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and gentlemen of the same class, who wish to spend Lord Mayor of London; she died in 1470, and is represented in its exterior and sea-washed extremity. CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF " CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,”
“ CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE," &c. NUMBER 461.
SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 28, 1840. PRICE THREE HALFPENCE. A FEW WEEKS FROM HOME. half so genteel as spending it for a few weeks on the character of the coast. About three miles to the amusements of Margate ?
eastward, on the verge of the sea, stand those reTHE NORE AND THEREABOUTS.
With these preliminary explanations, we now land, markable objects of antiquity, and land-marks, the To continue these rambling sketches of home travel in the first place, on that part of the coast where the towers of the church of Reculver. To this spot the reader may be reminded that we stopped in our real and more sober-minded rusticators resort. Herne I hastened to pay a visit. In front is the wide journey through Hampshire, to spend a quiet Sunday Bay, as this place has been called, is quite of modern expanse of the German Ocean, studded here and amidst the interesting antiquities of Winchester and date ; and its name, as may be inferred, is derived from there with vessels making for the mouth of the St Cross. Departing from this scene of William of the ancient village of Herne, which is situated about Thames from the Downs or continental ports ; on our Wykeham’s glories, and now one of the least altered a mile inland, on the high road to Canterbury.* The left is the Isle of Sheppy, darkly pictured on the of Old England's oldest cities—leaving the green and coast at this spot is eminently suited for a watering- horizon, and on the right that flat expanse of prairie soft luxuriance of the vale of the Itchin, we proceed place. Unlike the greater part of the adjacent dis or meadow land, which occupies the filled-up channel on our way by rail to London, and in little more than trict, the shore has a fine slope, in the form of a sandy between the mainland and Thanet, whose higher two hours we are turned out from the mixed train to and pebbly beach, to the water, and may at all times be grounds close up the scene. Nowhere, on the be mixed among the busy crowds of the metropolis. reached from steamers with perfect comfort, by means coast of Great Britain, have such extensive changes
Some writers—my Lady' Morgan for one, if we of a beautiful and substantial jetty of three quarters been effected by the sea and other causes, on the recollect rightly—have a very convenient knack of of a mile in length. The country, backwards, all the
dimensions and configuration of the land. On a provaulting at a bound over an interval of time in their way to Canterbury, is of a soft undulating character, minent knoll, now carried completely away by the narratives, by giving a dashing line of stars—the said well plenished with woods and copses, and dotted over waves of the ocean, once stood the castle of Raculfstars being all that the reader gets for some darkly with old-fashioned hamlets and trimly thatched farm-cester, an early station of the Romans, and, latterly, mysterious part of the story which it would puzzle the buildings and cottages. The walks, therefore, whether a seat of the Anglo-Saxon king, Ethelbert. During author to explain. On the present occasion it would along the grassy downs which overhang the sea, or into this latter period, a church of great extent was built be remarkably easy to follow this excellent example, the rural scenery beyond, seem well adapted for the adjoining the castle ; and it is the towers of this but as plain dealing is more to our taste, we shall just summer solacement of the overworn inhabitants of edifice, popularly called the Reculvers, which now say, in a few words, that we pass over an interval of the city. Some ten or twelve years ago, Herne Bay, stand as the most prominent objects on the whole line three months, and are again, during the fortnight or by the activity of a few rash speculators, became “all of coast. On attaining the spot, we find that the sea three weeks of “farewell summer,” once more upon the rage,” and buildings and streets, on a superlatively has washed away at least a mile of the land, leaving our rambles from home. In short, we are again in grand scale, sprung up in all directions. From one for several miles a precipitous cliff, which is daily London, ready for all sorts of inquiries and excursions. cause or other, however, the tide of popularity did not lessening in bulk. In dread of these rapid encroach
I had gone, I do not know how often, up and down last a sufficient length of time, and the building lots ments, the church has been many years abandoned, the Thames. Sheerness, and Tilbury Fort, and Pur- being retained at enormous prices, the projected town and is now an open desolated ruin—the only complete fleet, and Gravesend, and the old cocked hats and stuck after it had been begun, and in the present day portion remaining being the two towers, which are wooden legs which daily air themselves on the terrace we find it composed of many partially finished edi- preserved as land-marks for mariners: The sea has at Greenwich, were all perfectly familiar to me. But fices, and rows of streets standing like so many loop- not, as is generally reported, reached the building, somehow or other I had never got round the Nore, in holed and ragged ruins. Nevertheless, the place, as but it has carried away a half of the burying-ground the direction of Margate ; and so now I resolved to Brown would have said, has capabilities calculated to around it, and numerous remains of mortality project pay a brief visit to a few places in this quarter of the carry it over this great initiatory misfortune, and from the face of the cliff, and are scattered along the Kentish coast.
these are leading gradually to its settlement and im- beach. To prevent, if possible, farther inroads, the The opportunities for making such an excursion are provement.
Trinity House has caused the erection of a paved now exceedingly plentiful. In the days of old, the Along the shore there is a remarkably neat terrace bulwark for a considerable distance along the shore; only means of transit consisted of the Margate hoys, like walk for promenaders. Adjacent are bathing- and it is evident, that unless some precautionary meaa class of small sloops which carried you in a couple houses, numerous dwellings for visiters, and two hotels sures of this kind be speedily adopted elsewhere, a of days, wind and weather permitting, to the place of of large dimensions in full operation ; during my very considerable loss of land must ensue. The exyour destination ; but now, what a change !—smart short stay, a very handsome church was consecrated traordinary carelessness kitnerto shown on this point, steamers dash off daily from London Bridge, and in by the archbishop for the use of the inhabitants, is far from creditable. At present, as we are told by five or six hours disload their hundreds of gaily-dressed regular and transient. It would be very inexcusable Mr Lyell, the loss of land, by the washing away of passengers on the jetties of Herne Bay and Margate. to pass over in this notice, however slight it be, the the clayey and chalky cliffs, is at least two feet per In one of the most active of these well-managed boats, good deeds done to the town by a benevolent and annum ; and it is calculated that the whole island of the Red Rover, we one morning placed ourselves; wealthy patroness, Mrs Thwaites, relict of an opulent Sheppy, now measuring six miles in length by four and in due time were brought abreast of the Isle of merchant in the city, and who devotes no small share in breadth, will be annihilated in half a century. Sheppy and adjacent parts in the mainland of Kent. of her property to charitable and public purposes. It is interesting, in a geological point of view, to This part of the coast, it is necessary to explain, forms Unlike the generality of mankind, who only leave remark, that while the precipitous and some other the great airing ground of the good folk of the me wealth to their fellow-creatures when they can no parts of the coast have been diminishing annually, tropolis. During “ the season” as many as two or longer make use of it themselves, this well-disposed land has in one spot been accumulating with equal three thousand persons are daily landed and carried lady, having taken a fancy to Herne Bay, has largely rapidity. Casting our eye south-eastwards from the back to town. But Saturday, in particular, forms the assisted in the support of free schools for the place, Reculvers, as I have said, we observe a flat tract of great day for these excursions ; the toiled and stupe- and lent her charitable aid to the poor of the neigh- rich meadow land, as like the polders of Holland as fied tradesman, who has been stewed up for a week bourhood. She likewise, a few years ago, erected, at any thing in this country. This tract, which is emamidst the streets and lanes of the city, on that day a considerable expense, a tall and handsome clock- bellished with trees, fences, and farm-offices, was once gets off to pay his accustomed visit to his wife and tower on the sea-promenade, which may be seen at a an arm of the sea, which stretched from Sandwich to family—to enjoy a few hours' fresh air on the beach on great distance. Although totally unacquainted with near the Reculvers, and through this navigable chanSunday—and to return again on Monday to his desk this lady, there seems such a degree of rationality in nel the Roman fleets used to sail on their way to and and dingy counting-house.
