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To all mental reservations, indeed, one very simple but I shall kill the beast.” “Be careful, N. Riego," a sign to his companion to stand still also. The priest rule applies. We are not to ask ourselves, Is what I said Janote. “ Fear not, my friend, I shall remember then laid his ear to the ground, and heard a low the days of my youth.”.

growling sound, which he immediately pronounced to say capable of being made to appear true, or true as

A young man, about twenty-two years of age, called be the snarl of the bear. “He is not far off," said far as it goes? We are bound to say that which we Stephano, then approached the priest, and said to Riego, in a whisper. " Let us mount this platform, believe does not deceive our neighbour.

him, “ But I, brother, shall I not go with you !" and we are sure to see him. Follow me.” 'The bro “ You, Stephano !" replied the curate,“ my mother's thors ascended the platform in question by a narrow

son !—no; you shall not come.” “We shall all fol- ridge, flanked on the right and left by a steep preci: STORY OF A BEAR HUNT IN THE low you together !" cried the hunters. “I do not pice. On the side opposite to where the hunters were, PYRENEES.

want you, my friends; and, as the night is advancing, there was another precipitous pass. Having com

you had better take your supper, and go to rest.” pleted the ascent, the brothers looked round, and in & Ar the distance of a league from Bagneres of Luchon,

Young Stephano did not repeat his request to his few moments saw an enormous bear, moving slowly on the declivity of the hill, stands a small building, brother. The hunters instantly began their meal; down the dry rocky bed of a torrent. “Here he is !" called the hospital, which serves as a halt or station for there was in M. Riego's voice an irresistible accent cried the curate. « Stephano ! make ready; he will

immediately pass the corner before us, close to that for travellers journeying to Spain. In October 18, of command.

Half an hour afterwards, each man began to settle fir-tree ; fire at him there. Mark for the left shoula little higher up than the hospital, a small

, temporary, himself in some corner of the hut, wrapped up in a dera little behind it ! If you miss him, I will then looking hut was to be seen, supported and sheltered shee or goat's skin ; Stephano stretched himself shoot !" by a huge roek. It was covered with branches and nearest to the door; and very soon all was silence. Just as Riego concluded his directions, the bear dry leaves, and built with loose rough stones, con At the first dawn of day, Riego, fearing the hunters came to the point mentioned. “Now, Stephano !" stituting á rude but welcome refuge for the high- would insist on accompanying him, gently got up, and, cried the curate. The young man fired; but whether land hunters. It was but the habitation of a day, heard. "He had put on a dress borrowed from one of as appeared from the splinters of ice broken off by

choosing one of the rifles, stept out without being from agitation, or the distance, he missed the animal, being regularly destroyed and carried off by every the highlanders. On his head he wore the small, flat, the side of the brute, which at once turned round, saw winter's storm. The approaches of autumn are ter- blue béret; over his legs, the long leather gaiters the hunters, and advanced towards them. He was at rible in the Pyrenees; and at the time mentioned, usually worn by these hardy mountaineers ; round first little more than twenty yards distant, but fortua fearful storm was bursting over the mountain. It his waist, a strong scarlet belt, in which he placed nately the path took some turns, which made the space

to be passed greater. At a favourable instant, calmly was evening ; every object was buried in darkness; a knife, the thick, sharp blade of which was eight or

His and steadily raising his gun, Riego fired. The brute, but through the chinks of the door of the hut, darted nine inches long. He was not the same man. at times a few glimpses of light. This door was also step was at all times firm and erect, but slow; on this however, chanced to slip aside at the moment, and of

day, however, his energy amounted even to impa- the three balls, one only struck him in the flank. occasionally opened ; a man's head would then appear tience. As soon as he was out of the hut, he exa A terrific growl was the only reply to the shot, which through the lightened aperture, and be immediately mined the rifle with all the scrupulous attention of was totally ineffective in retarding his course. Some withdrawn. The appearance of the inside was rather an experienced hunter ; tried the lock, burnt some balls !” said Riego quietly, without turning his eye picturesque. In the middle of the hut, on a roughly of the powder to ascertain its quality and dryness, from the bear. Stephano spoke not. “ Balls, Stemade table, were promiscuously placed a large basin loaded carefully with three balls, and was just starting, phano !_in three minutes he will be upon us !” The of milk, some smoked bacon, a piece of goat's cheese, when, at ten yards before him, he perceived his young young man had been feeling his pouch. “We are and some maize-bread; on the riglit was an opening brother Stephano, ready equipped as a hunter. «What lost !" cried he, with a groan of despair ;“ the bag hasmade in the rock, which served as a chimney. In are you doing there ?" said he. “I am waiting for been buried in the snow at Maladetta !" this chimney lay, almost in one blaze of fire, the best you, brother.” “Why?”. “Because I want to go The growls of the bear became more and more part of a tree, with its branches and leaves, which with you; and I must go.” The curate answered not virid. “We have no balls!"

repeated the young man brightly illuminated the centre of the hut, and glit- till after a moment's reflection-"Well, let it be so. in tones of agony ;." let us fly l-oh, let us fly, bro. tered on the long polished barrels of the rifles, placed Is your rifle loaded ?” “ Yes, brother."' " Here are ther!" “Fly!" said the priest ; " no—we cannot ! upright against the opposite wall. Before the fire, twelve balls, then, take them, and let us go.".

In twenty seconds the monster would be up with us, a deer's haunch was comfortably roasting; and around The brothers started on their perilous adventure. were we to go down hill !" “Oh, blessed Virgin !" were stretched five highland hunters, with their caps After an hour's march, they passed the short rocky cried Stephano, falling on his knees in desperation. of brown worsted, their knee-breeches of coarse brown defile which separates France from Spain ; and while “Come, no faint-heartedness, brother !" exclaimed cloth, and their long grey stockings. They had fled threading its recesses, Riego would ever and anon the priest, speaking very quickly, but in his usual to the hut to save themselves from the storm, and raise his rifle to his shoulder, following steadily the intrepid tones ; " there is one resource. Show me were now awaiting the supper which was preparing course of some eagle, which was already abroad in the your knife !-yes, it is long and sharp: Mark me! At the farthest extremity sat, reading attentively, by keen, clear morning air. But he fired not ; for he in one minute the bear will be on this platform! I the light of a wick saturated with resin, a man who deemed that there was no call upon him to shed any will walk up to him—he will rush on me. I will hold appeared not to be dressed like the rest of the hun- blood but that of the grizzly bear. At the termina- him tight ; and do you stab him till he drops, in the ters ; his occupation, the expression of his counte tion of the defile, they found themselves in front of left side, Stephano !" nance, and the respectful distance preserved towards La Maladetta (thé accursed), the finest glacier of the “ Yes, brother," was the young man's reply. him by the highlanders, sufficiently testified his supe- Pyrenees, but the most dangerous, also, as its not in. “ Now, he comes !" cried the undaunted priest ; riority over them. At the other side was suspended appropriate name implies. When the glacier appeared, “no unsteadiness, Stephano! Strike hard and true ! the open and reeking carcass of a deer recently killed. here a mass of glittering ice, and there deadened in Ha! the bears have felt Riego before now, and they

The crackling of the roasting meat, the hissing of hue by flakes of dun snow, Riego felt the enthusiasm shall not conquer me yet!" the snow as it fell on the intamed wood, the loud of former days return upon him, and he could not help The priest seemed almost happy in his fearlessness. rumbling sounds of the frequent thunder-claps, re-exclaiming joyfully, “The snow! the hills !". Turn- But, alas ! deplorably different was the condition of peated and increased by the echoes of the mountain, ing to Stephano, the priest then exclaimed, “ If Janote the poor young brother. The bear appeared. “To alone interrupted the silence which prevailed in the be right, the bear must be in that fir-wood to the left. work! to work, Stephano !" cried the priest, as he hut. There seemed some weight on the minds of the We must climb the Maladetta, Stephano. Have you stepped forward with open arms. The monster, rising men ; but at length one of them spoke aloud. “So, the iron hooks and the ropes ?” “ Yes, brother.” on its hind legs, seized Riego with a suffocating grasp. Janote, it was by the same bear which killed one of “Come, then, get ready,” said Riego.

