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left as a blessing to the poor. Surely, when these We shall not be able to choose our town allotments they turn with aversion from the restraints of civilised things are duly considered, it will not be a long time for the next three or four months, and at least a year life, and have made but trifling progress in mental ere we look back upon the practice of machine-break- will elapse before we have the chance of selecting our cultivation or the useful arts. It is remarkable of ing as one of the most astounding illustrations of country sections; this comes of hurrying off so soon

both the American and Toltecan families, that they popular delusion that the annals of human barbarism after the surveyors, which I protested against as far have been quite unable to stand their ground against can produce.

as was in my power when in London, but could find even inferior numbers of Europeans, who must accor

no one to second me. We are, however, allowed to dingly soon become the sole possessors of that great NEW ZEALAND,

squat, as it is termed in this part of the world, and continent.

have a right to remain on the land for the term of Considering the characteristics manifested by the In a letter from Mr George Duppa to his father, two years, although I intend bargaining for five years American variety, it becomes a matter of most inteHollingbourne House, Kent, respecting his arrival in if I can, and by that means be enabled to clear a resting inquiry in what natural peculiarities they New Zealand, and lately published in the Spectator larger quantity of the land which is to be reserved differ from Europeans, for it is in such peculiarities newspaper, the following descriptive passages occur. deserted native potato-grounds, requiring very little mental inferiority.

for public purposes, and which consists chiefly of that we are to look for the causes of so striking a He writes from Port Nicholson :trouble to clear.

The brain is the organ of the mind, and on the size “ Now for the beauties of the place. The harbour Several ships have arrived in the harbour from of this organ, other conditions being equal, depends resembles rather an inland lake than an inlet of the Sydney, with all sorts of goods on board; and to-day the comparative force of character of individuals. sea, particularly when it is perfectly calm; which is miserable-looking animals, not equal to the Welsh of two brains,

similar in constitutional character and one has arrived with about forty head of cattle-very By “ other conditions being equal,” it is meant that not always the case-it being so squally and change- runts. The price they ask for them is L.30 per head; activity, the larger is sure to produce in its possessor able a climate, as far as the wind is concerned, that a price I do not intend to pay yet, for, in the first appearances of more vigorous character than the we are frequently threatened with an upset when place, I do not see how they are to be kept, and in smaller will do. Hence it may be presumed that a sailing about in our boat to bring our goods, or when the second, I do not see how they are to be used. considerable number of persons, or a nation, possessing on a fishing excursion : but she (I mean the boat) is No.- cattle will not answer at present, although it large brains, will be for certain more powerful than

will pay to breed them a few years hence ; for but the same number of persons possessing comparatively very stiff

, and I have acquired the art of managing cher-meat will bear a good price, as will likewise sinall brains. But general size of brain is not the her to such an extent as to secure my safety in her. every description

of agricultural produce. As soon only measure of human character. Different regions But to return to the harbour: it is surrounded with

as we have supplied ourselves, the Sydney market of the brain are charged with different functions, the mountainous hills, for that is the only way to describe will take the surplus. A crop of wheat and a crop of intellectual faculties lying in the front or anterior them-being a species of neither mountain nor hill, potatoes, or any succulent crop, can always be reaped in lobe, the moral sentiments in the coronal surface, and and yet both. They are partly covered with a sort of one year, there being no frost to check the vegetation. the animal propensities in the posterior part. Hence bastard flax and long grass, which gives them rather Two crops of wheat might be had off the same land if it may be presumed that if the brains of one nation a barren appearance; but it is fully compensated by there were any means of keeping it fed down until on an average are large in any one of these departthe rich description of forest timber which covers the blighting winds cease, which appear to blow dur- ments in proportion to what they are in other dethe remainder. At the further end of the harbour is ing a short period of the year. In fact, the only thing partments, that nation will be remarkable accordingly the mouth of the three rivers on which the town is to against agriculture here, is the land being so densely with respect to intellectual and moral character. These be built. They flow down a valley of level land, which covered with timber, and consequently so expensive doctrines are as yet received by only a certain class is from four to six miles in breadth, and surrounded to clear; but that is of course but a slight impedi- of inquirers (the adherents of the philosophy of Gall by hills most densely covered with timber; as is like- ment to a large capital. For if it costs a man L.40 to and Spurzheim); but they appear to us founded in wise the valley itself, excepting on the banks of the clear an acre of land, which will produce him four nature, and a remarkable proof of their truth is found river, which have, at one time or other, been cleared quarters of wheat per acre (and I will warrant the in Dr Morton's researches in American aboriginal by the natives for potato-gardens : but those gardens soil being as capable of producing six quarters as any crania. do not extend further than one hundred yards or so land in England), which, when made into flour, wiil Having obtained a considerable number of the skulls inland, and they are in some places still in a high sell at 6d. per pound—a price which it is fetching at of the various races of men, Dr Morton measured their state of cultivation ; in others, rather more neglected, present, and which it is likely to fetch for the next internal capacity by means of white pepper seed, and. where the potatoes and cabbages have run to seed ; in five years he will have the whole, or nearly the found the following results :others again, which are by far the most frequent, they whole, of his outlay returned to him at the expiration are covered with a species of willow, which is by no of six months; and thus be enabled to put another means difficult to eradicate. But, unfortunately, these crop into the same land at a small expense. Once

capacity Largest in smallest in spots have been reserved by the company for public ploughing, with one pair of oxen and a light plough, purposes, for boulevards, or some such nonsense or will be sufficient ; for I never saw land turn up so other; the land immediately in the rear being covered well in my life : it is like the finest garden mould, and with timber of such extraordinary dimensions as to perfectly free from weeds—a circumstance which is 1. Caucasian, 52 87 109 75 require at least L.40 per acre to clear it. But this is to be attributed to its having been so thickly covered 2. Mongolian,


69 business again. The scenery of these rivers, as you with wood.”

3. Malay,

18 81 89 64 go paddling up them in a canoe, is most enchanting :

4. Aboriginal the principal river is as broad as the Thames at Rich

American, 147 SO 100 60 mond, but too frequently interrupted by snags, which HEADS OF THE ABORIGINAL AMERICANS. 5. Ethiopian, 29 78 94 65 have in many places formed bars, which must be removed before it can become navigable for a boat of A PAPER in Silliman's American Journal of Science It thus appears that the aboriginal Americans rank any size : but a canoe which does not draw more than and Arts makes us acquainted with a very interesting fourth

with respect to the size of their brains, the Ethioany where, and enable you to see it all—and a beautiful recently published at Philadelphia, by Dr S. G. Mor: pians being lowest and the Caucasians highest. The

general results are strikingly in conformity to all we sight it is

. Picture à most enchanting serpentine ton, professor of anatomy in that city.* river, overshadowed by trees of richest verdure em- Dr Morton considers the

aboriginal people of Ame- know of the history of the races, for the Caucasian blossomed by every colour, enlivened by the deep rica, with the exception of the Esquimaux, as a dis- nations, while the Mongolian, the next in order of mellow and quaint notes of the ptui, or mocking-bird, tinct variety of the human species. Their

principal capacity of cranium, has produced a number of nations besides those of hundreds of others equally rich and external peculiarity is the skin, which is generally of which remain at a fixed point in semi-civilisation, the curious ; and every now and then paroquets of the a reddish hue, though varying much in different Malay is a degree more barbarous, and the American brightest greens and reds fluttering from bank to countries, some nations approaching white, and others and Ethiopian the most barbarous of all. bank, and adding their chattering notes to the general black. It appears from the late interesting researches The inquiries which Dr Morton has made amongst concert : in fact, it is of little use my attempting to of Flourens, that the American skin, like that of the the Toltecan family, at first appear somewhat incondescribe scenery so rich and varied in the limited negroes, comprehends two layers in addition to those sistent with these results, but, when fully considered, space of a letter ; to be fully appreciated, it must be of the European races, and that in the outermost of they are found to be exactly what miglit have been

