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was to a hatter's shop, where Sir Benjamin-talking, in outwitting so many devoted fellow-worshippers at could only in these cases have been obtained from the however, earnestly the whole way to his friend-pro- the shrine of Mammon.
atmosphere. vided himself with a new hat, but with so much pre- Thousands of men, like Sir Benjamin Bustle, would Plants contain certain varying, but always small cipitation that it was unfitted to the head for which travel far, and exert themselves to the utmost, to proportions, of other and grosser substances, as demonit was purchased.
make the most of their pecuniary talents, who would strated by their ashes. Phosphate of magnesia, in His liberator seemed now as much disposed to rapi- not move fifty miles to save the soul or the body of a combination with ammonia, is an invariable constidity of motion as the other: they both entered a car- fellow-creature (supposing them to possess the power tuent of the seeds of all kinds of grasses. Plants also riage together, gave directions to the driver to stop at in each respect)-- whose diligence in such a cause would contain various organic acids, all of which are in comone or two houses, and then dismissed him.
be sloth, and whose solicitude would be apathy. bination with bases, such as potash, soda, lime, or The clock of one of the principal public edifices of
magnesia. Of the different alkaline bases found in the city had just struck four, as the friend of the
plants, Liebig finds reason to conclude, that any one traveller came out of the building with the jaunty
BRITISH ASSOCIATION AT GLASGOW.
may be substituted for another, the action of all being step of one who had effected an important purpose.
SECTION OF CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY.
the same. But the number of equivalents of these He was immediately met by Sir Benjamin Bustle, who At this section, on the Saturday of the meeting, there various bases remains the same. The analyeis of whispered some question in his ear, to which the
was read an abstract of a report prepared and pub- Bertherir and Saussure show that the nature of a soil answer appeared most satisfactory, for the knight in- lished by Professor Liebig, in consequence of a re- exercises a decided influence on the quantity of diffestantaneously exchanged his previous air of solicitude commendation of the association, on the applications rent metallic oxides contained in the plants which and doubt for that of self-satisfaction and quietude : of organic chemistry in agriculture and physiology, grow upon it: that magnesia, for example, was conas he walked alertly along with his friend, his bright- The investigations of this foreign professor are of tained in the ashes of a pine-tree, grown at Mont ened eye, rapid enunciation, animated action, and elas- great value, opening up some new views of incalcu- Breven, while it was absent from the ashes of a tree tie step, as he seemed to detail the circumstances of lable importance as to the nurture of plants, and of the same species from Mont La Saile, and that even his hurried journey, showed that he was at that mo- promising to be of immense practical utility in the the proportion of lime and potash was very different. ment a successful and happy man-he seemed at peace cultivation of the soil.
But although the composition of the ashes of these with all the world, and on especially good terms with
pine-trees was so very different, they contained an himself.
NEW CHEMICAL VIEWS RELATIVE TO AGRICULTURE. equal number of equivalents of metallic oxides ; or, If any close observer of the human character had The fertility of soils has hitherto been supposed to what is the same thing, the quantity of oxygen conmarked his entire conduct and demeanour from the depend on a certain constituent in them, derived from tained in all the bases was in both cases the samepreceding evening at Southampton to the conclusion of the decay of former vegetables, and denominated being expressed by the number 9.01 in one case, and his journey, and his present deportment, he would have humus. It was supposed that the carbon which goes by 8.95 in another, a coincidence which had escaped felt certain that Sir Benjamin had been charged with so largely to the compo on of plants, was derived the notice of the analyst himself. It is certain that an important mission of very difficult accomplishment, from humus; in other words, that the same matter particular acids exist in different regetables, and are and that he had perfectly succeeded : he would readily which constituted the carbon in plants of former necessary to their life ; some alkaline base is also inhave believed that the life of a fellow-creature --- as years entered into the structure of new plants, and dispensable, in order to enter into combination with intimated to the post boys—was the stake for which was thus used over and over again. The only modi- the acids, which are always found in the state of salts. the indefatigable knight had run his rapid and anxious fication of this view which physiologists admitted of, The perfect development of a plant is therefore course. And the philanthropist would have honoured was, that the humus was first rendered soluble by dependent on the presence of alkalies, or alkaline him for such exertions of a warm and active benevo- lime, or the different alkalies found in the ashes of earths, and its growth is arrested when these sublence. vegetables.
stances are totally wanting, and impeded when they The facts, however, were these. Sir Benjamin Bustle Mr Liebig has found all this to be incorrect and are only deficient. Hence it is, that of two kinds of had gone down in a stage-coach on the preceding day unsound. He has shown, from the known quantity tree, the wood of which contain unequal quantities of to Southampton, on some mercantile business : at the of the alkalies in the ashes of plants, in relation to alkaline bases, one may grow luxuriantly in several inn where he stopped was a gentleman who had just the carbon they contain, that only an insignificant soils upon which the other can scarcely vegetate. landed from Lisbon, and who was evidently too much fraction of the carbon could be derived from humus Thus 10,000 parts of oak-wood yield 250 parts of debilitated by his voyage to proceed to London without in this way. He has shown that humus, for its so
ashes, and the same quantity of fir-wood only S3 parts. a night's repose. lution, requires no less than 2500 parts of water, an
Hence, firs and pines find a sufficient quantity of alkaThe travellers supped in the same room, and being amount which all the rain that falls upon a field in lies in granitic and barren sandy soils, in which oaks both of the mercantile body, entered into conversation the course of a year could not supply. Finally, he will not grow. Liebig supplies various additional illuson commercial subjects; in the course of which an has shown that, even where large crops are annually trations of the influence of the alkaline metallic oxides observation incautiously escaped from the Lisbon in- carried from a field or meadow, the quantity of humus on vegetation, amply sufficient to place beyond controdividual, which, if known on the Stock Exchange, increases. The carbon of plants, he therefore argues, versy these conclusions so important to agriculture would instantaneously produce a most influential effect must be derived from other sources ; and, as the soil and to the cultivation of forests. One of these may be upon the Portuguese funds, in which the London does not yield it, it can only be extracted from the atmo- quoted : a harvest of grain is obtained every thirty or merchant had largely
, speculated, and in which the sphere. That small modicum of carbonic acid which forty years from the soil of the Luneburg heath, by other also was deeply interested.
is found in the composition of the common air, fur- strewing it with the ashes of the heath plants which Sir Benjamin, being a very shrewd man, said nothing nishes, he contends, the main part of all that vast grow on it. These plants, during the long period of his promptly formed resolution of starting at day- amount of leguminous and farinaceous substance mentioned, collect the potash and soda from the debreak the next morning for the city, in order to have which is every year brought forth for the use of man composing minerals of the soil, which are conveyed to a new speculation in the Portuguese funds completed and beast !
them by rain water; and it is by means of these before the arrival of the other gentleman in town, or This opinion is not strictly new, but has never been alkalies that oats, barley, and rye, to which they are any possible communication from him by which the fully appreciated by natural philosophers, partly in indispensable, are enabled to grow on this sandy heath. important intelligence could transpire before his own consequence of their imperfect knowledge of che- The supposition of alkalies, metallic oxides, or orarrival.