A terrible struggle began between them. “Help, our friends before, that Baptiste was worried yester In a few minutes, they had buckled the iron hooks brother, help!" cried the priest in a voice of thunder. day?” “ Yes.” “I shall kill him, Janote, or die; to their hands, and had united their bodies by a rope Alas! Stephano had lost all presence of mind. His where was he seen yesterday ?" “Near the glacier about eight feet long, the purpose of which was, that legs shook under him; a film passed over his eyes; he of La Maladetta." "I will go to-morrow morning, one of them might sustain the other, in case of a slip. could neither advance nor retreat. The agonies of and encounter him ; it shall not be said that this black Thus secured, the brothers resumed their route. For helpless terror were upon him. skin has frightened us all, like a herd of chamois.” half an hour, they toiled silently up the precarious “Strike, brother, strike !" cried the priest in weaker “Peter,” said Janote, “the snow has fallen for these ascent, and were near the place of their destination, tones. The bear howled in a terrific manner, its two days, the hill is very dangerous, and Baptiste was when, all at once, the ice gave way beneath Stephano's hideous head projected over the curate's shoulder, its surprised by the bear merely in consequence of his feet, and he sunk downwards into a deep crevice. eyes red as fire, and its paws tearing Riego's back, being caught by the cold ; you had better not go Dragged back by his companion's weight, the priest while they at the same time crushed him between to-morrow.” “I shall go !" was the answer.

slid rapidly to the very edge of the same gulf ; a second them. The struggle had lasted a few seconds. SteA gloomy pause now took place, after which the more, and he also would

have been over? Both must phano, wild, insane almost, could not stir. “ Help man seated at the extremity of the hut rose and have perished ; but, gathering his whole strength, me, brother! save me !" cried the priest, his voice came close to Peter.

Peter," said he,“ how many Riego dashed his iron grasper into the ice with such failing. At this last call, the young man seemed partly children have you ?” “Five." "You shall not go to force, that he stopped suddenly. To loosen one of his to recover his powers of action. He ran forward, and morrow." “ But"

" You shall not go!". These hands, and turn the rope round his arm for the pur- struck his knife against the side of the monster. But words were pronounced with so much authority, that pose of shortening it, was the work of an instant. He the blow came from a hand too unsteady to do any Peter held down his head and remained silent. “Well then exerted his strength in raising Stephano. Soon execution. The knife scarcely scratched the skin. then,” said another, “I shall have the shot, for the young man's hands could grasp the edge of the The failure, and the near spectacle of the brute's open have neither wife nor children.” “Friend,” replied hole'; by and bye his whole chest appeared. “Courage! mouth and fierce eyes, overthrew Stephano's resoluthe man, “who lives at the village, in the smith's courage !" cried Riego, putting forth his whole powers tion utterly, and, dropping the knife from his nerveless house ?” “ My mother."." You shall not go.” “But," upon a final effort, which, being aided by the youth's grasp, he turned and fled from the spot. rejoined Peter, “now that we have found out the pressure on his own elbows, was successful. Stephano “Brother! brother!” cried Riego in a choked voice, villain's den, we ought to take advantage of the dis was freed from his danger; but he fell almost in a but Stephano was away. Alone with his enemy, the covery.” “He shall be killed !" ". And by whom? fainting state upon the snow. A mouthful of spirits, priest tried to draw his own knife from his belt, but by whom ?” “By myself, my friends."

“ You ! from the small store of provisions which the hunters the brute held him too tight. Gathering vigour from reverend sir ?" they all

exclaimed. “Yes,

my friends; had brought with them, restored Stephano to the despair, the priest resolved that, if he perished, the by myself. I am but a peasant, a highlander, like your power of motion; and the priest said to him in a monster should perish with him, and, step by step, he selves. I spent twenty years among the rocks of Ca- cheerful voice, “ Courage, brother !—you are all right pushed the bear to the edge of the precipice. At this talonia before becoming a minister of God; and the again ; let us move on!" Stephano replied, “ Yes, very instant a powerful voice was heard from above man you now name in the village the Reverend Curate brother,” and resumed the march ; but a great change the platform, exclaiming, “ Courage ! courage !" and Riego, was once called Riego the Bear-hunter." had come over the young man. The narrow escape a man bounded down the rocks with fearful rapidity.

As he pronounced these words, the clergyman's which he had made had overthrown his resolution. He But it was too late! The priest and his grizzly foe countenance was animated with a singular expression walked on, pale, tottering, and exhausted—a different had reached the brink of the abyss; the bear's feet of courage and energy. “I had come to the hill," being, altogether, from what he had been a few mo- slipped, and both of them rolled down the steep locked continued he,“ to admire the storm ; Heaven, no ments before. Riego, who moved foremost, was too in that mortal embrace. The eyes of the new comer doubt, has directed me to this hut to hear your much occupied with the outlook for the bear, and with could not follow them into the gulf. regrets; and although I have not touched a rifle the difficulties of the path, to be fully sensible how for fifteen years”

The day following that on which this scene took “Fifteen years!" said Peter. much his brother was changed by the late accident. place, was the epoch of a festival in the village of “ Yes, my friends ; for blood, even an insect's blood, The bear was not to be seen at Maladetta when they which Riego was curate. The people were assembled should never stain the hands of a minister of God reached it. The hunters then turned into the Spanish in their public room, and the generous daring of their but what I intend to do to morrow is merely to destroy Pyrenees, which they entered by La Picada. Scarcely pastor was the theme of every tongue. They lamented what is hurtful and gerous; and as I have neither had they gone a few yards in this direction, when him deeply-for this much they had learned from children, wife, nor mother, I shall go, and fear not Riego stopped short, and, without turning round, made Stephano, that the priest had perished in encountering

CG

the bear. The young man, however, would tell no have won that repute for brilliant talents which was adopted and enforced a vigorous uniformity of purpose more ; he kept a moody silence, and the people ascribed denied to him, through his inability to bring out his, and conduct in his administration. “I shall not, whilst it to sorrow for the loss of a brother whom he was stores so effectively? In war, he pursued the only I have the honour to administer the government, bring known to respect and love deeply. Things stood thus, course, it may be safely said, which could have saved a man into any office of consequence knowingly, whose when a young peasant from a neighbouring village his country; and it is hard, because he did so, that political tenets are adverse to the measures which the entered the public room. He was the man who had he should be charged as a man incapable of having general government are pursuing; for this, in my witnessed Riego's fall, and he had also witnessed Ste- acted otherwise, had occasion demanded it. The truth opinion, would be a sort of political suicide."" phano's flight and desertion. He told his tale, and in is, as M. Guizot well remarks, that " he knew a loftier We shall close these brief extracts with a few senan instant cries of indignation burst from every tongue. and more difficult art than that of making war-he tences from M. Guizot's able and eloquent summary “ Away with him ! drive him from the village !" were knew how to control it. War was never to him any of the character of Washington. “Ho did the two the exclamations of all. The unfortunate youth thing but a means, constantly subordinate to his ge- greatest things which in politics it is permitted to seemed in a condition of despair, which nothing could neral and definitive object-success to the cause, and man to attempt : he maintained by peace the Indoadd to; and he was moving mutely away, when a independence to the country.” The most prominent pendence of his country, which he had conquered by man covered with bloody rags made his appearance. features in Washington's character were, first, his war ; he founded a free government in the name of

Riego !” cried the astonished villagers. It was in deliberation in coming to any conclusion, and, second, the principles of order, and by re-establishing their deed the priest. Stephano fell on his knees before his inflexible constancy in acting upon it.