the disposal of her superabundant wealth, that I feel from the Thames. About the time of the Norman From all I could learn, there are two kinds of sum much pleasure in holding up her conduct to imitation. Conquest, the Channel became impassable, from the mer recreation in these places of resort-one consist Herne Bay forms a good starting-point for those accumulation of earthy matter; and in the fifteenth ing of actual rustication and airing at Herne Bay or who wish to explore the antiquities and geological century it was crossed by a bridge. Since that period, Ramsgate, and another of imaginary rustication and
all vestige of water course has disappeared, if we except airing among the fashionable lounges and tea-gardens bishop of Rochester and London; and here he resided for several * Herne was the first cure of the pious Ridley, afterwards
the wet ditches which here and there intersect the of Margate. Another thing may be mentioned; the years, discharging the duties of his pastoral office with great
enclosed fields. It will be understood, therefore, that resort to cither of these places is almost exclusively zeal.—
Beauties of England and Wales, vol. viii. Herne church, to Thanet is no longer an island, but a portion of the of persons east of Charing Cross—that is to say, citi which I paid a visit, contains a number of objects as old as the mainland of Kent, and forms a bold piece of country, zens with their wives and families, or young ladies
fifteenth century; among others, is a monumental brass figure with the North Foreland, Margate, and Ramsgate, on
tomb of Lady Phelip, wife of Matthew Phelip, sometime money any way, but "genteely,” if possible ; and what the dress of the times.
Having sufficiently explored the environs of Herne
Bay and the Reculvers, the place to which we next few feet of the walls of the dwellings. At this of the world. In the late case which occurred in Pos proceeded was Margate, a steamer carrying us thither extreme south-eastern corner of Thane, we are pre- land, a young woman came forward and gave evidence in rather less than an hour. I am sorry to say sented with a most extensive prospect seawards. that she had been seized by her master, a Hebrew, that I was disappointed with Margate. Let the The eye in a clear day commands the outline of the and had been confined to a room in his house, where reader conceive the idea of a bold chalky line of cliffs, sand-hills and cliffs on the French coast from about she had been bled several times against her will, to closely overhanging the sea, and in a notch, at a Calais to Dunkirk, a distance cf at least thirty miles, yield the leaven alluded to. The story was readily part lower than the rest, a cluster of red brick houses, the sparkling interval of ocean being dotted over with believed by the credulous public, with whose preposspreading in irregular or plain lines into the coun- white sails, and streaked with lazy currents of blue sessions it tallied only too strongly; and several Jews try, with two or three church spires, and tall bar- smoke issuing from the steamers which are almost were imprisoned and misused for the imputed crime. rack-looking buildings, and he has a tolerable idea of always seen plying in the Downs. More immediately But the young woman, seized with remorse, soon afterthe town. There is no beach for walking upon, and at hand, on the right, we have a full view of the low wards retracted her accusation, and admitted that she the accommodation for bathing in the sea is very silted-up shore on which are situated the ancient had been prevailed upon to make the statement by limited. The town is approached by a long wooden cinque-ports of Sandwich and Deal, also the groves her lover, a young man at enmity with some of the jetty ; but it is so low, that the sea at high tides amidst which Walmar, the seat of the Duke of Wel. Jews, and who had invented the story for her. The washes over it. Adjoining is a well-built harbour, lington, reposes, and beyond them the cliffy knolls only foundation for the charge lay in circumstances which, however, is left dry at low water. A more which overhang the town and port of Dover. We most honourable to her master. The girl had been ill, unfavourable spot for a sca-port or watering-place have here, indeed, a prospect of the spot on which, and had been bled in the usual way by the family cannot well be imagined. The streets, straggling up- fifty-five years before the Christian era, Julius Cæsar surgcon, whom the master had called in from the ward from the harbour, are as narrow as the lanes of arrived with his war galleys and conquered the abori- most humane motives, besides lavishing other kindly the city; and how families should come hither for fresh ginal inhabitants of our island ; and here, also, in sub-attentions upon his ungrateful servant. The case air, is beyond my comprehension, because they must be sequent times, was the landing place of Saxons and could not stand against such disclosures, and the Jews obliged to live in houses nearly as confined as those Danes who came to the country on a similar errand. were acquitted. they have left. Margate, however, as already hinted, It was likewise somewhere within this territory, which So lately as the end of the sixteenth century, the derives its chief support from being a favourite scene may well be defined as the portal of England, that St popular idea of a Jew in England included every of fashionable racket and amusement during the dull Augustine arrived about thirteen hundred years since, imaginable criminality. Shakspeare, in his Shylock, autumnal season in town. In walking through the and spread a knowledge of that Christianity which has in some measure pandered to this prejudice ; but narrow streets, you observe bazaars, which form loung- now illuminates the whole of Britain.
his Jew is spotless innocence compared to the Barabas, ing places for the idle; and in each is seen a gambling But I must stop, for the present, this narrative of or Jew of Malta, depicted by his immediate predecessor or raffling table for those who wish to try their luck. past events and modern
appearances, and conclude Marlow :There are likewise several houses which offer the with an agreeable piece of information to all future " As for myself, I walk abroad a-nights, choice of hot bathing and music ; and besides these tourists to the spot, that Pegwell Bay has the hap- And kill sick peopie groaning under walls : means of killing time, there are public concerts and piness to possess an inn on the very brink of the pre
Sometimes I go about and poison wells; dances, at which the height of city splendour is ex- cipice, where you may at once study the progress of
And now and then, to cherish Christian thieves,
I am content to lose some of my crowns, hibited. The best point in the Margate arrange- disintegration from the eternal washing of the waves That I may, walking in my gallery, ments are the numerous respectable boarding-houses, beneath, and enjoy the comforts of a lunch on shrimps See 'm go pinioned along by my door. where, on moderate terms, you may reside for a short and bread and butter-such being the repast for which
Being young, I studied physic, and began
To practise first upon the Italian: time in a very agreeable manner. At these houses, Pegwell Bay has for ages been highly, and, I have every
There I enriched the prieste with burials, parties of pleasure are made up for the day, the exreason to believe, justly celebrated.
And always kept the sexton's arms in use pense for cars and refreshments during the excursion
With digging graves, and wringing dead men' linell being defrayed by general contribution. It is a recog.