I trust, therefore, that your imagination will, these two layers the red colouring matter resides ; expected. “ From the Rio Gila in California,” he to a certain extent, make amends for the meagreness from which Flourens argues that the white, the black, says, “ to the southern extremity of Peru, their archiof this description, and that the slender materials and the red races, are essentially distinct. If these tectural remains (that is, the architectural remains of which I have furnished will give some notion of the conclusions be just, the speculations of Humboldt and the Toltecans) are every where encountered to sursite of our town, which for many purposes is most ad- others as to the migration of the Americans from prise the traveller and confound the antiquary ; mirably adapted. As an agricultural district, it will Asia must be esteemed as unfounded, and we must amongst these are pyramids, temples, grottoes, basnot answer for many years, inasmuch as it requires henceforth regard this portion of mankind as an in- reliefs, and arabesques; while their roads, aqueducts, too great an outlay of capital to do any thing with it; dependent variety. An exception exists only with and fortifications, and the sites of their mining operaand I question much whether there is the hundred regard to the Esquimaux, who are of the Mongolian tions, sufficiently attest their attainments in the practhousand acres of level land for those who have already or Eastern-Asiatic variety, and have probably migrated tical'arts of life.” The ingenious people who formed come out. You will therefore say that the whole is a

to their present settlements from the elder continent. these works are generally understood to have ceased failure : but not so, for at Taranaki, distant overland Dr Morton subdivides the American or red variety to exist, as the predominant people at least, about the about sixty miles, there are millions of acres of level into two families, just as the European variety is sub- eleventh century of our era, when the Incas began to land, which will not be nearly so expensive to clear, divided into Celtic, Teutonic, &c. He calls these reign in Peru. There are therefore ancient Peruvians with a much better river running through it, but un- 1st, the American, and, 2d, the Toltecan. The second and modern Peruvians, just as there have been ancient fortunately a very poor harbour. The soil there is were those people who attained a condition of semi- Britons and modern Britons. Vast quantities of the equally good as here--so report says. Previous to civilisation in Mexico and Peru, long before the dis- bodily remains of the ancient Peruvians are found in making up my mind for a removal thither, I intend covery of America by the Europeans. They had the desert of Atacama, which was their favourite place going there myself ; and if it should prove satisfactory, forms of government and a regular priesthood, had of sepulture for many ages, and where the united inI shall choose my town-acres here (for this will always made considerable advances in the arts, and have left fluence of a dry climate and a river abounding in salt be the principal town), and my country sections there many monuments of their ingenuity and united labours has preserved many bodies in a mummy-like condition.

For an agriculturist, the first four or five in temples, tombs, and miscellaneous sculptures. But Dr Morton examined many heads derived from this years are those which will pay best, as we shall not this race does not now exist in any distinct form, and place, and found the entire internal capacity to be be able to supply ourselves until the expiration of that may be considered as extinct. The other family, small, only 73 cubic inches, which is considerably below time ; and I well know that Sydney will not be able specially

called American, branches into several subor- the average of the existing American aborigines. He to spare us any in the mean time. Wheat is now dinato groups, to which the names Appalachian, found, however, that the amount of space in the intelselling there at 1.10 per quarter, and was much higher Brazilian, Patagonian, and Fuegian, have been applied. lectual and moral regions was considerably larger in a short time back. A friend of Sinclair's, a fellow- All are remarkable as warlike, cruel, and unforgiving; proportion than in the latter class of crania, while the midshipman, who has been in this part of the world

entire form of the head was more symmetrical and for the last four or five years, tells me that the Sydney agriculturists never calculate upon realising more than various Aboriginal Nations of North and South America; to

* Crania Americana ; or a Comparative View of the Skulls of elegant. It therefore may be presumed that the an

cient Peruvians were a people of gentle and refined one out of three crops ; so that I feel confident of our which is prefixed an Essay on the

Varieties of the Human Species, character, well qualified to excel in works of art, but always having a good market for our produce. Oaten- illustrated by seventy-eight plates and a coloured Map. By little qualified to maintain their ground against the


Samuel George Morton, M.D., Professor of Anatomy in the Meand probably three times, in the course of the season, &c. Philadelphia: J. Dobson. London: Simpkin, Marshall, neighbourhood, and who have accordingly overpowered hay itself, which can certainly be harvested here twice, dical Department of Pennsylvania College at Philadelphia, &c. grosser but moro vigorons tribes residing in their sells at L.18 the ton.

and supplanted them.

and Co. 1839.




press was absorbed by the productions of this conten- enable a horse to bring a load of three tons down any

tious outbreak. There is in the British Museum a colorate of descent, a friction-break has been employed, (Under this title, which, in the west of Scotland, is equivalent lection of two thousand volumes of tracts issued between similar to the one in common use in Belgium, from to Joe Miller,” a collection of anecdotes and jokes is at present the years 1640 and 1660, the whole number of which which Sir C. Stuart Menteith derived this important publishing in parts, by Blackie and Son, Glasgow. With not a little of rather a coarse taste, the Laird occasionally gives us a several publications amounts to the enormous quantity application. The break is a strong plank, fixed to the

back of a cart or waggon, which, by means of a screw, of thirty thousand. This most curious collection was sparkling witticism or story, highly significant of national chamade by a bookseller of the name of Tomlinson, in the machine, so as to give a sufficiency of friction to retard

the carter presses against the two hind wheels of the racter. We offer two or three specimens.]

times when the tracts were printed—was bargained for, the too’rapid descent of the carriage. This plan has DAFT RAB HAMILTOX. Rab Hamilton, a half-crazed mendicant, was a regular bought by George' 111., and presented by him to the proprietor in Edinburgh, from the suggestion of Sir C.

but not bought by Charles II.—and was eventually been employed with great success by Mr Croal, coachobject instead of making directly towards it, rather look- British Museum. The limited demand for any produc- Stuart Menteith, who has now used it more than four:

tions unconnected with controversial subjects may be ing away from than at it, yet keeping a corner of his eye

teen years upon his coal waggons. The mode adopted distinctly on it. If he happened to be in the presence of inferred from the little popularity enjoyed by Milton's by Mr Croal is to fix a lying axle to the plank pressing gentlemen, who often invited him to take a dram for the metrical publication, and the fact, mentioned by Dr upon the hind-wheels of a coach, and which is tumed by purpose of drawing him out, he would pretend to hear Johnson, that from 1623 to 1664, the nation was satis- an upright shaft, with a bevel wheel, connecting the two silver fall on the floor. " What's tat-deed is't-surely fied with two editions of Shakspeare's plays, which pro- shafts, and turned by a winch by the hand of the coach it was the jingling sound o'a shilling on the carpet-- bably together did not amount to one thousand copies. guard, without moving from his seat. Were this break no-but ye can just gie me anither-I'm saying, deed the Restoration ; it was a transition from one extreme sure's death, deed ist; but I dinna see't on the carpet The cause of wholesome literature did not benefit by applied to every

coach, the lives and limbs of thousands

would be preserved, as the guard would be able to stop is't--and you'll get it yoursel' after I'm awa.” to another_from a conclave to a brothel ; and it became thought that treble, as it were, of the weight of a coach

horses when running away with a carriage—as it is a mere toy of a licentious king, his courtesans and gal is to be drawn, if the two hind-wheels are prevented from The late Sir Walter Scott, meeting an Irish beggar in lants, who sought to divert their weariness with wits revolving by the break. This kind of break enables a the street, who importuned him for sixpence, the then and authors, as monarchs were wont to do with their coachman to drive with perfect security down a descent Great Unknown not leaving one, gave him a shilling, jesters. Charles II. and his followers brought hither of any length, and at any rate of speed. adding, with a laugh, “ Now, remember you owe me six; the spirit of the literary parasites of Louis XIV., with If the employment of horse waggons, weighing from pence.” “Och, sure enough," said the beggar; “and whom the great were everything and the people nothing, 12 cwt. to 13 cwt. were adopted in conveying coal through may your honour live till I pay you."