mistry, and partly from certain objectionable experi- ganic matter in general, being produced by plants, is Having at once perceived the bearings of the mat- ments which were instituted by them to decide the entirely refuted by such well-authenticated facts. ter, he assumed an air of indifference, and avoided point. Pure Carrara marble was pounded, seeds were It is thought very remarkable, that those plants subsequent allusion to commercial subjects as much sown in it, and sprinkled with carbonic acid water ; of the grass tribe, the seeds of which furnish food as possible; and, for the time, succeeded in satisfying but they did not thrive. The result was an inference for man, follow him like the domestic animals. But the Portuguese trader that the importance of the dis- against this theory. But Mr Liebig shows that seve- none of our corn plants can bear perfect seeds, that is, closure he had unfortunately made had not been ap: ral other conditions to the healthy growing of plants seeds yielding flour, without a large supply of phospreciated by his temporary companion; and, at all were wanting in those cases, particularly the pre- phate of magnesia and ammonia, substances which events, that there was no probability of the knight's sence of nitrogen and the earthy bodies which all they require for their inaturity. Hence these plants going immediately to London, whence he had only plants contain.
grow only in a soil where these three constituents are that evening departed. Aware, however, of the vast Mr Liebig has inquired into the power which is found combined, and no soils are richer in them than importance of being himself in the metropolis, or com- really exerted on vegetation by humus. This sub- those where men and animals dwell together.”* municating with his partners at the earliest possible stance, he finds, in its decay, is a continued source of
We cannot here follow Professor Liebig into the hour next day, our Lisbon friend ordered a chaise to be carbonic
acid, which it takes in from the atmosphere, applications which he makes of his discoveries to the ready at four o'clock in the morning, and departed at and emits slowly. Tilling is useful as a means of purposes of the practical
agriculturist ; but these, we that hour precisely. His amazement, therefore, may allowing the atmosphere to get down to the humus, are assured, are of a most important kind. In the be imagined, when he perceived that the carriage in in order to impart to it carbonic acid. The carbonic mean time, the great truth seems now ascertained, advance of him at the first stage contained the portly acid of humus is the support of plants until they ac- that the soil is but an apparatus for elaborating reand unmistakeable person of the alderman, whose quire leaves, which, becoming organs for extracting getable substances out of the wind and water which movements now left no doubt of the real state of the same substance from the air, then supersede the dy around our globe. If we might be allowed a playaffairs.
necessity of that element being derived from another ful remark on such a subject, we would say that the This accounts for the race between the parties, and quarter. The hydrogen which also enters so largely old superstition of the chameleon living upon air is Sir Benjamin's apparent extravagance in engaging all into the composition of plants, is derived by them true after all, and true of all the other vertebrata, the horses at Basinstoke in order to have them out of from water, decomposed, Mr Liebig thinks, under
man himself included ; only it is not upon air in its the way on the arrival of the foreigner, who could not the action of solar light, and from which oxygen (its direct form that the multitudes of earth are fed, but in such a case overtake the other, who had fresh horses other element) is set free. He has established the upon matters drawn from it by a chemistry as subtle the whole way onwards, and the start of some minutes fact that the third of the organic elements-nitrogen as it is sure in its working, and which affords a most besides.
-is uniformly derived by plants from ammonia. Most striking illustration of the power of the Deity to It has appeared that Sir Benjamin arrived criti- unexpectedly, he has demonstrated that ammonia work out the grandest ends from the most siinple cally in time for the attainment of his purpose. His exists in a minute proportion in the atmosphere. It available funds were applied by Mr Bankstock_a exists in plants themselves, forming the red and blue stockbroker, and the gentleman whom he so oppor-colours in flowers. It exists largely in manure of tunely met in the street when detained by the police various kinds. Mr Liebig believes that manure only
A THIEVES' SOOTHSAYER IN MANCHESTER. -according to the instructions given by Sir Benjamin, acts by the formation of ammonia. There are some
The public are not perhaps aware how much it is the who felt assured (and the transactions of the next day other substances which have been observed to produce committing any offence, to consult some dealer in the
custom in Manchester for young delinquents, before proved that he was right) that by this knowledge of very favourable effects upon soils. Such is pounded black art” as to the chances of their escape, or detect. the circumstances which had occurred in Portugal at gypsum (the stone from which plaster of Paris is the departure of the merchant in a fast-sailing packet formed). Such also are burned clay and powdered tion and punishment. A striking instance of this pracfrom Lisbon, he must in a few hours realise fifty thou- charcoal. It has hitherto been incomprehensible how tice recently occurred in the case of a youth, who being sand pounds.
these substances should have so fertilising an effect. apprehended in the act of committing a felony, declared He had unexpectedly derived the information on which the success of his speculation hinged, and taken ammonia from the atmosphere, ammonia being the In reality, they only act as a means of extracting that it was not his fault, or from any want of dexterity
on his part, that he had been apprehended, but that it advantage of it; and so far, perhaps, his conduct was not blameable in a worldly point of view, though his That nitrogen is thus extracted from the atmosphere, three thefts, and be taken in the fourth attempt, and
was his fate ; for that Alexander the astrologer had medium by which nitrogen is impărted to plants. predicted that he (the delinquent) would succeed in stratagem to prevent tho progress of the rival specu- there is an indirect proof in the fact that it is found lator, and his pretence to the postboys of being em- in lichens which grow upon basaltic rocks ; also that ployed on an errand of mercy, were unquestionably so. our fields produce more of it than we have given them,
* Newspaper report This, however, gave him little self-reproach, and he and it exists in all kinds of soils and minerals which Liebig's investigations have been published. Taylor and Walton :
We gladly make reference to the volume in which Professi now congratulated himself on his exceeding cleverness I were never in contact with organic substances. It London
that so it had turned out. Alexander being immediately tants, I enticed a favourite little Blenheim lap-dog, which were trickling over her eyes and obscuring her apprehended by the police, was found with all the sym- belonging to one of the ladies of the family, into visual organs. Luckily Chennoo, who carried my spear bols of the “occult science” upon him; but he denied the square, in view of the adjutants. The latter and rifle, was at hand, and, applying the muzzle of having any knowledge of these, and from some defect appeared at first undecided what course to pursue, a the latter to her ear, I settled her instanter. The in the evidence against him, he was acquitted. This real Blenheim being a delicacy to which they had young bears were carried off to our cantoninent." man (who is held in great reverence and fear by the probably not been accustomed. In the mean tiine, the It would be difficult to have a fair conception of young thieves in Manchester) is about sixty years of poor little dog, nothing abashed at the attention be- the amount of courage requisite to perform such an age, and has been for many years one of the greatest stowed upon him, was sauntering, carelessly and fear- act as the following, with which Major Napier closes pests in the town.-Neale's Juvenile Delinquency in lessly along, as he might, under similar circumstances, his sporting scenes :-“Before dismissing for ever these Manchester.
have done at home, in a barn-yard well stocked with raw-skull-and-bloody-bone tales of tigers (a name which turkeys and fowls. At this moment, a huge adjutant an old Indian is now almost ashamed to pronounce),
gravely approached, and only moving the muscles of I must relate one of the most daring and successful EASTERN SPORTS.
his countenance to yawn destruction on the unhappy attempts at muzzling a man-eater to be met with in The dedication of “Scenes and Sports in Foreign little animal, took him quietly up, and the next mo- sporting annals.