And, after that, was I an engineer, nised point of etiquette among the persons who thus
And in the wars 'twixt France and Germany,
THE ANTI-HEBREW EPIDEMIC. become acquainted for the time being, that they are
Under pretence of serving Charles V.,
Slew friend and enemy with my stratagems not in any respect supposed to know each other when Among the moral epidemics of Christian society at Then, after that, was I an usurer, they return to town ; a watering-place acquaintance least of Christian society in a low state of civilisation
And with extorting, cozening, forfeiting, being like that contracted in a stage-coach, which
And tricks bolonging unto brokery, terminates at the end of the journey. -may be ranked a violent and suspicious dislike of I filled the jail with bankrupts in a year,
And with young orphans planted hospitals, From Margate, a variety of short trips may be the Jews. This feeling has broken ont at various
And every moon made some or other mad made to places of local importance. Within a short times, and in many different countries, since the com
And now and then one hang himsell for grief, distance, in an easterly direction, is the retired water- mencement of our era, and has raged destructively for
Pinning upon his breast a long great scroll, ing-place called Broadstairs (a corruption, by the a season, like the plague, cholera, or any other phy. This horrible autographical picture must not be dis
How I with interest had tormented him." , is a short cut by the main road, across the high culti- source of the affection is in some measure obvious. imagination. The character of Barabas was but for tranquillity and sca air than Margate. Taking / sical disorder to which mankind are liable. The regarded, as if it were merely the fruit of a poet's vated grounds of Thanet, we reach Ramsgate, at a The tenacity with which the Jews cling to the faith an embodiment of the vulgar fancies entertained redistance of four miles from Margate, and find that, and customs of their forefathers, and the comparative specting the Jews; and while terming them vulgar, it is far superior as a place of healthful resort. have led to the belief that they also preserve in secret can now be determined by the cool-judging eye of with the same foolish crowding together of streets, mystery attending their various ritual observances, it is fitting also that we should call them absurdly Ramsgate occupies an exceedingly striking situation, partly in a hollow leading up from the shore, but the same sentiments of aversion and hate, which posterity, they seem to have been utterly without more particularly on the top of the cliffs which bound caused the martyrdom of the founder of Christianity. foundation. They prevailed widely, however, and led this hollow on each side, and fronting the clear In Great Britain, certainly, and other countries ad- to epidemical outbreaks of persecution, most destrucexpanse of sea.
The cliffs here are from sixty to vanced in knowledge, these illiberal views do not now tive in their results to the scattered children of seventy fect in height, and being of pure
Israel. chalk, have a light dazzling appearance. By flights prevail ; but they are far from being extinct among
Both before and after the destruction of Jerusalem of well-constructed steps, the lofty terraces on which the less educated Christian communities. The recent by Titus, the Jews were subjected to repeated masthe straight lines and crescents of houses are placed, persecution of the Jews of Damascus will be remem- sacrings by the Romans, in Rome, Egypt, and elseare connected with the wide stretch of fine sands be- bered by every one ; and in Poland, but a few weeks where ; but although the peculiar religious faith of where seen, and are only inferior to those at Porto ago, a similar case occurred, though it excited less at the Jews was in part the cause of these misfortunes,
political motives had a still greater share in producing bello, near Edinburgh, which, I have no hesitation in tention, from the comparative harmlessness of its con- them. It was after Christianity had expelled Paganism saying, are unmatched for extent
and beauty. At the sequences. Even in England, however, but a few from the various countries of Europe, that the Jews time of my visit to the Ramsgate sands, the weather centuries ago, the most extraordinary notions were began to suffer those particular persecutions which was clear and beautiful, and they were crowded with entertained
respecting the practices of the Jews. The fall within the scope of our present notice. In the donkeys, pacing easily along the margin of the rip- prioress's story, in Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, con- twelfth century, a band of two hundred thousand pling tide. Opposite the central and lower part of tains abundance of passages which show that the poet Saracens. At this period the Jews were numerous in the town is the harbour, which is of modern erection, believed the Jews to be capable of any cruelty. The France, Germany, and other regions of the Continent, and upon a most extensive and substantial scale. On prioress relates that “in Asie, in a great citee,” and prejudices ran high against them. By way, therealong this bold line of coast, there is no place of refuge, a child was slain by the Hebrews, because, “ as he Jews in every city which they passed through. At account of the want of natural harbourage for shipping where there was « among Christen folk a Jewerie,” fore, of losing no time, the vast band alluded to com
menced their labours for the cross by massacring the Thames ; and to obriate this serious deficiency, the came to and fro, full merrily would he sing and cry, Cologne, Worms, Treves, and other places, great harbour of Ramsgate has been erected at an enormous " Oh alma Redemptoris ! (mother of the Redeemer) numbers perished in this way. Conversion or death outlay, which is met by a tax on all vessels passing, ever mo !” A miracle is described as having fol were the alternatives placed before them, and they whether they use the harbour or not. The harbour lowed, the little boy continuing to sing “ Oh alma almost uniformly preferred the latter of the two. piers, and contains a superficies of about
forty-six Redemptoris !” from the pit into which his mangled of the crusaders, gathered together their children and acres. It is never left dry by the tides, and by means body was cast. Then
killed them, to "prevent their being subjected to the of reserved masses of water and sluices, it is scoured of the sand-banks which have a tendency to accumu
“ With tormont and with shameful denth, each one,
insult of Christian baptism.” A band of Jewish late within its bounds. On the occasion of extremely
The provost doth these Jews for to sterve
women belonging to the same place went to the side That of this murder wist.
of the Moselle, and, having loaded their clothes with heavy gales from the east and north-east, hundreds of
Therefore with wild horse he did them draw,
stones, threw themselves into the river, where they vessels of all nations may be seen fleeing to this famed harbour for succour, which is afforded to all with an
And, after that, he hung them by the law."
perished. Many similar scenes took place on this
occasion. While the crusading mania lasted in Euequal degree of liberality. In fine weather, the piers, At the close of the poem, Chaucer refers to another rope, the Jews were kept, altogether, in a most miserwhich are smoothly paved with granite, offer a most case, exclaiming,
able condition. The pretence for misusing them was agreeable marine parade to the numerous transient
usually some imaginary crime of the kind already residents. The character of Ramsgate, as I learned
“Oh young Flew of Lincoln ! slain also
described. In the year 1171, for example, many of on inquiry, differs very materially from that of Mar
By cursed Jews, as it is notable,
the Jews of Blois were burned, on a charge of having gate. Along with Broadstairs, it is resorted to by a
For it was but a little while ago."
crucified a Christian child, in mockery of the Passion higher and more expressly health-seeking class of visitants, and its very aspect conveys the notion of
The boy of the Asiatic city and young Hugh of throne was occupied by Stephen, the Jews of Norwich
of Jesus. In England, in the year 1144, while the something more refined and tasteful.
Lincoln were but examples of a dreadful criminality were persecuted on a charge of murdering in like In the course of the day which I spent in Ramsgate ascribed in the middle ages to the Jews. This un- manner a boy named William ; and in the sixth year and its vicinity, I did not omit
to visit the favourite happy race were generally believed to make a practice of Henry II. (1160), the Jews of Gloucester were excursion terrainus at Pegwell Bay, at a smile and ca of stealing away and murdering
Christian children, maltreated on the faith of a similar accusation. the mouldering cliff
, stand a few houses in an ap- in order to use their blood to leaven some of the Jews had been banished from France. They were parently perilous situation, for the sea has, in the substances to be eaten in the course of their rites. permitted to return, however, and remained without course of time, formed a bay, and is now within a | The superstition is not yet extinguished in some parts | further molestation till the twelfth century, a period
citement relative to the Crusades left the Hebrew / raised his hand, and passed it several times before his she once more passed through England ; " when
80 fatal to their race in Europe. At that period count. As might be expected, other accusations were and bitterly has she paid the penalty of her impruPhilip Augustus resolved again to expel them, osten- brought at the same time against the Jews of Mentz, dence. Not so with this. And from whom will the sibly on account of their crimes, but in reality because and a due amount of fines and confiscations followed now wretched family obtain relief ? Not from the of their great wealth. In reign they possessed, as might also be expected.
