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appeared. She came at length stealthily up, and ad-act unknown to her master and mistress. At the same suffer. She pursued her work with diligence, even when mitted, on seeing Charlottu awake, that she had been time, she had a great desire to see the sport with others. winter made it more severe. Nothing occurred to her down stairs, having a drop of punch and a cup of tea After being long pressed by Susan, Charlotte retired to worthy of mention, till, one day, a ship came into the with the cook, and one or two boys,” cousins of that the nursery, and sat down to consider, before the young harbour, and a boat from it put William Hewson ashore. personage. Charlotte remonstrated with her friend, beaux came to escort the party. "If I wait for the boys, His eye canght the figure of Charlotte on the beach, and saying how angry the lady would be at the children said she, it is all over with me;
I showever be able to he was sadly surprised to see her appearance indicating being left. Susan admitted this, but if she had come resist their persuasions and flattery; I'd best take myself such extreme poverty.
out of the way before they come. And it's what I'll do," “Do my eyes deceive me," said he," or do I really see ap, sure you could tell her I only went down to warm a drop of milk for the child, and that you'd run and said she, starting up and running in search of the old Charlotte Murray ?**
gardener, a staid, prudent man, and very good-natured. Charlotte, slightly colouring, teplied_“You do incall me.”
To him she hastily explained the state of her affairs. deed, Mr Hewson. Our circumstances are much changed “I'd run and call you with pleasure, Susan ; but as “ And now, Thomas," said she, “what I'll do is this, I'll since you were here, and I am doing my best for Oür to telling any lies about it, it's what I wouldn't do for go and hide behind the high yew hedge by the garden support.". my own sister."
gate, till the bustle is over, and they are all gone; and *It is like yourself, Miss Charlotte ; happy the parent « Oh, you are mighty nice, indeed; maybe you'd when you hear them calling for me, do you tell them that has such a daughter, and happy the man who gains be glad to tell a white lie for yourself yet.”.
that I went out of the way purposely, and that it's use such a wife." Susan afterwards endeavoured to prevail on Char- less to wait for me." The gardener promised to obey During the period that Willie Hewson remained at lotte to take advantage of the casual absence of their her directions ; and she retired to her hiding-place, where home, he regularly joined the party on the beach; and mistress, and join a junketting party by night.
she waited about an hour, which appeared to her at least never had Charlotte found the most delicate work in her “ I thank you kindly for your good nature, Snsan," said three. She was so tired of waiting, that she said to her- lady's dressing-room so agreeable an occupation, as that Charlotte; -- but my mother charged me on my duty never self, “They must have gone by though I did not hear of gathering sea-weed on the beach, when thus accomon any account to leave the child I had the care of to them, and I may go out;" but just as she was preparing panied. But the day at last arrived when he must de another.”
to emerge from her obscurity, she heard the voices of part upon another voyage: he sailed, however, with in" Well
, you must take your own way, I spoke for the the harpy party, langhing and talking as they passed. proved prospects, as mate to a small trading vessel bound best.”
She distinguished Mr Davis's voice, repeating her name for Guernsey and the coast of France. About a month Having once resisted the temptation, every succeeding the distance; and when they were irrevocably gone, poor ing from the shore wet and weary, she saw her littlo
with expressions of regret. Soon the sounds died away in after his departure, as Charlotte was one evening returntrial became more easy to Charlotte, particularly as lier fellow-servants soon gave up as vain the attempt to per- Charlotte's resolution gave way, and she indulged in a brother Dicky running down the mountain path with a
face of consternation. suade her to join them. But she had trials of another hearty fit of crying: kind. Those who know any thing of young girls must be
She at length dried her eyes, and, angry at her own “ What is the matter, Dicky ?” said she_“ oh, speak! aware that it is a serions grievance to them, especially
if foolish regrets, sat down with her psalm-book before the what is the matter ?" “ Charlotte dear,” said Dicky, they be handsome, to be obliged to appear in a dress in kitchen-fire, where the old gardener was smoking his mammy is very bad, very bad entirely-screeching with ferior to that of their companions. Now Charlotte had pipe, A knock came to the door, and she thought some the pain. Hurry home !"" determined in her own mind that she would save out of
one had returned for her. She was so much agitated, Charlotte did hurry home, and sure enough she found her wages what would help to pay the rent for her mother, that the old gardener was obliged to open the door ; at her mother very ill. Great was the distress of the daughwhom she knew to be hard pushed to make it up. To which appeared, not Mr Davis, but a very different sort ter; and it would have been greater had not the stormieffect this, it was absolutely necessary that she should of person-the young sailor whom Charlotte had seen ness of the night bron;ht to the cot a gentleman seeking parchase for her own nse none but the plainest clothes. several times at her mother's. He entered with a smiling shelter. He got a seat by the side of the fire, and therMeanwhile Susan, always flauntingly dressed, spent her air.
