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GAS BURNERS.

maintained by the public, and one great cause of others. Some others might have been pressed. For

A HINT FOR MAP-MAKERS. fever would not have existed. The same would example, there is no assurance that in each parish

Those who, in this country, prepare maps for the have been the case with the numerous second-class the church collections would be sufficient : in St working-people whom the strike of the spinners in John's, the sum collected was unusually large, in con: Keller's Map of Switzerland, a foreign production,

guidance of tourists, would do well to look into been sustained till it pleased the spinners to resume tion of ladies and gentlemen from all parts of a large but sold, we believe, in England. This map is made their work. In Scotland, however, where none but city. Also, while the utility of such an agency may to tell of many things which are usually only nothe old and infirm get any public relief, and even they be admitted, the country cannot be satisfied that such ticed in the books accompanying maps, and all this

without confusing the eye of the peruser, as might be very little, a horde of unemployed people massed up an agency is every where, and within every parish, to in a dense city immediately becomes a focus of pesti- be had, or that each particular clergyman in the land expected, with an unusual quantity of writing The lential disease, spreading outwards to the wealthier is able or willing to frame and keep it in action. object is attained by a set of neat signs or marks, the classes, who then pay, with their lives for the erroneous Again, there is no certain dependence to be placed on explanations of which are given on a slip of paper theory on which their institutions are founded, and relatives and neighbours. These may do much for an pasted on the case of the map. There are at least only become convinced of the necessity of doing some unfortunate person ; but they will scarcely do all thirty such signs, and amongst them we find not only thing for the poor when they see the mischief take that is necessary, as is in fact shown by the present indications of the chief towns of districts, cathedral place on a sufficiently large scale, unfortunately taking system, which mainly consists in leaving the poor to towns, battle-fields, &c., which are sometimes given in no warning from the past for the future, but allowing be supported by the next class above them, the result our own maps, but things denoting mines, factories, every thing to go on as before, as soon as the danger of which is that they are, in general, barely kept in fine views, inns,

bridges, post-houses, and so forth. has been temporarily reduced.

life, while the object desired by the advocates of the As much intelligence is accordingly conveyed on the A paper not much less elaborate than that of Dr compulsory system is, that all

shall be fed up to the face of this map

as would otherwise occupy a volume. Cowan, was read* by Dr Alison "on the Practical point of health, though not with the comforts or en

While on this subject, we cannot resist the opporOperation of the Scottish System of Management of joyments of the independent labourer, and that this tunity of rendering our humble meed of praise to the the Poor," from which, however, we have only room to should be done, not at the expense of the benevolent ingenuity and industry of the late Mr Drummond, glean a few facts. The number of vagrant beggars in alone, or of any class in particular, but by an assessment under-secretary for Ireland, as exemplified in the maps Scotland was shown to be great : at an average, 845 laid equitably upon all. It was strongly urged against of that country prepared for the commission on the enter the town of Peterhead every year. They take Dr Chalmers, at the close of the meetings, that proposed Irish railways. These maps are on a large refuge in large towns in winter, and in summer wander among the most destitute of the people in Scotland, scale, and beautifully engraved and coloured. Each through the country, begging by day, and sleeping in who are continually migrating in search of employ? is designed to present Ireland in a certain aspect. For out-houses at night. In a parish in the Old Town of ment, the care for relations is practically found to example, one is to illustrate the comparative populousEdinburgh, containing 2500 persons, 103 families, or be much less than in any of the superior ranks of

ness of different districts of the country; another is nearly a fifth of the whole people, were lately

found society; that many such destitute families receive to show the various amounts of travelling in different by a church missionary in a destitute state. Of 120 little or no religious instruction, simply on account of districts, as manifested by tax returns ; a third, the such families reported on by two of the city mis- want of decent clothing ; and that many such families various degrees in which districts are devoted to manusionaries, only 30 had any parish relief. Again, of 57 have been reduced to this condition by causes over factures ; and so on. All this is done by employing very destitute families, only 10 had such assistance. which they have had as little control as over the different depths of colouring at the different places, so Twenty-six persons accustomed to visit the poor in visitations of disease, for which he avowed that he that the elements of consideration required by the the Old Town, gave their testimony to the extent of thought provision ought to be inade

by assessment; commissioners for their guidance may be said to meet the destitution, its effect in sending all kinds of fur- and also (what he himself admitted), that in this their eyes in a moment. While lauding the ingenuity niture and clothing to the pawnbroker, and its being, lowest class, habituated to one form or another of of the author of these maps, it must ever be regretted in a large proportion of instances, quite independent beggary, population advances with the most rapid tion prored destructive to his life, and deprived the of intemperance, the frequently-recurring want of strides. work (that is, the redundancy of the population) being On the whole, it appeared but too plainly, from the country of one of the most valuable minds devoted to

its service. apparently the leading cause of the evil. Dr Alison statements made on this occasion, that the condition adduced grounds for his opinion that the fever which of the poorest class of our countrymen is neither satisravages Edinburgh as well as Glasgow, is more the factory, nor, as compared with other nations (parti- About six months ago, a paper was read before the result of, or favoured by, destitution, than the result cularly England, Holland, or Germany), creditable to Scottish Society of Arts by Dr Andrew Fyfe, respectof noxious effluvia or density of population.t

our national character; and that a searching inquiry ing the comparative illuminating power of different In a long paper read afterwards,I Dr Chalmers into the facts, and an impartial consideration of re- kinds of gas burners, from which some useful informatook the same view of the actual condition of the medial measures, has become a national duty.

tion was derived. The following is an abstract from poor in Scotland, but endeavoured to show that a

the proceedings of the society on the subject :compulsory provision is not necessary. He described a course of procedure which he followed some years

OCCASIONAL NOTES.

“In trying the comparative illuminating powers of ago in the parish of St John's, which is one of the

different gas-burners, Dr Fyfe stated that he took a

TEACHERS' SALARIES. poorest in Glasgow, he being then its pastor. Dis

single jet-burner, burning with a flame of five inches missing all legal provision, he looked for pecuniary in advertisements for teachers, the ludicrous contrast in length as the standard, in which case he had it so means only to the collections at his church door, of almost universal accomplishment against diminutive adjusted as to burn exactly one foot per hour. Aswhich, if we recollect rightly, he stated to amount to salary continues to be frequently exhibited. In one suming the light given by this burner, as thus used,

to be as

100 L.400 per annum. The population of the parish was newspaper, we lately found an advertisement for

a about 10,000. He depended chiefly on the sympathy parish-schoolmaster, who is required to be able “ to The light given by a fish-tail for an which the poor feel for the poor, the affection which instruct in Latin, grammar, writing, arithmetic, and

equal consumpt of gas is

140 individuals feel for their relations, and the principle geography;" and it is added, that “ a knowledge of the

By a bat-wing, about

164 in all men that they will rather work than starve. French language will be a recommendation. The By an argand (24 holes)

180 His agency for working out his system consisted of a salary to be about L.26 per annum, besides the fees Accordingly, for equal consumpts of gas, the addinumber

of officers whom he called deacons, members for scholars (perhaps 80 at 25. a-quarter each), and tional light given, over and above that afforded by a of his congregation and generally persons in respect there is a free house and garden.” Something

like L.58 jet, is
, by the fish-tail 40, by the bat-wing

upwards of able circumstances, residing, some within the parish, a-year (or 22s. 6d. a-week), besides a shabby cottage 60, and by an argand 80 per cent. For this purpose, and some throughout the city. Each deacon had a for a residence, along with a cabbage garden, are here however, it is necessary to use the fish-tail and batparticular small district under his charge. To him offered for the services of a highly educated man of wing burning with their full supply of gas, and to any destitute person in the district applied for relief. first-rate character ; the said highly favoured indivi- have the argand with a flame of about three inches. The first step taken by a deacon, on an application for dual being of course required to settle down for life in on increasing the number of holes in the argand, relief being made, was to inquire if the applicant could an out-of-the-way part of the world, where there is no though the quantity of gas consumed becomes greater, not get work. If he could not, work was, if possible, prospect of promotion. Another advertisement in the comparative illuminating power is not augmented obtained for him, the deacons having, from their place the same paper is for a master “ to teach the usual the increase in light being merely proportionate to in society, considerable facilities in procuring employs for which he is to have the extraordinarily large sum periments

which he had performed, Dr Fife stated ”

the enlarged expenditure. From the numerous exif the applicant had any friends who would contribute of L.50 per annum (or 19s. 2-week). In the same to his support till he was again able to maintain him- paper there are several other advertisements for is by far the most economical method of consuming self. This part of the plan met generally with such teachers, but, with commendable modesty, they do gas when illumination is the only object, and provided success as to convey a favourable impression of the not mention the amount of salary. In one, in which of course, so much light is required, and that the kindness subsisting amongst relatives in the districtthe teacher is to instruct in all the usual branches