higher classes, I fear; not from the opulent and is said, one-half of the whole property of the city of It is lamentable to see such scenes revived at the wealthy-but, if at all, from their immediate neighParis. Philip Augustus first gave a statutory quit- present day, in the face of all reason and justice. By bours ; from that class which, although the most tance to all the Christians of his kingdom of the debts the interposition of the more civilised portions of the willing, is the least capable of rendering assistthey owed to the Jews, only causing a fifth part to be Christian world, they have been put a stop to, how ance. How many similar cases may not now exist in paid to himself for the good act; and he then gave ever-let us hope not soon to be renewed. If occa this apparently flourishing country ? Surely such the Hebrews their choice of baptism or banishment. sion does require it, the British public may be encou- misery is susceptible of alleviation at least, if not With all the moveables left in their possession, the raged to the same generous interference by having prevention ; surely it should not be by the poor alone majority of the poor Jews consequently left France in the folly and destructiveness of such prejudices in past that the poor, in such circumstances, are supported. July of the year 1182. Seven years afterwards, the times laid before them, as has been brietly done in Yet thus it will be, without some direct and powerJews of England, also, were treated in a most bar- the present sketch.
ful intervention ; for among all ranks of people there barous way. Richard Cour de Lion, then upon the
is greater sympathy expressed for, and more readiness throne, had given orders that none of that race should
shown, in relieving the misfortunes of each separate approach his palace during the holding of a solemn
BENEVOLA; A TALE.*
class, by the members of that class, than is found to birth-day festival. Ignorant of these orders, some of Tuis pleasant and instructive little volume opens exist in any class which is distinct from, or unconthe leading men of the Jews went to the palace with with an account of Benevola, the last of the fairies, a
nected with it. This seems universal.' presents for the king, suitable to the occasion. They
After long pondering on these things, Benevola were repelled with insults, and the people, observing being of supernatural character, but not exempt from exclaimed, "There ought to be a law providing adethis circumstance, attacked the little band, and killed human error. She is represented as stopping one quate relief, at the common charge, in all cases of several of them. A rumour immediately spread evening in an English village, near a cottage occupied destitution, from whatever cause arising. Where through London that the king had commanded the by one Martin, a labouring man. A sister of Mrs entire support is not needed, occasional assistance extermination
of the whole of the Jews, and the ima- Martin, who had formerly made an imprudent mar- might be given. When an industrious man is unable with great accompanying cruelty. Other cities caught riage with a player named Collins, comes up the might be paid, or an allowance might be made for up a like impression, and assassinated the majority of street, in great distress, with two children, and is supporting some of his children ; and in dear times, the Jews within their respective bounds. The most kindly received by Mrs Martin and their common and during periods of scarcity, food and employment deplorable scene of all took place at York. There mother, who lives in the cottage, and is blind.
might found for those who really want it. The the Jews were very wealthy and numerous, five hundred being the amount of the men among them, ex
A storm takes place, and an alarm is communicated funds requisite for such a measure of relief might be
levied from all proprietors of land, or from all persons clusive of women and children. The whole of these that John Martin, coming along the village street, renting land, in a ratio corresponding to the interest people shut themselves up in a tower, and were there had been struck by lightning. The feelings of the thoy severally possess in such land, or to the rent besieged by the populace. Finding no mode of escape various parties need not be related. In a few minutes, they pay; and I will not rest until a law of this kind open to them, the Jews resolved to fall by their own Martin is borne into his cottage insensible, and laid is framed, and carried into effect in “ merrie Enghands, rather than expose themselves to the tender
land.” »» mercies of their enemies. Each head of a family took on a bed, where for some time he gives no sign of
Benevola then proceeds to London, and, working a razor, with which he slew first his wife and children, life except a faint low breathing. At length an by some cccult means on the feelings of the prime then his domestics, and finally himself. Either in exclamation from Mrs Martin brought her sister minister of the day, succeeds in bringing about the this awful manner, or by the hands of the populace, and farmer Mitchell to the bedside. Martin appeared establishment of a poor-law, based upon the vrinciples every Jew of York perished !
to be restored in some measure to consciousness ; he above adverted to. During the , the
after many years from the , people no rest or safety. In the year 1240, Duke eyes, as if to remove something which obstructed his curiosity induced her to direct her flight towards the John of Brittany banished them from his dominions, sight.
village which she had previously visited, and where and, in 1236, they were vilely misused in Spain. Else *All is dark,' he muttered to himself. 'If I could her sympathies had been so powerfully excited. where, similar scenes took place at the same period. but see the light once again !—no night could be so
It was no longer in the contented and apparently The compiler of the Causes Célébres, while detailing black as this. Mrs Martin leant fearfully over him. Mourishing condition in which she had first seen it.
The windows of most of the cottages were broken, gives instances of the crimes laid to the charge of “John,she said, 'my own dearest husband, speak to
and stuffed with rags ; the walls were cracked and the Israelite tribes. In 1220 (says he) a boy, named me—but one word only—tell me how you feel? stained in many places by the weather, and the thatch Henry, was killed by them in Alsatia ; in 1225, a boy at Is that you, Ann? Bring a light ; let me see you. was overgrown with long rank grass ; the street, likeNorwich; in 1236, several children at Fulde ; in 1255, Why do you keep me in the dark ? It is not dark, wise, was broken into puddles, and littered with halfa child of nine years at Lincoln (Chaucer's “ Young dear John ; there are two candles burning in the
eaten turnips and rotten cabbage-leaves. In other Hew of Lincoln”); in 1261, a girl of seven years in
respects the village looked much the same, excepting the Marquisate of Bade; in 1287, a child at Berne, room, beside the fire-light.' The wretched man sat
that a large red brick building had started up oppoand another in the same year at Munich ; in 1289, up, and, stretching out his arms, said, in a hoarse and site the apothecary's shop, and several additional aleanother in Suabia ; and so on. In truth, however, faltering voice, ‘Bring the candles close to me--closer, houses had been established. Mrs Martin's cottage wherever the Jews were peculiarly wealthy, there such closer still.'
had fared as the rest ; the neat garden was destroyed, accusations are found to have sprung up against them His wife held them to his eyes.
the flowers were dead, and sturdy thistles and widein plenty. The history of their various banishments Ann, I cannot see. Why do you not hold them spreading docks and nettles flourished in their room. from France gives us clear and irrefragable proof of nearer ?
A young woman stood at the open door, holding a the true source of such charges. Having once fairly Indeed, John, I should burn you if I put them dirty sickly-looking child in her arms ; her gown was stripped them of their property, for example, Philip nearer ; they almost touch your face. He sank back torn, and only fastened by a single pin, against which Augustus showed what his original motives had been, with a heavy groan. Mary took the candles from her the child had just scratched its hand, and was crying and that he had no sincere fear of their practices, sister's trembling hands ; and the farmer, drawing his aloud with pain, while its heedless mother stood by allowing them to return, and they afterwards re- sleeve across his eyes, said, in a quivering voice, which watching the butcher's boy sweeping the week's mained unmolested in France until they had accumu he in vain attempted to render firm, 'Cheer up, Mar- accumulated dirt from his master's shop into the lated sufficient wealth to tempt cupidity anew. Then tin, the doctor will soon be here, and, I warrant, street. again were charges brought against them, and they will do something for you. But Martin made no
The interior of the cottage was as comfortless as were robbed once more of a great part of their means
He said once, My poor Ann !' and a little the exterior. A fire was burning in the rusty grate, by banishinent. For the sixth or seventh time, they afterwards, "What will become of my children? but the hearth appeared never to have been swept. were thus
treated by Louis XIII., so late as the year These few words alone showed on what his thoughts A ricketty table propped against the wall, a broken 1615, being expelled from France by statute. In were fixed.
