if we may be executioner. She asked the priest by the way to place allowances to their slaves, without reference to their lieve Madame de Sevigne, who was a contemporary, and the executioner before her, that she might not see own profits. To illustrate this position, I can point living on the spot at the moment, Saint-Croix himself Desgrais, the knave (as she called him) who had seized out a property on which were settled 100 slaves. The took steps to prevent the marchioneas from succeeding her at Liege. The priest rebuked the sentiment. 'Ah, lowest estimate of expenditure on their account is . in this portion of her designs, being averse to a formal well, forgive me,' said she,' and let the disagreeable L.500 a-year, and the possession, notwithstanding the union with a person so dangerous as his associate in sight remain.' She mounted the scaffold unaided, and high price of produce, has of late years regularly in. guilt. But the Marquis de Brinvilliers tasted enough died with courage."

creased the owner's debt. Since 1st August to 31st of the fatal drugs to injure his health deeply. As for Such was the end of this marvel of crime, who was December, the labour account has amounted to L.99, Mademoiselle d'Aubray, whether put on her guard by but twenty-five years of age when she was stopped in 43. 2d. The usual cultivation has been carried on the acknowledged end of her brothers, or from natural her career. It would be charitable to suppose a tinge and improved; the pastures, hitherto neglected, are cautiousness, she did not fall

beneath the deadly at- of insanity to have been at the foundation of her mon- cleaned'; and about thirty acres of coffee, which had tempts of her younger sister, though these were often strous conduct; but truth compels us to say that no grown up to the state best described by ruinate, repeated.

good grounds appear for sustaining that lenient view. have been opened. The produce, small as it is, now It is difficult to say how many crimes these wretches | The erroneous and most reprehensible practice which secured, will pay all the expenses of the plantation, would yet have committed, had not a strange and strik- priests pursue, of exaggerating the natural remorse of and, even in this first year of experiment, place the ing circumstance. suddenly arrested them in the mid the vilest criminals into a holy and saving penitence, proprietor on a better footing than under a continucareer of their

guilt

. Saint-Croix, not yet contented with had the effect, in the case of Brinvilliers, of actually ance of the previous system he ever could have hoped his proficiency in the art of poisoning, was in the habit making numbers of people regard her as little else than for." of exercising his genius in the art of compounding new a saint at her dying hour, though the most worthless In the report of Messrs Lyon, Dillon, and Kelly, drugs of the same kind, and arrived at a degree of skill wretch who ever figured in a court of justice.

March 1839, a similar evidence is afforded :-“ With therein which proved fatal to himself. One day, while

regard to the assertion that the sum paid for labour engaged in mixing some of his preparations, and stand

is so high as to render it impossible that the returns ing over the fumes with a mask of glass upon his face, THE WEST INDIES SINCE THE ABOLITION OF of sugar-planting can sustain it, it is only necessary the protecting vizor fell off, and the vapours killed him

SLAVERY.

to say that experience has proved that the expenditure on the spot. His death being discovered by his ser

varies from L3, 10s. to L.5 per hogshead. The planter, vants, a magistrate was called in, and the effects taken

JAMAICA--THE CONSEQUENCES OF EMANCIPATION. therefore, has it in his power to compute his expenin charge, the deceased being understood to be without The immediate effects of the emancipation of the ne- diture against his profits; and, with sugar selling in friends. A casket was seen, which contained an open groes in Jamaica, as already mentioned, were of so the colony at 40s. to 54s. per hundred-weight, and paper, and some sealed packets. The paper, which had peaceful a nature as to hold out the best hopes of future rum from 68. 8d. to 8s. 4d. per gallon, it may, without plainly been drawn up with a view to the possibility of prosperity to the island. The only cause

of complaint difficulty, be shown that the result must be extremely such an accident, contained the most solemn injunctions was the perverse conduct of the managers of estates, favourable to him.” to those who should find it, to carry the casket to the in endeavouring to maintain a thraldom over their The following is excellent, from Mr E. D. Baynes, Marchioness de Brinvilliers. " It belongs to her alone,” servants by exacting enormous rents for their houses April 3, 1839 : “ In the midst of so much misreprosaid the paper, “ and can be of use to no one else. If she and provision-grounds. The disquietude arising from sentation, and so much real or affected despondency be dead before me, then it is my desire that the casket this unfortunate policy lasted for six months at least on the part of the planter, the confidence of the great be burnt, without being opened by any one. This. I after the day of liberation, and reacted most severely majority of the other classes of the community in the charge upon those who find it, as they would have peace on the proprietors of the sugar plantations, for, while stability and security of property, remains unabated. on earth, and, as they value their souls. This is my the quarrel existed, comparatively little was done to Land, especially in the vicinage of towns, has risen, last will." The very solemnity of these instructions prepare the ground for the next crop of canes, and and is increasing in value. Mr Dunean Hamilton, of defeated their purpose, and caused the agents of justice the produce, therefore, in 1839 was about a tenth less Retreats in the parish of St John, who, four years to open the packet so much cared for. Poisons, and than formerly. This circumstance - partly accounts since, assured me that he did not think he could get receipts for poisons, with directions to use them, con-, for the present dearth of sugar.