, single jet is the most unprofitable, and ought never It was also found that neighbours, unrelated to the and besides, “conduct a Sabbath evening school”-in to be used. When the light of a single jet only is parties, would do much to alleviate the condition other words, to work seven days a-week-he is to required, he mentioned that it is much better to have the destitute. Dr Chalmers described the plan as have a small salary ;” very small, we have no doubt ; that there shall be only one flame. When this is so

a burner with two or three holes so near each other altogether so successful, that there was a constant perhaps, at a guess, 88. 3 week, besides an empty

lodging used as to give the light of a jet, it consumes from 10 its benefits. Yet , during the four years in which he advertisements in the same columns requiring the to 20 per

cent, less of gas, thus causing a great saving superintended

its operation, there were only as many services of young men as clerks, overseers, &c., to to those who burn by meter.” additional poor upon the roll as called for an expen- whom salaries are promised on a reasonable scale of

UN-LOCOMOTIVE CHARACTER OF FARMERS. diture in all of L.32, or L.8 a-year at an average. The allowance. A sub-manager for an iron-work is offered general result he indeed described to be, that, by “from one to two hundred pounds per annum, with a

The following observations on a somewhat remarkmerely a minute system of inspection, and a little house ;" a person to look after blast-furnaces is to get able point in the character of British farmers, occur management in obtaining work and throwing as many “ L.100 and a house ;” and for a clerk to a railway in a letter of a traveller published in a late London as possible upon their own resources, or upon relatives contractor, “the salary is to be liberal.” We again newspaper :and neighbours, the poor were supported with com- ask the needless question, Is it to be expected that “ This leads me to add an observation upon a someparatively a very small expenditure of money.

men of good abilities and attainments are to adopt what singular matter of fact connected with my exA good deal of discussion followed the reading of the profession of the teacher, at wretched salaries, perience as a traveller. In the course of my jourthis paper, but to little purpose. The only strong when they can get good salaries in other professions ? neyings abroad, which have occupied, at different objection presented was one by Dr Alison, that no- It is not unworthy of notice, that, of late years, the times, some years of my life, and during which I have thing had been done to prove to the section that the condition of teachers has in some situations been worse visited the four quarters of the globe, "I never either destitute of the parish were really and adequately than it even used to be at the time when education was met with an English farmer, or became acquainted supplied, or that, during the late disastrous years, attracting little attention. We advert in particular to with any person who had. Every other class of my the condition of this parish was better than that of several of the burghs of our own country, where the countrymen have fallen in my way; the manufacturer,

magistracies, having the lavishness of the old system the wholesale and retail dealer, the shop assistant, the * Friday, September 18

before their eyes, are animated by an ultra disposition merchant's clerk, men of all callings and professions, + All those evils in the great towns were shown to be very to pinch, pare, and screw down. We have heard of are to be met with abroad; but the British farmer is much dependent on a continued influx of poor families from the salaries in some places being so reduced, that the never encountered, unless on board an emigrant ship other parts of the country, and on the law of three years' settlement, and the miserably scanty provision for the poor in many

teachers are now strikingly inferior in qualifications, destined for America, or some other country conparts of the country precluding the possibility of a moro equal or at least younger and less experienced men than taining new settlements. Yet whose business affords diffusion of the burden of pauperism over Scotland.

formerly. This is bad policy, which must soon tell so much leisure as that of the farmer!- and wha • Tuesday, September 22.

upon the reputation of the schools in question. so likely to derive pleasure or profit from travek

MRS PIOZZI.

*

Voices around

ling, as he who would be able at every revolution of part with a man, possessed of virtues so great and at that she should bave allowed the shades of her the wheels of his carriage to observe some new fact numerous, and so far transcending, on the whole, his former friend's character to come out pretty broadly bearing upon his own pursuit

, and to compare it with failings. Three years after the death of her husband, on her canvass ; but we believe she cannot be proved what he had left at home? An English farmer who she went to Bath, for the advantage, partly, of her to have told any untruths, and she over and over made the tour of Belgium, France, and Switzerland, health, and partly that she might be for a time freed again admits the greatness of his virtues. In the year would acquire more knowledge and experience than from the yoke which had become so heavy. At Bath, 1788, she published a second work relating to Johnson, by attending a thousand meetings of agricultural she met a music-master, named Piozzi, an Italian by being a series of Letters which had passed between societies in England."

birth, and a man of respectability, though not the herself and him. These are very interesting; and had The writer surmises that, as it is from no want of equal, certainly, in fortune or station, of herself. not Boswell's unique production given us a view so leisure or motives of self-interest and pleasure that However, she married him, and Johnson and she wonderfully minute of the doctor's character, would farm-tenants are never found abroad, it must be from parted for ever. The fact of Piozzi being a foreigner have been held as a most important contribution to want of means; and he converts this surmise to his and a musician, as well as the consciousness, no doubt, literary history, Boswell, however, superseded and own purpose, as reflecting on the insufficiency of of the altered position in which the marriage would threw into the shade all other works upon the subject “ protection” to create wealth. Whatever “protec- place himself with respect to the Thrale family—all of which he treated. But Mrs Piozzi has still the tion” may do, we cannot but see that the great mass this conspired to make the match odious to the doctor, merit of having produced a pleasing record of many of British farmers are capitalists on so small a scale, and some have asserted (what others deny) that in a incidents in the life of a remarkable man. that they could not be expected readily to afford the letter to herself he called it a “most ignominious bu- Her next work was one published in 1794, and enexpenses of a continental journey. Many, on the siness.". But the lady's mind was made up: John titled “ British Synonymy; or an attempt at regulatother hand, are capitalists on so large a scale, that son took leave of her mildly, and, indeed, affectingly, ing the choice of words in familiar conversation.” they might be expected to travel abroad like other after all was concluded. “What you have done,” Mr Gifford passes a very harsh censure on this work, persons of the same degree of wealth ; but the minds he said, “ however I may lament it, I have no pre- harsher than justice called for, though certainly the of the agricultural class are not enterprising or active tence to resent, as it has not been injurious to me; I lady was not possessed of that profound knowledge in this particular direction. The languor of mind therefore breathe out one sigh more of tenderness, requisite for the complete fulfilment of the task which consequent on rural quiet and a limited and unvaried perhaps useless, but at least sincere. I wish that God she had chosen for herself. In place of giving any range of duties, is sufficient to make the British far- may grant you every blessing.”

specimen of the prose compositions of Mrs Piozzi, mer so little of a traveller. We may mention that Mrs Thrale became Mrs Piozzi in 1784. Her however, in support of the favourable view which we we know one Scottish farmer who has travelled over name was too famous in the literary circles to permit take of her talents, we prefer to give a passage from the Continent in quest of information.

of her escape from the pellets of the wit-mongers of her poetry. The following piece was not published

the day, though there was certainly nothing very till after her decease, and appeared in the “Literary BIOGRAPHIC SKETCHES.

wonderful in the re-marriage of a woman of forty, Gazette :"-
even with a person a little below her in rank. Peter

DUTY AND PLEASURE.
Pindar treats this marriage-matter in a very humorous

Duty and Pleasure, long at strife, Few females have been fated to associate their names way, in his piece called Bozzy and Piozzi, where he Met in the common walks of life. so intimately and lastingly with the literary history paints a contention between James Boswell and the

“ Pray don't disturb me-get you gone!"

Cries Duty in a serious tone. of England, as Hester Lynch Salusbury, better known lady, as rival candidates for the honour of biogra

Then, with a smile, “Keep off, my dear, under her successive marital names of Mrs Thrale phising Dr Johnson. The lady is made to defend her

Nor force me to be thus severe." from widowhood thus emphatically :

escape and Mrs Piozzi. This arose partly, it is undeniable,

“ Dear sir," cries Pleasure, “ you're so grave; What was my marriage, sir, to you, or him?