overheard a remarkable discourse for such a place. Tho time in gaiety. By means of great natural quickness, and
“Will you receive a visiter from your own country, family had not one penny in the house, excepting a poundvarious expedients, she had contrived to elude detection, Miss Charlotte, who brings you news of your mother and note intrusted by a cousin to the widow. This note Char
lotte wished to use in bringing a surgeon and procuring not only with respect to her evening amusements, but
to family !” said he, producing a letter. many little absences during the day, which she timed so
• My mother? oh, when did you see her—is she well ?" medicines, hoping to make it up afterwards. The sick well, that her mistress never missed her. There was
. Quite well, and commissioned me to deliver this into woman would not hear of this for an instant. Struck by scarcely a party, high or low, from that given in the ex- your own hands, and to bring her an exact account of the scene, the traveller caused the surgeon to be sent for alted mansion of the thriving shopkeeper or collector of your health and welfare ; and I assure you I never received at his own cost. The widow suffered much; but the me excise to the more humble festivities of the gardener's a commission with greater pleasure in all my life. I met dicines given to her brought relief, and on the following cottage, which did not boast of Susan as its greatest some of your acquaintances going to a great party; upon day she was prononnced
out of danger. The kind traornament. Admirers of all classes swelled her train, and my inquiring for you, they langhed, and said, they sup- veller called to see her; and after learning how she was, she gave sufficient encouragement to each to retain him posed you knew what you were about, and waited at asked Charlotte who the Willie Hewson was, whose
I told them I was not in her chains. Yet, with all these advantages, it may be home on purpose to receive me.
name she had invoked in her distrers." Charlotte told fairly questioned whether Charlotte were not in reality thing of my coming. And now, may I presume to ask nouncing himself as a relation of Hewson, just returned
80 happy as to be able to believe that, as you knew no with a blush ; and the gentleman surprised her by annity of mind which the
consciousness of having performed how it happened that you did not accompany them ?" from India. “I must see Willie's father, who is my own our duty to the best of our ability produces, and she had
“ I will tell you," said the gardener; "it was because full cousin,” said Mr Hewson. " I know not what he may not left it in the power of any one to injure her by reports she preferred her duty to her pleasure."
be now, but he was the best-natured fellow that could to her disadvantage; while Susan, on the contrary, lived
The young man looked at Charlotte with respect and be; many a scrape he got me out of in my wild days." in constant fear lest any of her manœuvres should be beadmiration.
" And he is still an excellent, kind-hearted person," trayed by some spiteful enerny or treacherous friend.
“ I should count myself very fortunate,” said he, “if said the widow; “but, poor man, he is quite disabled this The long wished-for Easter at length arrived, and Miss Charlotte would permit
me to remain for an hour many a year, and has nearly lost the use of his limbs, with Charlotte set out with a light heart to visit her friends, or two, to talk to her of her friends."
the hardships he went through at sea. But he has the taking with her the small sum which she had accumu- and I are going to our dish of tea, and I invite you to take he maintains his father and brothers, and portioned his
" And so you shall,” said the old gardener. " Nurse comfort of as good a son as can be in the world, I believe; and her little brother and sister, were watching for her share of it, whether Charlotte asks you or not." sister, and had her well married, though he could badly at the door; and their joy at seeing her, and the widow's
Willie Hewson, for that was the young sailor's name, spare the money at the time. I'm sure, sir, you'd like surprise and gratitude at sight of the little sum she contrived to make the evening pass so agreeably, that Willie. I'm sorry he's absent at present." had saved, amply repaid her for all her sacrifices. A he told some humorous stories with great effect, sung cottage of Willie's father, and still more with what ho
Mr Hewson was much pleased with what he saw at tho young sailor, who had come up from the shore, where several sea songs, and showed that ardent desire to please heard of the young man from less partial judges than the the mountain side, chanced to be in the widow's house which seldom fails in attaining its object. From this at the moment when Charlotte entered; and had not her hour, Mr Davis's attentions had no longer any chance his visit when Willie should return from his voyage. This whole mind been absorbed by the joy of meeting her of becoming acceptable to Charlotte
; neither could her happened in the course of a few days: the voyage had briends, it is probable that she would have noticed him the delights of the show, cause one sigh of regret for the his captain. When Willie learned all that Charlotte had olcasing in his appearance. He was tall, of a fine figure, pleasures she had missed.
suffered in consequence of her mother's illness, he saidand, though but a common sailor, he had, by seeing some
From the time of Susan's visit to the show, where she, “ There is but one thing to be done, my dear Charlotte, thing of the world, acquired
an ease of manner and de- it was well known, had met Mr O'Flaherty, her daily and that is for us to be married before I depart upon portment not usual in his sphere of life, while his open cions were at length awakened, and it was announced to
absences became so frequent, that her mistress's suspi- another voyage ; we have enough row to maintain the honest countenance had lost nothing of the ingenuous her that unless she was more careful in her conduct, she for them when separate, and you and your mother will
two families when joined, though it would be too little expression it bore when first he left his native village. This young man, who was a good judge of beauty, and must not expect to retain her situation. This intimation be the means of making my father comfortable in his old did not consider fine clothes necessary to make a fino Mrs Halford inquired for Susan, she was nowhere to be faithful Willie for your protector for life.”.
was received in sullen silence, and the next day, when days. So no more objections, my love, but take your own woman, was attracted by Charlotte's rosy cheeks and soft blue eyes, but he was still more struck by the affec- found. She had been seen in company with her lover
“Oh, Willie dear, how could I burden you with another tionate pleasure he saw in her countenance at the meet- early in the morning, and it was soon ascertained that family-you that are struggling to support your father and ing with her family. And when he heard from his cousin they had gone off together. There were various reports brothers, and find it hard enough to do that?" of her dutiful conduct towards her mother, and the self-concerning them for some days. It was at one time as “ I shall have double strength and courage, Charlotte, denial she had practised in the performance of it, he serted that they were actually married.
when once I have secured you mine; for often, when I have longed to be better acquainted with her-he visited her Charlotte was now installed in her old friend's place, but been far away upon the seas, the notion that something mother's cottage every evening during her stay, and was she did not hold it long. Her mother grew so ill, that the might happen, and I might lose you for ever, would como more and more pleased with her conversation.