bench, a kettle, and a few wooden platters, were the other countries, similar alternations of repose and The deep stillness which reigned in the cottage was only articles of furniture ; and the Hoor was strewed persecution, and from similar motives, characterised only broken by the low suppressed sobs of Mrs Mar- with fragments of potatoes and greasy bread. In the the history of the Jews.
tin and her sister, or by the hasty tread and cheerful middle of the room, upon a basket turned upside Our readers may now have had nearly enough of whistle of a returning labourer.
down, sat a man, his head hanging down, his arms this subject, and we shall only refer to another case At length the sound of borses' feet was heard. Far- folded on his breast, and his eyes fixed on the ground in which the Jews sustained persecution, at a compa mer Mitchell started up, and, after some conversation with a look of stupid sottish gravity. He was still ratively recent era. In the year 1669, the wife of a with the doctor at the door, returned with him into young, but frequent intoxication had enfeebled his of the room
constitution, and given an appearance of age as well side of a neighbouring stream. She was followed by examined Martin's eyes.
At that moment a man turned the corner, and her son, a child of three years old, whom she soon • Is there any hope ? faltered the old woman. Her came slowly up the street: his ragged dress and emaafter missed from the spot where she had left him, and daughters could not put the question : they saw the ciated frame bespoke poverty and want. Whilst still which was but twenty or thirty yards from the stream. answer in his countenance.
at some distance, the woman called out to him, with a She looked around for him, but in vain ; and equally The doctor shook his head, said that he feared the loud laugh, 'Well, Cousin Collins, which d’ye think is fruitless was the subsequent search of the father of sight was quite gone, but desired that Martin might best pay master now, farmer Grogan, or the parish ?. the child and other friends. At last, the father was be kept quiet ; and promising to call again the next
The inan attempted to pass her without replying, informed by a man whom he met on the highway day, he gently pushed by the farmer, who was stand- but she took hold of his arm, and repeated her quespear Mentz, that a Jew had passed shortly before on ing with a fee ready in his hand, mounted his horse, tion. He then raised his eyes, and said, “Farmer horseback, with a child before him. This clue was and rode off.
Grogan is not to blame; he would not have turned us followed up, and a Jew named Raphael Levi was The fairy was much grieved by the touching scene
off if he could have helped it ; but the rates came so finally charged with stealing and murdering the child. she had just witnessed ; and slowly and thoughtfully heavy, upon him, that he could not afford to pay them, The ancient prejudices of the people, dormant for a resumed her journey, reasoning thus with herself :
and give us full wages ; so he was forced to take on time, broke out with the fury of an epidemical fever, | How will this family be supported in future? Their the parish men, although he said he knew he should and the whole of the Hebrews of Mentz fell under the means of subsistence entirely depended on the in- lose by it, for they did little more work than they ban of popular distrust. In a wood adjoining the dustry of the father : of the fruits of that industry liked themselves, and that badly, because they did not spot where he disappeared, was found the body of they are now deprived. They must be reduced to a depend on him for their wages, but on the parish.' the missing child, so much lacerated and mangled, state of absolute destitution, and this by no crime But I say, Collins, continued the woman, “what's that, but for violent prepossessions, men would cer- by nothing which good conduct could have prevented; the good, I want to know, of being the best worktainly have at once ascribed the mishap to a wolf. not from idleness, which exertion would have over man, and the most industrious and sober man in the But this natural solution of the mystery found no come ; not from negligence, which prudence might parish? What have you got by it? You are halffavour with the people, and Raphael Levi was exe have foreseen and guarded against.' To the other starved now, and will have to come on the parish at cuted. He remained firm to the last, even under the sister it may be objected, that she caused her own
last. Why, here's Sall Mansfield and her husbandtorture, in his denial of all share in the death of the misfortunes by an early and improvident marriage ; they get a shilling a-week for each of their children, child ; and the same constancy was shown by various
and their rent is paid, though you and I know that others who were put to the question on the same ac
* London : Charles Knight. 1840.
he earns ten shillings a-week wages. He wasn't half
Stentz, left her dwelling to water some linen by the hour Nugent sat down by the bed, and attentively as vacant inanity to his countenance
as well off before he came on the parish, for he was your condition. When the new law was passed, I times, and nothing seems to cure him. Mrs Collins, a lazy workman, and none of the farmers would em- was abroad, you know; and I want to learn all about poor thing, does all she can, but she's very sickly herploy him : but now they must find him in work, or its operation, and how you find that you are affected self.' support him and his family in idleness ; 80 now you by it, from beginning to end.'
The gentleman sighed, and after a short pause, said, see he lives like a prince, with as much to eat as he Why, you see, sir,' said Simmons, settling his 'Have you anything in the savings' bank ? likes, and plenty to spend in drink into the bargain.' neckerchief, and twitching his coat-sleeves, proud "Oh yes, sir, I've a matter of ten pounds ; and I
• He is an idle, drunken fellow,' said Collins, and of being thus questioned by a gentleman of so much am in the labourer's sick-club, too, and my eldest boy his wife is no better. I wonder that you, Mary, keep consequence as Mr Hartland, when they first told and girl attend the new school. company with such people.'
us that no more relief was to be given out of the “I am glad to hear it. Good evening, Simmons.' Why, said she, what's the use of holding one's workhouse, all we who were in the habit of applying 'Good evening, sir. I hope Mrs Hartland and the head so 'high? You know, Mother Martin always to the parish thought ourselves shamefully ill-used. young ladies are pretty well." declared it would break her heart to set foot inside a A gentleman, and a member of Parliament, too, I “Quite well, thank you.' And Mr Hartland rode workhouse ; and there she is living still, and as merry believe, came down among us, and told us that we as possible.'
had as much right to support from the poor-rates as The fairy followed Simmons to the door of his cotYou ought to be ashamed of yourself, Mary Sim- any lord in the land had to his estate. He said that tage, and, as he entered, concealed herself in her old mons, for talking in that way, when you know your we must take the law into our own hands, and do hiding-place. mother almost starved herself to give you food, and ourselves justice : that to separate man and wife, as A neatly-dressed good-looking woman was standing worked like a slave, that she might send you to was done in the workhouse, was against the Scrip- by an old-fashioned round oak-table, upon which stood school and bring you up decently.'
tures ; in short, that government had neither the a tea-tray, with some gay-coloured cups and saucers. * That's all very fine talking, replied the woman, right, nor would it have the power, to carry such a She was busily occupied in cutting substantial slices whom the fairy perceived to be Mrs Martin's daughter; law into execution, if we stood manfully up for our of bread and butter, and upon Simmons's entrance .but what was I to do with her, and two children of own privileges, as we ought to do. Well, sir, we all she looked up and smiled, saying, as she poured some my own (which I had then) to support ?'
thought this very proper, and very fine—for he was water into the teapot, 'What has kept you so long, The parish made you an allowance for them, a very clever gentleman, and talked away about our Will, this evening? 'I fear the “Hen-and-Chickens” didn't it?
natural rights, and the Bible, and said that all men was too tempting for you.' * And so it ought,' replied Mary; 'I had as much were made equal, and that the riches of a country lay Simmons laughed at this mention of the 'Hen-andright to it as the rest. However, I shan't waste my in the labour of the people, and that the people ought Chickens,' to which, in former times, he had been too time in talking to obstinate people like you. And, to be served first, and have the power in their own apt to resort, and explained the cause of his delay : with a toss of the head, she returned into the cot- hands--for a better than three hours; and his tongue then, taking the youngest child in his arms, he tossed tage.”