On the high road between Madras and Hyderabad, Lands,” a little work which has just passed through receive him." A piercing shriek warned me, in my and about sixty miles from the latter, is a small place the press, is so extremely characteristic of the spirit place of concealment, that other eyes had beheld the called Nelcondah, situated in a narrow pass between which pervades its whole contents, as to be worthy metamorphosis of the dog into a “swallow. The next two high hills. In the beginning of 182–, a tiger took of quotation :-" To his best and earliest friend, to instant, à fair form, with dishevelled locks, was rush-up his residence in the abandoned old fort which the friend of the British scaman, and the pride of his ing across the square ; but 'twas too late. The adju- crowns one of these eminences, and committed almost profession, to 'Old Charley Napier, C.B., Count Cape tant majestically soared aloft, and I beheld him alight daily depredations on the numerous travellers passing St Vincent, &c. &c., is dedicated this first production on the highest pinnacle of a distant building, where, on that much-frequented road. He at last carried his from the pen of his attached and grateful admirer, like patience on a monument smiling at grief,' he audacity to sr.ch a pitch, as to walk off in broad daythe author.” It is proper to observe that this author,
leisurely and complacently appeared to await the pro- light with an officer's servant from the midst of a gress of digestion.”
party of sepoys. On arriving at Secunderabad, his who so familiarly addresses the restorer of the Portu
But we are in a measure wasting time, for we imagine master, who was much attached to the poor fellow guese monarchy, is his near relative, Major E. Napier.* that our gallant soldier's adventures with animals of from having had him long in his service, related the The style of the inscription would lead the reader to
a more dangerous stamp than dogs and adjutants con- circumstance, and Captain W- of the commisexpect something lively and entertaining in the nar- stitute the cream of his book. First, for a tiger-scene. sariat, determined on avenging his death. rative which it prefaces, and in this respect he will “We thus (says the major, speaking of an excursion)
but why should I attempt any mysnot be disappointed. The major is a gallant soldier, sanntered carelessly along, until, as we approached tery in relating as gallant an action as was ever perfond of adventure, and abundantly stored with ani- the rock, an object attracted our attention which put formed by a stanch votary of Nimrod? And such mal spirits--so much so, that they ooze from his pen nearly devoured, and that recently,
us on the qui rive; it was the carcass of a sheep was Whistler, who will not, I am sure, feel annoyed
This smelt in seeing his name recorded where it so well deserves at every page ; and the “sports that mimic war," rather tigerish, particularly as the underwood at the a place. Well, then, Whistler, who was no novice at which he seems to have pursued with uncommon foot of the rock was extremely thick and tangled, this sort of work, immediately started off to the scene zest, afford him an abundance of incidents on which affording likely covert for a beast of prey; we there of action with a couple of friends. On arriving at to build a lively and attractive narrative.
fore proceeded cautiously. Nothing, however, parti-Nelcondah, scouts were placed on the look-out, one India was the chief scene of our soldier's recorded cularly fixed our attention until we had nearly reached of whom shortly announced that he had discovered adventures. We shall begin our extracts with a scene the summit : here, on a ledge of granite overlooking a the retreat of the tiger, and led the party towards from our author's eastern sports, which will probably chasm many feet in depth, and in front of an aperture the top of the hill. Here, amidst a chaos of large amuse the reader as much as it has done us. “Whilst in the rock, we saw a quantity of tiger's hair, as if he rocks, he pointed to a deep chasm, at the end of on the subject of dogs, I cannot forbear mentioning a had been in the habit of basking there in the sun. which was a recess, where he said the animal had pack which we attempted to set on foot, and which, We resolved, therefore, to lie in ambush immediately retired. It was, however, impossible to get sight of from the variety of curs of which it was composed, above the fissure, which we supposed to be his den, him without first dropping down a height of sixteen went by the name of the Bauberyt Hunt. Our am- and patiently await until he should emerge, when we or eighteen feet into the den below, from which there bition did not extend beyond bagged foxes and jackals; might get a shot at him within a few feet, and be- was no retreat. Whistler hesitated not, took the however, on one occasion, after circulars had been fore he could be aware of our presence.
fearful leap, and, fortunately alighting on his feet, saw issued to all the members of the Baubery, stating the But in this world the best concerted plans are liable the monster quietly reposing at the farther end of the time and place of meeting, no fox was to be had for to be frustrated. We had not been ten minutes in den. He gave him no time to rise, but, with the love or money; we were completely nonplussed. At our position, when, instead of coming, as we expected, quickness of thought, levelling his rifle, sent a ball last a brilliant idea struck me: I sent my servant to from under our feet, and allowing us to take him in through his brain, and extended him lifeless on the the bazaar, with directions to catch a dog that bore the rear, a slight rustling in the bushes immediately spot.” the greatest resemblance to a jackal; he returned in front of us was followed by a noble royal tiger,
The volumes of Major Napier may be safely recomwith an animal certainly in shape not unlike what we advancing most majestically along the ledge of rock mended to the general reader, as forming one of the wanted, but not at all tallying in colour, our captive At first, he did not perceive us, and we allowed him very liveliest records of personal adventure lately probeing perfectly white. It was, however, too late to to approach a few paces : he then looked up, viewed duced from the press. The writer is of tlie clay from replace him; our only plan was to disguise him as us, and made a dead stop. Not a second was to be which our Clives and Nelsons were made ; and it is best we might. There happened to be some red paint lost; he was within twelve yards, and a single bound | impossible not to admire the spirit which leads such at hand; we set immediately about his toilet, and no would have sent at least one of the party to eternity. as he, in the absence of opposing foes of their own lady ever applied rouge with more effect: in five We both fired instantaneously, and both with effect: species, to expend their adventurous energies on conminutes he looked so beautiful that his mother would he reared himself up on his hind legs, as if to make a tests with grizzly bears and Bengal tigers, the more not have known him. But it was not in the power forward bound, fell back, and rolled headlong into the dangerous adversaries, often, of the two. of paint to change the shape of his tail; therefore, abyss below. My ball had hit him between the eyes ; having supplied ourselves with the brush of a defunct G—'s had struck him in the loins. jackal, we cunningly fitted this to his spanker-boom I know not how he found himself; but I must confess AN ACCOUNT OF THE DRUNKEN SEA. with sundry pieces of whipcord ; and putting the that, although my hand was steady enough when I
An amusing and well-written allegory, by Dr James finishing touch to his dress by anointing him
with oil fired, after the business was over, and I was again Henry of Dublin, under the above whimsical title, has of aniseed, he was carefully deposited in a sack, placed proceeding to load, it felt unkimmon tremulous, much lately been issued in the form of a small pamphlet, on the shoulders of a horse-keeper, and conveyed to a as if I had had a glass . de trop' overnight. As to the and we doubt not will assist the temperance movement bit of jungle about a quarter of a mile from the meet- | poor devil of a black fellow who had accompanied us, in Ireland. We beg to offer our readers a few extracts ing place, and four or five from the cantonment. he was a perfect chameleon, his polished black phiz from this Swift-like satire on intemperance :We mustered on that day a strong field; it was, being transmogrified into an ashy blue."