dutiful daughter found herself incapable of staying away across me, and my very heart would sink within me.” Soon after Charlotte returned to her place, she hap- from home. She went home, and, by her kind tendance, How the debate between the lovers would have ended, pened to go at an unusually early hour to the breakfast- restored the widow to some degree of health ; but, alas! though it may be surmised, can never be decidedly known, room to seek for some of the children's things which had all her exertions could not keep the farm in their hands. for it was interrupted by the arrival of the stranger, who been forgotten there the night
before. As she approached They fell behind with the rent, and lost the ground. Then declared himself happy in having at length an opportuthe door, she thought she heard a key turned in a lock Charlotte was compelled to look for some other means of nity of becoming acquainted with a relation who stood so in a hurried manner, and on entering, she saw Susan car- supporting her mother and the two younger members of deservedly high in the esteem of his neighbours. Willie's rying away something in her apron. A lump of sugar, the family. The only employment
which she could think of appearance did not disappoint his cousin, who was pleased dropped as she went out, showed what that something was that of gathering sea-weed on the beach, about three with the ingenuous modesty of his look and manner. was. Charlotte had always wondered how her fellow miles from the cottage. This weed was sent to Limerick
soon as they were in private together, Mr Hewson began servant, even with her superior wages, could afford tea
to make kelp. She spoke to her mother of the plan. to question him as to his views and prospects in life ; morning and night, while
she herself took stirabout or por Charlotte dear," said she, you don't know what you and soon perceived that his surmises were just, and that ridge. A suspicion arose, in spite of Charlotte's desire undertake, nor the slavery of it. You must be down upon to be united to Charlotte was the wish nearest to Willie's to think well of Susan; and when the latter offered some
the beach soon after break of day, and there you must heart. “From what I observed during the night I passed of her tea to her early friend, the offer was not accepted. stay till nightfall; and you'll have nothing to eat the whole in the Widow Murray's cottage," said Mr Hew'son, " I do Charlotte also ventured to remonstrate with Susan on long day but a few cold potatoes or a bit of bread, for not think that you, my young friend, could choose from a the score of the
encouragement given by the latter to a you must be sensible that I could not spare the little girl better stock; and I for my part should be glad, wliile i squireen called O'Flaherty, a wild young man, and who to go with your dinner to you, and then you'll have to am assisting my relation, to be the means of rewarding was even said to have a wike already, though one deserted come home in the cold
and the wet after a hard day's the self-denying honesty and contented industry of that by him. But the remonstraoce was unheeded. work; you don't know what it is.”
family. Do you think you have acquired sufficient knowAbout this time, a young man of respectable station, “ Mother dear, have not I been out many a bitter day ledge of seafaring business to make a fit captain of a small oamed Davis, began to pay some attentions to Charlotte, upon the mountains, and was never the worse for it; and trading vessel ?” and on one occasion asked her to go to a sort of fair and sure it's not harder on me than upon others; and wouldn't At these words, Willie Hewson's eyes sparkled, and his dance at some distance, where Susan and others were to it be worse to me an hundred times to see you want? So, cheeks glowed with delight; but checking his transports, be. Mr and Mrs Halford were from home with the child mother dear, with the blessing of Heaven, I'll begin on he answered modestlydren, ar * there could be no harm," Susan said, " in Monday morning."
“ It is not for me, sir, to judge about myself-_I will regoing." But Charlotte had not asked leave to absent Charlotte found it, as her mother had said, a hard life, | fer you to my captain ; but if an earnest desire to acquire hersell, and her well-regulated mind shrunk from any but she was strong and hearty, and her health did not | nautical knowledge, and a close attention to tac duties of
my calling are of any avail, I believe I might venture upon discontcnt; her figure, once so light and agile, was heavy | sympathy of friend or relation, and sunk into the grave such an undertaking:""
and unwieldy, and her whole appearance gave too much in the prime of life, with the painful conviction that her * Very well; I will inquire into the business, and if I colour to reports which had been spread of her having death would be regarded by her children with indifferfind you well qualified for it, I will, if you please, purchase acquired a taste for spirituous liquors-reports which ence, and hailed by her husband with undisguised satis a ncat little vessel in which you may make short trading Charlotte had been unwilling to credit, but which a very faction. voyages that will not take you too long from your family; disagreeable smell of whisky which pervaded the house out of the profit of these voyages you shall, by degrees, too strongly confirmed. pay me the price of the vessel. I shall also present you “Wall. and what will you take after your journey, Mrs ENGLISH FARMERS' CLUBS. with a small sum as a portion for Charlotte, and this will Hewson ?" said Dusan; "a drop of punch would do no serve to furnish your outfit, and to put your house in harm, and there's hot water ready,” added she, rising to Among the information of various kinds which wo better repair." call the maid.
were able to pick up during a late visit to England, The captain's report of William's diligence, prudence, “ Not any punch for me, Mrs O'Flaherty, I thank you was the gratifying intelligence that there is an awakand sobriety, as well as of his proficiency in all knowledge kindly; but, if it wouldn't be too troublesome, a little ening
interest in agricultural improvement on some requisite for his station, was so satisfactory, that it con
be , firmed Mr Hewson in his purpose. The vessel was pura thing I don't very often use."