L.3000 for his property, has, within these few weeks, stituted nearly the whole contents. A note from the At length the odious, quarrel respecting rents and disposed of it to Mr Alexander Reid Scott, a storemarchioness to Saint-Croix, containing a promise of wages terminated. The peasantry, as, we may now- keeper of Kingston, for the sum of L.10,000.” 30,000 livres, was also there, and some letters from the call them, diligently applied themselves to their work, Mr Ramsay, April 6, of the same year, says same party. These did not precisely disclose the truth, which, in fact, they had been willing to perform, per “ During slavery and the apprenticeship, the jobber but were sufficient to excite strong suspicions. Mean- haps with some few exceptions, from the very first.. charged from L.10 to L.12 per-acre for digging, with while, the marchioness, had heard of the decease of When things began to right themselves, it was ob- his slaves or apprentices, an acre of land into caneSaint-Croix, and came instantly to the spot. Probably served that fewer labourers wrought in the fields than holes: now, at 'wages of 1s. 8d. per day, an acre of aware of the existence of the paper, she demanded the formerly, and that they in general wrought only five cane-holes may be dug for the sum of L.2, 108. cur casket. It was refused to her, and, in great anxiety, days in the week. This excited many fears, and rency, at 2s. 1d. wages, it will cost L.3, 23. 6d.; atshe endeavoured to bribe the officers. Finding all yain, no little clamour. It was construed into a love of 2s. 6d. wages, it will cost L.4, 10s.; and at 33. 4d., the she grew alarmed, went home, and, haying made rapid idleness in a portion of the population. Those who highest rate of wages that I have heard of, it will cost preparations, fled towards Flanders, which she reached knew better, showed that it was simply a result of only L.5, just one-half what it cost in times past. in safety.

freedom ; it was proved that the able-bodied man, The whole estimated expense of each negro to the A piece of matchless audacity on the part of La who was now free, in some instances did double his planter, was from L.6 to L.7 per annum.' Chaussée, the valet, threw new light on the affair. This former amount of labour, the excess forming a pro

We come now to evidence produced by the stipenman came forward, and asserted that Saint-Croix had vision for the weaker beings who depended on him diary magistrates only a few months ago. The rea large sum of money of his in charge, and also owed for support. The following is magistrate Fishbourne's port of Mr Grant, June 10, contains the following him long arrears of wages. The police were led to ex- report on the subject :-"During slavery and appren- valuable information. I have remarked that the amine the past history of the man, and he soon broke ticeship, one-third of the people residing on estates persons who are loudest in proclaiming the deplorablo down under the cross-examination to which he was eub- were considered incapable of, and were exempted state of the country, are the very persons who grasp jected. The deaths of the D’Aubrays, while he served from, labour. Seventy out of one hundred slaves or most firmly the property they have in it, and, if they them, were remembered, and he was seized. His cou- apprentices was considered a fair proportion. Of those have the means, are most willing to purchase more. rage failed him when put to the question, and he horri- seventy, probably one-third was composed of the preg- This may be honest. They may be doing this without fied the public by disclosing the Marchioness de Brin. nant women, or mothers of large young families, the any sinister motive. I know one of them who purvilliers to be the murderess of her two brothers, and very old or very young, sickly or ulcerated individuals, chased a property about three years ago. He was the attempted assassin of her sister. La Chaussée and domestics, &c., who, if deducted, would leave lately offered nearly treble the amount he gave for it. was fully convicted, and executed. In the mean time, about one-half of the gross strength of the estate, or Did he take it? No; but in the same breath he the retreat of the marchioness was discovered, and a about fifty effective labourers. T'he decrease, there would assert that the country was ruined. body of criminal officers were sent to bring her to jus- fore, of the number of effective field-servants is not so In Clarendon, matters are going on pretty well, tice. But she was lodged in a convent of Liege, from large as those not acquainted with plantation economy but there are some of the properties in the mountains which sanctuary it was informal to take her by force. might imagine, on being told that not above half the of that parish on which the manufacture of sugar An active officer, named Desgrais, devised a plan of people on an estate now work in the fields.