was going all the while as fast as farmer Croft's mill it almost up to the ceiling, making the little thing Collins goes home to a desolate hearth, a sickly in a high wind. But, somehow, we found that to laugh and crow with delight. wife, and dying child. He is in despair, and resolves break the law brought a punishment along with it; The elder children were gathered round their grandto become, what his honest nature had long revolted for when, according to his advice, we determined to mother's knee : she was telling them a story ; and it from, a pauper. He goes to apply for relief, and, in smash the work house, and actually did break in the must have been a very interesting one, not only from his absence, his child expires through cold and hun- doors and windows, a party of soldiers was sent against the attentive and breathless eagerness of her little ger. Denied relief, he returns home half-frantic, us, and the most active amongst us were taken before auditors, but even the old woman's knitting lay nefinds his child dead, and curses the law which, by the magistrates ; and one, Tom Evans, was trans- glected in her lap, and her black-rimmed spectacles encouraging idleness, had deprived the industrious ported, and several of the rest were sentenced to im- had been taken off, in order to give additional impres. labourer of the reward due to his toil. Benevola, prisonment and the tread-wheel.
siveness to her tale. In the nicely-plaited cap and after witnessing these circumstances with grief, pro- Well, sir, we didn't like this, you may be sure, and clean printed handkerchief, Benevola recognised Mrs ceeds to the ale-house, where she sees men squander- we then determined, one and all, to go into the work- Martin's tidiness of attire, as well as her mild intelliing on drink the allowances made to them by the house when next they offered it to us; for we thought gent expression of features in the old woman's face. parish to make up for their low wages, and to aid in that it would never hold us all, and that then they The fairy then passed on to the next cottage. supporting their children. “She saw that a reliance would be obliged to return to the old custom of giving Close to the window sat a thin delicate-looking upon parish relief had destroyed the great principle us parish allowance out of the house. But when the woman. She was working, and her needle seemed of self-reliance and independent exertion; that it had day came-it was on a Monday that relief was first almost to fly through the cloth, so quickly did her blunted the finer feelings of our nature among the refused-only one-half of us went in ; I was among fingers move. A little girl was sweeping up the labouring population, and severed, or at least weak-them; the rest got frightened and slunk off, leaving hearth, and another 'wee todling thing was trying ened, the social ties which unite the son to the father, us floored.
to climb upon its mother's knee. There was an exthe daughter to the mother. She became sensible However, we didn't remain in long, and were mostly pression of patient sadness on her countenance, which that her mistake had been, not in affording relief to out before the end of the first week ; for we found told of past sufferings : but the smile which lighted the destitute, but in giving it on too easy terms ; in that the old and the new workhouses were very diffe- up her worn features, as she stooped to kiss the rosy, rendering relief too general and indiscriminate ; and rent, and the guardians weren't to be frightened as the laughing little urchin, seemed sweeter from its sorrow. in not subjecting the asserted destitution of the old overseer was. The farmers, too, after this offered Uncertain, at first, whether it was indeed Mary claimant to some test to prove the reality of its exist- us fair wages, and we all gradually fell to working Collins, the fairy leant forward to obtain a better view ence.
again, and have continued so ever since ; and we are of the woman, who had again bent over her work; She saw also that there was one other defect in the now, I think, happier and better off than we were when hearing a step behind her, she turned, and saw law which she had taken such pains to establish. It before, as we are employed regularly the whole year Collins himself coming slowly up the little garden. was therein declared that each parish should be com- round; for a farmer can always find something to be His cheek was slightly flushed; but the anxious expelled to support its own poor, and that each appli- done rather than turn his men off in the winter, espe- pression of his eye, and his feeble step, betokened ill cant should be relieved in the place in which he was cially when he knows that he would have to support health. Want, grief, and disappointment, had sown born, or to which he belonged. Benevola had con- them in the workhouse till spring comes round again ; the seeds of a disease which was now fast hurrying sidered this a fair and equitable provision at the time, and that then he might not find them when he wanted him to an early grave. but she now perceived the injurious consequences it them.'
Benevola sighed ; and as soon as Collins had entered had produced; for no labourer would leave his own Well,' said the gentleman, with a smile, “I am his cottage, continued her progress through the village, parish to seek for work elsewhere, as, in case of failure, glad that you have thus found out the evils of the old, where everything wore an appearance of peace and it was there alone that he could obtain relief. The and the benefit of the new, poor-law. But did the comfort. market for labour was thus necessarily contracted, farmers give you higher wages afterwards, on the The kindly feelings between the master and the and liable to great fluctuations.lowering of the rates?
labourer had once more taken root; the money, before Benevola found likewise, that it had apparently Why, no, sir, not exactly that, I think, although employed, in the shape of poor-rates, in encouraging become the interest of the farmer to employ men who they ought to have done so ; but then they have em- idleness, now went to increase production. Wages were in receipt of relief from the parish, instead of ployed us constantly all the year round, which, you had generally risen, and employment had certainly those who were not so favoured, as the former could know, comes to much the same thing in the end. increased, on the abolition of the old law-the farmer afford to work for less wages, being in part supported "And what has become of Dick Manstield ? Ilas finding it more conducive to his interests to employ a out of the poor-rates, to which they naturally looked he been poaching again ?' said the gentleman. He greater number of labourers on his land, and to give to make up all deficiencies. This of necessity dis- has not been before me since my return.'
them higher wages, than to support them in the workturbed the natural relations between the master and "Oh, sir, he and his wife shipped themselves off for house ; whilst the labourer, depending on the farmer the labourer : the former had no longer an immediate America, and I'm sure the parish is well rid of them, for his wages
, found his advantage in industry and interest in the welfare of his workmen ; and the lat- at any rate.'
good conduct. ter, suspicious of the farmer, and rendered in a great "And John Cole, and Sam Evans—what has become It is true that, in seasons of scarcity, privation must measure independent of him, by the portion of their of them ?'
in some degree be experienced by all, and of course wages which they received from the parish, became • Why, Sam Evans died of a fever, brought on by most heavily by the poorer classes, in consequence of rude and surly in their manners, and idle and careless drinking. His wife, you know, sir, was a tidy, indus- the raised price of provisions : but an increase of price, in their work ; whilst the certainty of obtaining trious young woman. Well, we did not like her to go if caused by a diminution of the usual supply, is, perparish pay, in case of being out of employment, ren- into the workhouse ; so, with the help of some of the haps, the only means by which extreme distress can dered them indifferent about the means of procur- neighbouring gentry, we clubbed and bought her a be averted; for, unless the quantity of food consumed ing it."
mangle ; and she and her family are now doing well. be early reduced, the stock would be exhausted before In short, Benevola becomes convinced that her first Cole has turned a tee-totaller, and is become very the period for the new crop arrived, and the people, law was wrong, and she sets about the establishment sober and industrious.'
in the latter part of the season, would be left wholly of a new one, the main feature of which was, that the * And where is your wife's mother-is she still in without food. No human law can prevent these workhouse should be a test of destitution for the the workhouse ?'