thing like a general plan. chinsed, and a tight little ship she was, and well rigged didn't think Captain Hewson was the sort of man to
“ And is that the case, my poor Charlotte? Well, I Two or three years ago, a great agricultural society
was formed, on the model of the Highland Society of that same day Mr Hewson, acting the part of a father
, scrimp you that way! Why, even the wife of a common Scotland. "This we noticed at the time as a thing bestowed the hand of her namesake upon the newly
made labourer sits down to her tea quite regular now-a-days; auguring much good, and we are glad to find that the captain. We will not attempt to describe the delight and he, that has such opportunities of getting it cheap, prediction is so far proved to have been a true one. and gratitude of the youthful pair, the joy of their aged too, to deny you. Indeed, I'm very angry with him." parents, nor the heartfelt satisfaction of the generous fault, indeed it isn't ; for though he wouldn't get it the tural societies, which have in various respects proved
" Then you needn't, Mrs O'Flaherty." It isn't Willie's For some time there have also existed local agriculof .
in their respective , Charlotte was now in comparative comfort, and might, way you mean, for fear it would teach him to be a if she had chosen, have even lived luxuriously; but she smuggler, it's often, from the very first, he pressed me and more familiar institutions, have at last sprung to take it both morning and evening; but I considered up:
These are called farmers' clubs, and consist was formed of a different temperament. Though Mr Hewson never proposed any time for the repayment of that we were deeply in debt, and couldn't count any altogether of rent-paying agriculturists, it being esthe debt due by Willie, the new-married wife thought thing our own till we were clear; so I wouldn't be in- sential to their existence and utility that no landed that the task of restoration could not be too soon set dulging myself, and I got only just what served the old gentry, however much they may aid the exertions of about, and accordingly she at once began a course of people, that hadn't their appetites rightly."
their tenantry, shall belong to them. Composed of a frugality, which never ceased till she had paid up the
"Well, to be sure, every one knows their own business class of men of similar pursuits, education, and ability, whole sum, and had made her husband in reality master best; but, for my part, 1'd think myself fairly lost without farmers' clubs are remarkable for an easy and agree and owner of the Lovely Charlotte. Willie, or Captain my tea. The best I have, both green and black, and able sociality, free alike from the envy and the scarcely Hewson, as we should call him, would often entreat her coffee, too--so you may take your choice."
less mischievous veneration which beset a body comto give herself more indulgences; but she resisted all his
“Coffee is very good, and Willie's always telling me
posed of unequal classes. The institution of farmers' persuasions. The consequence 'was, that her children so, but somehow it comes a little strange to me; so the Clubs is not exactly a new thing in Britain, for
one were early inured to habits of economy, which served black tea, miam, if you please, being what I'm used to, has been in existence at Hawick_in Roxburghshire them through life.
“ You shall have it, and I'm sorry you'll not let me
for upwards of half a century, and we have heard of And what was the end of Susan Mills? She came
order something more comfortable. As it happens, Mr one or two more in other parts of Scotland. They She invited Mrs Hewson to come and see her ; but it pocket, or I could offer you a glass of wine, for we have in the last and present year; much of the credit of to see Charlotte, and boasted greatlyf her grandeur: O'Flaherty has taken away the key of the cellar in his are, however,
new in England, and have spread chiefly was only after a lapse of several years that Charlotte, both red and white in the cellar plenty."
their origin being due, we believe, to Mr Shaw, the chancing to be near Carbery Lodge, as O'Flaherty's mansion was called, went to see her old friend, of whose his- thing quite out of my line.”
+ I don't in the least doubt it, ma'am, but wine is a present active and intelligent editor of the Mark Lane tory she of late knew nothing but by vague report. She
Express and Farmer's Magazine. The leading object was surprised, on entering the domain of Carbery, to see story of complaints, which may be too easily imagined practical information on subjects in which all are
While Charlotte was taking her tea, Susan began a long of these associations of farmers, is the diffusing of such an air of desolation all around : the fences were the screen of fir-trees, where they were committing the hecause her attention was not called
from them by the month, on an appointed
evening, near the full moon; broken down, and the cattle strayed unheeded through that Susan felt her domestic grievances
the more keenly, professionally interested. The club meets once amost cruel devastations. Some children were playing employments which generally occupy the time of those drinking or smoking, we believe, is not generally near the hall door, which opening suddenly as Charlotte born in her station; and unable, from her want of edu- allowed ; but simple refreshments, such as tea or approached, a little boy rushed out sobbing, violently cation, to substitute the pursuits which interest the coffee, may be introduced. A chairman is appointed with rage and grief;
for the latter he seemed to have some higher classes of society, she sought a temporary obli- to preserve order, and lead the conversation or discuscause, for his head was cut and bleeding.
vion of her sorrows in the use of ardent spirits. This sion to topics calling for notice. A secretary keeps 3 " What is the matter, my dear?” said Charlotte;" how fatal resource, as usual, aggravated every evil, increasing journal of transactions and of papers read, and an were you hurt ?"
the strength of her vindictive passions, till they rendered abstract is periodically furnished for publication in " It was-it was mamma," said the child, crying more her an object of terror to her children, hatred to her the Farmer's Magazine, whereby the various societies bitterly; " she banged the door of the press against my servants, and disgust to her neighbours. head, and all because that lying fellow there," said he,
throughout the kingdom obtain some idea of what the
As Charlotte approached her own happy home, her others have been engaged upon. looking at his eldest brother, “ told her I took the cake." spirits recovered from the depression produced by the * And so you did, you dirty brat, with your ugly scenes she had witnessed at Carbery Lodge; her little Club, we find, for example, the following topics agi
Looking over the first report of the Beccles Farners' broken nose; you are the picture of old cankered granny boys, who had been eagerly watching for her return, came tated :-The most economic and best mode of cutting --and mamma says so."