“Nothing can exceed the beauty of the Drunken Sea morcover, cloudy, and promised good scent. Ten On another occasion, the major, when sporting from the beach of Soberland, where you take shipping, as minutes' law was allowed to the painter; the dogs alone, met and shot a large bear.' He must have far as Point Just-Enough. The clear and smooth water were then put on his track, and went off full cry. | been in great peril, but he speaks of the affair as
is scarcely so much as rippled by the light breeze which Every one swore it was likely to be the best run we coolly as if he had been shooting snipes. Having
wafts from the shore the fragrance of a thousand flowers. had yet had. 1-n, an old Yorkshire breakneck, was heard of a most destructive bear, he sallied out with No mist ever broods upon the water, no cloud overcasts in ecstacy. "There he goes, cried he, as we viewed an old (and comparatively inefficient) native atten
the soft blue sky. The glorious image of the sun by day, the brute, 'there he goes! A fine fellow he is, and dant, “ determined, in spite of rocks and briers, to
the silvery face of the moon by night, are nowhere seen what a pace he keeps up! But hold hard, gentlemen ; penetrate into the heart of his stronghold, and beard for so this part of the Drunken Sea has been most appro
to so much advantage as in the mirror of Pleasant Bay, don't ride over the dogs. I-n was the oracle of the the lion in his very den; but in so doing I had to en
priately named. The current being always towards hunt, and the parry was put down as a jackal of the counter a thousand difficulties, for, after proceed. Point Just-Enough, and the wind, if you can apply that first water. At first his long legs had the best of our ing some distance up the hill, I was often obliged name to the gentle breath which no more than fills your little mongrel terriers, but their bottom soon began to creep along on all fours through this intricate sails, always in the same direction, the passage is so to tell. We were now running in view ; and as we maze. I had just emerged from this awkward posi- smooth and easy that it not unfrequently happens that gained on him, several of the knowing ones began to tion, followed by Chennoo, when, at the turn of a the voyager finds himself close upon the Point almost be sadly puzzled ; for although the paint was good rock, a large bear appeared within ten paces. The before he is aware that he has left Soberland. paint, and had moreover been laid on thick, it was brute was advancing very slowly, and looking up in
The voyage is usually performed in boats made out of not entirely proof against bushes and water, and a my face with the most ludicrous gravity, which I porter hogsheads, or wine pipes, or spirit puncheons. It piece of swampy ground we had just crossed had done soon put an end to by giving him my left barrel
is astonishing what excellent sailing boats these vessels a great deal towards softening the tints. To make through the head, whereupon the facetious monster make, when divided longitudinally, and furnished with
sails and oars. Riches having the advautage every where, short of a long story, the poor parry died the death rose capering on his hind legs ; bang went No. 2 amidst shouts of merriment from all who witnessed barrel, and over rolled friend Bruin, apparently life
upon the Drunken Sea as well as upon land, the boats
which are used by the rich are much more elegant, easy, his and false feathers. I said all who saw the less. Immediately from the spot whereon he lay ex- and commodious, although perhaps not faster sailers, than fun-but no ; there was one, our oracle, who did not tended, arose a din which might have awakened the those which are used by the poor. Besides the fares, enjoy the joke : he said it was a boyish trick, with dead. For an instant I was taken quite aback, but there are certain tolls payable by all persons who sail drew his patronage, and never more risked his repu- soon recollected it to be a second edition of the music upon the Drunken Sea. These tolls are so considerable tation by joining the ‘Baubery Hunt..
I had heard some days before from the top of the as to form a principal part of the revenues of some of the Those extraordinary creatures called adjutants, rock; and hastening to ascertain the cause, to my imperial governments of Soberland. Notwithstanding birds of great size which serve as scavengers for the surprise I beheld two young cubs, holding on like the expense which is thus
necessarily attendant upon Darracks at Calcutta, seem to afford infinite amuse- sick monkeys by the long and shaggy coat of their sailing on the Drunken
Sea, the number of persons, rich ment to the officers stationed there. Major Napier prostrate dam, and roaring most lustily. I had no
and poor, who sail upon it, exceeds all calculation ; the records the following incident, told by one of his companions, respecting these huge, gluttonous birds :
idea of letting the youngsters slip through my fingers ; rich paying the expense out of their superfluities, the Wishing to carry on my experiments with the adju- neck, and attempted to drag them off their maternal of their
necessaries for the rich man's voyage as well as so running up, I laid hold of each by the scruff of the poor out of their
necessaries. Some, however, insist that hold. In the mean time, the old lady, who apparently their own. *Scenes and Sports, &c., by Major E. Napier, 46th Regiment. had only been in a trance, feeling something unusual In 2 vols. Henry Colburni London.
The voyage to Point Just-Enough becomes more and going on, with an effort recovered her legs, and began more agreeable the nearer you approach the Point. The | Baubery means noise or disturbance of any kind.
with one fore-paw to wipe away the blood and brains air becomes still more soft and balmy, the blue of the
BY MRS NORTON.
sky and water still more delicious, and even the sombre I love, oh, how I love to ride, to ride
his own business, he attended the sale and bade readily objects of Soberland, now somewhat in the distance, On the fierce, the foaming, maddning tide!
at prevailing prices for the coffee. Other holders, who When every wild wave drowns the moon,
knew that he had about four times as much on hand as seem to acquire a certain mellowness and splendour from
Or whistles aloft its tenipest tune; the new medium through which they are seen. In the
they had, concluded that it was safe to do it when he
And tells of Soberland far below, mean time, a corresponding change takes place in the
did, and so stood up manfully and bought largely. While
And how on the horrors the storm doth blow, passengers themselves; they experience an agreeable
And how on the horrors the storm doth blow.
old Mr —'s carmen were tumbling his purchases into sensation of warmth, commencing at the pit of the sto- I never was on the Sober shore,
the front door of his warehouse, five times as many were mach, and gradually extending from thence over the But I loved the Drunk Sea more and more,
carrying coffee away from the back door. One day he whole body; their pulse beats quicker and stronger ;
And backwards flew to her billowy breast,
failed to appear at a coffee sale, and most of the dealers
Like a bird that seeketh its mother's neyt. their breath acquires an agreeable odour, not unlike that
took the alarm, and prices declined a little. During the
And a mother she was and is to me, of the sea on which they sail; their eyes become brighter
afternoon, a pretty large holder, who had always been
For I was born, was born on the Drunken Sea, and softer, and sometimes even seem to sparkle; their
ready to buy when he saw Mr — willing, met him in
For I was born, was born on the Drunken Sea. eheeks flush a little; their hands are sensibly warmer to
the street, and asked the rate of coffee. the touch ; their looks and gestures become animated ;
The waves were white, and red the morn,
“I don't know what it's going at to-day," replied the
In the noisy hour, in the noisy hour when I was born ; they feel increased strength and courage, and readiness
old fellow, as cool and pleasant as an ice-cream.
The storın it whistled, the thunder rolld, for action; their ideas succeed each other with greater
“ It declined a little this morning."..
And the lightning seam'd the skies with gold; rapidity and vivacity, and are a little less obedient to the
And never was heurd such an outcry wild,
“ Did it ?" responded Mr — with what seemed to will; they regard themselves with more complacence, their As welcomed to life the Drunk Sea's child,
his fellow-tradesman a strange manifestation of indiffeneighbours with more charity; gentlemen become less
As welcomed to life the Drunk Sea's child. solicitous about the seat of their cravats ; ladies, of their
I have lived since then in calm and strife,
· Yes, certainly! Haven't you heard it before ?" caps and collars : all become less serious ; less disposed
Full fifty summers a jovial life,
“ No; but I expected as much." to deliberate; less inclined to prayer, or any other
With wealth to spend and a power to range,
Why, we shall be ruined if the prices go down !" And never have sought or sigh'd for change;
“Not all, I presume," replied Mr
with an unsolemn religious duty; less scrupulous about right and
And death, whenever he comes to me, wrong; less tight-laced ; not so very sober ; more gay,
Shall come, shall come, on the Drunken Sea, good-humoured, frolicsome, frivolous; more inclined to
Shall come, shall come, on the Drunken Sea."
Why, you are into it deeper than any of us." singing, jesting, and light conversation ; more voluble,
6 Me!" exclaimed Mr in well-feigned astonishenergetic, eloquent; more ready to tell secrets, either of
We recommend this excellent parody on the favourite ment ; “ why, I have not a single bag in my store." their own or their neighbours ; more inclined to quarrel song of “ The Sea” to be sung at all public temperance The next day the bubble burst, and a dozen grasping suddenly meetings.
speculators, who had been for a month or two dreaming All voyagers to Point Just-Enough agree in the account
night and day over their golden gains, were ruined.