variations in the supply of the necessaries of life, or able-bodied. Having accomplished this object, she Old Mrs Martin, your honour means. Oh, no, guard against the distress which they occasion. This summers it again for some years in the south, but at sir; the guardians said we must pay something towards can only be done by individual effort, care, and forelength pays England another visit. Coming to the her support, so we thought we might as well have her sight ; and hence the importance of industrious and same village, she finds it in a better condition than at home again. Poor old creature! I thought she provident habits in a people. even at first. The woodbines were growing as thickly, would have died of joy before she got over the The sun was just sinking below the horizon, and as ever round Mrs Martin's cottage. "A labourer | threshold ; and my wife and me, we cried like a the grey sombre clouds of evening were gradually enwas about to unlatch the little garden-gate, when a couple of children. And then she is so useful with croaching on the glowing west, when Benevola sprung gentleman on horseback rode up, and stopping oppo- us-she knits all the stockings, and better and faster from the earth, and once more directed her flight site the cottage, called out, Good evening, Simmons. than e'er a one in the village ; and teaches the chil. towards her native skies. The buoyant air seemed to How have you arranged with farmer Greatrix ? The dren, who are as fond of her as possible ; and when bear her onward without effort ; a radiant smile was man touched his hat respectfully, and coming for- my wife and me want a bit of good advice, we always on her lips, and her clear dark eye shone with more ward, said, 'Oh, thank your honour, pretty well at go to Mother Martin : so now we would as soon go than usual lustre, as she paused to take a last look at the last. Mr Greatrix was kind enough to say he there ourselves, as send her into the workhouse.' the village, where she had at first unintentionally been would give me a trial ; and after the first few months, 'There is one other family I want to ask you about the means of doing so much harm--and afterwards, he told me he was quite satisfied with me, and would the Collinses,' said the gentleman.
when tutored by experience, of effecting so much take me on for the year.'
Simmons shook his head, as he answered, We are good.” * But,' continued the gentleman, ' I want to know all very fond of Collins, poor fellow; and the farmers The object of this tale, as the reader will have perwhat effeet the stopping of all parish pay, and the always give him the lightest jobs to do. But he'll ceived, is to delineate, in a fictitious form, the comrestriction of relief to the workhouse, las had on never be the man he was, sir ; he has a bad cough at parative characters of the old and new poor-laws of England. That the task is executed with taste, spirit, ranges them under different dogmas, and sends them broken, a wheel come off, or any collision occurred and feeling, the reader will have become equally well into different fields of speculation and amusement, with another vehicle, the results would probably have aware. Another and larger part of the volume is they would see less to be offended with in each been most disastrous; and even the breaking of a devoted to a similar view of the condition of Ireland other. Individuals might in the same way agree trace, or the stumbling of a foundered horse, might before and since the introduction of the poor-law. We to differ, as the Hibernian said, or come to an ami- have rendered all their efforts unavailing to save the heartily recommend “ Benevola” to public attention. cable understanding that they were not made to be life of the poor convict, now poised, as the drivers had
friends, instead of persisting in a vain attempt to be been told in such a critical and adpalling state of
harmonious, which only produced the greater discora. peril. It was antogether a nad nour of mtense and OCCASIONAL NOTES.
In short, by seeing the matter in this philosophical absorbing interest.
light, there would be far less of real misunderstanding As they entered on a common, Jem's hat was blown It has been very striking, on some recent occasions, between both large bodies of men and individuals, off by a gust of wind. He hastily pulled up a little, how completely both the Americans and French mis- than what at present exists.
for he had a regard for the beaver independently of understand the British. Any one who reads Thiers's
its value, and looked significantly at the traveller, who
DIFFICULTY OF BECOMING GREAT. History of the French Revolution—the only book
was counting minutes, as if he would have said—“May which gives us any idea of the French feelings on that
Bacon speaks of one's having children, as giving hos- I get down and pick it up?” “No, no," quickly and subject, at the time and since-will be satisfied that tages to fortune that he will never do any thing great. decidedly said the other;" here, take mine." the great war of 1793 took its rise in a similar mis- | Perhaps the mere burden of a family is less obstruc
Jem's head was encased in the new envelope ; he was understanding of British notions and feelings by the tive of great actions, than the force of opinion and quite satisfied, and drove manfully to Basinstoke, French people, and
vice versa. On all such occasions, remark which every man more or less finds bearing where there was a solitary post-house. Nation À supposes Nation B to be animated by simi- upon him from relations and neighbours. This judg
“ Turn out four posters instantly," roared the genlar feelings to what it feels would animate itself in ing power, which every man sits under, is of great tleman. “How many pair have you at home ? in. like circumstances ; it supposes Nation B to have effect in repressing absurdities and preventing errors; quired he, breathlessly, of the head hostier. views and objects similar to its own; it imagines but it also operates to an immense extent in chilling “ Five pair, sir.” Nation B to contemplate every thing in that same generous ambition and frustrating gallant enterprises.
He paused a moment. “Let a chaise and four start light which arises from its own idiosyncracy or pecu- Many a man continues little, because of the tremen- this moment before me to Hartley Wintney ; turn liarity of mental constitution. Now, the fact is,
that dous battery of ridicule and blame which he knows out another chaise and four for myself ; and let the Nation B has different feelings, objects, and ways of would be opened all round him if he were to make the remaining pair go with another chaise instantly to considering things, from
Nation A altogether; and least effort to be great. Even the inclination to at- Papinlane, and remain there until evening. Can any Nation A is therefore under a complete mistake. tain to superior mental cultivation and refinement of other horses be obtained here or near us ?*« No, sir !"
The mistake is usually mutual, and hence the two manners, is checked by the sneers of those who choose replied the hostler in astonishment, thinking that the nations are said, quite truly, to misunderstand each to continue ignorant and rude. It often, indeed, ap- supply was already quite sufficient for any individual other.
pears hard to say whether this private kind of public traveller. It becomes a curious question, if, since nations opinion which surrounds all men, does most good by “ All right,” said the gentleman ; who, having first have each a peculiar mental organisation, it be possible maintaining a certain tolerable standard of conduct, seen that the chaise and pair was dispatched in a galthat they can ever thoroughly understand each other.
or harm by so often repressing the tendencies of in- lop on the Papinlane road, and the two four-horse It is our belief that nations so different as the French dividuals to better things.
chaises ready (and all this was effected in five miand British, never will fully do so, though serious
nutes), jumped into one of them, and, preceded by quarrels may nevertheless be avoided through the THE TWO TRAVELLERS.
the other, dashed off at a furious rate. influence of the more rational on both sides, and time
The information had been passed from Jem and his
BY MARTIN DOYLE. and increased intercourse may do much to enable
comrade to the fresh postboys, that a man's life dcthem to see some important matters in the same light. At an carly hour in the morning, and before railways pended on their driving, and that the fees were muni
In nations there are parties, such as our Conser- were established, a gentleman arrived in a post-chaise ficent. This stage was run with speed accordingly. vatives, Whigs, and Radicals, and sets of people, such and four at Winchester, on the road from Southamp- “ Out with four horses immediately," was the order as those we call the religious world, the fashionable ton to London. Having obtained fresh horses, he again issued and obeyed with promptitude at Hartley. world, the sporting world, &c.—all of whom are diffe- proceeded without a moment's delay; and had scarcely The second chaise, however, was allowed to stop rent from each other in mental organisation and ac- left the inn door when another carriage, from the same and why that unoccupied carriage had been driven quired habits of thinking and feeling, just as nations direction, with a single individual in it, drove up. there as a pioneer to that in which the traveller sat are. If any one candidly inquires into the characters There was something in the countenance of this alone, was a mystery to every one in the village who of these various parties and sets, he will find them person, whose complexion indicated long residence in had witnessed its entrée, and especially to the postiall respectively attributing to each other views, ob- a warmer climate than that of England, which showed lions, who could not comprehend why the strange jects, and ways of regarding things, which are respec- anxiety and the contemplation of some important sub- gentleman should have ordered it out in such a hurry, tively disclaimed, and which, in all cases, arise almost ject ; nor did the waiter fail to notice in one of the and paid them so liberally, for no apparent object-solely from peculiarities in the imputing parties them- pockets of his chaise, when it stopped at the inn door, for what had the life of the condemned man to do with selves : he will find, in short, that they all misunder- from which the other traveller had just started, either the movements of the empty chaise ? stand each other, exactly as nations do. Here, also, a case of silver-mounted pistols, or some instruments The mystery was not solved by the supposition that we do not see how any thing but mutual misunder- resembling those deadly weapons.