running to meet her. * Dirty brat yourself, I'm heir of Carbery Lodge.” “Oh, mother, mother, how long you have been away;
wheat ; the most effectual means of destroying the Charlotte's little girl who had accompanied her, scared and the Lovely Charlotte' is come in, and father has
“ black caterpillar ;" subsoil ploughing ; the best at the sounds of fraternal discord, to which she was brought such beautiful things—a gown all over moss roses steeps for grain; the best manner of keeping cartunused, took refuge beneath her mother's cloak. “Oh for you, and a doll for Peggy, and a great big ship, with horses, resumed from the November meeting. “ Tho shame, shame,” said Charlotte, taking the wounded boy real mast and sails, for Tommy and me, and lie's longing member
who introduced the last question, stated it to by the hand, “ brothers to use such language to one an- so to see you."
be one of considerable difficulty, upon which it was not other. Come with me, and I'll ask your mamma to put some plaster to your head to cure it.” “No, no,” said hasten Charlotte's steps to meet her husband.
The gown all over moss roses was not requisite to easy to arrive at a satisfactory conclusion. After a
few preliminary observations, the method of feeding the boy, breaking from her, “I'll go and complain to
“ This has been a prosperous voyage, my beloved wife," horses with cut chaff was discussed and strongly regrandmother."
said he, as he embraced her. “ I have cleared sufficient commended. As economy appeared the great desideCharlotte, shocked at this scene, knocked timidly at to discharge our debt to our generous relation. Such ratum, it was considered that a small portion of straw the door, which was opened by a fat woman, with a red strict
be no longer necessary, and I shall might be mixed with the hay for cutting, and that face, and eyes that sparkled with rage; she had the handle have the pleasure of seeing you enjoy those comforts from during the winter months bean-stalks might be given. of a sweeping-brush in her hand, with which she seemed which you have so long debarred yourself.”
Under these circumstances, however, an increased prepared to oppose the entrance of the intruder. Upon secing Charlotte, she stopped short; and after a pause try, and self-denial evinced by his cousins in the early stated that, when the allowance of hay or clover was
Mr Hewson was much pleased by the integrity, indus- quantity of corn would be necessary. Some members exclaimed—“ It is, it is Charlotte, I declare!" and her liquidation of their debt; and, like a prudent merchant, stinted, it would be found desirable to grind the corn, countenance relaxing from its stern expression, Charlotte, who, finding his first venture succeed, is inclined to risk by which means the chaff would be better consumed to her utter surprise, perceived that the fat red-faced another on a similar speculation, he began to consider in than when the corn was given whole. After a somewoman was no other than Susan. Endeavouring to conceal her consternation at this discovery, she replied to "Lovely Charlotte” for the benefit of his relations.
what manner he could best dispose of the price of the what lengthened debate, the following was agreed to: Mrs O'Flaherty's complimentary speeches as well as she
-Resolved, that it is the opinion of this meeting, that was able.
His namesake and godson, little George, though not the most approved method of keeping cart-liorses is to " I'm sure I am happy to see you at last," you didn't see Carbery Lodge when my furniture was intelligent, boy, very assiduous, and desirous of improve one bushel of oats, or an equivalent of bear-meal and said the lady ; " better late than never. But I'm sorry quite such a genius as luis fond parents fancied, was a fine allow them each twelve stones of hay per week, and new; those children, there's no bearing them, they are so wicked, and so arch-see the figure they've made of care and expense of his education, so as to fit him for pollard, as winter keep; a small quantity of straw cut
into chaff is considered advantageous in point of erery thing. It was only last night that brat smashed my situation where he would have the benefit of his relation's economy. Through the summer it is desirable to feed and see the way they burned my carpet, the rogues, with interest to obtain promotion, in case he deserved it. The them upon tares or other green meat in yards, in prethe poker.”
delight with which this proposal, far exceeding their ference to turning them out on the pastures. And The drawing-room did, indeed, exhibit the appearance be easily imagined.
most sanguine hopes, was received by the parents, may also that yards, with hovels for feeding and lodging, of a place where all the imps of mischief had been let
are preferable to confinement in the stable, either loose. The curtains, of a bright salmon colour, bordered
Little George, profiting by the advantages bestowed winter or summer.” with green, showed evident marks of dirty hands having upon him, conducted himself in such a manner as to This short extract will afford a tolerably correct been wiped in them; the sofa had been originally of the give the greatest satisfaction to his friend and protector. notion of the subjects and mode of discussion at these same hue, but had now exchanged it for that of the yel When of a proper age, he was put on board an India ship, farmers
' clubs. In fact, each speaker narrates his low clay regularly imported upon the children's shoes where his strict attention to the duties of his station
own experience for the benefit of his neighbours ; and from the muddy ground before the door; then the gaudy obtained the approbation of his superiors. Rising gra- the territorial holding of each farmer may be described beauties of the many-coloured paper on the
walls were mand of a vessel, and his benefactor had the pleasure of us a species of experimental farm, upon which new it with a profusion that seemed rather the effect of de- seeing him return from a successful voyage, as captain methods of culture may be practised. It is quito
pleasing to learn that a taste for rational and scientifie sign than of chance--all, in short, within doors and with of an East Indiaman. out, bore the marks of reckless waste and comfortless It was now in George's power to be of use to his bro discussion has reached the farming class in England. extravagance. But nothing she had seen so much dis- thers and sisters by his assistance. They were happily That class, it is notorious, both from habits
of thought tressed Charlotte's feelings as the change in the appear and respectably settled in life, while his continued good and circumstances, has fallen behind the more active ance of her old companion. Six years before, Susan had conduct, and dutiful affection towards his parents, ren- order of mechanics and traders. The clubs we speak been a very lovely woman, now scarce a trace of beauty dered him the pride, delight, and support of their declin- of will, doubtless, help powerfully to quicken the remained; her face and neck, for the graceful turn of ing years.