save a brute and random bolt, or slumbering shell in a the streets of London, one horse would do the work of TIT FOR TAT. A pedlar halted at a public-house in the country, and

mortar. Under this kind of favour, letters, with a few two; at present, four immense horses draw three chalat the landlady's request displayed nearly every article grand exceptions, put on the lowest garb in which they drons of coal, or four tons one hundredweight, in a wagin his pack, for her examination. This he did cheerfully, habiliments to excite the gross passions of human can be arrayed—were tricked out in meretricious finery gon weighing two tons; so that the

shaft-horse is obliged

to draw a weight of six tons in turning out of one street expecting that a large purchase would be made. On inquiring what article the landlady would like to buy, she nature-to pander to the low appetites of the swell into another, which is the greatest cruelty to which a coolly replied, “ Hoot, 1 dinna want to buy ony thing ; 1 mob of St James's, or the hardly less degraded rabble roads of cast iron should be laid down, for the wheels of merely wanted a sight of them.” “ I'm sorry ye'll no that congregated nightly at Blackfriars or the Globe

carts or waggons, upon the narrow steep streets from the buy," said the pedlar;" but never mind, let's see half-a- theatre in Southwark.— Wade's British History. river Thames to the Strand, which would enable one mutchkin o' your best whisky.” The stoup was instantly


horse to draw two tons up those streets, instead of using filled, and a voluntary piece of oaten cake placed beside it on the server. The pedlar kept warming himself at a

Railroad travelling possesses many peculiarities, as

six horses, the present practice.- Scotsman, June 1839. brisk fire, and crumping the gratis cakes, while the land well as advantages, over the common modes of conveylady was allowed in courtesy to help herself and some

ance. The velocity with which the train moves through THE VOICE OF HOME TO THE PRODIGAL female gossips, who had also been inspectors of the pack, the air is very refreshing, even in the hottest weather,

[BY MRS HEMANS.] to a tasting of the liquor; having drank his health, where the run is for some miles. The vibration, or

Oh! when wilt thou return and guid sale to him, she filled up the glass and handed rather oscillatory motion communicated to the human

To thy spirit's early loves ? it to him. “Na, na," said he, “I want nane o' your frame, is very different to the swinging and jolting

To the freshness of the morn, whisky; I only asked ye for a sight o't!" So saying, he motions of the stage-coach, and is productive of more

To the stillness of the groves ? tightened his strap, and set off on the tramp. salutary effects. It equalises the circulation, promotes

The summer-birds are calling digestion, tranquillises the nerves (after the open country

Thy household porch around, A country woman, whilst on a visit to a large manu

And the merry waters falling, is gained), and often causes sound sleep during the

With sweet laughter in their sound. facturing town in the west, went to hear a celebrated succeeding night; the exercise of this kind of travelling divine, whose field of labour lay there, and whose fame being unaccompanied by that lassitude, aching, and

Oh! thou hast wander'd long had often been sounded in the ears of the worthy dame. fatigue, which, in weakly constitutions, prevents the

Froni thy home, without a guide,

And thy native woodland song On her return, she was asked her opinion of. The star of nightly repose. The railroad bids fair to be a powerful the west," as he is often called.

In thine alter'd heart hath died. Oh,” said she, “ he's remedial agent in many ailments to which the metroa wonderfu' preacher—a great preacher.” “Well, well,

Thou hast flung the wealth away,

And the glory of thy spring ; that's all true," said the other ; " but what do you think politan and civic inhabitants are subject. The innuof his views of doctrinal points, and his powers of exmerable steam-boats plying on the river are another

And to thee the leaves' light play

Is a long-forgotten thing. pounding the scriptures ?"**" Oh," said the worthy critic, comparatively recent means of securing health to the

O'er the image of the sky * I dinna ken; but he's just a wonderfu' man.” “But metropolitans. The benefit derived from a trip for

Which the lake's clear bosom wore what did he say?" Oh, he just gaed on, and gaed on, thirty miles down the river on a fine summer's day, is

Darkly may shadows lie and chappit on the Bible, and raised his twa hands abune very great. The lively bustle of the river, the beautihis head, and then gaed on again, and gaed on again; and ful scenery on its banks, and the swift motion of the

Give back thy heart again then he swat and rubbit his brow, and whan he stoppit, vessel through the water, all tend powerfully to alienate,

To the freedom of the woodshe looked as if he could have said mair than whan he for a time, the mind of the business-pressed citizen from

To the birds' triumphant strain, began-oh, he's a wonderfu' grand preacher !” his daily thoughts; and the refreshing breeze which is

To the mountain solitudes ! almost always on the river has a most healthful effect.

But when wilt thou return ? The manse of Gargunnock, some half-century ago, was By bringing men of different countries more into con

-Along thine own pure air

There are young sweet voices borne known for all the good things of the season, as Samuel tact with one another, and by promoting the more

Oh! should not thine be there? Shool, the bellman, used to boast, when speaking of its complete interchange of opinion and community of feel

Still at thy father's board generous-hearted mistress. Honest Samuel was fond of

There is kept a place for thee, relating any thing to the credit of his benefactress in the ing between the inhabitants of the same country, steam manse. " Í mind," said he, on one occasion, “ ae Sab- less direct way, but which to the reader of this book conveyances contribute to the health in another, though

And, by thy smile restored,

Joy round the hearth shall be. bath morning at the summer preachings, mair than thirty

Still hath thy mother's eye, years sin', a sad pickle that the mistress was in, because must be sufficiently obvious.-Curtis on the Preservation

Thy coming step to greet, Betty M'Quat had forgotten to howk some early potatoes of Health.

A look of days gone by, on the Saturday night ; for potatoes were a great rarity


Tender and gravely sweet. at the time. What was to be done? Betty was like to A horse, of the Clydesdale breed, has been employed,

Still, when the prayer is said, gae through the yirth about it; and quoʻshe, “ Mistress, during fourteen years, by Sir C. Stuart Menteith, in draw

For thee kind bosoms yearn; I'll just tak the graip, and slip out and howk a wheen ing coal waggons on the ill-made tumpike road in the

For thee fond tears are shed[dig a few]-naebody will ken; and gif it come to the county of Dumfries, from Ayrshire to Dumfries. His minister's hearin', l'ií take the sin and the blame o't on usual load of coal has been 35 cwt., in a common light

-Works of Mrs Hemans. mysel. “Na, na, Betty, since I maun hae the rarity at road waggon of the weight of 13 cwt., in a stage of four the dinner this day, just gang awa out and pouter miles, which he performs three times every day, or twelve

BARBAROUS PLEASURES. (scrape) a few frae the roots o'the shaws wi' your hands miles in the course of twenty-four hours daily. He has --take nae graip wi' ye--use nae warkloom made by the