" When sway. his brother in a state of speechless rapture, and, with he had observed, reflected, and formed his opinion, When he retired from public life, both these tasks looks of imploring entreaty, kissed his feet and knees. nothing could disturb him in it: he never allowed were accomplished. He might then enjoy them. It The priest looked on him with an aspect of affection himself to be placed or kept, by the opinions of other matters little, in such high designs, at what cost of and mild forgiveness. “Did you not fall over the men, or by the desire of applause, or by the dread of labour they have been perfected; there are no drops precipice with the bear ?" cried one of the people. contradiction, in a state of doubt or continual vacilla- of toil which are not dried by such a wreath, upon the

I did,” said Riego ;“ bat heaven protected me. My tion. He had faith in God and in himself: 'If any brow where God has placed it." belt was caught by a sharp rock; the bear was forced power on earth could, or the Great Power above would, "Government,” says M. Guizot again, “will always to quit its hold, and perished alone at the bottom of erect the standard of infallibility in political opinion, and every where be the greatest employment of the the gulf."

there is no being that inhabits this terrestrial globé human faculties, and consequently that which demands Exclamations of joy now rung from every quarter. that would resort to it with more eagerness than the loftiest spirits. The honour and the interest of Stephano continued sobbing aloud.“My brother! myself, so long as I remain a servant of the public. society are alike concerned in drawing and fixing them oh, my brother!" was all he could say. “What But as I have found no better guide hitherto than to the administration of its affairs ; for no institutions, meant those cries as I entered ?" said the priest in a upright intentions and close investigation, I shall no political contrivances, can fill the place they ought severe tone ; " why would you send away the boy ?” adhere to those maxims while I keep the watch.' For to occupy. “ Because the coward”. “ Coward? he is no he united to this firm and independent mind an in On the other hand, in men who are worthy of this coward !" cried Riego. “ His presence of mind was trepid heart, ever ready to act upon his convictions, destiny, all weariness, all sadness, though it be war destroyed by his having narrowly escaped death a few and to bear the responsibility of his actions. What rantable, is weakness. Their mission is toil; their minutes before. Are you sure that the same effect I admire in Christopher Columbus,' said Turgot, "is, reward, the success of their works, but still in toil. would not have been produced on any one of your not that he discovered the New World, but that he Oftentimes they die, bent under the burden, before selves ? Surely none will blame him when I forgive started in search of it, trusting to his own opinion. that meed is youchsafed to them. Washington oband embrace him! And now, let us return thanks to On all occasions, whether small or great, whether their tained it: he deserved and tasted success and repose. God, and let the festival proceed."

consequences were proximate or remote, Washington, Of all great' men, he was the most virtuous and the Riego's wounds were soon healed. As for Stephano, once convinced, never hesitated to advance upon the most happy : God has, in this world, no higher favours by many a brave feat the young man has since wiped faith of his own conviction."

to bestow." away the reproach which was drawn upon him by his It has been doubted whether Washington was acwant of firmness at the death-scene of the great tually invited to assume the supreme power, or, in SKETCHES OF SUPERSTITIONS. bear.

other words, to place himself permanently, whether
as a Cromwell or a Bonaparte, a protector or an em-

SPECTRAL ILLUSIONS.
peror, at the head of his country. Ho was so invited, The subject of spectral illusions, or, to use the com-
GUIZOT'S ESSAY ON WASHINGTON.* and by those who elevated Cromwell and Bonaparté mon phraseology, apparitions or spectres, is now, in
In an early number of the present periodical (No.

-the soldiery. “In 1782, he viewed with abhor- the estimation of scientific and properly informed 42), a complete though not lengthened memoir of rence and reprehended with severity' the very idea of men, one of the simplest and most intelligible to Washington was given ; and some particulars, also, of assuming the supreme power and the crown, which which the mind can be directed; while, to the ignohis family history appeared at a more recent period. were proffered him by certain disaffected officers. In a rant, it still appears full of doubt and mystery. As It would be superfluous, therefore, to follow in a for: letter to Colonel Lewis Nicola—'I am much at a loss, the present periodical has always been conducted upon mal manner the narrative alluded to in the heading of said he, 'to conceive what part of my conduct could the principle, that a majority of its readers are comthis article, and

which was drawn up by the distin- have given encouragement to an address, which to me paratively uninformed upon the subjects selected for guished French historian M. Guizot, for

an edition of seems big with the greatest mischiefs that can befall its columns, we propose in the present instance to the papers of Washington, produced by the Parisian my country. If I am not deceived in knowledge of discuss the question of apparitions in a very plain press some time since. We shall only extract here myself, you could not have found a person to whom way, trusting, by explanation and anecdote, to make and there such anecdotes and passages as seem to your schemes are more disagreeable. Let me conjure the matter as simple to the many, as we have stated throw something of a fresh light upon the career of you, then, if you have any regard for your country, it to be to the more enlightened few at the present the great Liberator of America, a being whose name

concern for yourself and posterity, or respect for me, day. must be revered until man himself becomes “but a

to banish these thoughts from your mind, and 'never An apparition, spectre, ghost, or whatever it may name.”

communicate, as from yourself or any one else, a sen. be called, is vulgarly supposed to be a supernatural By those who are disposed to take the least favour- timent of the like nature.'”. Few, indeed, can do full appearancea thing occurring out of the common able view of the career of George Washington, it is justice to the forbearance of Washington on this occa- order of nature. No particular time or place is assometimes said that he was a Fabius in military mat force of a similar temptation. It is only by observing that the time is usually evening or night, and the

sion, for few among men can ever personally feel the signed for the appearance, but we may observe of evading action, rather than of acting ; and, in short, how all, or nearly all, of those so tried fell

, that we place solitary, or apart from the busy haunts of who had consummate prudence, but was deficient in can judge of the greatness of his conduct.' In this man. According to old theories on the subject, positive genius and ability. Leaving aside other argu- respect he stands grandly aloof among the great spirits the person who declared that he had seen such an inents, it may well be said that it could be no negation of the earth. There are, indeed, one or two, and but appearance was either set down as the fabricator of striking qualities which drew the eye of his country one or two, on the same elevation with him, and of an untruth, or his story was fondly believed, upon the son of an obscure country gentleman, in his proudly eminent among these is Scotland's own Wal- and in the latter case the supernatural incident was early youth, and when he occupied no more important lace!

added to the mass of credible history. We shall now position than that of a subordinate officer of a pro

Yet was Washington not left without his reward— endeavour to set this conflict of testimony and opinion vincial corps. “ His abilities,” says M. Guizot, were

a reward exceeding in his eyes all that sovereignty to rights. In all cases, it is quite possible for the not shown by the event alone-they were anticipated could have bestowed. When his country had gained declarant to speak the truth as respects what he saw, by his contemporaries. Your good health and for its independence

through his arm, he was called

to the or thought he saw, and yet that no real apparition tune are the toast at every table,' wrote Colonel Fair- presidency, and left his country-seat of Mount Vernon ever occurred. The whole affair, as we shall explain, fax, his first patron, to him in 1756. In 1759, when to be installed at New York. “His journey was a is simply a delusion in sight, caused by some species he was elected for the first time to the House of Bur: triumph: along the road, and in the cities, the whole of disease in the organs which regulate the vision.