intellect, and enrich, in a pecuniary sense, the very which she had been famed, were frightfully swollen; Very different was the fate of the unfortunate Susan. numerous body of cultivators. It may be stated, as a her cheeks, which had been tinged with the most deli- Her love of spirituous nors increased to such a degree, general truth in statistics, that each county in Engcate peach colour, were now of a fiery red, and blotched that her constitution, though naturally strong, could no land could, with better skill
, be made to yield produce with scurvy; the pretty though coquettish expression longer withstand its effects. She lingered some months to the value of one million of pounds sterling per of her countenance was exchange.l for a look of lowering under a painful disease, uncheered by the kindness or annum above what is at present taken off the ground
as crop. The scope for improvement, therefore, being and general condition of things.,. He mentions, that tion from the Danish men-of-war on the station ; and, immense, why not hasten to take advantage of it ! slavery in the Danish West Indies is much modified on some occasions, they have actually received their
In an essay on the subject of these clubs, in the of lato years, but still hangs as a dead weight on the supplies of gunpowder from the fort itself.” Friend Farmer's Magazine for December 1839, the following energies of society. "I understand (he observes) that Joseph asks why these things are permitted in the observations occur :-“If, then, the farmers of Eng. the slaves form about four-fifths of the population, face of British treaties, which is a question much land wish to extend their knowledge, and to improve and are in number about 19,000. Time was when easier asked than answered. Great Britain cannot their cultivation, through the discoveries of science, the treatment to which they were exposed was harsh act as police-officer to the whole earth. let them establish societies like the mechanics' insti- and severe, and then their numbers were constantly Leaving this poor specimen of the Danish possestutions, at which they can discuss the merits of new declining. Of late years, however, the Danish govern- sions, the author and his companions proceeded, on discoveries, or the improvements in the practice of old, ment has instituted various restrictions which have the last day of December, to Tortola, a British island, and profit by the experience of those who have had ameliorated the condition of the slaves. They are not which presented quite another aspect. It is worth greater opportunities of devoting their time and at- allowed, as I understand, to be worked longer in the while to hear what were the writer's impressions in tention to the science of agriculture. * It has day than from six o'clock in the morning to the same landing upon and perambulating this small insular been impossible for persons engaged in agriculture to hour in the evening, with intervals (not always long territory. "" We could not but feel an intense interest procure any books treating on that science but at a enough) for breakfast and dinner. Legal provisions in making our first visit to a British island, peopled heavy outlay of money, purchasing them at their sole are made respecting food and clothing. The driver in with emancipated negroes. Out of a population of expense;" but by means of farmers' clubs, a library the field is not permitted to carry any more terrible in- nearly five thousand, there are scarcely more than of the best works and periodicals in this department strument than a tamarind switch of moderate size; and two hundred white persons ; but we heard of no inof literature will become readily available. The amount twelve lashes with the rope, and a short period of soli- conveniences arising from this disparity. We had of subscription for support of the library and institu- tary confinement (mostly, í believe, in a light room), letters to Dr Dyett, the stipendiary magistrate, and tion is trifling. “The experience of the Harleston are the extent of punishment which even the manager to some of the principal planters, who greeted us with Club proves, that five shillings per annum from each or master is permitted to inflict. This rope, however, a warm welcome, and soon relieved us from our very member, with no forfeits for non-attendance at the is a dangerous instrument of torture; and I am told natural anxiety, by assuring us that freedom was meetings, is amply sufficient to secure all the advan- that the reduction of the allowed number of lashes, working well in Tortola. One of our first visits was tages contemplated."
from thirty to twelve, is no matter of law, but the to a school for black children, under the care of Referring to the number of the Farmer's Magazine simple result of the imperative benevolence of the Alexander Bott, the pious minister of the parish above quoted, for much useful information respecting governor-general, Von Scholten. Any negro has a church. It was in good order—the children answered the mode of instituting and conducting Farmers' right to buy his own freedom ; and, in case of need, our questions well. We then proceeded to the jail, Clubs, we close our remarks with explicitly recom- the price is settled by a public appraiser. The conse- in which, if my memory serves me right, we found only mending agriculturists in all parts of the United quence of these benevolent provisions is, that the con- one prisoner-with the jailor and the judge! Our Kingdom to follow the excellent example now brought dition of the slaves is improved, and their number is kind friend, Francis Spencer Wigley, Chief-Justice under their notice.
now kept up, with a very small increase.” Neverthe- of the British Virgin Islands, happened to be there,
less, the degradation caused by slavery in these islands, and cheered us with the information that crime had GURNEY'S VISIT TO THE WEST INDIES. of the slaves, as compared with that of the liberated I looked over the list of commitments to the jail
, " the low physical, intellectual, and moral condition vastly decreased since the period of full emancipation. JOSEPH JOHN GURNEY, a respectable member of the negroes of the British islands, is obvious and unques- which, for the most part, are summary for petty Society of Friends, and, as it seems, a preacher or tionable. The worst feature of the system is the offences, and observed that, in the last six months of missionary, having returned lately after a three years' Sunday market,' as it is called. The slaves are 1837, the number committed was 186, and in the last absence in various parts of North America and the allowed no one of the working days of the week for six months of 1839, only 75 ; making a difference of West Indies, has written and published an account their own business. The consequence is, that multi- 111 in favour of freedom. With regard to heavier of his journey, in the form of a series of letters to tudes of them throng from the country (often from a offences, the three preceding courts of session (emHenry Clay, Esq., of Kentucky.* Mr Gurney's object great distance) into the towns of Bassin and West bracing a period of nine months) were occasions of in performing this tour, was to observe the condition End, on the first day of the week, with their pro- perfect leisure-not a single criminal indictment at of the emancipated negroes in our colonies ; and his visions and fruits for sale. The rum shops are hard any of them. reason for addressing his collected information to Mr by the market places. The buyers, of course, misuse In the afternoon, we presented one of our letters Clay, will be comprehended from the following pas- the day as well as the sellers ; and the scene is one to William R. Isaacs, a most respectable old gentlesage :-“On our return from the West Indies to the not only of busy traffic, but of noisy merriment, idle- man, who was once president of the island. He was United States, my companions and myself spent ten ness, and dissipation.