There is often, in fact, no material difference between hand o' man on the day o' rest; if the minister sets on except twice, when he was in a state of sickness. Sir C. rudest stages of society. if the life of many young Eng:

never been known to lie down during the last eight years, the enjoyments of the highest ranks and those of the me about it, I'll just tell him that we only pouter'd Stuart Menteith employs several more horses to perform lish noblemen and an Iroquoise in the forest, or an Arab them out the drill; there wasna a graip shank in the the same work, and to draw an equal load upon the same hand oony body about the house--surely a body may road daily. From the experience Sir C. Stuart Menteith

in the desert, are compared, it will be found that their use their fingers without being found fau't wi'.'” has had in the use of animal power upon common roads, treasures of science, the refinements of taste, the luxuries

real sources of happiness are nearly the same. The he is of opinion that the most economical mode of employ- of wealth, are in many cases disregarded or forgotten, Captain Basil Hall, whose written stories have charmed ing horses in draught is to give every horse his own car

and the real excitation of life depends upon the destrucall who have read them, was one day endeavouring to riage, and that he should solely depend upon his own

tion of wild animals or the management of impetuous enliven a remarkably stiff and dull dinner party, by a exertions in drawing the load, as otherwise it is well

steeds. This is a fact which is matter of daily observafew oral relations of the same kind. He concluded one

known that it is difficult to find either man or beast tion; and it furnishes a most instructive lesson as to the of a very extraordinary character, by saying, “ Did you equally willing or capable to make the same exertion, or proportion established by nature between the active and ever hear any story so wonderful as that ?" and at the to have the same spirit or motion; and at the same time the speculative part of mankind. The great majority in same moment his eye chanced to rest on a footboy op

never to exceed six miles on one stage, and to be perposite to him, who, without leaving a moment of interval, formed twice daily. In a stage of three miles and a half, from any other source but physical excitation, and every

every class of society are incapable of receiving happiness exclaimed, “ Yes, man, there's a lass i' our kitchen, that Sir C. Stuart Menteith employs waggons weighing 18 cwt., plan for human improvement which is founded on any kens a lass that has twa thoombs on ae hand !" in which horses draw three tons. The road is in general other supposition, will necessarily fail

. Nor is it without upon a declivity of one foot of fall for every eight, sixteen, good reason that nature has established this disproporor eighteen feet, with several ascents of one foot in every tion between the studious and the active part of the

thirty feet, up which a horse draws the load of three species. The great mass of undertakings essential to the The period of the English press, from the accession tons, and a waggon of 18 cwt.; but in order to facilitate existence and the welfare of mankind, depend on physical of James I. to the Orange revolution, is generally con

the ascent, a continuous line of sandstone railroad is first exertion ; and, unless the greater part of our fellow, sidered the least satisfactory in our literary history. laid down, upon which a plate of iron, six inches wide, creatures were disposed to that species of labour, and In the reign of the first Stuart came an inundation of by a quarter of an inch thick, is fixed down. Sir C. gratified with the enjoyments that attend it, the race pedantry, which surrounded the court with verbal cri- Stuart Menteith has known horses to draw three tons of would speedily perish, and the speculations of science ticism and solemn quibble; the people, indeed, had iron up an ascent of one foot in fourteen for a short dis- disappear with the individuals who formed them. -Alitheir glorious dramatists, but Bacon was looked upon tance; and he is of opinion, that when the pulls or

son's Principles of Population. 1840. as an impracticable dreamer. Controversy, too, began with a railroad applicable to the wheels of common road

ascents upon all the roads in this island shall be laid to be rife, and the spirit at last exploded in such a tor- carriages, a horse will be enabled to draw the same load rent of civil and ecclesiastical violence in the next reign, up the ascents that he can draw or work with upon the

LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by W.S as left no opening for science or belles-lettres. The level parts of a road in a twenty mile stage. In order to

ORR, Paternoster Row; and sold by all booksellers and new men.-Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars

But not for everinore.


Oh! when wilt thou return ?








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market-town and gentlemen's houses round, with the being truly developed, had always borne a semblance In a retired corner of Lancashire,* resided a poor most unflinching hardihood. But in spite of such of self-denouncing inconsistency, it no longer formed widow of the name of Rokins, who had brought up a

laborious industry, in spite of her unwearied attention a matter of speculation, even among ultra-scandallarge family, and, previous to the death of her hus- to a helpless invalid, there was not a neater cottage dealers ; the more so, as it was observed that the lady's band, enjoyed the satisfaction of seeing them all, than Sophy's, or a prettier, tighter-looking lass than charms were really on the wane, and that Graham except the youngest daughter, comfortably settled, herself, in all the neighbourhood. Her frame was annually visited the village, but not the cottage, as according to their respective minds.

invigorated, not injured, by such toilsome exercise ; punctually as ever. Newer wonders supplied their During the life of honest Jacob, the family had her cheeks glowed with the brightest, though cer- taste for theory, and Sophy was left to Heaven and depended chiefly on his labour for support, which, tainly not the fairest, hue of health ; and her eyes her own discretion. besides being devoted to the earning of weekly wages beamed intelligently with gratitude to Heaven and Still the industrious and dutiful daughter rose daily from the neighbouring farmers, was also directed in- modest self-approval. Her poor mother, though with the morn, and, while daylight lasted, toiled in defatigably to the culture of a small garden, of which widowed and bed-ridden, was one of the happiest of her well-ordered garden through wet and dry, heat the well-managed produce greatly increased their old women ; and although her helpless state required and cold, or trotted with her donkey to the markethumble income, at the same time that it furnished a many comparatively expensive indulgencies, there town. For upwards of eighteen years she pursued wholesome and certain provision for their table. At was always something laid by, after the rent was unwearied the same quiet simple course ; at last the the period of his death, his widow, who was rather paid, with a view of one day purchasing the cottage final stroke came on, and her mother died-closing advanced in years, and had never boasted the robust and its fertile bit of ground, and making it indeed her life in peace and satisfaction, and with her last health common to our northern peasantry, was become their own.

breath blessing the daughter who had so dutifully and too weak even to assist the little Sophy in the care of Of course, a damsel who united such excellent affectionately prolonged it. the cottage ; and, conscious of her own infirmity, and qualifications to so much personal attraction, could The grief of the unsophisticated Sophy was sincere yielding to the pressure of present sorrow, not with not remain an indifferent object to the youth of her and poignant, at losing the parent to whom all her standing the comparative comforts that surrounded neighbourhood. Though Sophy never joined a village assiduity and energy had been so long devoted, and her, and the little hoard amassed by frugal industry, merrymaking, and scarcely ever rested from her toil

, great, indeed, was her astonishment at the occurrence she deemed the workhouse her inevitable destiny. of a summer evening, to gossip with a neighbour, old by which it was interrupted. The contemplation of such an evil, as she considered or young, woman or man, she could not escape atten- Scarcely were the remains of the aged invalid comit, threatened

to hasten the close of a life which had tions and offers without end, from the disengaged of mitted to the earth, when every one of her married been passed in a hard and successful struggle for the village, many made by proxy, from thrifty fathers sons and daughters—some of them now old men and honest independence. It was too much ; the thought and mothers who wished to secure so eligible a help- women themselves, with grandchildren at their heels preyed on her mind, and the poor woman became

mate to their children. Even the miller's son, it was -came one after the other, upon the bewildered paralytic.

whispered, though probably not by his wealthy parents' mourner, demanding to have the property of the What was to be done ? Sophy, though not brought special desire, had paid his devoirs at the shrine of deceased fairly divided between them, according to up for regular service, was a strong, active, and, better independence and filial affection, and received the the law; which thus provides for the worldly wealth still, a willing girl, and might have earned a tolerable unfailing answer, “ No !"

of those who are so unworldly wise as to die intestate. maintenance for her mother and herself, by going out; Sophy Rokins was stanch to her principle. She The sight of the expected plunder so sharpened their but then her poor mother required constant attention, lived for the mother whose life she felt she had saved, avidity, that some of them would actually have proand the most affectionate care, and none of her mar- since the door of the workhouse would to her have ceeded to turn poor Sophy out by force, had not their ried children could contrive either to take her under been the door of the tomb, and nothing could induce attention been suddenly arrested by the clamour of their roof, or contribute to her support at home. They her to leave her, or even to do any thing which might contention arising amongst themselves respecting the contented themselves merely with observing, that lessen her comfort and peace of mind.