You make yourself a perfect slave. from the accidents of fortune and position, but, inde- He tell me what to do! a pretty whim!

I can't think why we disagree ; pendently of these circumstances, this lady had a suf- He to propriety (the beast !) exhort !

You may turn Methodist for me.
As well might elephants preside at court !

But, if you'll neither laugh nor play, ficiency of personal merit to render her history a

At least don't stop me in my way. matter of interest on her own account alone. She Tell me, James Boswell, what's the world to me?

Yet sure one moment you might steal, was born in 1740, and was the daughter of John Salus

The folks who paid respects to Mrs Thrale,

To see the lovely Miss O'Neill.
Fed on her pork, poor souls ! and swilled her ale,

One hour to relaxation give : bury, Esq. of Bodville, in Caernarvonshire. Miss May sicken at Piozzi ; nine in ten

Oh, lend one hour from life to live! Salusbury received an excellent education under the

Turn up the nose of scorn ;-what then ?

And here's a bird, and there's a lower-
They keep their company, and I my meat.

Dear Duty, walk a little slower !" care of the learned Doctor Collyer, and made unusual

“My morning's task is not half done," proficiency, considering her sex, in classical literature. guided or biassed by regard for Johnson, did very It was true, as the satirist hints, that the world, Cries Duty, with an inward groan ;

“ False colours on each object spread; The Hebrew, Greek, and Latin languages, were among generally condemn the match. Mrs Piozzi freed her.

I know not where or how I'm led :

Your bragg'd enjoyments mount the wind, her acquisitions in this department. self from their immediate sneers by going abroad with

And leave their venom'd stings behind. In her twenty-fourth year, Miss Salusbury married her husband. At the close of 1784, they visited

Where are you flown ?"Henry Thrale, Esq., an eminent brewer in South France, and subsequently passed through Germany Cry, “ Pleasure long hath left the ground. wark, and a man of education and talent. He was and Italy. They settled ultimately, for a time, at

old age advances; haste away, Florence. Here Mrs Piozzi's fixed literary tastes led

Nor lose the light of parting day ! acquainted with the well-known critic and dramatist, to the congregation of a congenial knot of English

See ! sickness follows, sorrow threats;

Waste no more time in vain regrets. Arthur Murphy, by whom he was introduced, soon gentlemen and ladies, who, chiefly for their own Oh, Duty ! one more effort given after his marriage, to Dr Samuel Johnson, then in amusement, published a volume, called the “ Florence May reach, perhaps, the gates of Heaven, the full blow of his fame. The decided literary tastes, Piozzi was'a leader in the business, and many pieces, Miscellany,” to which they all contributed. Mrs

Where only, each with each delighted,

Pleasure and Duty live united." both of Mr and Mrs Thrale, led to a mutual attrac-of no slight merit, appeared at this time from her pen.

In 1801, Mrs Piozzi gave to the world another tion between them and Dr Johnson, and he was their One in particular may be adverted to, as worthy of couple of volumes, entitled “Retrospection; or a frequent guest from the first hour of their acquaint- notice, namely, the Three Warnings," a pointed review of the most striking events of the last eighteen ance. Ere long, the connexion grew closer, Johnson allegorical piece, which has found a place in almost all hundred years," &c. This was the last important work being invited, in 1766, to take up his residence with subsequent collections of poetry. The contributions of the subject of our memoir, who lost her second them at Streatham altogether-an invitation which to this miscellany constituted Mrs Piozzi's first appear. husband in 1809, and from that period, up to the close he willingly accepted. Boswell represents this as a ances in print. She had for a coadjutor at Florence of her life in 1823, resided constantly at Clifton, near happy event for the great lexicographer. “ He had the famous Della Crusca (Mr Merry), "on whose Bath. Her last years were cheerful and happy ; and, at Mr Thrale's all the comforts and luxuries of life ; coming over to England,” says Mr Gifford, “ a poetical as may be imagined, she was an object of mueh inhis melancholy was diverted, and his irregular habits amatory fever spread through the land and its perio- terest to all around her, being one of the few living lessened, by association with an agreeable and well-dicals—Laura, Maria, Carlos, Orlando, Adelaide, and a memorials of the flourishing age of Johnson, Goldordered family.” For fifteen years, this connexion thousand other nameless names, caught the infection; smith, and Burke. She retained so much of the continued with, upon the whole, mutual satisfaction and from one end of the kingdom to the other, all was health and spirit of youth up to the last, that, in her to guest and entertainers, impaired only on occasions nonsense and Della Crusca.” Mrs Piozzi was of a 82 year, she gave a ball to her friends, and led down by the rough and dogmatic manners of Dr Johnson. grade superior to these scribblers, and ought never to the first dance in person. But when Mr Thrale died in 1781, the case was al- have been accounted of their number. tered. The doctor had always been easily kept in After visiting every part of Italy, Mrs Piozzi re

AN ENTHUSIASTIC NATURALIST. check by the presence of the mild but manly Thrale, turned with her husband to England. In a fanciful for whom he had a sincere and rooted respect. Now, moment, she imitated Dean Swift by composing some The following passage occurs in a letter of Wilson, the however, he assumed the dominion of the family circle, light verses at Dover, of which the merit is the American ornithologist, to a friend, and contains a pleas

ing portrait of the amiable and enthusiastic spirit of the and exercised his power in such a way that Mrs rhyming. They run thus :

author :-Thrale could not see any of her own friends at her

He whom fair winds have wafted over, house, without subjecting them to the chance of meet

“ That lovely season is now approaching, when the garFirst hails his native land at Dover,

den, woods, and fields, will again display their foliage ing with bearish rudeness and insult. In her “ Anec

And doubts not but he shall discover dotes,” published afterwards, she mentions, in proof of

Pleasure in every path round Dover;

and flowers. Every day we may expect strangers, flockthis statement, that two quiet and respectable gentle

Envies the happy crows which hover

ing from the south, to fill our woods with harmony. The About old Shakspeare's cliff at Dover;

pencil of Nature is now at work, and outlines, tints, and men came one day to dine with her at Streatham.

From this fond dream he'll soon recover,

gradations of lights and shades, that baffle all descripOne of them, a Quaker, chanced to tell an anecdote

When debts shall drive him back to Dover ;

tion, will soon be spread before us by that great Master, respecting the red-hot balls thrown at the siege of

Hoping, though poor, to live in clover,

our most benevolent friend and Father. Let us cheerGibraltar, which had just taken place. When he had

Once safely past the straits at Dover ; &c.

fully participate in the feast he is preparing for all our done, " I would advise you, sir," said Johnson, with And so on. The fruit of her continental journey was just peeping into day, as so many happy messengers

senses. Let us survey those millions of green strangers, a cold sneer, never to relate this story again. You a two-volume work of travels, which is written in a can scarce imagine how very poor a figure you make in lively style, but did not take any very permanent hold | Creator. I confess that I was always an enthusiast in

come to proclaim the power and munificence of the the telling of it." The abashed and unassuming on the public attention. The wonder with which a Quaker never again ventured to open his mouth but in traveller is struck by the customs and sights of a your example and encouragement have set me to attempt

my admiration of the rural scenery of nature ; but since a whisper throughout the evening, and, even then, he foreign country, is one of the main requisites for to imitate her productions, I see new beauties in every spoke only to his friend who had come with him. drawing up a perfect account of them. Seeing much bird, plant, or flower, 1 contemplate ; and find my ideas When the two visiters departed, and Johnson was with her husband's eyes, Mrz Piozzi seems to have of the incomprehensible First Cause still more exalted, left alone with Mrs Thrale, “ I did not quarrel with been led into the pocočurante train of sentiment. For the more minutely I examine his works. those fellows," said he, with a satisfied sense of his own a while, however, her work was popular.

I sometimes smile to think that while others are imforbearance." They gave you no cause of offence, in 1786, Mrs Piozzi published her well-known mersed in deep schemes of speculation and aggrandisereplied Mrs Thrale.