Mental and bodily disorder, organic or functional, gesses of Virginia, on taking his seat, Mr Robinson, population rushed out to meet him, to salute him, to the speaker, expressed to him, with much warmth of pray for him. He entered New York, attended by is now allowed by physicians to be the basis of ali colouring and strength of expression, the gratitude of the commissioners of congress, in an ornamented barge, kinds of spectral 'illusion. Organic disorder of the that assembly for the services he had rendered his rowed by thirteen pilots in white uniforms, as the re- body is that condition in which one or more organs country. Washington rose to thank him for the com- presentatives of the thirteen states, amidst an enor are altered in structure by disease. Disease of the pliment; but such was his confusion that he was unable mous concourse of people assembled in the harbour brain, which involves organic mental disorder, is proto utter a word; he blushed, stammered, and trembled and on the shore: but his frame of mind remained perly disease of the body, but enduring lunacy or for a second : the speaker relieved him by a stroke of unchanged. The motion of the boat,' says he in his fatuity, existing (if they can do so) without disease address—Sit down, Mr Washington," said he ; your journal, the flags on the shipping, the strains of music, in the structure of the brain, may also be callod modesty equals your valour, and that surpasses the the roar of cannon, the loud acclamations of the peo- organic disorder of the mind. These explanations power of any language that I

possess.'

ple as I passed, filled my mind with emotions as pain will show what is meant by that epithet, as applied Again, in 1774, on the eve of the great contest, ful as they were agreeable, for I thought on the scenes either to affections of the mind or body. Functional Patrick Henry, one of the most ardent republicans in of a totally opposite character which would

perhaps disorder

, again, of the mind or body, is that condition America, on returning home from that first

congress

occur at some future day, in spite of all my efforts to of things where the healthy action of the organ or which had been formed to prepare for the event, and do good."

art or whole, is impeded, without the upon being asked who was the first man in, congress, the Thames, a like crowd and like demonstrations of that violent excitement of the imagination or passions

Nearly a century and a half before, on the banks of existence of any disease of structure. It may be said South Carolina is by far the greatest orator ; but if joy attended the procession of Oliver Cromwell, the constitutes functional mental disorder ; « anger is a you speak of solid information and sound judgment, crowds! what acclamations!' said the flatterers of the for functional bodily disorder, temporary affections of Colonel Washington is unquestionably the greatest inan on that floor.'"

protector : and Cromwell replied, "There would be the digestive organs may be pointed to as common Undoubtedly, he had not the faculty

of displaying contrast how
glorious, between the feelings and the these disorders, and kinds of disorders, may appear in

cases of such a species of physical derangement. Al as the last quotation shows, the gift of eloquence, language of the bad great man and the man great and a complicated form, and, what is of most importance so essential to the acquisition of a character for good !”

to our present argument, the nervous system, on which shining abilities by a public man. But can we doubt It is worthy of note, that in nominating his cabinet depends the action of the senses, the power of volition, that hundreds, with stores far less copious than assistants, he selected able men from different parties, and the operation of all the involuntary functions those which lay latent in the mind of Washington, maxim of government often disputed. “Once engaged and must necessarily be, involved more or less deeply

* Washington. By M. Guizot. Translated by Henry Reeve, in business and with parties, the same man who had in all cases of constitutional disorder, organic or funcEsg. London: John Murray. 1840.

shown such latitude in the formation of his cabinet, tional. These powers of the nerves, which form the

organs, in

sole medium by which mind and body act and react himself as having been haunted for some time with These phantasms lasted, as we have said, two years. on each other, give us a clue to the comprehension of spectres. He had first noticed something to be The issue is peculiarly worthy of note. Nicolai hadi those strange phenomena called spectral illusions, wrong with him on being laughed at by a little in former years fallen into the habit of periodical which depend on a combination of mental and phy- girl for desiring her to lift some oyster shells from blood-letting by leeches, but had ventured to stop the sical impressions.

the floor. He himself stooped, but found none. practice previous to the accession of the phantasms, Organic mental disorder generates spectral illusions. Soon after, in the twilight, he saw a soldier enter the and during their prevalence he had only been advised Almost every lunatic tells you that he sees them, and house, and, not liking his manner, desired him to go to attend to the state of his digestive organs. After with truth ; they are seemingly present to his diseased away ; but receiving no answer, he sprang forward they had endured for the time mentioned, it was perceptions. The same cause, simple insanity, par to seize the intruder, and to his horror found the thought fit to renew the blood-letting. At eleven in tial or otherwise, and existing either with or without shape to be but a phantom! The visitations increased the morning, while the room was crowded with the structural brain disease, has been, we truly believe, at by night and by day, till he could not distinguish real spectral igures, the leeches were applied. As the

Coundation of many more apparition-cases than customers from imaginary ones, so definite and distinct bleeding slowly proceeded, the figures grew dimmer any other cause. Dj far the greatest number of such were the latter in outline. Sometimes they took the and dimmer, and finally, by eight o'clock in the cases

ever put on record, have been connected with forms of living friends, and sometimes of people long evening, they had all melted into thin air, never to doubt that the majority of the poor creatures, men | which restored the strength of the digestive organs, which any individual dared calmly to come forward and women, who habitually subjected themselves, in and gradually banished the spectres. At the close of and avow such an affection, at the risk of incurring the the early centuries of the church, to macerations and the account, it is said that the man emphatically ex- charge of insanity, was founded, we thus sec, simply lacerations, and saw signs and visions, were simply pressed himself to have now received " a perfect con on a plethoric or surcharged state of the blood-vessels.. persons of partially deranged intellect ! St Theresa, viction of the nature of ghosts."

Nicolai deserves great credit for the philosophic com-who lay entranced for whole days, and who, in the Many additional cases from Hibbert, Abercromby, posure with which he recorded the phenomena presented. fervour of devotion, imagined that she was frequently and other writers, might be quoted, in which the to him; but his statement, which has often been addressed by the voice of God, and that our Saviour, visual impressions and perceptions were in a similar republished in this country, seems defective in some St Peter, and St Paul, would often in person visit her way affected by the influence of digestive derange- points, and, from the interest of the subject, we may solitude, is an example of this order of monomaniacs. ment. But as no doubt can rationally exist on the be pardoned for presuming to notice these. GeneThat this individual, and others like her, should have point, from the comparative commonness of the disease, rally speaking, he represents his spectral visitants as been perfectly sensible on all other points, is a pheno- no more proof need be brought forward. However, things which came and went, and assumed various menon in the pathology of mind too common to cause the inference naturally deducible from these facts is shapes, and appeared in certain numbers, uninfluenced any wonder. We would ascribe, we repeat, a large too important to be overlooked. Here we find, by directly by himself. The total dependence which they class of apparition-cases, including these devotional unquestionable medical evidence, that a man walking had upon his own fancy of the moment, is not put ones, to simple mental derangement. The eye in such about in apparent bodily health, and mentally sane, clearly before us, though, by the truthful accuracy instances may take in a correct impression of external may nevertheless be subject to most distinct visi- of his narrative, he unconsciously makes that fact objects, but this is not all that is wanting. A correct tations of spectral figures, some of them in the sem- apparent every instant. The surcharged state of the perception by the mind is essential to healthy and natural blance of dead persons. We find this, we repeat, to vessels was the fundamental cause of the phantasms, vision, and this perception the deranged intellect can be within the range of natural phenomena. Now, is but his own passing fancies moulded them for the not effect. A three-footed stool may then become a it not more likely, in those cases where wonderful passing moment into shape, regulated their numkneeling angel. We would therefore have such per apparitions are reported to have been seen, that the bers, and gave them words. How could it be othersons regarded, not in the uncharitable light of impos- whole was referable to such natural causes, than that wise? The whole panorama was exhibited on his tors, but of poor creatures who mistook natural hal- the grave gave up its dead, or that the laws of the own retina, and the working brain behind was the lucinations for supernatural.