American Paper. which they give of their passage across Pleasant Bay,
IMPROVERS OF AGRICULTURE. and of the agreeable sensations experienced on approach- It is curious, that many to whom improvements in
MILK AS AN ARTICLE OF DIET. ing the Point; but they disagree very much in their agriculture are traced, were not professional farmers, For those who have healthy and unsophisticated stostatements respecting the Point itself : some say that it but men engaged in other pursuits, who, with cultivated machs, milk appears to be one of the best articles of diet is farther off, others that it is nearer; some that it lies minds, turned their attention also to this subject. Thus, we possess.
It is less stimulating than flesh, and more more to the north, others more to the east ; many assert
the first English Treatise on Husbandry was written by nutritious than vegetables. For persons who are disthat it recedes as you approach it, while some maintain
Sir A. Fitzherbert, Judge of the Common Pleas in 1534, posed to febrile complaints, and who are not obliged to that it moves forward, and comes to meet you before you and from this, Harte, Canon of Windsor, in his Essays perform hard and exhausting labour, it is the most aphave more than half crossed Pleasant Bay.
on Agriculture, dates the revival of agriculture in propriate diet. But the stomach is a creature of habit. The voyage homewards from Point Just-Enough is England. Tusser, the
author of “ Five Hundred Points sudden changes are liable to derange its healthy action. much less agreeable than the voyage outwards; the air
of Husbandry,” published in 1562, was a scholar of Eton, To those accustomed to what is called high living, such gradually loses its balminess, and the landscape its bril- and afterwards of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, before he liant colours; the current and wind, too, although gentle, applied to farming and literature
. Sir R. Weston, who all kinds, the transition to a milk diet, which contains a
as strong meats, strong drinks, and high-seasoned food of yet being against you, make it necessary to tack, and thus render the passage tedious. There are few who do
was Ambassador from England to the Elector Palatine considerably lowered stimulation, would probably be an not experience, as they return, some diuretic effect, as
and King of Bohemia in 1619, introduced clover into imprudent change. When necessary, the change should well as a slight degree of thirst, the latter of which con- | England; his Discourse on the Husbandry of Brabant be so gradual that the stomach should by degrees tinues after landing, and even until bed-time, unless re
and Flanders was published in 1645, and is said to mark become accommodated to it.- Beaumont's Experiments moved by tea or coffee. The night's sleep is less soft and the dawn of the vast improvements which have since on the Gastric Juice, &c., by Dr Combe. refreshing, but at the same time heavier than if no visit been effected in Britain. Evelyn, who is considered had been paid to the Point in the day; and on awaking one of the greatest encouragers of improvements that
THE MOTHER'S HEART. the next morning, a degree of languor is experienced, and has ever appeared, was, as is well known, a gentleman sometimes even a little throbbing at the temples, which attached to literature and science, and often employed When first thou camest, gentle, shy, and fond, symptoms, however, disappear either during the making in the public service. He published, in 1664, his“ Sylva, My eldest born, first hope, and dearest treasure, of the toilet, or soon after breakfast, and are succeeded
or a Discourse on Forest-trees and the Propagation of My heart received thee with a joy beyond by a strong desire for another voyage to Point Just- Timber in his Majesty's Dominions,” with inany other
All that it yet had felt of earthly pleasuro; Enough. This desire being gratified with as little delay works, which had a great influence in the improvement
Nor thought that any love again might be as possible, the same sensations are experienced, and the
So deep and strong as that I felt for thee. same consequences ensue; and thus a habit is formed of the country. Jethro Tull, who introduced the drill
Faithful and true, with sense beyond thy years, which increases in strength, until at last a daily visit to husbandry, and published his work on Horse-hoeing
And natural piety that lean'd to Heaven; Point Just-Enough comes to be considered almost as a Husbandry in 1731, was bred a barrister; he first made
Wrung by a harsh word suddenly to tears, necessary of life. experiments on his own estate, and then practised Yet patient of rebuke when justly given
Obedient-easy to be reconciledPleasant Bay is therefore covered from early morning farming-Royle on the Productive Resources of India,
And meekly cheerful-such wert thou, my child! until a late hour at night with boats conveying passengers newly published. [It might have been added, ihat Mr
Not willing to be left; still by my side of all ranks and descriptions to Point Just-Enough and Cockburn of Ormiston, Mr Home of Kames (Lord
Haunting my walks, while summer day was dying ;back again. The intercourse is, however, by far the Kames), and Sir John Sinclair, the three most eminent
Nor leaving in thy turn; but pleased to glido greatest from dinner-hour until tea-time, the evening improvers of Scottish agriculture, were, the first and Through the dark room where I was sadly lying, being generally considered the most fashionable as well last, political characters, and the second a busy lawyer, Or by the couch of pain, a sitter meek, as the most convenient and agreeable time for the voyage. who had no more interest in the soil and the increase Watch the dim eye, and kiss the feverish cheel. Some dine before they set out, but the greater number of its productiveness than other gentlemen possessing
Oh boy! of such as thou are oftenest made take their dinner on board. moderate estates.]
Earth's fragile idols; like a tender flower,
No strength in all thy freshness-prone to fndeTipsy Island is always full of visiters. The sensations
And bending weakly to the thunder showerexperienced on this island differ only in degree from
The disposition to be agonisingly delicate, is well Still, round the loved, thy heart found force to bind, those which are felt at Point Just-Enough. The pulse ridiculed in the following:-“ Is there any thing the
And clung, like woodbine shaken in the wind ! and heart beat a little quicker and stronger, the eyes
matter?” “ There is, sir," was the host's reply. “ Have Then Thou, my merry love-bold in thy glee, become brighter, the skin hotter, the face more flushed, the voice louder, the gestures more vehement, the conI given any offence ?'' “ You have, sir.” “Really I
Under the bough, or by the firelight dancing,
With thy sweet temper, and thy spirit free versation less connected, the ideas rambling and incoam ignorant of it.” “Such language won't suit here,
Didst come, as restless as a bird's wing glanciriz, herent. Some dance, some sing, some swear, some fight,
sir.” “ My dear sir, what language?” “We were Full of a wild and irrepressible mirth, all stagger about ; some become loyal, others patriotic,
talking of soup.”
« We were.” “ You mentioned ox- Like a young sunbeam to the gladden'd earth! some poetical, others philosophical; all are veracious,
tail!” “I did.” “ That's it, that's it, sir; that sent Thine was the shout, the song, the burst of joy, disinterested, magnanimous, chivalrous. It is usual to the ladies blushing out of the room—that's highly im
Which sweet from childhood's rosy lip resoundeth; remain several hours, and even to pass the night upon proper language, which I never heard at
Thine was the eager spirit nought could cloy, board be
any the island. A few remain upon it for several days to- fore, and should not have expected from you.
And the glad heart from which all grief reboundet); gether; but as it is considered discreditable to be seen
And many a mirthful jest and mock reply, sir, 'I but called it by its proper name.
Lurk'd in the laughter of thy dark blue eye! upon it in the morning, those who regard appearances usually leave for Soberland some time before daybreak; it has given offence; but I really do not know how I a question, and I replied. I am, however, sorry that
And thine was many an art to win and bless, many fall asleep on the island, and are carried in that
The cold and stern to joy and fondness warming ; could have avoided it.” “ Then, sir, I advise you, when The coaxing smile-the frequent soft caressstate to their boats. In the morning, all awake unreyou have an occasion another time to speak of that par
The earnest tearful prayer all wrath disarming; freshed, with a parched mouth, hot skin, red eyes, aching head, and no appetite for breakfast, and spend the day ticular soup, do not call it ox-tail.” « No! but what
Again my heart a new affection found,
But thought that love with thee had reached its bound. drinking soda water at the great fountain on the quay of shall I call it?" “ Fly disperser." “ I shall remember
At length Thou camest-thou, the last and leastSoberland, which looks toward Pleasant Bay, and longing the fly disperser soup, sir, rest assured."--New York
Nicknamed “the Emperor” by thy laughing brothers, for evening in order to return to Tipsy Island, or at least Paper.