“ No offence!” returned the volume of " Anecdotes of Dr Johnson.” The great ment, in building towns and purchasing plantations, doctor, with an altered voice; " and is it nothing to interest of the subject would alone have made this am entranced in contemplation over the plumage of a sit whispering together when I am present, without book a favourite, but the authoress ought not to be lark, or gazing, like a despairing lover, on the lineaments even directing their discourse towards me, or offering deprived of the share of merit justly due to her, as a me a share in the conversation ?” This story will prepare the reader for learning that ness of fancy. Smarting as she then was under the of mind, those beautiful specimens of Nature's works, narrator of much acuteness of observation and liveli. money, without the power of enjoying it, I am collecting,

without injuring my conscience or wounding my peace the connexion between Mrs Thrale and Johnson did neglect which Johnson's open disapproval of her war that are for ever pleasing. I have had live crows, hawks, not last long after Mr Thrale’s death. It is to her riage had brought upon her from the circles in which and owls, opossums, squirrels, snakes, lizards, &c., 80 credit, however, that she did not hurriedly or rudely she had previously shone, it is scarcely to be wondered that my room has sometimes reminded me of Noah's

SPECTRAL ILLUSIONS.

ark; but Noah had a wife in one corner of it, and in this power, when aided by the imagination, and perhaps only have one of the parties left in anxiety ahout the particular our parallel does not altogether tally. I receive by a little bodily derangement with which the senses other, but left in a violent fever, and aware that his every subject of natural history that is brought me; and sympathise, inay be carried so far as to produce an friend was engaged in a bloody war. That a spectral though they do not march into my ark from all quarters, actual and forcible spectral illusion. A gentleman, illusion should occur in such a case, is a thing not at as they did into that of our great ancestor, yet I find

who had gazed long and earnestly on a sinall and all to be wondered at, as little as the direction and means, by the distribution of a few fivepenny bits, to beautiful portrait of the Virgin and Child, was startled, shape that the sick man’s wanderings took. The ful. make them find the way fast enough. A boy, not long immediately on turning his eye from the picture, by filment of the prophecy is the point of interest; and ago, brought me a large basket full of crows. I expect seeing a woman and infant at the other end o his regarding it we would simply use the words of Dr his next load will be bullfrogs, if I don't soon issue ordcrs to the contrary. One of my boys caught a mouse

chamber of the full size of life. A particular circum- Hibbert, in referring to the story of Lord Balcarras in school, a few days ago, and directly marchied up to me stance, however, disclosed in a moment the source of and Viscount Dundee. Lord Balcarras was confined with his prisoner. I set about drawing it that evening, the appearance. The picture was a three parts' length, as a Jacobite in the castle of Edinburgh, while Dunand all the while the pantings of its little heart showed and the apparitional figures also wanted the lower dee was fighting for the same cause, and, on one occait to be in the most extreme agonies of fear. I had in- fourth of the body, thus showing that the figures had sion, the apparition of the latter came to the bedside tended to kill it, in order to fix it in the claws of a merely been retained on the tablet of the eye. But of Balcarras, looked at him steadfastly, leaned for some stuffed owl, but happening to spill a few drops of water the retina may retain an impression much longer time on the mantel-piece, and then walked away. It near where it was tied, it lapped it up with such eager than in this case ; or rather may recall, after a con- afterwards appeared that Dundee fell just about the ness, and looked in my face with such an eye of suppli- siderable time, an impression that has been very vividly time at Killiecrankie. “With

regard to this point,” cating terror, as perfectly overcame me. I immediately made at the first. A servant girl living in a family says Dr Hibbert, “it must be considered that, agreeuntied it, and restored it to life and liberty. The agonies where there were some phrenological busts, and, among ably to the well-known doctrine of chances, the event of a prisoner at the stake, while the fire and instruments others, a conspicuous one of Curran, awoke her bed (of Dundee's death) might as well occur then as at of torture are preparing, could not be more severe than companion one morning with the alarming informa- any other time ; while a far greater proportion of the sufferings of that poor mouse; and, insignificant as the object was, I felt at that moment the sweet sensa

tion that the ghost of Curran stood at the foot of the other apparitions, less fortunate in such a supposed tions that merey leaves on the mind when she triumphs bed dressed in a sailor's jacket, and having on his confirmation of their supernatural origin, are allowed over cruelty."

pale face the unwonted and unbustlike ornament of quietly to sink into oblivion." This observation ap

an immense pair of black whiskers. The other ser plies equally as well to the case of De Precy as to that SKETCHES OF SUPERSTITIONS.

vant could see nothing, though the apparition seemed of Balcarras, each of whom knew that his friend was to her companion to remain visible for some minutes. then hotly campaigning, and could most probably

On the tale being told, a pretty strong light was even guess, from the latest bulletins, on what day the In a preceding paper, reference was made to various thrown on the matter. The master of the house had hostile armies would decisively meet. We are not authentic cases, in which disorder of the system, men a yacht, and its sailors at that period were frequently told whether or not Balcarras, like De Precy, was in tal and bodily, had produced illusions of a spectral about the premises. Going to bed much fatigued, and ill health, but the Scottish lord was confined on a character. Our general and leading object, it was having her dreaming thoughts divided between her charge of high treason, and on Dundee's life or death, then stated, was to show that all similar phenomena household duties and some gay whiskered beau of the victory or defeat, the fate of the prisoner must have may be traced to the same causes, and this principle yacht, the girl's fancy had dressed up Curran’s bust, been felt by himself to rest. This was enough to will be kept in view in continuing the subject. an object most familiar to her retina, in the way men give his lordship a vivid dream, and even to give him

Disease in the brain, organic mental disorder, hys- tioned, giving him the sailor's person and whiskers as a waking portraiture of Dundee, after the fashion of terical and epileptic affections, deranged digestion a fitting appendage. Had the object called up to the the bust of Curran case. (producing delirium tremens), and a plethoric state of eye in this case, instead of being a bust of Curran, But though explanations may thus be given of the the blood-vessels, were pointed out as capable of caus-chanced to be a portrait of some wicked ancestor or common run of apparition cases, it may seem to some ing spectral illusions. An unsound state of the organ ancestress of the family, as might easily have occurred that there are particular cases not to be so accounted of vision itself may also cause them. Dr Abercrombie from the greater comparative impression made on for. Of this nature, such readers may say, is the mentions two cases strikingly illustrative of this fact. the mind by portraits of that cast, then should we well-warranted story of the Irish lady of rank, who, In one of these, a gentleman of high mental endow- have had a splendid instance of the preternatural having married a second time, was visited in the nightments, and of the age of eighty, enjoying uninterrupted appearance of a spirit stung by remorse, and haunting time by the spirit of her first husband, from whom health, and very temperate in his habits, was the per- restlessly the scene of its mortal guilt. The girl, she received a notification of the appointed period of son subject to the illusions. For twelve years this without imposture, might have conscientiously reite- her own death. The lady was at first terrified, but gentleman had daily visitations of spectral figures, rated her conviction of the reality of the vision, and regained her courage. “ How shall I know to-morrow attired often in foreign dresses, such as Roman, Turk the possession of a haunted chamber would have most morn,” said she boldly to the spectre, “that this is ish, and Grecian, and presenting all varieties of the certainly been assigned to the mansion, inspiring such not a delusion of the senses-that. I indeed am visited human countenance, in its gradations from childhood terror that renewals of the illusion might really have by a spirit ?” “ Let this be a token to thee for life," to old age. Sometimes faces only were visible, and taken place in consequence. Where the whole affair said the visitant, and, grasping the arm of the lady the countenance of the gentleman himself not unfre- is not a fiction in such haunted-chamber cases, somo for an instant, disappeared. In the morning, a dark quently appeared among them. One old and arch- solution of this kind may be with certainty applied. mark, as if of a fresh burn, was seen on the wrist, and looking lady was the most constant visiter, and she It appears, then, from the cases described, that the the lady kept the scar covered over while she lived. always wore a tartan plaid of an antique cut. These eye, through defectiveness of its parts, or through the She died at the time prophesied. illusory appearances were rather amusing than other power of the retina in retaining or recalling vivid This story is told with great unction by some mewise, being for the most part of a pleasing character. impressions, may itself be the main agent în pro- moir writers, and the circumstances are said to have [In our former paper, the principle that regulated ducing spectral illusions. From one particular cir- been long kept secret by the lady's family. For the illusions in this respect was pointed out. A man cumstance, we may generally tell at once whether or argument's sake, let us admit the most striking points of quiet life, temperate habits, and cheerful disposi- not the eye is the organ in fault on such occasions of the case to be true. As for the circumstance of tion, such as the old gentleman now alluded to, could In Dr Abercrombie's cases, the spectral figures never her death at the time foretold, it is well known how not but have ordinarily an agreeable train of fancies; spoke. This is equivalent to a positive indication that powerful imagination is in causing fulfilment in these and hence the spectra were necessarily pleasing in the sense of hearing was not involved in the derange- cases ; and, at all events, one instance of such a fulfil. character, since they consisted merely of an embodi- ment ; in short, that the eye, and not the whole of the ment is no great marvel amid hundreds of failures. ment of these fancies, through some peculiar disorder senses, or general system, constituted the seat of the But the black mark-what of it? We confess to the of the system, upon the retina or optic nerve.] The defect. This is an important medical diagnostic. reader, that if we had actually seen the scar upon the second case mentioned by Dr Abercrombie was one