it had been sent for a physician, surgeon, accoucheur, standing to a certain extent can be expected, con- The first traveller, who had obtained a glance at the or eloping lady; nor did it contain even a case of sidering that the parties are naturally so different other, appeared considerably disconcerted, and imme- duelling pistols, nor any thing that could have furthat they never can see any one thing in exactly the diately desired his post-boys to drive as fast as possible. nished a solution of the cause for which it had been same light.
He was obeyed, and reached Papinlane in a very short rattled along at such a desperate rate ; nay, the puzzle To come down into private life. Some individuals time; here he changed horses, and proceeded in the
was increased by the information of the postboys, are as diverse from each other as nations or parties. same rapid manner; and was congratulating himself that a third chaise, without a passenger to occupy it
, Constituted differently at the beginning, and trained on his progress, when, to his surprise, he perceived had been dispatched by the same party in all haste throughout life to different convictions and different at a turn of the road, about a mile behind him, a back to Papinlane. habits of feeling, they appear as if they had scarcely chaise which he conjectured to contain the same person The door was again closed, the order to drive on any one point of character in common. The simplest who had so nearly overtaken him at the first stage, repeated, and the gentleman within, amidst endless case presented to their understandings, is taken up by and whom he supposed to be at least four miles in his speculations, rolled
away before. them quite differently, each considering it under the rear.
The most probable conjecture was, that the poor influence of his own governing sentiments, and each “ This is most vexatious,” said he ; « after all my gentleman was deranged in his intellects, and under therefore coming to his own particular conclusion. efforts, I shall be too late! I must move faster.” But some hallucination had engaged the post-carriages, and When persons so diversely charactered are by any he had on this part of his journey to deal with a steady, driven so furiously, Yet, as he paid so very liberally chance brought together, five minutes will not elapse solemn kind of postilion on the near wheeler, who, for his unaccountable whim, and had sufficient cunning before they are at loggerheads, unless they be both having terribly overworked his horses during the pre- to detect any imposition practised to keep back any alike so much under the influence of the conventional ceding month of the Ascot races, and justly consider of the horses, no attempt was made to oppose his exrules of society as to put a disguise and a restraint ing that ten miles an hour was now a very fast pace traordinary proceedings. on all they think and feel. It is utterly impossible for them, was deaf to the traveller's earnest solicita- The excitement of the gentleman, from whatever that such persons,'if much in each other's company, tions for increased speed.
source originated, was rather incrcased than dimican avoid falling into what are called misunderstand The gentleman threatened—that had no effect ; nished when he jumped from the chaise into a cab, and ings : their nature admits of no other result. coaxed, but in vain. Jem shook his head; grunted out approached the city along the Strand. The interpo
Is there any thing to give uneasiness to a benevolent that “The roads never vent no vorser nor 'eavier for sition of obstacles of every kind at Temple Bar and mind in these speculations ? Rightly regarded, we 'orses.” The passenger showed gold between his fore- Ludgate Street was, in the state of his mind, intolerwould hope there is not. The diversity in the cha- finger and thumb. The drivers both declared, like able, and he could have cried with vexation as his way racters of nations, parties, and individuals, is a na- honest and humane men, such as are rarely met in was blocked up by rows of waggons and coaches. tural institution, intended, we may be well assured, similar circumstances, that “they vouldn't hilltreat Time pressed; he pulled the check string, and befor ends upon the whole good. Instead of denying its their cattle.”
fore the cabman could look about, was running along existence or explaining away its results, let us look it The traveller inside became agitated, and doubled the Flagway in old Broad Street. The cabman roared straight in the face, and endeavour to make the best his offered bribe for a gallop. “I'vont kill my 'orses,” after him—the traveller ran the faster--the hue and of it. Misunderstandings, it is scarcely necessary to said Jem, indignantly, " for hany money."
cry after the man without the hat increased--the observe, are constantly taking place, whether we The gentleman threw himself backwards in despair; pursued was rather fat and thick-winded, and was think them avoidable or not. "In regarding them as after a moment or two he leaned forward, put out his soon overtaken and collared by the pursuing police. unavoidable under certain circumstances, it appears head, and then put it in again-seemed to labour with In vain he expostulated, blustered, and proffered to us that we are just making the first step towards some oppressive secret, which he was about to impart. bribes; he threw his purse to the captors, told them an improved course of conduct respecting misunder-“Will you,” said he, in a voice almost inarticulate to pay the cabman as much as they pleased, and asstandings. . Suppose nations were fully aware how from his earnestness_“ will you then drive to save a man's sured them that he was Sir Benjamin Bustle, knight, natural it is for them to misjudge each other, each life?"
alderman, and a city magistrate. would surely have reason to be more cautious in tak- The postboys looked back at him for an instant. The policemen, who were lately nominated to that ing up the proceedings of the opposite party in an He was evidently in extreme anxiety; his whole heart district of the city, and unacquainted with his person, offensive light. " Ah, poor nation A,” B might say, and soul were engaged in the object which had occa- very naturally disbelieved his assertion; and seeing him " that is just its way-always supposing its honour sioned his journey; and now that they were informed without his hat, and hearing the cabman, who had called in question, when no one is so much as thinking of an adequate cause for haste, they became at once followed in their wake, declare that “the gemman' of it!" So, instead of whipping out Bilbo also, B alive to its necessity. “Yes,” pursued the gentleman, was honly unscrewed in the 'ead,” were about to form keeps quite quiet, and the wrath of A soon going off, who saw at once the sensations he had happily pro- the same conclusion, and conduct the prisoner to the all is well again. The acknowledgment of this truth duced, “if I am not with the high-sheriff of the city nearest lunatic asylum, when, by one of those lucky might also serve as a powerful reason for one nation of London this day at one o'clock, an innocent man coincidences which are not of frequent occurrence, a abstaining from interference with the social or poli- will be hanged.”
passer-by, known in the neighbourhood, recognised tical arrangements of another. So little prepared as “A man hanged !" rejoined Jem, tickling the flank and identified the hurried and persecuted traveller each must be to comprehend the likings, tendencies, of his horse with his only spur ; "a man's life against as the real Sir Benjamin Bustle, and obtained his libeand needs of another, how can it be presumed that 'orse flesh hany day. I'm blowed but re'll make the ration. any one is fitted to dictato to another in any thing ? cattle go if hits hin ’em."
The two gentlemen walked off arm in arm, and their Lid parties see that it is a decree of nature which And they did go at a frightful rate. Had an axle first movement, through the noisy and laughing crowd,