universe were specially broken in upon in any other manager and scene-shifter of the show. Undoubtedly, however, many of those cases of spec- way? Even with only one such admitted source It need only be added, in further explanation of tral illusions which have made the deepest impression of spectral illusions as the malady alluded to, we the subject, that the reason why spectral illusions on mankind, have not arisen from organic mental should certainly err in passing it by to seek for ex are more frequent in solitary than in busy parts of disease on the part of the sight-seers. The lunatic is planations in supernatural quarters. But in reality the country, is, that in these secluded spots the fancy apt to betray his condition, and, that once recognised, we have many causes or sources of them, and to these is apt to become diseased, or at least deeply affected, his visions become of no weight. We have then to we shall now look, in continuation of our argument. by external appearances. The raving of the wind in turn to other causes of spectre-seeing;

and, first, let us Among the other varieties of bodily ailments affect- mountain glens, the silence and gloom of winter, the notice the mode of operation, and effects of certain ing either structure or function, which have been light and shade of summer-all work on the mind, and functional disorders of the system, operating on the found to produce spectral illusions, fevers, inflamma- produce that species of functional disorder which leads visual perceptions through the nerves. A bodily dis- tory affections, epileptic attacks, hysteria, and disor- | to the delusions we have described. order, which ought in itself to afford a solution of all ders of the nerves generally, are among the most The subject of particular apparitions, of banshies, apparitions, is that called delirium tremens. This is prominent. As regards fevers and infiammatory af- of second sight, &c., must be left to another occasion. most commonly induced, in otherwise healthy subjects, fections, particularly those of the brain, it is well We have here but pointed out certain principles, by continued dissipation. So long (say medical autho- known to almost every mother or member of a large which, with a little farther notice of the influence of rities) as the drinker can take food, he is compara- family, that scarcely any severe case can occur without the mind singly, will enable us to throw light, we tively secure against the disease, but when his stomach illusions of the sight to a greater or less extent. In trust, on most of the authentic cases of spectral illurejects common nourishment, and he persists in tak- hysteric and epileptic cases also, where fits or partial sions on record. ing stimulants, the effects are for the most part trances occur, the same phenomena are frequently speedily visible, at least in peculiarly nervous con observed. But we shall not enlarge on the effects

OCCASIONAL NOTES. stitutions. The first symptom is commonly a slight produced by the influence of severe and obviously impairment of the healthy powers of the senses of existing maladies, as it is in those cases only whero hearing and seeing. A ringing in the ears probably the spectre-seer has exhibited apparent sanity of mind A LAMENTABLE meagreness of taste is displayed in takes place; then any common noise, such as the and body, that special wonder has been excited. It is this country in giving Christian names to children. rattle of a cart on the street, assumes to the hearing so far of great importance, however, to notice that The usual custom seems to consist in naming the a particular sound, and arranges itself into a certain these diseases do produce the illusions, as in most infant after some friend or relative, no matter how tune perhaps, or certain words, which haunt the sufrecurrence of every noise. The proverb, “as the fool afterwards displayed some of these complaints in full done by way of compliment, but, generally speaking, ferer, and are by and bye rung into his ears on the to them, however sound to appearance at the time, offensive or prosaic the name may be. This is perhaps thinks, so the bell tinks,” becomes very applicable in force; and we may then rationally explain the whole it is treated very lightly by the person supposed to be his case.

His sense of seeing, in the mean while, matter by supposing the seeds of the ailments to have complimented, and the favour might as well be spared. begins to show equal disorder ; figures float before early existed in a latent state. A German lady, of where the name is euphonious or well-sounding, there him perpetually when his eyes are closed at night. excellent talents and high character, published an By day, also, objects seem to move before him that account some years back of successive visions with can be no harm in the practice, but where it is a are really stationary. The senses of touch, taste, and which she had been honoured, as she believed, by harsh or too common appellation, a positive injury smell, are also involved in confusion. In this way the Divine favour. Dr Crichton, however, author of an is inflicted on the child for life, all to satisfy a passing disturbance of the senses goes on, increasing always able work on Insanity, found that the lady was always whim, or pay an imaginary compliment. It can be with the disorder of the alimentary function, until affected with the aura epileptica during the prevalence from no other cause than this that there is such a the unhappy drinker is at last visited, most probably of the illusions ; or, in other words, that she was in the twilight, by visionary figures, distinct in outline labouring under slight attacks of epilepsy. Thus limited range of Christian names amongst us. We as living beings, and which seem to speak to him with simply was explained a series of phenomena which, have Johns without end, and then in numerical prothe voice of life. At first he mistakes them for reali- from the high character for veracity of the subject of portion come James, William, George, Thomas, Robert, ties, but, soon discovering his error, is thrown into them, astonished a great part of Germany. Another and two or three others, all which being repeated in the deepest alarm. If he has the courage to approach case, where functional bodily disorder of a different nearly every family every new generation, there is and examine any one of the illusory figures, he pro- and very simple kind was present in an unrecognisable bably finds that some fold of drapery, or some shadow, state, and produced extraordinary illusions, was the the greatest difficulty in tracing descents for the sake has been the object converted by his diseased sense famous one of Nicolai, the Berlin bookseller. This of inheritance ; and in those cases in which each male into the apparition, and he may also find that the individual, when in a perfectly fit state to attend to member of a family has several sons, all with precisely voice was but some simple household sound converted his ordinary business, was suddenly visited one day, the same names, an utter confusion is introduced by his disordered ear into strange speech ; for the when casually excited by some annoying circumstance, senses, at least in the milder cases of this sort, rather by the figure of a person long dead." He asked his into the genealogy. We have thus, for example, known convert than create, though the metamorphosed may wife, who was present, if she saw it ; she did not. five cousins, all possessing the name John Thomson, differ widely from the real substance. The visitations The bookseller was at first much alarmed, but, being and similar absurdities must be continually occurring and sufferings of the party may go on increasing, till a man of sense and intelligence, he soon became con within every other person's knowledge. he takes courage to speak to the physician, who, by vinced of the illusory yet natural character of the

What we should propose being done in the matter great care, restores his alimentary organs to a state spectra, which subsequently, for a period of two whole of health, and, in consequence, the visions slowly leave years, appeared to him in great numbers

, and with of naming children is

, for the parents to look about him. If, however, remedies are not applied in time, daily frequency. «I generally saw (says he) human for a new and well-sounding name for their child, the party will probably sink under the influence of forms of both sexes, but they took not the smallest whether male or female, without any regard to the his disorder. The spectral figures and voices being notice of each other, moving as in a market-place, stupid old custom of calling infants after uncles, aunts, solely and entirely the creation of his own fancy, where all are eager to press through the crowd; at grandfathers, or grandmothers. Why not introduce will seem to do or say any thing that may be upper- times, however, they seemed to be transacting business most in that fancy at the inoment, and will encourage with one another. I also saw several times people on

more liberally into the common stock of Christian him to self-murder by every possible argument-all horseback, dogs, and birds. All these phantasms ap

names some of the fine old Anglo-Saxon appellatives, emanating, of course, from his own brain. The whole peared to me in toer natural size, and as distinct as such as Arthur, Athelstan, Alfred, Swynfen, Albert, consists merely of his own fancies, bodied forth to him if alive ; none of the figures appeared particularly Edmund, Egbert, Ethelbert, Edgar, Edwin, Cedric ; visibly and audibly. His own poor head is the seat of all; terrible, comical, or disgusting, most of them being of there is nothing apart from him-nothing but vacancy. an indifferent shape, and some presenting a pleasing

or for females-Adela, Adeline, Agatha, Amanda, Dr Alderson, a respectable physician, mentions aspect. The longer these phantoms continued to visit Alice, Matilda, Eleanor, Censtance, &c. The fund of his being called to a keeper of a public-house, who me, the more frequently did they return.” They also Roman, French, and other names, might also be drawn was in a state of great terror, and who described | spoke to him repeatedly.

upon, as Adrian, Adolphe, Hortense, &c.

NAMES.

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DRINKING WINE AT DINNER.

Shall fresher rise to view

On a former occasion, we showed the impropriety in the “Wee Housie," " I hae naebody now," « When trating his faculties upon works likely to live. Thus, of giving children two Christian names, or of giving a the kye comes hame," and " Oh Jeanie, there's nae- the last ten years of Hogg's life may be said to have surname for a Christian name. But it indicates a thing to fear ye"--all of them pieces so well known, been devoted to destroying the fame which he had much greater meanness of taste to call any child by that their peculiarities will occur to the memory of formerly, and under many difficulties, acquired.

These desultory remarks must be brought to a the name or titular appellative of any member of the serious emotion which the poet ever wrote, the follow- close, and we shall do so with another beautiful little royal family. We lately heard of a gentleman in the ing one, little known, seems to us one of the most piece from Hogg's song collection :

“ Father's Lament," and metropolis who had called his three sons, respectively, affecting. It is entitled a

A WIDOW'S WAIL.