cannot be carried on with profit adequate to the outovercoming this difficulty. He dressed himself as an Planters are unwilling to permit families to reside lay of money and trouble attendant on the cultivation abbé, was introduced to the conyent, and formed an on their plantations, the females of which refuse to and on the difficulties and expenses of the embaracquaintance with the marchioness. After a time, by devote themselves to agricultural labour. The object guidiar. It is well known that, during slavery and pretending an affection for her and an unlimited devo- is to increase the number of constant field-labourers : apprenticeship, the debts due on many properties tion to her interests, Desgrais gained her confidence so the effect, I have reason to believe, will be the reverse, mortgaged to English merchants accumulated anfar as to wile her beyond the convent walls, when she for many respectable people are now availing them- nually. This, although detrimental to the interest of was at once seized, and hurried off to France. selves of opportunities of purchasing or leasing small the proprietor, was not so to the merchant. It secured

In a casket in her possession, was found a confession, pieces of land, where they are preparing to place their to him, at an annual loss to the proprietor, freight for apparently intended for a priest, and containing a dis wives and children, and where they also will retire his ships, interest for his money, commissions for his closure of all her crimes. These were more horrible when they can quit the estates, without sacrificing trouble, and the monopoly of the estate's supplies. than had been previously conjectured. She admitted the provisions now in the ground. Within the last It was, therefore, the interest of the merchant to keep the poisoning of her father (after several trials), her three months, I have been consulted by a great many up the cultivation of poor and badly situated proper two brothers, and one of their children, and these ad-, as to the necessary steps to be taken so as to secure ties, though they wero profitless in every respect to missions were universally credited, though she after themselves from molestation hereafter in their settle the absent proprietor. Now, I fancy, matters will be wards averred having written this in a state of frenzy. I ments."

different. The debts of the proprietor, instead of She also said in the paper, that, from mere childhood, Other magistrates corroborate the fact that the having diminished on their first amount, having acshe had lived a life of wickedness. On her way to value of manual labour has greatly increased since it cumulated to a greater sum than the estate is worth, Paris, she made several attempts to escape, and once became free. Mr Grant (Feb. 1839) observes the property will likely be sold, and another staple endeavoured to poison herself; but she was brought With regard to the expenditure on properties, I am resorted to maintaining a proper relation between to the capital, and convicted on trial, amid outcries confident that cultivation can be carried on at much expenditure and profit. of horror from the whole nation. Madame Sevigné less expense than under the former system.” Here We will suppose that there is one-fourth less of the describes her as the theme of universal talk during her he enters into some calculations respecting the cost of population at work in producing and manufacturing imprisonment. After her condemnation, she retracted cultivation on a property which had at one time 350 the staple productions, than under the slavery or apthe professions of innocence made at her trial, and slaves. The expense of free labour which it required prenticeship systems. It is well known that, to prove avowed her many murders, expressing great contri in five months was L.240, 148.44d, and for the same the impossibility of successful agriculture, persons tion for them, according to her confessor's statement. space of time, the expense of apprenticeship, or slave pointed to the diminution of field-labourers immeNevertheless, she exhibited no compunction or fear at contingencies, would amount to L.725, leaving a ba- diately-subsequent to the 1st of August. A sufficient her execution, which Madame Sevigné thus describes : lance in favour of the expense required for free labour period of time has elapsed since the termination of - Paris, 17th July, 1676. At last all is over. Brin- of L.484,53. 8d.; " and the late deficiency law required the apprenticeship to prove the fallacy of such opinion villiers is in the air: ber-miserable little body was five people, besides

the overseer, doing militia duty, or assertions. In the first place, no comparison can thrown after the execution upon a great fire, and burnt to be employed at salaries, and maintained on the be drawn between the exertions of a slave and a free to ashes.