different portions of property which each wished to “Soph might as well live with mother as a servant, as However, scandal—for there is a species of that appropriate. The struggle appeared interminable ; go out among strangers, and hire a stranger to bide wi' baneful weed flourishing even in the wilds of Lanca- and even to the most excited, it was evident that mother.” How money was to be earned by this sa

shire-attributed these repeated refusals at least to many of the disputed objects stood a chance of being gacious arrangement, they did not trouble themselves more than one motive, if not entirely to another and destroyed in the heat of argument. Seeing this, they to inquire. They “ spoke their minds on the matter,” very different one from filial piety. There was a hinted at length became unanimous on one point, and that as they called it, and held that enough. Fortunately, story of a travelling merchant or pedlar from “ merry was, the expediency of submitting the affair to arbitheir youngest sister thought there was also occasion Carlisle,” who had visited at the cottage in her tration. With this enlightened view of the subject, to act.

father's lifetime, and even since his death, in the they left the sorrow-stricken and astounded Sophy Sophy had long been in the habit of assisting her course of a yearly pilgrimage to the city of York-of once more to peaceful possession of the cottage ; father in the late and early labours of the garden ; a scene in an arbour-a ring and a lock of hair-even but their rancour and cupidity were greatly inindeed, as her strength and stature increased, she had of a moonlight walk, and interchange of vows. And creased, as they retreated, by observing the Cumbrian taken a considerable share therein, and latterly had it was even so—at least as far as the basis of the pedlar leaning thoughtfully on the garden paling, and always selected the supply for market, and arranged rumour was concerned; for scandal, though never stop evidently meditating on the scene of violence they it in the panniers of their ancient donkey. “Why ping at the truth, generally starts with it. The intel- had just so shamelessly exhibited. not,” thought she, as she leant sorrowfully over her ligent and sober Cumbrian had made the only tender It was the time of his annual visit, and he had patient favourite, “ try to make the produce of the impression on Sophy's magnanimous heart it ever had passed through the churchyard that morning while garden still maintain my poor mother? Why not received ; but, scandal—thou unfair historian !-he, service was being read over the widow's grave. Not now carry these fine raspberries and scarlet beans to too, had shared the firm refusal, and even, in addition, wishing that the taunts he could easily predict awaited market, which our dear father took such pains to bring

a cruel mandate, visited on no other applicant, never him, should reach the ears of the doubly-afflicted and to perfection ? Let us go, Neddy; for if we don't go again to afflict her with his presence. She saw, with friendless Sophy, he turned quickly on an angle of now, father's customers will forget us, and we shall northern quickness, that her poor mother's half- the road leading to the town, and avoided the hostile ha to deal with strangers, who would take advan- extinguished spark of life might yet burn out the party. The latter, who had but a moment before tage of you and me."

brightest part of her own and Graham's, and deter- been so thoroughly divided on the question of meum The attempt was made ; and from that moment mined, with northern simplicity of attachment, that and tuum, now united in the most social manner in Sophy cared nothing for hard-hearted overseers, or

the man she loved should not be bound to waste that common cause against him whom they knew to have still more hard-hearted brothers and sisters. Night life for her. She had decided, in her humble mind, on once been a devoted, and whom they suspected to be and morning she worked in her little garden, through

a sacrifice of herself, and was content to abide by it, still a favoured, suitor of their unfortunate relation. all weathers, or travelled with her donkey to the

but incapable of wishing another to share it with her. It was unanimously decided that no time was to be

Graham, however, wanted neither her acute penetra- lost—that the law must be had recourse to; but that, * This tale, and that entitled “The Flitting," in No. 453, were tion nor her strength of attachment; and her motives of two lawyers in the town (who lived chiefly on the written some years ago by an individual since dead. In the

were not lost on him, though her injunction was reli- work each cut out for the other), it was necessary to manuscript, as laid before us by his widow, the name of the courty has only the initial L-; but disliking blank names, giously obeyed.

take counsel before they made an election. Happily, we venture to fill it up as above, believing from other circum

Time crept on. Sophy ceased to be courted or they were again unanimous as to the propriety of constances that Lancashire must have been meant by the author. talked of; and as the story of the pedlar, for want of sulting MrGordon of the mill on this important subject.



Gordon was a man who prospered himself, and whose was capable of listening, how the case stood with re- respective marriages, to seek to deprive your sister Sophy, advice, when taken, always prospered too. Among gard to the clainis of her relations--the step he and who has always lived with her, and supplied her with the merely cunning, he held the reputation of being they had, with such different motires, simultaneously the means of support she has so long depended on, to “ a sharp man;" the wiser part of his admirers knew taken in consulting miller Gordon, and that worthy turn her adrift, in a manner now, too, that she is unfit that he was a just one- that his sense of equity man's deterraination to settle the cause himself there,

for any other work ?" equalled, indeed assisted, his penetration and discern- in the very scene of their contention. He also stated

“ Please, sir, I was going to observe"-said the fourth ment. Nature had endowed him, amongst many that, though more than ever anxious to make her his, daughter. “ If you please, Mr Gordon, sir,” cried the other valuable qualifications, with such a portion of he had not then sufficient funds in hand to secure the eldest, “ I was always mother's favourite, and that

“ And that vile Sophy," interrupted the good sense as taught him to turn all the rest to the humblest dwelling to them, even in his own mountain second son, « is a-going to disgrace us all, Mr Gordon, utmost advantage; his was, in fact, a self-cultivated village, where money went so far, having lost the and throw away the property on a low-lived, drunken, understanding, which extorted involuntary respect fruits of twelve years' toil and self-denial by the breakalike from those whose worldly condition made them ing of the bank in which he had deposited his slowly speaking

Scotch pedlar, Mr Gordon, sir, and that's why

* A nasty, vulgar, drunken, fancy themselves his superiors, and those whose unen accumulating gains, since the death of his parents, sneaking fellow,” shrieked all her sisters. “ We knows lightened minds could show them no reason why they whom he formerly used to support. But to Sophy, her well,” screamed a brother's wife ; " she kept comwere his inferiors. None, however, held him in more a second time in her life all difficulties and distress pany wi' un years ago, Mr Gordon, till no decent young just estimation than Graham Wilson. Theirs were seemed to vanish before her. In a moment she had woman would keep company with her.” “ And she's & kindred minds, similarly favoured by nature, and ex. found herself possessed of two friends, one powerful most undootiful daughter,” said Mrs Turner ; " for she panded by circumstances. Graham had not turned to protect her, and one, better still, kind and faithful, was always away from poor dear mother, gossiping in the angle of the road, before it occurred to him also to value and require her services, and thereby to ren

the town, or 'musing herself in her garden, Mr Gordon." that Mr Gordon was the proper person to settle the der life valuable to her.

Any how, I undertakes to see to the credit of the matter of Widow Rokins's property. He quickly

family, Mr Gordon," said the eldest son ; " and it must

The visit of the pedlar to his old sweetheart was reached the mill, and in ten minutes' time, these two clear-headed and well-intentioned men had deter- neighbourhood; and as soon as it was known to have very soon reported and speculated on throughout the and shall be provided for! A nasty drunken lout!"*

“Well, you understand the credit of the family' best, mined on the course to be pursued with the senseless taken place, the jealous relatives watched the widow's but a useless trifle, split amongst so many, for you must

no doubt [fresh triumph] ; but, after all, this will be and unnatural claimants of the widow's little property. cottage, as though they thought Graham peradventure know there are many other relatives who also have a Sophy, as before hinted, had, some sixteen years back, might stow the whole in his pack; but before they claim, if you succeed in proving yours ; while, undivided, been more than a mere favourite with him who was could muster force to arrest his progress, he evaded it is to her a comfortable livelihood.” now master of the mill; but that was long gone by, their pursuit as effectually as he had done the morn- “ But out of respect to mother's memory, Mr Gordon, and a steady comely dame had as long borne the name ing after the funeral.

we all wants to have some of her bits of sticks, and you of Mrs Gordon, and presided over its domestic com

At last the day of expectation came ; and Mr Gor- sees yourself it is ourn in law." forts, and was now called mother by more than half don, after quietly hearing all Sophy’s simple story,

* Well, well! But how comes it, my good friends, a dozen rosy urchins. Nothing but a generous in, without making any comment to her on it, awaited with all this respect for poor mother's memory, none stinct to succour the friendless, and assist injured the arrival of the rapacious multitude, seated with of you opened your doors to her when your father died, worth to repel its enemies, actuated him now in his much composure and dignity in the old high-backed or even assisted, your sister, who was then very young, readiness to second the pedlar's anxious interference. leather chair, in the chimney corner.

to support her?" Setting out instantly to seek some of the unjust But who shall describe the scene of that arrival ?