Because a haughty spirit swell'd thy breast, as far as Point Just-Enough,
SUPERSTITION OF MR AND MRS COUTTS.
And thou didst seek to rule and sway the others;
Mingling with every playful infant wile
A mimic majesty that made us smile.
And oh! most like a regal child wert thou ! sacred to Bacchus, whose temple, situated about the this was presented on the steps at Holly Lodge, which
An eye of resolute and successful scheming! middle of the island, is in a high state of preservation. are composed of beautiful blocks of white marble, that a
Fair shoulders-curling lip-and dauntless browIt has been visited by Alexander the Great, and most of statuary might envy; but the highest step is disfigured Fit for the world's strife, not for poet's dreaming, the illustrious men both of ancient and modern times, by two rusty, old, broken horse-shoes fastened to it, And proud the lifting of thy stately head, the names of many of whom are to be seen, carved with
which she and Mr Coutts had found in the road, and And the firm bearing of thy conscious tread. their own hands, upon the bark of the vines. Its daily
they had caused these hideous bits of rusty iron to be Different from both! Yet each succeeding claim, visiters sing a song which runs nearly as follows :nailed on the threshold to avert evil, and bring good luck.
I, that all other love had been forswearing, - Memoirs of the Duchess of St Albans.
Forthwith admitted, equal and the same; The sea, the sea, the Drunken Sea;
Nor injured either, by this love's comparing,
AMERICAN CUNNING. The blue, the fresh, the ever free, the ever free.
Nor stole a fraction for the newer callWithout a mark, without a bound,
Some years ago, during the heat of a coffee speculation But in the Mother's Heart found room for ALL! It runneth the earth's wide regions round;
in Boston, when every body was holding on, waiting for -From the Dream, and other Poems. It plays with the soul, it mocks the skies,
the article to advance, an old merchant, keen as a razor, Or like a cradled monster lies, whose store was packed from the first to the fourth floor
London: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by Or like a cradled monster lies.
with prime green Rio, concluded, from signs which he well I'm on the sea, the Drunken Sea;
W. S. ORR, Paternoster Row. understood, that prices had reached their acme. I am where I would ever be, too old a hand at the bellows not to know, that the
Supplied also, wholesale and for exportation,, by WAREINO With heaven above, and hell below, moment he, with his immense stock, began to sell off, and DINHAM, Manchester ; Wrightson and WEBB, Birming
WEBB, Castle Street, Liverpool; BANCKS and Co., and SIMMS And ruin wheresoe'er I go. If a storm should come, and awake the deep,
the alarm would be taken, and down would go the prices. ham; SLOCONDE and SIANS, W. E. SOMERSCALE, and T. HARWhat matter, what matter, I shall ride and sleep. Qaietly sending off a pretty stiff invoice of the article to
RISON, Leeds-of whom may be had all Messrs CHAMBERS'S What matter, what matter, I shal ride and sleep. auction, and giving the auctioneer a gentle hint to mind publications. Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Wkitefriars
CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF “ CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,”
“ CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,” &c.
Price Three HalFPENCE.
nature. He therefore sets himself to keep down the like to see a quiet, grave child. In sober truth, thero A PLEADING FOR THE YOUNG.
indecorous good spirits of the young, and to make is nothing more alarming. It is almost sure to be an Take a walk out of town with an old and a young them all as grave as himself as soon as possible. “Less indication of some extraordinary quality of not a safe dog, and see how different in all respects are their noise there, youngsters, or you shall all be put out of kind. There are varieties, of course ; some are quieter behaviour. While the elder gentleman trudges slowly the room.” “No nonsense, boys ; do you ever see me than others; but for a young person to want all tenbut steadily along the road, turning little to the right leaping over chairs in that way ?” “Come, now, here dency to romping, and frolic, and gaiety, is, in the or left, except for particularly odorous hillocks or are fifteen hexameters to be got by heart, and the eye of a right philosophy, a thing not to be admired, more than usually interesting friends of his own first rascal that sniggers shall be whipped.” Such are still less to be desired, but, on the contrary, to be species, the youngster is over walls in all directions, the amiable addresses of the elderly Bimana to their regarded with apprehension, and treated with care. coursing through fields after sheep, hens, or nothing, young ; the consequence of which, if there is any A merry schoolmaster, I apprehend, is there partibarking for joy even when chased by indignant shep- truth in our theory, must certainly be, that the in- cularly wanted. herds or old women; at one moment a quarter of a tentions of nature (to use no higher word) are in their Children, as a class, are also sadly exposed to the mile to the right; next moment seen descending the case defeated to a certain extent, and the organisation distempered feelings of their seniors. On the one wall on that side of the road, and quick as an arrow in that degree marred and enfeebled.
hand, we have extravagant indulgence, vitiating the up the wall on the other side ; then presently heard Children are, altogether, most unfortunate crea- character almost before it has had time to show the faintly at half a mile's distance to the left ; two tures. The happy puppy is an independent member first spring-flowers of its native innocence-on the minutes more, and he is again scrambling down the of the canine world, with every thing but a vote for a other, austerity, ill-nature, and gloom, making all the wall, and dancing after his tail on the road before member of Parliament, in a few weeks from his birth. May of life a November, checking the growth of the you. Seeing manifestations so different, one cannot But the infant man is in tutelage for twenty-one affections, and introducing distrust and fear where as well resist the belief that these are animals under years—and such tutelage ! On many of the most yet unsuspecting confidence should reign. Of the two totally different influences. The same thing is to be essential points for the prosperity of their offspring, evils, I have no hesitation in saying that the first is observed of the respectable old mouser who sits wash- ninety-nine of every hundred fathers and mothers the least. There is a time between childhood and ing her sober face by the cottage fire, not moving for are as ignorant as they are of the quadrature of the manhood when the character may be said to go through a whole evening, as compared with the pranksome circle. The predominating idea of almost all is to a process resembling fermentation, and the effects of kitten who cannot see a straw move on the floor with make the hapless little wretches intrusted to them spoiling and of simply erroneous treatment of various out rushing to make fun with it, or, if nothing is stir- as demurely wise as themselves. They have all of kinds are in a great measure thrown off. But take ring at all, will caper merrily up into the air, pirouette, them a perfect recollection of their own sufferings away from a child all the joyousness proper to his and come down again, saying, as plainly as natural under this process ; but yet no one dreams that young years, and let him only know his parents, or language can speak, “I can't help all this folly, for I there is any thing wrong about it. It must have others that have been around him, as tyrants, and the am young, thoughtless, and happy!” Indeed, the been all owing to the waywardness of the young evil is irreparable. His life has wanted an clement. young of most creatures are mirthful and frolicsome, mind that they were themselves restless and uneasy, He has not known that morning sunshine of the as if there were some ordinance to that effect in Pro- | if not dispirited and wretched, under the severe mea- breast which is the brigbtest of all moral sunshine. vidence, and a good end in view to result from it—as sures adopted by their parents. Or the severity had Treated himself without gentleness, affection, and no doubt there is. It must arise from the state of the never been severe enough to accomplish the end. mercy, he has not the call of a recollection of his own vital spirits (to use common language) of the animal, Wo be to the youngsters whose parents think they experiences to treat others with gentleness, affection, and must be designed to promote some process in or- were not held tightly enough in by the generation or mercy. He is rather disposed to revenge his own ganisation for which lively movement is requisite. antecedent! Children are not managed as children. sufferings upon other people, as the genie confined in Probably, the fact simply is, that the system of the They are treated as men and women, who, by some the barrel and thrown into the sea vowed to destroy young animal needs incessant exercise to firm and strange perversity in their nature, will not behave as whoever let him out. Thus sourness goes down like strengthen it, and, to cause this exercise to be taken, men and women ought to do. The rebellious crea- an estate with a family, and the sins of the fathers a restless, endless disposition to fun and frolic has been tures won't sit still a minute, nor think for a moment. are visited upon the children even unto the third and implanted. None but the too serious could say that with splendid examples of decorum, rationality, fourth generation. How many a man known in public this view is derogatory to the dignity of the lord of and studiousness, constantly before them in their as a hard-natured person, unforgiving of debtors, innature. God is the author of mirth and of all that seniors, they will persist in every thing that is ranti- accessible to petitions from the widow and orphan, can promote it, as certainly as he is the creator of the pole. Coaxing, bribing, thrashing—nothing will do. rigid as a master and in all the relations of life, unmost solemn affections. We may even here remember No, my friends, and that simply because the creatures bending even to gratify himself, might point, for the that the most inspired of worshippers danced before are not men and women in a state of rebellion from source of all his unfortunate qualities, to a parental the ark, and thought it proper to call upon his people the standard of propriety, but children, who will only home which was to him only a den of misery! If to enter the temple “ with joy."