Our readers have now seen, that there are various hand of the lady, we should not have been one step even more remarkable than the preceding: “A gentle modes in which the system may be so disturbed as to nearer to the admission of supernatural agency. A most man of sound mind, in good health, and engaged in produce spectral illusions, and that, in the majority respectable merchant-captain told Sir Walter Scott active business, has all his life been the sport of spec- of these cases, the parties subject to them might seem the following story, which will well illustrate the point tral illusions to such an extent that, in meeting a to be not only of sound mind, but in perfect bodily under consideration. While lying in the Tagus, a man friend on the street, he has first to appeal to the sense health.. Another mode of explaining cases of this belonging to his ship was murdered by a Portuguese, of touch before he can determine whether or not the description may now be indicated. Many of the ap- and a report soon spread that the spirit of the deceased appearance is real. He can call up figures at will by paritions which have been vouched for by those sub- haunted the vessel. The captain found, on making a steady process of mental conception, and the figure jected to them, have certainly been neither more nor inquiry, that one of his own mates, an honest, sensible may either be something real or the composition of less than vivid dreams. Practically, the phenomena Irishman, was the chief evidence respecting the ghost. his own fancy.” Another member of the family was of dreams are so well known to every one, that it is The mate affirmed that the spectre took him from subject to the same delusive impressions.

needless to enlarge upon the force and impressiveness bed every night, led him about the ship, and, in short, These very curious cases indicate, we think, a defec- which they may occasionally assume. When they worried his life out. The captain knew not what to tive condition of the retina, which may be held as one bear upon an interesting and important subject, it is think of this, but he privately resolved to watch the distinct and specific source of spectral deceptions. peculiarly natural that they should deeply affect the mate by night. He did so, and, at the hour of twelve, That defective condition seems to consist in an un- mind, and perhaps leave the parties to whom they saw thể man start up with ghastly looks, and light a usual sensitiveness, rendering the organ liable to have occurred, in permanent doubt as to whether they candle ; after which he went to the galley, where he figures called up upon it by the stimulus of the fancy, were merely dreams, or supernatural visitations. We stood staring wildly for a time, as if on some horrible as if impressed by actual external objects. In ordinary shall here quote a case remarkably in point, and one object. He then lifted a can filled with water, circumstances, on a friend being vividly called to one's which is not mentioned in English works on this sub- sprinkled some of it about, and, appearing much roremembrance, one can mentally form a complete con- ject; it is told by the compiler of Les Causes Célébres. lieved, went quietly back to his bed. Next morning, ception of his face and figure in their minutest linea- Two young noblemen, the Marquisses De Rambouillet on being asked if he had been annoyed in the night, ments. “My father!" says Hamlet, “ methinks I see and De Precy, belonging to two of the first families of he said “ Yes ; I was led by the ghost to the galley, him now !” “ Where, my lord ?" “ In my mind's France, made an agreement, in the warmth of their but I got hold, in some way or other, of a jar of holy eye, Horatio." In Hamlet's case, an apparition is friendship, that the one who died first should return water, and freed myself, by sprinkling it about, from described as having followed this delineation by the to the other with tidings of the world to come. Soon the presence of the horrible phantom.” The captain memory, and so may a vivid impression of any figure afterwards, De Rambouillet went to the wars in Flan- now told the truth as observed, and the mate, though or object be transferred from the mind to the retina, ders, while De Precy remained at Paris, stricken by a much surprised, believed it. He was never visited by where the latter organ is permanently or temporarily fever. Lying alone in bed, and severely ill, De Precy the ghost again, the deception of his own dreaming in a weak or peculiarly sensitive state.

one day heard a rustling of his bed-curtains, and, fancy being thus discovered. the spectral illusions seem to have been habitually turning round, saw his friend De Rambouillet, in full Had the mate burnt his hand with the candle, and, caused in the two cases described. There the defect military attire. The sick man sprung over the bed by the same mode of reasoning which led him to be in the retina was the fundamental or ultimate cause to welcome his friend, but the other receded, and said lieve in the banishment of the ghost by holy water, of their existence, and the fancy of the individual the that he had come to fulfil his promise, having been formed the conclusion that the spectre had touched power which regulated their frequency and character. killed on that very day. He further said that it be- his hand to imprint on it a perpetual mark, what Slighter cases of this nature are of comparatively hoved De Precy to think more of the after-world, as would have been said of the matter by his comrades common occurrence-cases in which the retina is for all that was said of it was true, and as he himself and himself in the morning, supposing no watching to a short time so affected as to give the impression of would die in his first battle. De Precy was then left have taken place? They would assuredly hare held an apparition. Every one is aware that a peculiarly by the phantom ; and it was afterwards found that the scar as an indubitable proof of the supernatural bright or shining object, if long gazed upon, does not De Rambouillet had fallen on that day. De Precy visitation, and the story would have remained as darkly leave the retina as soon as the eye is withdrawn from recovered, went to the wars, and died in his first mysterious as could be desired. If the reader imagines it. It remains upon the nerve for a considerable time conbat.

that the pain must have awakened the somnambulist, afterwards, at least in outline, as may be observed by Here, after a compact-the very conception of which we beg to point to a well-authenticated incident, closing the eyelids on such occasions. This retentire / argues credulousness or weakness of mind--we not stated to have occurred in England but a few weeks

In this way

ago. A respectable young man rose from his bed, one other company, which he sent with the young usual to Little Hugh, that it frightened him into a and went out in his sleep by a high window, dislocat- man to take its place in a fencible corps posted in a forgetfulness of his condition ; and reflecting only on ing his shoulder by the fall he received. He after- town upon the borders of the low country.

the possibility of the captain's conceiving him to have wards contrived to place a ladder against the wall, The raising and constitution of this company, which passed without the customary ceremony, he judged it reascended, and went to bed. For the first time did gave so much joy to the old heart of the father, expedient to overtake him without delay; which done, he learn the truth, when, in the morning, the open hurled a corresponding mass of confusion on the he made no scruple of rendering assurance doubly window, the ladder, and his disjointed arm, told him young head of the son. The latter discovered, when sure, by tapping his superior's shoulder. The captain that the occurrences which he believed to have taken rather late, that even at home, in those stirring times, turned abruptly at the intrusion, and Hugh, upon the place in a dream, had been so far a reality. It is also there was something more intricate in the study of instant, bent his wretched body before him. The well known with what ease and rapidity the mind the art of war than the pleasant dream of love and captain had not been unmindful of his previous obeican incent circumstances in sleep to accord with any idleness, which he had fancied to form the “ be all” sance in passing, with which he could, under the cirpassing sensation. A dream that seems to involve a and the end all” of a military life. The mysteries of cumstances, have gladly dispensed. His conviction long and complex train of circumstances, will some fortification and tactics were hard indeed in the ini- now was that the fellow before him, whom he fully times occupy not more than a single moment of time tiation. But these were trivial to the perplexities recognised, intended a deliberate insult. He raised --the whole is a rapid shoot of a half-awakened fancy: arising from the Highland habits of his men. Being his foot in vengeance for a kick ; but of this moveFor instance, a pistol report, that actually awakened naturally looked upon as responsible for their conduct, ment Little Hugh knew nothing. His duty (as he a sleeper, has been known to give him an instanta- some of the notions on which they acted proved conceived it to be) discharged, he had turned quickly neous yet seemingly extended series of adventures, equally prejudicial to his peace and patience. Amongst away, impressed with the reasonable belief that including a quarrel, a challenge, and a duel. Me other things, their contempt for strict discipline was enough of him at that season might be quite as good taphysicians have long been aware of these pheno- only paralleled by their dislike to strict attendance. as a feast. mena.