“ La, sir, we all has large families of our own, oppressors, he met the whole party about to invade who depict the varied, eager, or malignant expressions mother po

and" “ But have you ever done any thing for your his premises. The moment they perceived him, each of the family countenance –or who single out the knows I gi'd her a handkercher one day, and that's why

* La, Mr Gordon, sir, to be sure we has. I being eager to speak first, they all burst forth at once, various assertions of right with which each preferred proclaiming every one their business after his or her his or her own claim, and disputed that of the others when she grew bad last autumn"

I wants" * And I sent her a basket of apples,

“ And I most peculiar fashion; and all with so much vehemence, and in such a grating dialect, that Mr Gordon

would to this or that different portion of the property ? Lost always came in and wound up the old clock for her, for have been but little enlightened on the motive of alike in a Babel of Lancashire dialect, and the hoarse I was afeerd Sophy, with her rough hand, might ruin it

tones of rage and arrogance, there was no longer any like.” And, I'm sure, my little Jim often took her their visit, had he not heard it nearly all before in unity among them, except in all agreeing to endea water-cresses and the like.”

“ And I sent her a pound of his interview with the pedlar.

“ And I–And IAt the first break in their eloquence, he assured share. The grating and nasal sounds of the fore-menvour to annihilate Sophy's right oven to an equal honey, only just afore she died.”

And I" “ Were equally munificent and attentive them that he had always felt the strongest interest tioned dialect orthography would but faintly repre

no doubt,” interrupted Mr Gordon, now turning to the in the family of Jacob Rokins, and would therefore sent. Let rather such readers as have ever had the

two last speakers, Mrs Brummett and Mrs Dymock, both willingly undertak, to arbitrate the affair, as he was felicity of hearing it in its purity, imagine its peculiar much severity, for their want of filial tenderness and

women of nearly sixty, whom he reproached with so convinced, and could easily convince them, that either harmony on the present occasion. of the legal gentlemen of the village would not leave I'm sure poor mother meant my goodman to have all fit of crying on the spot, and the other withdrew to her

" Mr Gordon, sir! sisterly affection, that one matron burst into an hysteric a stick for the just heirs of the property, if once suf- the garden tools and things, for I know his father own dwelling, to invigorate her spirits with the contents fered to lay hands on it; and he therefore requested always said he should, and who'd a thought o' she of a certain charmed bottle, potent on such occasions the party to meet him that day week at Sophy's cot- taking to that kind of employ like ?”

Who indeed ?tage, then and there to make distinctly, and after remarked the arbitrator.

“ And now, then," said the miller, addressing himself

chiefly to the eldest son," you say your sister has worked more mature consideration, their respective claims,

“I only claims the bed and bedding things, and (like man, or a horse rather, I say she has worked) merely when, if not satisfied with his decision, they could but resort to the lawyers afterwards. This proposal poor dear mother's clothes, and all the small linen, as a servant to your mother, all this time ?”

“ Mother and we always considered so, Mr Gordon; was received with

thanks, and the host of claimants and that," cried the eldest daughter,“ beside our share withdrew. on it all when it comes to be sold.” “ No, Betsey -and all the neighbours, Mr Gordon.”

“ Very well! Sophy, how old are you? Rather above Meanwhile, Sophy resumed her usual career of toil. Dymock, you can never want thay things; it's I some industry, but with a deep-rooted hopelessness your husband wants just every thing for yourselves ; cried the poor creature, in a kind of half shriek, half

“ Hold your peace, Mrs Rokins; you and one-and twenty, I suppose ?"

“ Four-and-thirty, sir! I bean't asham'd o'my age !" and dejection which she had never felt before. Little let Mr Gordon decide,” shouted the second son. had she ever anticipated that, in losing the parent“ Please, Mr Gordon-Mr Gordon-I only claims that

laugh. whom she had laboured so meritoriously to support: looking-glass and the clock, and that there bright, considerably affected.

" Indeed, you need not be, Sophy," cried Mr Gordon, she should lose, too, the means of supporting herself. rubb'd table and the big meal-chest,” screamed Sally sible hire a girl or woman ever receives for service in

“ Now, what is the lowest pos She found herself all at once, as it were, thrown upon Turner, the third daughter. " I don't wish for nothing these parts ?" the world, and instructed practically in the mystery else but the family Bible and the silver cup, grandof what that world was. It was no longer now, as

“ Sixpence a-week and a shilling a-week, sir.”

“ Well, rating your sister's wages only at a shilling whon her father died ; she was not now a girl, fit to father won at the archery, and the six christening be moulded to anything. “Unless I could hire my spoons, just for the credit of the family, as they're a-week (which she

has never been paid), the estate would

“ And I wants

mine by right," said the eldest son. self as a gardener," thought she," service is quite out

be now indebted to her for wages, far more than it is of the question." And, for the first time in her life, gardening books, and just a few tritling things, pure the old clock there and the looking-glass, and father's

ever likely to clear by sale! Now, what say you? This

is perfectly good in law, on your own admission. Shall she felt inclined to ask herself whether she had done

we refer it to the lawyers, and let them bring it into herself by marriage. She felt, perhaps, for one de youngest. No, Tom ! you have no right wi'any o settle matters on the

spot, and to content herself, which

? well in rejecting so many opportunities of settling out of respect for mother's memory," yelled the sponding moment, that her life was no longer of any them, and the looking-glass I will hare, for I was al

I know she will do, with being left in undisputed posses

“ Deil take you for a greedy old sion of her twice-purchased property ?”. value to any one, and, after her unkind relations ways the best.” should have turned her from her garden, of no use gossip, Sally Turner,” retorted her sister's husband,

It is needless to dwell on the chop-fallen looks of the even to herself ; but the recollection of having ful. Dowkins--it's no use talking what you'll have, and quiescence which interest instantly induced them to

Jock Brummett; and hold your clapper, Hannah claimants to Widow Rokins's estate, por the sullen acfilled one duty firmly and consistently—of having what you'll have, till we show'd Mr Gordon the ap- make with the

latter proposition of Mr Gordon, One rescued her dying

mother from the dread of a work- praisement, and see'd how much the sale of the estate after another, they all resigned their claims, as hastily house, and lengthened out her declining days in ease and happiness quickly returned, and as quickly the and learned speech, uttered with more than stentorian need we expatiate much on the restored tranquillity for any of the comfortable village homes she might, power, interrupted the uproar so successfully, that poor

Sophy's countenance, the benevolent intelligence of like her sisters, have now been mistress of. Even in ings, first of all requesting implicit attention to what Gordon seized the opportunity to open the proceed Mr. Gordon's

, nor the delighted and uncontrollable


tation of the constant pedlar, who, by previous agree the midst of the self-denying mandate which she laid he was about to say, and candid answers to all the Suffice it to record that Sophy, after shaking hands with

ment with the arbitrator, entered just at that moment. on Graham Wilson, even while observing the exactness with which it was obeyed, there had still existed questions he should see fit to ask. He looked at the

all her rival kindred, and insisting on their receiving a secret hope, unacknowledged even to her own heart, appraiser's estimate of the estate, and at one glance Graham as a brother

, generously and

kindly presented that he would be content to cherish her memory faith

was able to inform the thirteen disputants NEXT OF each with some article of furniture or apparel, according fully as she did his. She had always heard of his KIN, that by the time that Sophy's share and the ex- to the wishes she had heard expressed; as for her gratiannual appearance in the village, and by some means

penses of the sale, &c., were paid, three pounds a-piece tude to Mr Gordon, that is impossible to describe; it ascertained that he continued single. Some tender would be the utmost

that remained for

them. But could only be equalled by her admiration of his judgment speculations on the self-forbidden subject were un

now," he said, “ let me ask how it is, that this land, and wisdom. consciously supporting her under the weight of her having been purchased almost entirely by your sister As soon after this memorable arbitration as regard for new affliction, when the object of them suddenly only worked for mother as a servant, Mr Gordon. and Mrs Gordon acted as bridesman and brideswoman at Sophy's earnings, the property is not hers ?" She her mother's memory permitted, she bestowed her toil

wom hand on her faithful and long-loved Graham. Mr stood before her, altered indeed, but not to be a moment doubted by affection that had never harboured any

She never had no property of her own whatever. Tho other image. “Sophy!"