confined to his bed with a sprained ankle, and kindly days in the city of Washington, while Congress was It was very satisfactory to us to learn from our allowed me the use of his excellent riding-horse during in session. We found no difficulty in obtaining pri- friend Captain Van Scholten, the brother of the our stay at Roadstown. He is himself a considerable Fate interviews with the President, the secretaries of governor-general (then in Denmark), that a commis proprietor, and was then acting as attorney to Reid, the different departments of government, and many sion had been appointed at Copenhagen, to inquire Irving, and Co. of London, owners, by mortgage of the most influential members of Congress of both into the state of these colonies, with a view to eman- tenure, of a large part of the island. In these two parties. To these gentlemen we related the principal çipation. In the mean time, seven large buildings capacities, our elderly friend had fifteen hundred free particulars of our West Indian tour, and stated the have been erected in different parts of the island, to negroes under his care ; and since all his habits had evidence with which we had been furnished, of the serve as chapels and schools, for the religious and long been associated with the old system, we could beneficial working of freedom among the negroes of literary instruction of the negro population. They not but regard his testimony as of peculiar value. He the West Indies, in a pecuniary, civil, and moral are not yet in use ; but several of the planters are speedily informed us, of his own accord, that his point of view. Our narration was listened to with making laudable exertions for the education of their labourers were working well. 'I have,' said he, no great attention, and by no individual more so than by slaves in reading, and in a knowledge of the Scrip- complaint to make. The fact that so large a proporHenry Clay of Kentucky. Notwithstanding the con- tures. A coloured person of the name of Macfarlane, tion of the island had passed out of the hands of the spicuous part which that statesman has of late years in every way adapted for the office, is employed for proprietors, into those of the merchant and moneytaken in defence of the slavery of the United States, the purpose"; this school circulates, with excellent sender, was a conclusive evidence against slavery. we had abundant proof that his mind is not steeled effect, from one estate to another. Having been with this evidence we could now contrast the happy against a lively feeling of interest in the cause of taught their moral and religious obligations, the ne- testimony of our friend in favour of freedom. emancipation ; and we have a strong hope that the groes on these estates are already greatly improved, The next morning we mounted our horses at an practical views developed in the present volume will and are much more useful to their masters than in early hour, and, in company with Dr Dyett and R. V. ere long be embraced by him, in reference to the slave the days of their ignorance.
Shew, an influential planter, visited President Isaacs' states of North America. In the mean time, as it was The schools held on the first day of the week, under principal property. I observed a large company of my object to convince the more reasonable of the pro- the care of the members of the Episcopal church, at negroes, male and female, at work on the brow of a slavery party, I believed it best to address my letters Bassin and West End are attended by several hun. lofty hill. I rode up to them, in company with the to a gentleman who is generally regarded as belonging dreds of black, mulatto, and white children. Some of overseer, and found them heartily at work. They to that class. In making this selection, I had of the planters and their wives are united with coloured were engaged in the laborious occupation of holing course no reference to the side which he is known to persons and others, as instructors in these schools ; that is, digging holes with the hoe, for the reception take in the politics of the United States. It was my and the blessed work is carried on, both among the of the canes—and protecting each hole (as was neceswish to interest persons of all political parties in teachers and the taught, without prejudice of caste or sary on that steep declivity) with a firm embankment. America, in the same great cause of sound policy, distinction of colour."
Those who best understood the subject, freely acjustice, and humanity.”
Mr Gurney adds the following piece of information, knowledged that their work was excellent. We afterIt can hardly fail to appear as somewhat Quixotic which suggests a valuable hint :-“We were glad to wards witnessed similar scenes, and received accounts in an English Quaker to attempt to change the cur- be informed of the existence of an institution in the equally satisfactory, on the sugar plantations belonging rent of sentiment in the States respecting the legalised Danish West Indian islands (derived of course from to R. V. Shew and Judge Wigley. The wages of sale and slavery of human beings. Nevertheless, as every the parent state), which operates most beneficially in these labourers are small, only sixpence sterling per such attempt helps to disabuse public prejudice, and promoting the peace of the inhabitants. It is the day, with a trifling increase during crop time ; but I to increase the number of friends to emancipation, we Court of Reconciliation, in which all disputes and was assured that the privileges which they enjoy, of have to thank Mr Gurney for his enlightened efforts, questions of civil right must be submitted to arbitra- a cottage, with good provision-grounds, rent free, and and trust to their swelling the tide of freedom. We tion, before they can become the subjects of suits at plenty of pasture for their stock, at least
double the are very glad to observe, that this conscientious de- law. In this court of amicable adjustment, such amount of their wages. The present condition of the scriber of things as they are, fully corroborates the matters are almost universally settled. The conse- planters in Tortola is not very favourable, from longstatements we lately had an opportunity of presenting quence is, that the legal profession in Santa Cruz is continued droughts, and a consequent short crop ; but from official documents, respecting the condition of nearly a sinecure, and can scarcely be said to exist at I hope that more prosperous seasons will soon lead to the West Indian peasantry. We promise the reader all. Such a provision would be invaluable in the an increase of wages. This is obviously the best mesome very delightful extracts on this highly important British West Indies, where proceedings at law are a thod of preventing the migration of the peasantry to subject.