They seemed to have entered the service on the single “Bless me, Captain Campbell !” exclaimed the The reader will have no difficulty in seeing the understanding of obtaining “ leave of absence” when ladies in a breath, “surely that was not one of your applicability of these circumstances to those appari- ever they pleased ; and " leave of absence" they would men ?" It was enough to drive the young hero mad. tion-cases where such a thing as a mark is shown as a have. Shamus oʻta' muckle mouth, for instance, had Disposing, therefore, of the fair ones as fast as etiquette proof of a supernatural visitation. The Irish lady suddenly got notice that divers of his wedders had would permit, and burning with indignation, he sought may readily have risen in her sleep, burnt her hand gone a wool-gathering for themselves, “and, to be the barracks. Instantly on reaching his apartments, against the bed-room grate, and, conscious of an un- shurely, how could he stay?" Evan Mohr had “ta he commanded the attendance of Sergeant Campbell. pleasing sensation, though not awakened by it, her pit up ta sheillin' for hir nainsell's wife, and her wife's With accustomed promptitude, that athletic dignitary fancy may have formed the whole story of the pre- bhairns, and it was onpossible she could bhide !" After of the drill presented his muscular self before his ternatural visitation, precisely as the Irish mate in this fashion, the young laird soon found it a moral officer. vented the circumstances connected with the holy impossibility to get more than a tithe of his High- * Sergeant !" began the captain in a rage, “Hugh water. When we find that such an explanation of landers to render his majesty simultaneous service. Campbell was out of barracks to day?". the matter is accordant with observed and unquestion. Ere long, therefore, he was fain to issue, through his “ To be surely," assented the sérgeant-for many of able facts, it would be irrational to overlook it, and favourite sergeant, positive injunctions against even the name had, to his certain knowledge, been strolling seek a solution in a supposed breach of the laws of the making of applications for furlough, except on off duty; and, aware that the individual identity of nature.

great emergencies. The men, then, we believe, re- the precise person indicated would not be so easily Besides, let us think of the apparent reasons for sorted to the simple expedient termed French leave." settled with the captain, he took refuge in this general the majority of spectral communications, supposing Another source of the young chief's distractions, acquiescence. them to be supernatural. Can we deem it accordant but one which he conveniently devolved on his sub- Then,” responded the captain with vehemence, with the dignity of that great Power which orders ordinates, arose from the difficulty of distinguishing" send him to the guard-house immediately !" the universe, that a spirit should be sent to warn a amongst the Campbells those whose Christian names To hear was to obey with the sergeant, when he libertine lordling of the hour of his death, as was chanced to correspond. Without some device, the knew how. In this instance he had avoided Scylla, held to be done in the famous case of Lord Lyttleton predominant patronymic “ Hugh,” which amongst and fallen on Charybdis. He had avowed his knowOr that a spiritual messenger should be commissioned the men themselves (who could have specified to the ledge of a fact of which he was ignorant, and now he to walk about an old manor house, dressed in a white splinter of a hairsbreadth the relationship of each to was called upon to act on his avowal. sheet, and dragging clanking chains, for no better the other) was no source of inconvenience, would have “ Please yer honour"- stammered the sergeant ; purpose than to frighten old women and servant girls, led, in the muster-roll

, to unutterable confusion. but he stopped short, with a clear notion of being as said to be done in all haunted-chamber cases ? Or Every

day, therefore, as the drill-sergeant arrived at fairly detected, as his eye caught the look of mingled that a supernatural being should be charged with the the many Hugh Campbells, of all shapes and di- astonishment and anger turned on him by Captain notable task of tapping on bed-heads, pulling down mensions, arranged on parade, he simply supplied an Campbell

. plates, and making a clatter among tea-cups, as in the affix or prefix, with the tacit assent of the parties con- “Well, sir ?" growled the captain. case of the Stockwell ghost, and a thousand others ? cerned. The most obvious epithets came first, such “An it please you, your worship," inquired the The supposition is monstrous. If to any one inha- as “Muckle Hugh Cammel” and “ Little Hugh' Cam. sergeant deprecatingly, " which of them !". bitant of this earth-a petty atom, occupying a speck mel," " Red Hugh Cammel," " Black Hugh Cammel," " Which of them is echoed the captain in a pet; of a place on a ball which is itself an insignificant and“ Brown Hugh Cammel,” and so on through every and then, summoning the entire force of his lungs, unit among millions of spheres-if to such a one a hue in creation, until the wit of man could name no he vociferated, “ Idiot! did I not tell you—Hugh supernatural communication was deigned, certainly more ; and then the indefatigable sergeant would sink Campbell !" it would be for some purpose worthy of the all-wise his sonorous voice as he entered on the more common. “But, please your honour,” persisted the sergeant, Communicator, and fraught with importance to the place soubriquets of “Hugh Cammell, nummer uan, taking up the wrong end of the muster-roll first, on a recipient of the message, as well, perhaps, as to his Hugh Cammell, nummer twa,” till the end of the very shrewd surmise of the truth, “was it Hugh. whole race. Keeping this in mind, how absurd do chapter. These refinements were utterly lost on the Cammel, nummer van-or Hugh Cammel, nummer the majority of our apparition stories appear ! captain, who deemed the precious distinctions to be tua—or Hugh Cammel, nummer three-or Hugh Cam

distinctions without a difference. Some people were mel, nummer forer; or was it Muckle Hugh Cammel, BLACK HUGH CAMPBELL.

malicious enough, however, to attribute his perplexi- ger honor, or Little Hugh Cammel, or Red Hugh ties, his obtuseness, and a certain air of apathy in Cammel

, or Black Hugh Ca”his demeanour, to an innocent young lady dwelling “Stop !-stop there !" cried the captain, rising and GENERAL STEWART, in his work on the Highland near the barracks.

pacing the apartment to soothe his ire, as the full reRegiments, presents a pleasing picture of the relation In consequence of the interdict laid on the demands collection of his dingy bowing acquaintance rushed which existod, in those corps, between the officers and for furlough, a keen competition arose amongst the back on him with the cognomen

“ black"_" stop men. The former being generally the sons and other men for the favour of their superiors. They hoped there !--that's the very man The black-hole, I think, near relatives of the chiefs, and the latter the sons of that by standing well there, they might possibly have will just suit the black rascal." the clansmen and tenantry, matters remained much the order occasionally relaxed in their behalf, or at The sergeant wondered ; but it was none of his on the same footing between the parties as while the least have their irregularities more lightly considered. business ; he had played long enough with the lightwhole resided in their native glens. Regimental dis- Amongst those who adopted this policy, none was ning already. So, accompanied by a file of the guard, cipline was comparatively little regarded, being in more zealous in practising it than the individual who he entered the barrack dormitory, for it was now late, fact superseded or rendered unnecessary by the de- has been specified as Little Hugh Campbell. The with what dispatch he could; and, sword in hand, he voted attachment of the soldiers to the officers, and light active figure of this man had drawn, on more thundered forth the name of " Black Hugh Camtheir genuine anxiety to act a brave and honourable than one occasion, an encomium from the lips of the mell.” A second summons was necessary ere he was part in their military career. Animated by high feel- captain, whose mind was probably resting on a sub- answered by the brief acknowledgment, “She's here,” ings of affection and duty, the Highlanders made ex-ject for softer praise. The rule against applying for vented in tones betokening both chagrin and surcellent though somewhat irregular soldiers. It is furlough was not only suspended in favour of this prise. lamentable to have to relate that the government did person, known to the captain, in his indifference to Black Hugh Campbell," said the sergeant penot sufficiently appreciate the character of these men, the distinctions of the muster-roll, simply as Hugh remptorily," you're ordhered to the gaard-hous!" and often violated the engagements under which they Campbell ; but he was to have his reasonable desires « Faat ta teevil for wad she du wi' me at ta gaardhad entered the militia and volunteer service, by in that respect as soon as asked.