It was at six in the morning that property. The saving effected by the change in this man, between compulsory and voluntary labour. It she was led from prison in a shift, with a rope round particular is very great... The book-keepers are now has happily been even already shown that the great her neck, and conveyed to · Notre Dame, by way of dispensed with. The supercession of a free system stimulue to exertion is self-interest, that money is

found to be a far more powerful excitement to industry “ The moral conduct of the labouring population feet, and, last of all, they show thair plumis and winges, than any which has yet been had recourse to. If it warrants the highest commendation. Some months Finally, when they are comin to the just measure and is therefore proved that the result of the money past, a great portion of them evinced a marked desire quantity of geese, they flie in the air, as other fowlis stimulus has been extra exertion, it necessarily follows for religious instruction ; and with a view of gratify- do, as was notably proven in the year of God ane that fewer persons are required to carry on, under the ing them in so desirable and praiseworthy an object, | thousand four hundred and eighty, in sight of many voluntary system, cultivation to the same extent as I applied to the Wesleyan body for one of their minis- people, beside the Castle of Pitsligo, when ane great that carried on under the compulsory.”

ters to attend at my residence every Sabbath, which tree was brocht by allusion and flux of the sea to land. We may close this department of the subject with was readily acceded to; and it affords me infinite This wonderful tree was brocht to the laird of the the following extract from the report of Mr Lyon, pleasure in stating that, within the last three weeks, ground, who soon after gart divide it by ane saw. July 31 :-“ At this period last year, while the result from 100 to 150 congregate weekly: their demeanour Appeared then ane multitude of worms, throwing themof free labour was a speculative matter, calculations on sucli occasions reflects the highest credit on them. selves out of sundry holes and bores of this tree. Some were published by various parties on the probable District perfectly tranquil." -- (Hamilton, June 8, of them were rude as they were but new shapin. Some expense and profit of sugar cultivation by free labour. 1839.)

had baith head, feet, and winges, but they had nae In nearly all the data, it was presumed that no profit “ It is to be lamented that schools are not more featheris. Some of them were perfect shapen fowlis." would be realised by those estates which made less numerous in this parish. There is one on this estate The writer then proceeds to mention other similar than eighty hogsheads. The amount for contingencies (Morland), and it is astonishing how far the children cases, and particularly that of the ship Christopher of inseparable from such manufacturing establishments, are advanced ; some of the children, not more than Leith, the timber of which, when broken up, showed was computed to be nearly as great on these small four and five years of age, are able to read and spell all the holes “full of geese.” But the old scribe has estates as on larger ones. The experience of this crop very correctly.”—(Mahon, June 12, 1839.)

also to produce a “notable example shawn afore our has, however, shown that apprehension to have been “I have been present at some of their meetings, in

awn een.” Being in the Western Isles, a companion delusory, as I have had opportunities of learning that which the warmest demonstration of loyalty to the of the writer chanced to lift from the sea-side " ane where less than even eighty hogsheads have been crown, of esteem and affection for his excellency the tangle hingan full of shells," and was astonished, on made, a very considerable income has been realised. governor, were manifested, and of their determination opening one, to find in it “na fish, but ane perfect One estate in this parish, making seventy-five hogs- to obey the laws. Their meritorious conduct, I am shapen fowle. This clerk, knowing us right desirous heads, with a proportionate quantity of rum, has of opinion, in a great measure is chiefly owing to the of sic uncouth things, cam hastily with the said nettes L.1000 sterling.

progress of education and moral influence. I have tangle, and openit it to us with all circumstances The capability of successfully cultivating the staples attended at the examination of one or two schools afore rehearsit.”. It is further explained, that it was of the colony, under a free system, with judicious and under the management of the Baptist missionaries, from seeing “ fruits that fell off the trees converted in economical management, having been proved by the and have been much pleased at seeing such a vast a short time into geese,” that some persons“ believed experience of the past year, it will in future be requi- number of children so far advanced in substantial thir geese to grow upon the trees;" a mistake altogether site to observe and report upon the proper application education, and so well instructed in moral and reli- (says the writer), since it is a sea-worm, which eats into of labour, and the judgment exhibited in the culture gious duties. There are upwards of 2000 children the

fruit

, that “ grows into a goose." of lands, as a necessary prudence on the part of ma- receiving daily and weekly instruction under the su

Were this statement found in some single author, nagers to ensure a permanent succession of prosperous perintendence of the missionaries in this parish.” we might pass it by as a ridiculous mistake, or wilful harvests, and their own estimate of the prospects of (Kelly.)

falsehood, undeserving of notice. But the most learned interest which the future will realise for all existing investments of capital in colonial agriculture.”