« Oh thou art lovely yet, my boy, Kent, Cambridge, and Sussex, a thing no doubt done appears with a fine air attached to it in Bishop's Select Melodies :

Even in thy winding-sheet; for the purpose of creating a sensation among strangers.

I canna leave thy comely clay, “How can you bid this heart be blythe,

An' features calm an' sweet! « Sussex, my dear, will you come this way?” or “Cam

When blythe this heart can never be ?

I have no hope but for the day bridge, I'll trouble you to hand me that book," sounds

I've lost the jewel from my crown

That we shall meet again,

Look round our circle, and you ll see well when uttered by an elegant mamma in a promis

Since thou art gone, my bonny boy,
That there is ane out o' the ring

An' left me here alane! cuous company, and for the moment raises the notion

Who never can forgotten be-
Ay, there's a blank at right hand,

I hoped thy sire's loved form to see, that one of the royal family is present. Such are the

That ne'er can be made up to me!

To trace his looks in thine; mean motives which sometimes influence parents in

An' saw with joy thy sparkling so 'Tis said as water wears the rock,

With kindling vigour shine! the naming of their children.

That time wears out the deepest line;

I thought, when auld an' frail, I might
It may be true wi' hearts enow,

Wi' you an' yours remain;
But never can apply to mine.

But thou art fled, my bonny boy,
For I have learn'd to know and feel-

An' left me here alane!

Though losses should forgotten be In high life, the practice of asking another “to

That still the blank at my right hand

Now closed an' set thy sparkling eyes drink wine with you,” is quite worn out. It is only

Can never be made up to me!

Thy kind wee heart is still,

An' thy dear spirit far away followed by an inferior order of persons in provincial

I blame not Providence's sway,

Beyond the reach of ill !

For I have many joys beside, towns, who are not yet aware that the change has

Ah! fain wad I that comely clay
And fain would I in grateful way

Reanimate again ; taken place. The custom at first-rate tables has for

Enjoy the same, whate'er betide.

But thou art fied, iny bonny boy, some time been that which is followed on the conti

A mortal thing should ne'er repine,

An' left me here alane !

But stoop to the supreme decree! nent; every one takes what he or she likes, without

Yet, oh! the blank at my right hand

The flower now fading on the lea bothering neighbours. A servant usually hands round

Can never be made up to me!"

The leaf just falling from the tree liquors. It is gratifying to observe that by this plan In expressing the doubts, and fears, and pains of

The year will soon renew : few take any wine, or at most only make a kind of love, the Ettrick Shepherd is extremely happy, though

But lang may I weep o'er thy grave

Ere thou reviv'st again ; sham of drinking. The use of intoxicating liquors at he more often adopts a semi-burlesque tone, than the

For thou art fled, my bonny boy, seriously-plaintive style of Burns. But the following

An' left me here alane !" table is obviously declining in the best circles of so

stanzas, from a piece entitled “Bonny Mary,” may be ciety, and is kept up by the middle classes, not from read after the Lass of Ballochmyle, without any risk a vicious taste, but from a wish to show off, and an of detriment to the reputation of Hogg :

MEDICAL QUACKERY. idea of being hospitable. The sooner these ridiculous

“ Oh Mary! thou'rt sae mild and sweet,

A CLEVERLY written pamphlet on medical quackery, notions are corrected, the better.

My very being clings about thee;
This heart would rather cease to beat,

by Dr Charles Cowan of Reading, has lately been Than beat a lonely thing without thee.

brought under our notice, affords us an oppor

How dear the lair on yon hill-cheek,
SONGS OF JAMES HOGG.

Where many a weary hour I tarry!

tunity of saying a few words on the subject. The For there I see the twisting reck

manner in which thousands of persons in all parts of It would be a difficult task properly to characterise in

Rise frae thic cot where dwells my Mary.

the United Kingdom, but England in particular, are words the genius of the Ettrick Shepherd. The case

When Phæbus keeks outower the muir,
His gowden locks a' streaming gaily-

absolutely cheated out of their money by venders of is different with Burns; we can readily discern what When morn has breathed her fragrance pure,

quack medicines, independently of the serious injury were the leading features of his intellect, as developed

And life and joy ring through the valley-
I drive my flocks to yonder brook,

done to health by these pretended nostrums, is a great throughout his poetry. But the Ettrick Shepherd

The feeble in my arms I carry,

disgrace to our social condition. No circumstance that had scarcely a single marked quality of mind in com And every lammie's harmless look

Brings to my mind my bonny Mary.

could be produced shows more clearly the state of mon with Burns; and, in saying so, we do not mean

The exile may forget his home,

ignorance among the mass of the people, than the exto undervalue the former in the slightest degree.

Where blooming youth to manhood grew;

istence of the vast delusion and credulity respecting The elder bard, it may be safely said, could as little

The bee forget the honey-comb,
Nor wi' the spring his toil renew;

these trumpery and often vicious preparations. have produced the Queen's Wake, Queen Hynde,

The sun may lose his light and heat,

Shrewd as the English are in every matter of busiRingan and May, or many of the other highly ima

The planets in their rounds miscarry,
But my fond heart shall cease to beat

ness, they may be described as children in all that ginative pieces which Hogg gave forth, as the Shep

When I forget my bonny Mary."

pertains to the curing of disease. It would appear that herd could have written Tam O'Shanter, or the

This last verse will bring to recollection the closing any man, no matter who, will be almost certain to Cotter's Saturday Night. In their songs, these two one in the “ Lament for Lord Glencairn :"

realise a fortune by manufacturing and selling preScottish poets differ as widely as in their larger pro

“ The bridegroom may forget the bride

tended specifics for bodily complaints, provided he ductions. We do not find in the songs of Hogg that

Was made his wedded wife yestroen;
The monarch may forget the crown

possess a sufficient share of impudence, advertise well, axiomatic pith, terse humour, and compressed beauty

That on his head an hour bath been; of sentiment, which appear in such pieces as “A

The mother may forget the child

and keep up an imposing personal appearance. But, That smiles sae sweetly on her knee;

it is not alone in England that the imposition is suc. Man's a man for a' that,” “The Braw Wooer,” and

But I'll remember thee, Glencairn,

cessful. Wherever there is a preponderance of Eng“ Mary Morison.” What we find in place of these

And a' that thou hast done for me!" qualities in the songs of the Ettrick Shepherd, it is Certainly the images in the shepherd's stanza are

lish or descendants of English located, there the quack not easy to tell, although it is undeniable that many they are, nevertheless, very beautiful

. The follow- settled part of North America, and in the colonies,

All over the Englishnot so forcible or appropriate as those of Burns, but medicine-vender flourishes. of them possess a charm of no common kind, and one ing song, to the tune of “Over

the Border," is among quacks are as successful as in the mother country. fitted to make them lastingly popular. A certain the most popular of the shepherd's lyrical produc- Every American newspaper which we see abounds: happy naïveté, or quaint simplicity of thought, ex- tions :

with their advertisements. It has been calculated that pressed in the genuine Doric of Scotland, with fre

“Oh, my lassie, our joy to complete again,

200,000 dollars are spent annually for advertising quent touches of tender and kindly feeling, and a Meet me again i' the gloaming, my dearie ;

Low down in the dell let us meet again

quack medicines in the United States. In Canada, flow of pleasing imagery, derived from homely na

Oh, Jeanie, there's naething to fear ye !

Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and the West Indies, tural objects and common rural occupations, may be Come, when the wee bat flits silent and eerie, described as perhaps the principal features charac

Come, when the pale face o' Nature looks weary :

the sum must also be considerable. The medicines are Love be thy sure defence,

the same which deluge the advertising columns of the terising the songs of Hogg. Real humour is less

Beauty and innocenceapparent in any of them than odd turns and “ queer"

Oh, Jeanie, there's naething to fear ye !