hous at sic a time o' night ?" remonstrated Hugh. draughting them into the line and sending them to Little Hugh Campbell was not long master of the Black Hugh Cammell,” reiterated the sergeant, foreign stations. It was with reference to this custom, knowledge of this favour, when he availed himself of with mounting dignity, "you are ordhered to the that the late Sir Ewen Cameron, head of the Came' it. Inspired by the conviction of its being the proud gaard-hous; and you most shust go to the black-hole, rons, broke one day in upon the Duke of York with reward of merit, he was returning one evening, in because you are ordhered!" the stormy defiance : “ You may tell your faither to eager haste to be once more at his post, from a hay- Remonstrance being fruitless, Black Hugh was send us to [here he mentioned a very terrible place] cutting, the scene whereof lay in the immediate vi- lugged unwillingly away, and, half awake, and scarcely if he likes—and we'll gang tu—but he daurna dhraft cinity of quarters. Unhappy man that he was !- half dressed, was instantly immured in the adjoining us !"-a defiance not altogether without some serious whom should he encounter but his lawful superior the hermitage, familiarly known as the black-hole. It meaning, when we remember that Ewen's uncle was captain, in full regimentals, with a dashing young was not without abundance of Highland ejaculations. one of a fow who, not many years before, had shook lady hanging on either arm! The captain had just expressive of rage, that the honest fellow submitted the British throne. With all the fine sentiment which been vaunting of the distinguished appearance of his to his unmerited fato. existed between the officers and men, it could not corps, especially of that section of it that owed fealty Days passed gloomily away, and Black Hugh nevertheless be, but that sometimes most unmilitary- to his lofty house. Now, Little Hugh was in all re- Campbell appeared not amidst his comrades. No like proceedings would take place in the Highland spects, at this moment, the beau ideal of a tatterde- charge of any kind had been preferred against him; corps; and one of these it is now our purpose to malion. He was habited in a worn-out philabeg, but such was the awe with which the simple mounrelate.

whose longitudinal dimensions alone rendered it untit taineers regarded the commands of the son of their Old Campbell of G- in Argyllshire, had sent for its office ; an old military coat, which looked only chief, that scarce a murmur arose in which the priso many sons as captains into the army, each attended the more miserable from the gaiety of its original soner's name was whispered. In fact, the captain, by a company of his clansmen, that his territory had colour ; and he was, moreover, most admirably be resolved upon punishment, but disinclined, for

reasons become almost depopulated. Under these circum- smeared with the accumulated traces of many å hot of his own, to prefer a regular charge, had made up stances, when his youngest son came from college, he day's haymaking, during which his person had never his mind that the matter should rest where it was thought of devoting him to some peaceful profession; tasted of ablution. However much Little Ilugh might during his good will ard pleasure ; and there it probut just at this juncture the American war broke dread to face his captain in this atrocious plight, there bably would have rested while the captain's pique out; a fresh call was made upon the Highlands, and was nothing for it but to offer the passing salute. It endured, had not an accident disclosed the situation the laird, making a desperate effort, was able to raise I was not returned! The circumstance was one so un- 1 of the prisoner.

AN ANECDOTE.

66

DR BUCKLAND ON AGRICULTURE IN CONNEXION

WITH GEOLOGY.

An officious gentleman from the mess-room, having at hand as Black Hugh entered the room. But what sight; another, the organ of the remonstrances of some taken a fancy to visit the guard unseasonably, and was the surprise of the former, when, in place of the colonial parliament; another, a widow struggling for purely for the pleasure of making the men turn out dirty little varlet who had done him such foul dis- some pension, on which her hopes of existence hang; to salute him, caught them napping, as he expected. grace, the fine figure of Black Hugh Campbell met his and perhaps another is a man whose project is under As certain dolorous sounds, however, were emanating gaze! It needed no eloquence to convince the captain consideration. Every one of these has passed hours in

that dull but anxious attendance, and knows every nook from the prison hard by, curiosity induced him, be “ tat it cudna' pe her," although much breath was

and corner of this scene of his sufferings. The grievance fore beginning to exercise his authority, to listen to spent on the subject by his visiter. the voice of lamentation. This, as the reader may Sergeant Campbell was again in requisition ; but between colony and home, by letter or by interview, has

originated probably long years ago, and, bandied about well conjecture, was the disconsolate wail of his as he was proceeding to recount the distinguishing dragged on its existence thus far. One comes to have friend, Black Hugh Campbell, who was mou

ournfully characteristics of those rejoicing in the common name an interview with the Chief Secretary ; one, who has haranguing the walls of his dungeon. As the officer of Hugh Campbell, the captain became doubtful of his tried Chief and Under-Secretaries in their turn, is now listened, he thus proceeded with his soliloquy : ability to appreciate the sergeant's descriptions any doomed to waste his remonstrances on some clerk. One

“ Hoogh ! ta teevil o' this can pe porn ; tare was ta more. Many of the parties were put to tho question, has been waiting days to have his first interview ; anfirst week tat ta captain pegan to ca’ her muckle Hugh and still the general point established was®“ tat it other, weeks to have his answer to his memorial; another, Cammel, she was shust hawled awa tu ta ospital ! cudna' pe her.” The sergeant was ultimately saddled months in expectation of the result of a reference to the An’syne anither week, be't reason be't nane, an' he with the responsibility of detecting the real Simon colony; and some reckon the period of their suffering by ca’at her Hugh Cammel nummer wan, an' sent her tu impure. But as the nature of the offence by no years. Some are silent ; some utter aloud their hopes or ta awkward squad! An' syne she's ordhered oot on means thoroughly transpired, whilst Little Hugh, with fears, and pour out their tale to their fellow-sufferers ; gaard, wi' a' her paggage, for Hugh Cammel nummer a profundity of native cunning, kept his own secret, some endeavour to conciliate by their meekness ; some tira : an'” suspicion settled down on no individual, although it the messenger summons in their stead some sleek con

give vent to their rage, when, after hours of attendance, “Who's there ?" inquired the officer.

alighted on many. It was known, however, that the tented-looking visiter, who has sent up his name only the “ Tare!" cried the Celt, starting to his feet with captain had been insulted—the Highland blood was

moment before, but whose importance as a member of surprise, and using the privilege of his country by roused - impeachments were showered around like Parliament, or of some powerful interest or society, obanswering one question with another ; " Ay, to be gages at a tilt. In short, within the lapse of half tains him an instant interview. And if by chance you surely, wha's tare ?"

an hour, the whole fraternity of the Campbells were should see one of them at last receive the long-desired “I say, who's there ?” repeated the officer. engaged in a general melée, in the barrack-yard, with summons, you will be struck at the nervous reluctance “ An' wha'd pe speirin'?” rejoined Hugh. dirk, claymore, and bayonet. To quell the fray, the with which he avails himself of the permission. After a “ I ask you, sir-who are you?" insisted the officer. regiment was beat to arms; the combatants were dis- short conference, you will generally see him return with “ Her nainsell—Plack Hugh Cammel,” answered armed ; and, in the sequel

, never did that or any disappointment stamped on his brow, and, quitting the the prisoner subduedly, distinguishing the tones of other ard-house contain an equal number of the office, wend his lonely way home to despair, or perhaps authority.

name of Hugh Campbell. It was observed, that, from to return to his colony and rebel. These chambers of wo The officer knew the speaker very well. “Why, that day forth, the captain was infinitely better ac

are called the Sighing-Rooms; and those who recoil from Hugh, my lad,” said he," you used to be a well- quainted with the muster-roll

. If, however, his

the sight of human suffering should shun the ill-omened behaved soldier. How came you here ?"

precincts.–From a late pamphlet. studies ever suggested to him the real style and title

[The above may be a true picture, yet it might have “She couldna shust say; ye see, she wasna shust of the author of the imaginary insult, to use the em- been fair to add that men in office are dreadfully annoyed telt.”

phatic language of Black Hugh Campbell, he kept it with calls upon their time, by persons who have either no “ Told !” exclaimed the interrogator; “not told ! under her thumb."

proper claim upon them, or who wish to have crotchets You surely know what you have been about ?”

patronised. If the head functionaries in government Hoot," cried the soldier, “ fa'at cud her nainsell

offices were to receive readily all who choose to seek an peen apoot-teevil a thing; they shust clappit her

interview with them, their whole time would be occuhere for shust naething !"

pied, and the proper business of the country neglected. " But—you had committed some offence. You had At a social meeting of the Nithsdale Agricultural So- The bulk of people whom one meets with have no idea forgot yourself in some way or other. How long have ciety at Thornhill

, Dumfriesshire, on the 15th of Sep- of the value of time, and are most heedless in intruding you been here ?"

tember last, Dr Buckland, who was present as a guest, their visits on persons who are fully occupied.] Maybe twa days, maybe three ; unless she could being then on his way to the meeting of the British tell, she cudna shust say ; there's nae day free nicht Association at Glasgow, gratified the company by a brief here."