“Graham!--my Graham, property were always mother's, and were bought afore bride more blessed in the reciprocity of esteem and conAnd the poor woman, though not given to expressions ever she com’d o' age, Mr Gordon.”

fidence, and the possession of perfect sympathy; nor of feminine emotion, threw herself into his opened

“Then, indeed, as next of kin, it ought in law to be fairly ever did bridegroom more exultingly lead from the altar arms, and wept and laughed alternately. She felt divided among you." Great exultation was shown by all the wealth and accomplishments of nobility, united like a deserted child that had found a parent. But had come to judgment,” while poor Sophy hung her

the litigants, who thought in their hearts a second Daniel to all the graces of eighteen. this is merely a rough narrative of an “ower true head, and began to feel hope again forsaking her.

From that day Graham Wilson renounced his traveltale," not a record of sentiment, and least of all a love still, my good friends," resumed Mr Gordon, as a friend,

* But, ling, but he has added a small side-room to the cottage, story; so we cannot undertake to dwell on this scene

as a kind of private shop, where he accommodates his I ask you, is it not cruel and unreasonable for you, who farther than to say, that Graham explained, in the have been so long independent of your mother, and for his time is principally devoted to assisting Mrs Wilson in

old customers of the village with the usual wares, though clearest and shortest terms possible, as soon as she whom your father and she did all they could at your the care of the pig and poultry, and the eulture of her


garden, to which his general knowledge has added con- on again entering the world. The present mode of | demie rarely, if ever, absent from Glasgow; and it is siderable improvement. The market is supplied more punishment for crime is not merely useless--it is ab- the cause of a large proportion of the deaths. It admirably and punctually than ever ; but whatever is solutely prejudicial to a very great extent, and tends existed throughout 1836, but to what for Glasgow sweetest of the flowers, most perfect of the vegetables, materially to increase the evil it is intended to alle- may be called no alarming extent, until the month of and fairest of the fruits, is constantly offered up at the viate. The great mass of oftenders, when convicted, November, when a commercial embarrassment took shrine of gratitude, to Mr and Mrs Gordon of the mill.

are sent to jail, or to Bridewell, for periods varying place, and many persons were consequently thrown However, there is still enough, not only for themselves from five to sixty days, and hence, from the shortness out of employment. The season, moreover, was and the casual wanderer, but to regale occasionally their of the period, they are no sooner placed within the winter, and provisions were high in price. The con village neighbours, and even their NEXT OF KIN.

walls than their minds are occupied with the prospect sequence was, that in the four months ensuing upon

of a speedy deliverance. Attempts are, no doubt, the 1st of December, the fatal cases of fever were THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION AT GLASGOW. made to instruct them, and they are put to some de- 696, the number during the previous four months

scription of work ; but, for the most part, such endea- having been only 315. În April 1837, eight thousand

vours are completely in vain, as virtuous principles individuals were thrown out of employment by a At the sittings of the Statistical Section, during the and industrious habits cannot be formed in a day. strike of the cotton-spinners ; and the mortality from week of the association, several papers were read in They come out of prison really in a more hardened the fever reached its maximum in the ensuing month. illustration of the condition of the poorer classes in state than before, and with a deeper sense of their The attention of the wealthier classes was then drawn Glasgow and other parts of Scotland. These papers destitute condition ; and, at all events, if any good to the state of the poor, for it was seen that their own had å high and distinct interest of their own ; and we impressions have been made, thoy are soon obliterated ; lives were now in considerable danger. Accordingly, propose here giving, without interruption, a view of for, at the very threshold of the prison, they are met a Relief Committee was established, and large funds the leading facts brought out in them.

by bands of their old associates ready to welcome collected. A soup kitchen was set on foot, from At the first meeting of the section, Thursday, Sep- them, and as they have no calling to which to turn, which 18,500 individuals were daily supplied. Em. tember 17, Mr Miller, superintendant of the police of nor any honest mode of obtaining shelter and subsist- ployment was procured for 3072 males. Clothes and Glasgow, read a paper on the crime and criminal ence, they are forced once more to mingle with the blankets were distributed. In short, such measures classes of the city. We may mention that Mr Miller guilty crowd, and do as they do."

were taken to alleviate the destitution of the unem is a man of somewhat remarkable history, having been Dr Cowan, a medical practitioner in Glasgow, read* | ployed poor, that the severity of the fever was miti induced, by a natural bent of mind, to desert a pro- an elaborate and most instructive paper on the disease gated, and it began gradually to decline. On several fession in which he was prospering, in order to devote and mortality of the city during the few past years. other occasions, the same results have followed from himself, for a smaller income, to the office he now From this it appears, in the first place, that Glasgow, the same causes. " In 1817, 1818, and 1819, when holds. Having thus the advantage of a talent suitable in its widest sense, is now estimated to contain a popu- fever first prevailed in Glasgow to an alarming extent, for his peculiar duties, he has put the police on an lation of 272,000, which of course makes it the second its ravages were preceded by two bad harvests, and excellent footing, and manages all its affairs with a city of the empire in this particular respect. It has want of employment for the labouring poor ; and to thoughtful energy and accuracy, which his fellow- risen to this amount from 151,540 in the year 1822. prove the extent of the distress, not among the pauper citizens speak of in the highest terms. The paper Indeed, no city, even in America, that we are ac- class, but among the industrious poor, it appeared in read by Mr Miller proved him to possess an enlight- quainted with, has increased so rapidly in population, 1820 that 2043 heads of families pa ned 7350 articles, ened and philanthropic mind. He stated the popu- during the last thirty years, as Glasgow. In 1822, on which they raised L.740. Of these heads of familation within the police district to be about 175,000, the mortality was 3408, or one in about 444 of the lies, 1946 were Scotch, and 97 English or Irish ; but and the number of criminal cases in the year 1839, population ; in 1825, it was 4571, or as one in about the fact most deserving of attention is, that 1375 had to be 7687, the male offenders being three to one of 36). In 1828, the mortality increased to 5534, which, never applied for, nor received, charity of any descripthe fernales. The crimes are chiefly petty thefts ; at the then amount of the population, was one in 33— tion, though they knew that funds had been volunthe value of the property stolen in 1839 was about a proportion alarmingly higli. Since then, however, tarily raised to a large amount. * * And what were L.7663, of which a portion, to the amount of L.1260, the inhabitants of this great city have suffered still the articles pawned ?-blankets, sheets, clothing of was recovered. “ Many of the persons convicted of more severely. In the year of the Asiatic cholera, every description ; all the little articles of household theft are not habitual thieves ; some are wives de- 1832, when the population was 209,230, the mortality furniture having been previously sold, without the serted by their husbands ; some are children deserted reached the enormous amount of 9654, or one in about hope of ever redeeming them.” by their parents ; and many are led to the commission 214; and again in a year of severe fever, 1837, when It is now proper to advert to the amount of fever of offences by intemperance.” Of women given up the population was estimated at 253,000, it reached which has of late years existed in Glasgow; and here altogether to an infamous course of life, the num- 10,270, or one in about 244. It would appear as if, we are presented with a view of misery such as no ber is 1400, of whose career the average duration after such disastrous periods, the mortality becomes other city in the empire could exhibit, and more is estimated at about five years. " For the most for some time lessened. After 1832, it rebounded to resembling, perhaps, the sweeping calamities of part, they live in great wretchedness—their personal one in 36, and after 1837 to one in 37, or thereabouts. eastern climes, than any thing usually seen in our habits are filthy-they have miserable homes--they Probably this is in some measure owing to the effect generally more favoured country. In Glasgow, there are seldom in bed till far in the morning--they of severe epidemics in carrying off so many of the is a large infirmary, with fever hospital attached ; are without wholesome diet - they are constantly least healthy of the people. It is to be remarked, that the poor are also attended at their own houses by drinking the worst description of spirituous liquors in these results no account is taken of still-born chil certain physicians appointed for the purpose. It is and they are exposed to disease in its worst forms." dren, who in the eighteen years before 1840, amounted only the cases in the hospital and those privately The picture which Mr Miller statistically drew of a to 8763. The proportion of the still-born is start- attended in the above way, that come within the portion of the town where these and the other depraved lingly high, being, in 1830, 471 out of 6868, or about range of Dr Cowan's observations: there must, of classes chiefly dwell, was astounding--a close cluster a fourteenth. In this fact alone, we cannot help course, have been many other cases, attended as usual of narrow filthy lanes, honeycombed with mean unfur- thinking we behold a strong proof of the amount of at the expense of the parties, and we also learn that nished apartments, in which a dozen persons will live misery and error prevailing in Glasgow.