British press —elixirs, pills, purifiers of the blood, expressions, which supply its place, and produce much Sweetly blaws the haw and the rowan tree,

lotions, worm-cakes, dentrifices, &c. A peck of quack

Wild roses speck our thicket sae breery ; of its usual effect. The following stanza from a song

prepared pills is believed to be consumed daily in Still, still will our walk in the greenwood be

Boston ; but New York, being larger, takes half a written, in the poet's courting days, to the lady who

Oh, Jeanie, there's naething to fcar ye !
List when the blackbird o' singing grows weary,

bushel. afterwards became his wife, and who lives to lament

List when the beetle-bee's bugle comes near ye, his loss, will give a fair example of the happy turns

Then come with fairy haste,

According to Dr Cowan, the facilities for extenalluded to :

Light foot and beating breast

sively advertising are greater than is generally supOh, Jeanie, there's naething to fear ye !

posed. “The leading journals of the metropolis in« Could this ill warld hae been contrived To stand without mischievous woman, Far, far will the bogle and brownie be,

sert very few quack advertisements, for the simple How peacefu' bodies might hae lived,

Beauty and truth, they darena come near it;
Released frae a' the ills sae common;
Kind love is the tie of our unity,

reason that the proprietors themselves are not venBut since it is the waefu' case

A' maun love it an'a maun revere it.

ders of patent medicines, and because they require That man maun hae this teasing crony,

"Tis love makes the sang o' the woodland sae cheery, Why sic a sweet bewitching face ?

Love gars a' nature look bonny that's near ye;

cash for quack as well as for all other announcements. Oh had she no been made sae bonny!"

That makes the rose sae sweet,

It is chiefly in the provincial papers, and in the less

Cowslip an' violetAs an example of the way in which he gives a

Oh, Jeanie, there's naething to fear ye!"

influential London journals, that the quack advertises, lively point to verses by single expressions, we may

the proprietors of these frequently becoming jointquote another passage, from“ My Love she’s but a darling," and some others that might be named, there virtually his shop, and the sale of the nostrum is often

In such songs as “Cam ye by Athol,” “Charlie is my stock partners in his trade. The newspaper office is Lassie yet" ;

is, upon the whole, little poetic merit, and the popu“She's neither proud nor saucy yet,

larity of the pieces rests in no small degree on the the sole security for the payment of advertisements, She's neither plump nor gaucy yet ; But just a jinking,

national feeling incorporated in the composition. One the proprietors persisting in zealously advertising as Bonny blinking,

circumstance materially distinguishes Hogg's poetry the only means of securing remuneration. Many of Hilty-skilty lassie yet."

from that of Burns; the shepherd latterly wrote much the latter have large stocks of medicines on hand, Of the tender and kindly feeling, and the flow of unpoetic motive. Urged on by magazine editors, which occasionally

become valueless by the rapid sale homely

yet pleasing imagery, characterising the songs publishers, and also his own necessities, he issued of some more successful competitor for public favour. of the Ettrick Shepherd, fine examples may be found multitude of perishable things, in place of concen- Journals just commencing, or of very inferior circula

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tion, not only insert puffs of the empiric on these are a million of people ; if one dies in seven years, many to paid puffs abounding in the grossest falsehoods. terms, but sometimes deduct from the proceeds of sale are ill before this comes, and I may reckon 25,000 are We cannot help feeling, also, that to the regular praconly sufficient to meet the duty; and even this is occa- ill. If my bill reaches one in 100, and this one buy titioners of medicine, no small share of the blame of sionally paid by the newspaper proprietor himself, only a guinea's worth of my stuff, this would give me this state of things is chargeable. The Latin jargon who seizes upon a quack advertisement as the only L.2000-a-year. In the country I find 15,000,000 of in which medical prescriptions are clothed, the degree means of filling up his empty columns, and giving to people, and my stuff sells as well in the country as in of mystery often maintained with respect to what is his paper a fictitious appearance of importance and town, or better, not needing to see the folk ; and as I simply a plain matter of science, and above all, the wide circulation. It is evident from this that the live upon onions, and follow my trade for a time, and incomprehensible variety of practitioners in the proquack wields a fearful power in the public press; his will advertise more and more as I get on, the odds are fession, not to speak of the unseeinly contentions expenses are often little more than nominal, while he very much against me, if, with the king's arms, autho- of rival medical schools and corporations—all afsecures the agency and interests of the newspaper rity of parliament, and extracts from the Gazettes, ford admirable scope for the quackish pretender, proprietor in his behalf; and thus the very means by but that I ride at last in my coach !’-nor is his con- and we can hardly wonder at uninstructed people which the public mind should be directed and en-jecture wrong.".

being so easily imposed upon. While, therefore, lightened, is converted into a source of incalculable Dr Cowan adduces the following instances from earnestly warning our readers against purchasing or mischief." To this we may add a circumstance that different authorities :-"A Dr Meyersbach started using a single medicine advertised in the columns of has attracted our attention. The number of quack about 1770 as a water doctor; he had arrived from a newspaper, and recommending them in all cases of medicine advertisements in the English provincial Germany in a starving condition, and was first an disorders to apply at once to a respectable medical papers is remarkably stationary ; it usually varies hostler at a riding-school. Not making money fast man for advice, we are decidedly of opinion that the from twenty to twenty-four in each newspaper, and enough, he set up as a doctor, and was consulted by medical profession stands greatly in need of reform, you may observe the same announcements keeping all classes. It is believed that he acquired a good for- and this reform must take place before any solid their place for years. In the Scotch newspapers there tune, with which he retired to his native country. change is to be expected in the custom of depending are comparatively few of these advertisements, the Le Flevre, another German, a broken wine-mer- on quackish pretenders. people in the north, as we suppose, being less easily chant, set up for a gout doctor, and was much noticed duped by the impudent falsehoods and extravagant by the nobility. Under pretence of going to Germany absurdities of the race of newspaper empirics. for more of his powders, he quitted this country, and

SIGHTS OF A FOREIGN FAIR. It is not denied that an advertised medicine con- had the prudence never to return. He carried over Fairs in France are conducted with a much greater tains a substance which may serve a good purpose in about 10,000 guineas, obtained by subscription and amount of fun and drollery than in England, perhaps certain complaints. But the absurdity is, tha in most otherwise. Living in the style of a prince, he drunk cases the medicine is put forth as a specific for a wide daily, as his first toast, To the credulous and stupid for the reason that the French in general are better range of diseases. We have pills offered to us which nobility, gentry, and opulent merchants of Great Bri- acquainted with the art of being joyous, and are are to cure all kinds of " coughs, colds, asthmas, short- tain!'

more lively in their mirthfulness. Enter the field ness of breath, oppression of the chest, dropsy, and A mechanic was afflicted with a serious disease, to where a French fair is held, and the number of consumption." It is clear that this is an impossibility. get rid of which he applied to a physician of eminence ; sights and sounds around you will astound both eye Some coughs, for instance, are the symptoms of pul- he was accordingly furnished with a prescription, and ear. Peasants and citizens, men, women, and monary affections, while others proceed from the which wrought a most perfect and expeditious cure. children, crush, press, elbow, and bawl without instomach. Now, is it reasonable to suppose that any So well pleased was the patient, that he procured the termission.

The whining of clarionets, the groaning one medicine is calculated for these opposite states same medicine for an acquaintance, and a like happy of drums, the tinkling of cymbals, the piping of panof derangement ? The impertinent thing about quacks result followed its administration. He then procured reeds, and the explosion of fireworks, symphonise, is, that they strike almost entirely at symptoms, they the different ingredients, and learned from the doctor pleasantly or unpleasantly as the state of your temper speak of cough and asthma as if these were diseases the

art of compounding them. He now set zealously may be, with the voices of the visiting crowd, and the in themselves, and not mere external signs of some to work, and with the assistance of his friends and loud appeals of the dealers and tricksters there prespecies of functional or organic derangement. To coadjutors, circulated the reputation of what they sent. "At every step, some of these latter personages, care a cough, we must first understand what it is that called the newly discovered remedy, and its fame from booth, stall

, or stage, tempt you to make purchases, causes the cough, and the same in all other maladies. rapidly extended. A name was soon found, it was

or try your luck, or patronise an exhibition. Of what, it may be asked, are quack medicines gene- duly advertised, it obtained an increased sale, its pro

Go into one of these places of exhibition, and you rally composed-what is their precise character! The prietor

received orders from abroad, and he now at shall be treated to a set of pictures, formed by the slides writer before us gives the most complete information once left the workshop, and assumed the name, title, of a magic lantern,

most amusing and instructire to on this point. “Quack medicines, almost without ex: and honours of a doctor. He can now count his mil behold. "You shall there see “ the Emperor of Russia, ception,

are nothing more than the revived formulæ of lions (dollars), and laughs at the credulity and gulli- at the moment when he is engaged in reviewing the some obsolete pharmacopæia, the prescription of some bility of those

who have contributed to raise him from grand imperial army. He has his staff beside him. medical man of eminence, or a modern preparation obscurity to eminence, and from poverty to princely | You observe a young girl approaching. She is saying, with a new name, and sufficiently adulterated to ren- independence.