THE TWIN SISTERS. exposition of some points in which Geology gives light

to Agriculture. We find the following abstract of his Stand both before me ; for, when one is gone, “ This is very strange," said the officer. “I must remarks in the Dumfries Herald :-" The stomach of I scarce can tell which is the absent one: inquire into it.” At his back, aroused by the alter the animal was a laboratory, by which hay, grass, and

To stray asunder ye should aye be loath, cation, stood the guard as stiff as a row of lamp-posts. corn, were converted into roast beef; but how were ani

So much alike ye are so lovely both!
He did not stay to rebuke them, for Black Hugh mals in their turn, and other substances of the earth, to Together ye are peerless, but apart
Campbell, although he subsequently became the nar be changed into corn, grass, and hay, that necessary pa Each may be match'd by each; to rule the heart
rator of this story, was, it may be stated, a general bulum, without which all the successive generations of

Keep, gentle cherubs, a conjoined sway; favourite. The officer, forth with, sought the retreat animals would be lean and die? Here the geologist and

Our love's divided when there's one away!
of Sergeant Campbell, and roused that functionary the agriculturist met. The two great points for the im Oh! wherefore both so lovely? wherefore cam
from his blest repose.
prover to secure were, first, dry land; and, secondly, the Such beauty separate and yet the same?

Was it too great for one alone to bear,
Sergeant ! you'vo got a man in the guard-house." necessary compound of the four or five elementary sub-
Shurely-to be shurely,” said the sergeant dryly.
stances which enter into the composition of every good

That each comes laden with an equal share ?
soil. From chemical and mineralogical analysis, it had It may be, Nature, anxious to excel,
“ Black Hugh Campbell," said the officer.

been found that, in alluvial land, confessedly the most Moulded one lovely face and loved it well, “ Yes, and shurely,” said the sergeant. fertile of all, the main component parts were lime, silex,

Then, hopeless to achieve a higher aim, “Now, I should like to know the charge on which iron, and magnesia, with some manganese ; and therefore,

Sought but to form one more, in all the same! he is confined,” observed the officer.

of course, it became the chief feature of all improvement Or haply 'twas in kindness to the ono, “Sharge !" ejaculated the sergeant with Highland of the land, to secure the proper proportions of these in

That Nature would not trust her forth alone, sarcasm ; “ by ordhers of Captain Campbell.” gredients, so as to produce as nearly as possible a result

Lest she should mar her looks with vanity “ Very well,” replied the major (for such was the the same as alluvial soil, in which they were found in

To think none other was so fair as she ! officer's rank), catching fire at the insolence of Cap- most efficient combination. Silex entered into the com If you but hold a mirror up to each, tain Campbell's factotum, the sergeant ; “ Captain position of every thing, though it was deficient in the 'Twill name its sister in its lisping speech ;

And still, while equal loveliness is theirs, Campbell certainly arrests his men upon public Slate countries. There was more of it in oats than in any

May one see only what the other shares ! grounds. Show me to the captain ; this affair ap- Aint in his body than the natives of any other country; Beauty that only looks upon itself pears mysterious."

Becomes unlovely; yet, thou little elf, Marshalled by the sturdy sergeant, and arrived in and hence, no doubt, the grcat superiority of the Scotch

Not e'en thy sister should be praised by thee, presence of Captain Campbell , the major began by regiments . (Much laughter). Manganese was compa

Lest the harsh world pronounce it vanity! apologising for the untimely nature of his visit, and ratively a rare ingredient, but there was not

a man in that room with hair on his head who had not manganese

Talk not to others of her silken hair, onded by detailing the circumstances that had occa in him. But no matter where, and in what proportion,

Lest they should say, “ Thou know'st thine on n as fair! sioned it. these substances were found, nature had given us the

Nor praise the lustre of her light blue eye, The captain perceived that the hour for conceal- limestone to make up or correct almost every other in

Lest thy own glance win back the flattery ! ment of the offence for which he intended Campbell gredient of soil. The learned professor then minutely

Ah me! I wonder if alike ye'll prove, should suffer, was over. He therefore recited, not pointed out the rationale of the use of lime. In Lincoln

When ripen'd into votaries of love!

Then will sad lovers, puzzled which to choose, without acrimony, the insulting part played towards shire, an agriculturist, in improving a peat bog, had in

Find solace in the thought, "Can beth refuse ?* him by the supposed offender. But, as often happens, duced every property of soil upon it, but without adding

Then will the promise which the one has named his anger evaporated, with a consciousness of the lime. The first season of crop there was plenty of straw

He was admonished of

Be haply often from the other claim'd, irregularities into which he had fallen in seeking his and husks upon it, but no corn.

And the fond wish of secret whisperer, revenge. And he added, with a smile, which the mathe deficiency; added lime; and next year had the

Be met with“Oh, it was my sister, sir!" jor accepted as a signal to relieve himself of an immo- the enterprising experiments of his own friend, Sir finest oats in the country. This was quite parallel with

Go, go your ways, and in your little breasts derate fit of hitherto suppressed laughter, that he Charles Menteath, who had converted a useless peat bog

Still bear the innocence your joy attests! believed Black Hugh Campbell had already suffered into a meadow worth L.4 an acre.”

Ge, wander forth 'neath childhood's sunny sky, sufficient punishment, and might be liberated without

And gather flowers whose fragrance will not die! delay. THE SIGHING-ROOMS AT THE COLONIAL OFFICE,

J. IL. Our dark Celt thus regained his liberty; and here

There are some rooms in the Colonial Office, with old our tale might have come to a close, for, with the and meagre furniture, book-cases crammed with colonial equanimity of a Turk, Hugh would have been satis- gazettes and newspapers, tables covered with baize, and fied with any confinement, directed by the sovereign those who have personal applications to make are doomed tleman of Norfolk. Six pigs of nearly equal weight

some old and crazy chairs scattered about, in which The following experiment has been made by a genauthority of his captain. Neither would the major to wait until the interview can be obtained. Here, if have said more upon the point, much as he respected perchance you should some day be forced to tarry, you

were put to keeping at the same time, and treated the the rights of a good soldier, and Black Hugh was cer

same as to food and litter for seven weeks. Three of will find strange, anxious-looking beings, who pace to and them were left to shift for themselves as to cleanliness; tainly a promising one. But there was another con fro in impatience, or sit dejected at the table, unable cerned in the business, whose brains just entertained in the agitation of their thoughts to find any occupation the other three were kept as clean as possible by a man the conception that his commander had been insulted to while away their hours, and starting every time that employed for the purpose with a curry.comb and brush.

The last consumed in seven weeks fewer peas by five egregiously by Black Hugh Campbell. This was the the door opens, in hopes that the messenger is come to worthy sergeant. The tornado of native abuse and announce that their turn is arrived. These are men with bushels than the other three, yet weighed more when incoherent threats with which Black Hugh was con

colonial grievances. The very messengers know them, killed by two stone and four pounds upon the average. sequently assailed by his liberator, would certainly their business, and its hopelessness, and eye them with

- Wade's British History. have ended in “ trial by battle,” had he not eloquently pity as they bid them wait their long and habitual period demonstrated to the sergeant “ tat it cudna’ pe her! of attendance.

LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by W.S. The result, however, provided Captain Campbell faces, once expressive of health, and confidence, and

ORR, Paternoster Row; and sold by all booksellers and newswith a morning salutation from Black Hugh, as, in energy, now worn by hopes deferred, and the listlessness

men.--Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars spite of every opposition on the part of the captain's boiling over with a sense of mortified pride and frus- publishers or their agents ; also, any odd numbers to complete of prolonged dependence. One is a recalled governor,

Complete sets of the Journal are always to be had from the servant, he made good his way into his private quar trated policy ; another adge, recalled for dari The captain entertained enough of alarm, on

sets. Persons requiring their volumes bound along with title resist the compact of his colony ; another, a merchant, | pages and contents, have only to give them into the hands of any ascertaining who was the intruder, to have his pistols whose property has been destroyed by some job or over- bookseller, with ordors to that effect.

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--From the Scotsman.

MANAGEMENT OF PIGS.

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