be men and women by and bye, if you will allow them thus bad to those who had no share in blighting his Now, I would ask if, in all the range of human exto grow.
infant happiness, how can he be good to those who perience, an old dog was ever seen to express the least Ponder well, ye parents dear. Only consider what did ? It is surely most absurd to treat children disapprobation of his junior, when the said junior was children are. Receive into your minds, if possible, the harshly, and yet expect them to love and reverence capering away beside him? Was the sagest old idea that there is such a thing as nature, producing us! In the common world, if we constantly rail at grimalkin ever known to interfere, when she saw her endless diversities of being, and fixing regulations any one, call him contumelious names, beat him, and light-hcarted son doing his best to entangle the bobbins peculiarly adapted for the welfare of each. Look at visit him with every kind of injustice, do we find that of her mistress? Is there such a thing as an authen- the analogous case of the young of the speechless ani- he loves us the more ? Is not rather the slightest ticated case of an elderly goat, with the most reverend mals, and be convinced that there is something in the departure from civil usage the surest plan to produce of all possible beards, rebuking a kid for saying “Let's restless bounding spirits of your own juveniles, which aversion in both our equals and inferiors ? How have a dance upon the heath ?" I never heard of cannot safely be altogether repressed. Much play, strange, when this is so clear, that we should suppose such a thing, and I do not believe that any young free vent to the spirit of jocundity—that is the proper we can wound the self-esteem and sense of justice of animal ever yet was snubbed by its seniors, let it maxim for the management of young people, because a child, besides inflicting actual pain upon his flesh, be ever so outrageous in its fun. This is surely a it is what nature dictates. We often recollect with and that he nevertheless will continue to love us! It most sensible thing in the grown-up people of the pleasure the qualification which a friend of ours asked is no doubt necessary to take firm measures with lower animal world, for, were they to do otherwise, for in a teacher for his children—“Can you laugh and children, in order to keep them right in many inthey would assuredly be thwarting and impeding one make fun ?" It was strictly philosophical. The boy stances ; but a constant exhibition of harshness and of the processes of nature requisite for the welfare of is not learning any thing when he is amusing himself, oppression is not necessary, any more than it is in our their respective tribes.
but he is strengthening his brain that it may be bet- ordinary intercourse with the world. Many men, The young of the human family are as sportive as ter able to learn and to act when the good time comes. however, who would not for a great deal use a word the young of any known animals, and probably for Is it not better to begin life with the good sound in- out of joint before company or in the transaction of equally good reasons ; but how are they treated ? strument, fit for the utmost duty its natural reach of business, allow themselves the latitude of Billingsgate Unfortunately, man is a very wise creature. He has power admits of, than with an enfeebled instrument and of á slave-owner in their intercourse with their a vast deal of rationality about him, a deep sense of which has only got a smattering of a great number of children. It would be wrong to say that young people propriety, and thanks God that he was not left to things it does not comprehend? Old and precise people remember these insults and injuries as grown people
would, for the niind at that time of life has not the shortly obviated, for by an act* recently passed by came into operation; and it appeared, on tho recepsame power of retaining impressions wliich it possesses the legislature, a commission, with the registrar-ge- tion of the quarterly returns of certified copies, that in its maturity. But can we doubt that a general neral of births, deaths, and marriages at its head, is in many districts the precise ages of the parties mara home is retained ? Ti have heard men in middle life to be formed for taking an account of the population case
, and as the information is of a novel kind, 1 subspeak with heart-felt indignation of the cruel usage of Great Britain, with power to divide the country join the result of an examination of the recorded ages they had received from their parents, and make no into districts, and to appoint persons as enumerators in 4858 marriages, which, as they are not selected inmories. The long-protracted
misery had eaten into riod named for taking this account of the population, in such districts, thus comprising persons of every scruple to avow any thing but
respect for their me for each district for taking such account. The pe- stances, but belonged to districts varying greatly in their nature, and principle, though it could make them forgive, could not make them forget it. On the is the 1st of July 1841.
class, may be presumed to be a fair example of the other hand, I have heard persons in mature life advert The registrar-general next adverts to the manner ages at which marriages occur throughout the whole with melting tenderness to little acts of kindness ex. in which the records deposited in his office may be kingdom. tended to them in their childhood by parents and rendered useful in illustrating the condition of tho
Women. neighbours. No, no; the years of childhood never can
15 and under 20
688 become a blank in the memory. The incidents of people; and this appears to us the most interesting
2527 those years may not in all instances be reckoned in- part of the report. The registers of marriages, for in
861 dividually, but they tell in the mass. The rationally stance, are calculated to throw much light upon the
320 kind parent is thought of in association with the re- state of education, with respect to the ability to write, 35
187 collection of that happiness which he promoted or among the adult population in England and Wales,
134 was the occasion of, and may hope to be treated in his every marriage almost being duly registered, and
76 own latter pupilage with a return of the courtesy every register of marriage signed by the parties mar,
38 and the humanity which he showed to his children; ried, “ those who are able writing their names, and
17 but for the severe parent what can be expected but
19 that he should be looked back upon as the dismal those who are unable, or who write very imperfectly,
70 deity who presided over a period of misery-an object making their marks.” It must be borne in mind,
75 of involuntary horror, loathing, and contempt? however, that this will only enable us to arrive at the 75
1 Other sufferings the young experience in many in proportion of persons who are able to write among stances, in consequence of the unfortunate circum- those married ; and the portion of the whole popula
4858" stances of their parents. The young of the poor, says tion exhibited in the yearly returns of marriages is The result of calculations made on this abstract by good Charles Lamb, are not brought up, they are small. In the report before us it is estimated at about the registrar-general, showed that the average age of dragged up. But these are evils which it presumed no parents would see their little ones ex
seven or eight marriages to one thousand of the popu- marriage was, for men, about twenty-seven years; posed to, if they could help it. Here, it may be said, lation. “ If, therefore, it be assumed that persons be- for women, twenty-five years and a few months. they only undergo their share of the unavoidable tween tho ages of eighteen and sixty-five constitute hardships of life. And yet it is much moro sad, some- half the population (which the enumeration of ages in
CHARLOTTE AND SUSAN-AN IRISH how, to think of the children's share, than that of the 1821 shows to be very nearly the case), it will follow, parents . It may be because the former are so utterly that of those who may be considered the marriage CHARLOTTE MURRAY and Susan Mills were com
STORY, helpless to screen themselves from or to remove out able portion of the community, about thirty in every of the way of the evils of poverty--not even able to thousand (or three per cent.) are married yearly. The panions in their childhood. The first of them was while the parents have at least some control over portion, therefore, whose signatures appear in the and her children by cultivating a few acres of infotheir own fate. However the case may be in these marriage registers of a single year, is sufficiently small rior land, situated in a lonely part of the county of respects, it is obvious enough that such sufferings tell to be easily affected by accidental circumstances ; and Clare. Charlotte, the eldest of the family, was trained as severely as any others upon the young, repressing it cannot safely be asserted that the thirty in one in her youth to every species of rural labour, and the natural spirits, introducing sadness" where joy thousand, from whose signatures we would draw an more particularly to the task of bringing turf from should be, and leaving a memory of pain to cast its inference respecting the other nine hundred and the adjoining hills. In this occupation she was often long shade over all the future years of life. It may seventy, may not happen to consist of more than the joined by the children of the neighbourhood, and, in be said of such children that they have had no youth. proportionate number of uneducated persons. It especial, by Susan Mills, the daughter of a farmer of That delightful season, with all its associations, is a must not therefore be hastily assumed, upon the evi- the better class, who lived hard by. Susan did not blank in the calendar of their lives. Can we doubt dence afforded by the returns of a single year, that absolutely require to work like Čharlotte, but she that, in their case also, evils flow, and will flow to the the inhabitants of any particular county or district i followed the same employments as the latter, from a end of their days, from a defect so unnatural! Oh, are less educated than their neighbours. The expe- love of companionship and amusement.