there were many cases calling for, but not obtaining in a space measuring perhaps twelve by eight feet, The average annual mortality in Glasgow was, for public aid, in consequence of the want of hospital without so much as a window, and often with no bed- the period between 1822 and 1830, both inclusive, 1 accommodation. Even, however, when we limit our ding suporior to a bundle of shavings. Three-fourths in 38}; for the period between 1831 and 1839, also view to the cases gratuitously treated, the results are of the crime in the city, in Mr Miller's opinion, arises both inclusive, I in nearly 32. At the latter date, if appalling. It appears that the fever patients treated from habits of drunkenness, for the indulgence of which it were habitual, Glasgow would stand forth as one of in the hospital, were, from 1795 till 1809, inclusive (a there are in the city 2300 licensed public-houses, mostly the cities most fatal to human life in Europe. Another period during which the population of the city was of a very mean description, being about 1 for every fact is most remarkable, that, of the deaths during comparatively moderate), 1072, or about 11 per cent. 117 of the population. There are 33 licensed pawn- these eighteen years, 43 per cent., or not much short of of the whole cases of disease treated in the infirmary. brokers, and about 400 of an inferior description, the one-half, are of children under fire years of age, and From 1810 till 1824, inclusive (a similar space of 15 usually distinguished as brokers, who make a practice 18 per cent. under one year of age. It further appears, years, but during which the population was becoming of giving money for articles by way of purchase, on from minute evidence, that in the years of unusually dense), the cases were 7085, or about 32 per cent. of an understanding that, if not previously sold to other great mortality, there is a larger proportion of deaths the whole cases. But during the last fifteen years, persons, they may be retrieved by paying an advanced amongst the adult population, showing how fatal the they have been 27,141, or 52 per cent of the wholo price. We shall afterwards see, from another paper, epidemics are to heads of families. From one-fourth to cases. From 1827 till 1839, inclusive, 9665 additional to what an extent the poor are robbed by this class of one-fifth of the funerals in Glasgow are at the public cases were treated privately and gratuitously by the low tradespeople. Mr Miller showed how much cri expense--an impressive fact, as Dr Cowan well calls city surgeons. During the five years from 1835 till minals are favoured in eluding justice, by the five it, seeing how it connects poverty with mortality. 1839, inclusive, the deaths from fever in Glasgow wero several jurisdictions into which the cluster of popula. To account for the great mortality of the last nine 4788, and the cases in that period are calculated to tion called Glasgow is divided, and urged strongly years in Glasgow, Dr Cowan speaks of—“the rapid have been 55,949, of which no less than 21,800 aro the propriety of having one jurisdiction only. He increase in the amount of the labouring population, supposed to have occurred in 1837, being one for concluded his series of details by remarking on the without any corresponding amount of accommodation about every nine persons in the city! “The mind," inefficacy of punishment to check criminals. “When being provided for them—the density, and still increas- says Dr Cowan, “cannot contemplate without horror crime,” he says, “ has been committed, and espe- ing density, of that population-the state of the dis- the amount of human misery which the above statecially after conviction and punishment, the charac- tricts which it inhabits--the fluctuations of trade, and ment so forcibly expresses." ter of the delinquent is almost always irretrievably in the prices of provisions, the lamentable strikes’ in Scarlet fever is also a very fatal epidemic in Glaslost. Though he were so disposed, he has no way consequence of combination among the workmen, by gow, having in the last five years carried off 1056 of obtaining honest employment, for no one will which the means of subsistence have been suddenly persons, while the cases are calculated to have been take him without a character, and he is shunned by withdrawn from large masses-the recklessness and 12,672.' Small-pox, in the same period, has swept all. Necessity, therefore, compels him, though it addiction to the use of ardent spirits, at once the cause away 2044, and measles 2448. In these diseases, the may be against his own inclination, to continue the and the effect of destitution-and the prevalence of victims are, all except a small portion, under ten years guilty career he has commenced. He proceeds from epidemic diseases both among the adult and infantile of age-the reverse of what is observed in the contabad to worse, until finally arrested by the hand of portion of the community.”

gious fever, where fully five-sixths are above the age justice, and made to expiate his crimes in exile, or Some notice of the huddled state of the miserable of ten. on the scaffold. Thousands of unhappy individuals, classes in Glasgow, has been presented in our notice of What is most striking about these statistics is, who have once swerved from the path of rectitude, Mr Miller's paper. It remains to be mentioned that that in London and other large cities in England, would gladly return to a virtuous course of life, if they a great part of the labouring population live in the fever is not nearly so fatal a disease, and prevails had the power; and it is certainly deeply to be deplored central parts of the town, not so much huddled up, comparatively to a small extent. In those cities, there that no adequate means have hitherto been provided certainly, into small apartments as the miserable is as much noxious exhalation, and as great density of for remedying so great an evil. The most effectual classes, but yet very densely packed together, their population, as in Glasgow; to what, then, can the mode appears to be—the formation of a workhouse, or houses being in narrow lanes, which the sun rarely difference be attributed ? Dr Cowan, Dr Alison, and a house of industry set apart for the accommodation penetrates, and which, for want of sewerage, are con- a few other philanthropic inquirers, can discover no of the criminal part of the population of the city, where, stantly exhaling the effluvium of filth and decaying answer to this question, but in the destitution which by a confinement of some duration, and by regular organic matter. This closeness and the results of is allowed to exist in Scotland amongst the poorer tuition and industrial occupation, habits of industry defective sewerage, no doubt operate greatly in reduc- classes, while in England (among the native populaand morality may be formed, and the inmates fitted ing the health of the people. The effect of reduced tion) such a thing can never prevail to any extent, for again mingling with the respectable portion of the means, whether from the fluctuations of trade, or the poor-law there making sure that no one need community; and it should be a part of the plan of " strikes,” can be only too easily traced in the morta- to remain in a starving condition if he chooses to such an establishment, that after an inmate has ap-lity bills. Fever, it must be understood, is an epi- apply for relief. In the instance of the commercial proved himself satisfactorily to the directors, means

embarrassment of 1836, had it taken place any should be taken of finding him honest employment

* At the meeting of Monday, Soptember 21.

where in England, the unemployed would have been

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