Sire, my father wishes me to marry one man, and I der its recognition difficult. They are not, as the Many adventurers in the pill trade in England have want to marry another. The emperor is replying in empiric would have one believe, profound discoveries risen to wealth by this method. Among the list may these remarkable words, Atten-kirkoffs!' which means, of his own, the result of deep experimental research be found several clergymen, as inventors of this class that to suffering humanity sovereigns should always combined with exquisite chemical skill, but formulæ of medicines, although, probably, the most successful be compassionate.” After the magic lantern exhibipirated from the regular profession, and puffed into of late years, is a man who was a short time ago a tion, pass on, and you will come to a natural philonotoriety by the use of medical words and phrases barber, and shaved for a penny !"

sophy lecturer, or, as he calls himself, physician-geneextracted from professional books. They form no real “ It cannot be wondered at that so many take up ral of the people of France. He is a man who really additions to the art of healing, while they are indebted the trade of quackery, as it is one of the most profit possesses some knowledge of experimental chemistry, for their popularity and sale to their occasional suc- able in which a man can embark. Five hundred or and, with the help of an electrifying machine, and a cess, but more particularly to the secret and myste- six hundred per cent. is deemed but a fair and reason- few other instruments, astonishes the peasants with rious mode of their announcement, the extravagance able remuneration for the outlay of capital. This may his experiments in physics. The theatre of his labours of their pretentions, and their adaptation to the fancies startle, but it is true. Let me ask any rational indi; is a small circular space, enclosed with a rude wooden and

prejudices of a medically ignorant population. vidual how persons, without a farthing in the worla railing: On a table in the centre stands an air-pump, The really distinctive character of a quack medicine to begin trading with, bave been able to build splendid a voltaic pile, Leyden jars, and the various appendages is this, that it is an ordinary remedy to which are mansions, drive a carriage and pair, keep their town of the electrifying machine. When he exhibits, the ascribed extraordinary virtues ; it is administered by and country houses, with elegantly laid-out gardens country people ask in amazement how this man can the empiric without knowledge or discrimination, and conservatories, and spend from five to six thou- bottle up the thunder of heaven in a phial. The voice while the educated practitioner attaches to it no other sand por annum on advertisements, which is the case qualities than what experience has confirmed, and with more than one of the present race of quack-me, when he says, "With my acquirements I might be

of the physician-general of France is sad and plaintive adapts its employment to those peculiar conditions of dicine doctors, if the trade was not most profitable? entertained in the palaces of kings." Poor fellow! the system where it may reasonably be expected to be on a recent examination at the Insolvent Court, it he perhaps believes what he says. He is the most of use."

oozed out that every pound laid out in the manufac- honest of the charlatans, and one must per force pity To this is added an analysis of the composition of turing of their body-destroying trash, produced a clear him, when one beholds his attire, which speaks of about thirty different specifics, pills, elixirs, drops, &c.; profit of six pounds." but we refrain from mentioning them, as the insertion “The fact is, that quack medicines, at the present

sore struggle between pride and poverty.

But the multitude have little feeling for the poor of the names of the proprietors in any form in our moment, are among the most tempting and successful experimenter, and crowd to the side of a family of pages would be attended with more harm than good. speculations to the needy, the unprincipled, and the dancers and jugglers, consisting of a husband, wife, Considering the extraordinary pretensions of quacks, avaricious; and success is nearly or wholly

indepen- and several children. The father commences the perit must be a matter of curiosity to know who they dent of the real utility of the remedy--but, on the formances. He is dressed in a Turkish garb, or one really are, or what they have been. We learn from extent of the publicity given to it, on the ingenuity that is called Turkish all over the world-excepting in Dr Cowan, that in many instances the names attached with which it is adapted to the public prejudices and Turkey. He takes a few brass balls, and tosses them to the medicines are fictitious, or adopted from the cravings, and on the persevering and reckless manner into the air in various ways, which he respectively name of some well-known practitioner; in this way in which its pretended virtues are attested.

calls the Japanese, Hindoo, Malay, and Chinese modes. we have the names of Armstrong, Boerhaave, Ashley In some instances, it does seem to have occurred to Every now and then he calls aloud, “ Gentlemen, I Cooper, and others, as if these celebrated individuals the modern empiric that it would be scarcely safe to am the sole and only person now travelling who pertestified to the virtues and sanctioned the indiscrimi- found his claims to such wonderful knowledge upon forms these wonders.” The children, meanwhile, are nate employment of the stuff fathered upon them. his individual researches, and he therefore transforms lying upon a carpet, and looking as easy and careless

During the protectorate of Cromwell there were himself into a body corporate, and his house into a numerous instances of disbanded soldiers of the vilest college-(how !), by the speedy and simple process of feat of standing on the point of their toes on the pa

as if they were not destined by and bye to the perilous character taking upon them the practice of physic. having the word painted in large letters upon the ternal chin. Their first exhibition consists of a set In the present day, the quack is usually a cunning wall! Fearing that statements might be mistrusted of fearful postures, of which the father speaks with knave, of no education, who, by sheer force of impu- if put forth in the name of the party deriving the sole amazed rapture. In due time, the turn of the woman dence, and tact in playing on a weak point in human emolument from the sale, so the ingenious device is comes, and the man introduces her thus : "Gentlemen, nature, pushes himself forward from an humble to an adopted of giving them the appearance of emanating my wife now before you, called the Female Hercules, exalted condition. Dr Thornton, writing in 1813, says, from an association,', or society,' 'establishment,' will close our exhibition by bearing on her chest this “ It is a known

fact, that thousands of children lose hall,' or college,' of learned persons, and they come weight, exceeding five hundred pounds. But first, their lives annually by vorm cakes, advertised by the before the public with all the additional authority of gentlemen, I shall do myself the honour to make the legal and infamous destroyers of their fellow-creatures, an imposing name and an imaginary combination of round of this respectable company, and hope to expewho, for the sake of gain, are still suffered to go on wisdom !"

rience their generous bounty." in their work of death in an enlightened period ; and, Notwithstanding the numerous cases of death and Move on to the next exhibition. Here we have a alas ! no patriot has as yet stood up to remedy this personal injury produced by taking quack medicines in rope-dancing and tumbling party, with a master or growing evil. The calculation of the quack is this :- England, no pains whatsoever have been taken, either conductor, and a merry-andrew or clown, to preface I was in my youth a chimney-sweeper, next a scaven- by the public or by the medical profession, to extirpate the business. “Master, what are you going to give ger, and now I am a tinker or mender of kettles ; my the nuisance. The press, with two or three exceptions, me,” says the clown, "for bringing all these people to brother, the cobbler, has made a decent livelihood, and has been worse than silent on the subject; for it en- look at you?” “Why, I will give you a piece of ginger is much respected, by turning from mending soles to courages the delusion by giving systematic publicity bread, Mr Merryman, which will suit you very well," converting souls. I have no mountebank to be sure,

says the master. “No, I won't have it,” returns the but I can circulate handbills. In London alone there

* Weekly Dispatch, February 24, 1839.

clown. “And why?!" ' “ Because it is just the colour

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