The two parents, if by any means ye can spare your children riment must be repeated often, and be attended with girls remained in their native place till they grew to any share of your own mishaps, be entreated to make similar results, before this inference can be drawn womanhood, and by this time their respective chaevery exertion to do so. Shelter the tender bloom of with saf:ty; and it is only when returns of the same racters were in part developed. Susan, who was very their minds from the blasts of misfortune. Let them description, given for several successive years, shall pretty, displayed an early love of dress and show. The sport, unknowing that you weep. Give them, if you have exhibited similar facts, that it will be perfectly other had neither the same inclinations, nor the can, a youth, and so ensure to them not only a positive justifiable to arrive at any unfavourable conclusion means of indulging them, though she was scarcely period of happiness, comprising no slight part of their with respect to any particular district.”'
less comely than her friend. stated span, but also one of the highest sources of From the registers of marriages deposited in his office Susan was the first to quit her home. Her father enjoyment for the remainder of their
existence. during the year ending Jnne 1839, the registrar-gene- declined in circumstances, and she had to look out for
ral has constructed a table, exhibiting the proportion a place. She had, according to her mother's notions,
per cent. in the metropolis, in each English county, received a good education--that is to say, she read REPORT ON BIRTHS, DEATHS, AND MARRIAGES and in North and South Wales, of the persons mar- Auently, could write a little, was very cxpert at her
ried who have signed with their marks. This return needle, and had a tolerable knowledge of mantuaIN ENGLAND.
indicates a decided superiority with regard to educa- making; she was generally handy, and had a good fue registrar-general of births, deaths, and marriages, | tion, or rather the ability to write, in the metropolis, address. With such qualificaticns, it was not difficult has recently presented to both Houses of Parliament
as compared with the rest of England and Wales, for her to procure a place in a respectable family, his second annual report, which has been printed and and, next to the metropolis, in the north of England. where her business was to take care of children, and
The counties in which the proportion of persons mar- occasionally to wait upon her lady. This situation published.
ried who are unable to write is greatest, appears to pleased Susan particularly. She received from her We now proceed to transfer to our columns some be in Lancashire, Bedfordshire, Monmouthshire, and mistress frequent presents of clothes, which, by her portions of the interesting information which is to be Wales. There is one remarkable circumstance appa- expertness and ingenuity, she made look nearly as found in this report. The period embraced is the rent in this table, namely, that throughout the whole good as new, and which, though she was kept pretty year ending June 30, 1839. The numbers registered the ability of the men to write appears superior to the village beaux. When she had been about a year
of England and Wales, without a single exception, busy, she contrived to display to the admiring eyes of in that period were, for the whole of England, that of the women. The proportions per cent., for at Mrs Halford's, the widow Murray, understanding Births,
the whole kingdom, of the parties who have signed that a person was wanting there to assist the houseDeaths,
the registers with marks, are thirty-three in the num- maid, and to do the drudgery of the nursery, applied 331,007
ber of males, and forty-nine in that of females, the for the place for her daughter, and obtained it. Susan Marriages,
was by no means pleased at this arrangement, as she which, compared with the numbers for the preced
It must be remembered that these calculations re- did not desire to have another pretty girl to share ing year, show, for births, an increase of 80,828 ; for garding the ability to write give no insight into the with her in the attentions of the smart young men
amount and nature of the education now afforded in who frequented Halford Hall. Upon reflection, howdeaths, a decrease of 4949; for marriages, an increase England, and that they are only applicable to the ever, she judged that her own superior elegance of of 9602.” This decrease in the number of deaths, as past, a period of between ten and twenty years ago. attire, and coquettish airs, would always ensure her a compared with that of the preceding year, the regis
“ Inability to write," says the registrar-general, “ is, decided preference. Charlotte had, indeed, but little trar-general ascribes to a diminished mortality, and without doubt, indicative of considerable deficiency in opportunity of attracting admiration, for she had a not to imperfect registration. “I have found no rea
other kinds of elementary education. Opinions will great deal to do.
differ as to the extent to which such deficiency may Her early habits of laborious industry, however, son,” says he, “ to believe that the registration of from thence be inferred ; and this is a question the enabled her to perform her task with ease and cheerdeaths has been conducted with less care and efficiency solution of which I will not attempt.”
fulness; she gave her whole mind to her business, and than before ; but in comparing recent returns of the
We shall conclude our brief notice of the report soon became the most efficient servant in the house. causes of death with those of the first year of regis- before us with an extract of a novel and interesting Susan, adroit and clever, was, while under her mistration, I have found reason to believe that the mor- riages that occur at the various stages of human life could escape with impunity, she made no scruple of
tress's eye, an excellent attendant; but the moment she tality of that year was above the average, owing to throughout this kingdom. “ The averago age at leaving her business and running off in search of dithe inclemency of the winter in the beginning of the which persons are married in England and Wales version. It was Mrs Halford's custom to visit the year 1833, and to some epidemics, the prevalence and has never get been ascertained, nor do the returns de- nursery every night, to see that tho children were severity of which appear to have subsequently deposited in this office enable
me to do so with certainty; asleep and the maids in bed. One night after the clined.”
for the column headed'age' in the register of mar- lady's visit was over, Charlotte, who had been in a
riage is required to be filled not by the actual ages of sound sleep, was awakened by the cries of one of the With respect to the proportion of the mortality to the parties
married, but only by a statement whether children who usually slept with Susan : on rising to the population of England and Wales, it has been each is of full age or a minor. There was, however, see what was the matter, she was surprised to find found impossible at present to do more than approxi- considerable misapprehension on this subject, not with that Susan had left the room, and was gone down mate to a solution of that important question, owing when the recent registration and marriage-acts first she returned to her own little charge, and continued to the want of correct data for arriving at an estimate of the population. This difficulty will, however, be
awake, watching for the return of her fellow-servant; but one o'clock, two o'clock struck, and no Susan
* 3d and 4th Vict. cap. 99.