In closing the present paper, we think little need writers of Europe, from the fifteenth to the eighteenth

be said respecting these most gratifying evidences of centuries, repeat the story, as for example, Gerard (in We are glad to turn to a line of evidence which, social advancement in the peasantry of Jamaica. Both his Herbal),

Saxo-Grammaticus, Arnoldus, and others while generally testifying to the growing prosperity from the official volume before us, and other testi- of equal authority. . It becomes, therefore, a curious of Jamaica, throws much cheering light on the social mony, we feel quite assured of the fact, that, for negroes question, to determine how the error arose, particuprogress of the peasantry.. We believe we shall best and planters alike, the change from slavery to free-larly as many writers aver having seen the strange please our readers by copying the extracts from the dom has been highly advantageous, and its prospective birds alluded

to. Gerard states, that what his eyes magistrates' reports from beginning to end, as they benefits are unspeakable. Let it, however, be clearly have seen, and his hands touched, he shall declare.” appear in the work before us :* The free children are, in the towns, usually sent necessary for them to compete on a fair commercial shire, in which is found, on pieces of old timber, a

understood by both parties, that it will be absolutely He then mentions a small isle on the coast of Lancato school ; but, on the estates, the too general aversion principle only with the producers of sugar in other

“ certain spume or froth, which in time breedeth into of the managers to all steps taken to enlighten the quarters of the world. At present the West Indies certain shells," like those of the muscle ; and out of minds or to ameliorate the condition of the peasantry, have next to a monopoly for the sale of their sugars these shells, in due time, “ come the legs of a bird has led them to resist the establishment of schools on

in this country; and, as was lately shown by us, we hanging out, and as it groweth greater, it openeth the the properties under their charge. Hence, I regret are absolutely giving them a shilling for what can be shell by degrees, till at length it is all come forth, and to say,

the
negro villages too often abound in children got for sixpence elsewhere ; or, to state it according to hangeth

only by the bill; in short space after it cometh fast approaching to puberty, who wander about in a the aggregate amount of loss, the United Kingdom is to full maturity, and falleth into the sea, where it state of nudity, untaught to do anything for them- paying L.5,000,000 annually, over and above the mar- gathereth feathers, and groweth to a fowl bigger than a

Every denomination of sectarians in the island, with the West India interest. This is a thing so intoler- says, something like a magpie, and is sometimes called the exception of Presbyterians and Independents, has able

, and presses so heavily on the people of Britain, by the people a pie-annet, and sometimes a tree-goose. a place of worship in Spanish Town. There are also that it cannot be of much longer continuance. The So far Gerard speaks apparently from report, but he various schools for the education of youth. That of West India proprietors and labourers must learn to also states that he himself found, near Dover, a shell, the Rev. James M. Phillipps, the Baptist minister, compete in the sugar market by means of improved slightly different from the preceding, but with similar is by far the best conducted and the most numerously machinery, skill, and industry, and there is no doubt contents;

He broke several, and found in some living attended.”—(E. D. Baynes, Sept. 20, 1838.) “ The good effects of compensated labour are every be able even to undersell the slave-owners of less that, by these agencies alone, they will in a short time things without shape, and " in others (says he), which

were nearer come to perfection, I found living things day becoming more apparent. During the appren- favoured countries.

that were very naked, in shape like a bird ; in others ticeship, a constant source of complaint was, that the

the birds were covered with soft down, the shell half young children were kept in ignorance and in idle

open, and the bird ready to fall out, which no doubt ness. The effect of a free system is clearly discernible

THE BARNACLE, OR TREE-GOOSE.

were the fowls called barnacles." on this point. There are in this parish twelve schools.

Another respectable eye-witness on this subject was These have become crowded with the children of such Till within the last hundred and fifty or two hundred Sir Robert Murray, a member of the privy-council of of the labourers as are able to keep them clean and years, there scarcely seems to have been a glimmering Scotland, and a member of the Royal Society at its first spare their labour ; and it is now no uncommon thing of common sense on any matter of natural history: institution, who published in 1678 a narrative of what he to see a mother, whose means are less, with her four There was little investigation into the actual truth of saw on a visit to the Hebrides. In the “isle of East" or five children, busily employed in picking coffee alleged facts, and to doubt popular opinion was never (Uist) Sir Robert saw a dried log on the shore, with a from inorning to night, to raise the funds to support thought of even by the learned. Many of the notions cur multitude of little shells sticking to it, “having within and clothe, and, at intervals, to send them to school. rent in those days on the subject of animal life, were ex- them birds perfectly shaped, supposed to be barnacles. It inay not be improper here to mention, that the ceedingly fanciful. It was supposed that bees could be This bird, in every shell that I opened, I found so desire for religious instruction increases daily. There generated from putrid substances; that young snakes curiously and completely formed, that there appeared are in this parish thirteen places of worship, with full could be raised like plants, by sowing crumbs of pounded nothing wanting as to the external parts for making up congregations.”—(Grant, Nov. 20, 1838.)

old snakes in the ground, and occasionally watering a perfect sea-fowl. The little bill like that of a goose, “ Several candid

proprietors have lately informed them; that cats could see in the dark; that the eels which the eyes marked, the head, neck, breast, wings, tail me that they find their produce, in all its stages, far prevail in the marshes of Ely, in Cambridgeshire, were and feet formed; the feathers every where perfectly more secure than formerly.

first planted there in consequence of the wives and shaped, and blackish-coloured ; and the feet like those The superior character and behaviour of instructed children of certain recusant priests in the district being of other water-fowl, to my best remembrance.” negroes is forcing from some, who have heretofore miraculously transformed into these animals; and that

It is unnecessary to quote further authorities to given the institutions of religion but little countenance, a particular species of geese, or barnacles, grew in show the prevalence of the belief that the barnaclethe value and importance of such safeguards,' espe- shells depending from trees within reach of the tides. goose was produced, not after the fashion of its kind, cially, they say, in the present very peculiar and it has only been since men learned to reason from well but from a tree, like a ripe apple; or was brought to critical state of the island.'”—(Daughtry, Jan. 1, ascertained facts, and not from random and traditional light by spontaneous generation, from the scum of the 1839.)

hear-say, that these and many other equally ridiculous sea, or in a muscle shell. Perhaps the most striking “The church and schools are crowded, and the chimeras have lost their hold on popular credulity. The proof of the universality of this notion is given by a greatest desire for religious and other instruction is rigid investigations of science put all such notions to decision of the Sorbonne in Paris-a body comprising evinced by the entire population. They never think flight.

the most learned men of France. These gentlemen it too late to learn; and it is curious sometimes to The particulars of the barnacle or tree-goose delu- adroitly took advantage of the admittedly wonderful see a man about forty years of age or upwards learn- sion are worthy of noting. One of the most remarkable origin of the barnacle-goose to give themselves and ing his letters, or spelling words of two and three accounts, as well as one of the earliest and weightiest, all true believers a good additional dish for lent. They syllables. The number of marriages and baptisms respecting the barnacle, is that prefixed to Bellenden's declared that these geese were no longer to be conincreases daily. There is a great change in the ap- Translation of Boece's Chronicles of Scotland, from sidered as birds, and that therefore their flesh might parel of the mass of the peasantry; and in their gene- which the following is an extract, with the language with perfect propriety be eaten at all fasting seasons. ral demeanour they are most respectful.”—(Grant, slightly modernised. “ Next, to speak of the geese This was a capital practical inference, extracted from March 18, 1839.)

generated of the sea, named clakis (the old Scottish a popular fallacy; for such it proved to be, as may “ The peasantry continue not only most anxious for name for the barnacle). Some men believis that these readily be imagined. It is worthy of notice, that the the increase of religious and educational impulses, but clakis grow on trees by the nebs. But thair opinion is translator of Boece, as well as Gerard and Sir Robert bear all the burdens of instruction with cheerfulness; vane.” From this notion entertained of it, the barnacle Murray, all of whom imagined themselves to have got in proof of which, I beg leave to state to his excellency still bears the common name of the tree-goose. It was the governor the intention of those in this district imagined that the young birds dropped into the water that they saw something in a shell no bigger than a

ocular proof upon the subject, can only positively assert under the pastoral care of the Rev. Mr Rowden, from the trees. “ Howbeit these geese (continues the muscle's, of the shape and appearance of a small bird, Wesleyan minister at Bath, who have agreed volun- old writer) are bred mony sundry wayis, they are bred but cannot give the authority of their own eyesight for tarily to erect a new church at their own exclusive aye originally by nature of the seas. For all trees that the conversion of these into actual full-grown birds. cost, and mean to convert the old chapel into a school are cast in the seas, in process of time appearis first Nor did they see any of the in the transition state. for the education of the rising generation.”—(Pryce, worm-eaten, and in the small bores and holes thairof " I never (says Sir R. Murray) saw any of the little birds March 31, 18:39.)

grows small worms. First, they show thair head and alive, nor met with any body tliat did. Only, some

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