perpetual source of irritation and vexation.". The Trinidad, to which colony many of them have been In company with Mahlon Day, and a young friend, writer might have added, that such an institution lured by emissaries sent out for the purpose-under who undertook to act as attendant and helper, Mr might, with equal propriety, be established in Britain, the hope of larger returns for their labour. In the Gurney sailed from New York on the 22d November where the protracted and expensive process of litiga- mean time, I am quite willing to acknowledge, that 1839, in the Camilla, with the design of proceeding, in tion is a disgrace to the country.
the labourers of Tortola appeared to us to be in a the first instance, to Santa Cruz, a West Indian island Mr Gurney next sailed to St Thomas, another condition of considerable ease and comfort. belonging to Denmark, and in which slavery still Danish island, where slavery happens to be on a much Among the vegetables which they cultivate in their cxists. The sail into the tropical seas was exceedingly worse footing, and where he could not hear any provision-grounds, we observed the pigeon pea, a shrub pleasant, after leaving & cold northern clime ; and favourable accounts of the black and coloured popula- which grows here in great quantities, and produces a after a prosperous voyage of two weeks, the party tion. “There are but few married couples among nutritious pea for the table ; also the cassata. It has landed at Fredericksted, or West End in Santa Cruz. them-loose and low habits appear to be general. No been remarked, that a piece of ground cultivated with Having made a tour to various parts of this very one can aver that slavery in St Thomas is attended by this root will produce more food for man than under beautiful and productive island, which at the time was any one advantage, temporal, civil, moral, or spiritual." any other cultivation whatever. It is a singular circovered with the most luxuriant and splendid plants, But worse than this can be said against the island. cumstance that its juice is a deadly poison ; but after the author is able to say something of the appearance “The Spanish and Portuguese slave vessels frequently this has been pressed out, the farinaceous substance
come to this port to be fitted up for their nefarious which remains is made into an excellent thin bread, * A Winter in the West Indies, by Joseph John Gurney. adventures on the coast of Africa ; here they have like the Scotch oat-cake in appearance, but more Murray : London
free ingress and egress, without the smallest interrup- agreeable to the palate.
After regaling ourselves with a plentiful breakfastslaves upon it. Now, without a single slave, it is replied, Charlotte, a good man seeks his reward in at Judge Wigley's pleasant residence on the top of a worth three times the money. I would not sell it for
the world to come.
." Joseph then withdrew. It may lofty bill, we prirsued our course through scenery of L.6000.' This remarkable rise in the value of pro- here be stated, that every succeeding monarch of Enguncommon beauty-in parts almost of a Swiss cha- porty, is by no means confined to particular estates. land, including her present majesty, has followed George racter. There are no roads on this island for car I was assured that, as compared with those times of III.'s example.-Croston's Sketch of Joseph Lancaster's
Life. riages-only rocky and precipitous mountain paths, depression and alarm which preceded the act of emanfor journeys on borseback or foot. The wild flowers cipation, it is at once general and very considerable. I are still more beautiful here than in Santa Cruz. The asked the President Crook, and some other persons, HAL PIERSON'S HALF-CROWN. great aloo, called the century plant, abounds, and has whether there was a single individual on the island Hal. PIERSON was an idiot, or innocent, as weak persona à very picturesque appearance; and there are many who wished for the restoration of slavery. Answer, are called in Yorkshire, who was benevolent y reared prodigious plants of the cactus tribe. Pink, purple, Certainly not one.'
and protected by the family of Sir George Armitage. red, and yellow convolvuluses, are seen creeping
about As to the staple article of sugar, we found the island some eighty or more years ago. Hal, though weak of in all directions ; and the splendid pride of Barba- in a condition of prosperity. It was supposed that intellect, was extremely shrewd, and even witty at does' is common. The white jasmine occurs in the the crop on the ground, which to us appeared heavy times. He loved money, as all fools and some wise hedges ; and a small tree, called the panchupan, bears and luxuriant, would produce at least the usual men do. A casual visiter to the family had given profuso huncbes of large white flowers, of fragrant average of 7000 hogsheads; and no difficulty whatever him half-a-crown. Hal was delighted ; but he had jasmins odour. The brown pelicans float about the was apprehended in realising it. Wo accompanied heard in the servants' hall that money make money, coest in great numbers ; and we were told that the our friend Burt to Ottley's—a well-managed sugar and a vague wish arose in his mind to multiply, if neighbouring low island of Anegada is frequented by estate, belonging to himself and Judge Wigley of possible, the coin of which he had become possessed. the flamingo. At the distance of many hundred Tortola, where we again examined the process of There was a young carpenter, named Robby, who yards, when on the brow of a lofty hill, we distinctly sugar-making, and again saw the negroes diligently at worked by the year in the family, and who, hearing saw a shark playing among the waves-an evidence work, on the day which they usually reserve for their Hal inquire how he might increase his treasure, told of the remarkable clearness both of the air and water. own business,
him to put it into a hole in tho wall, which Hal immeMany of the hills are covered with luxuriant 'guinea The day's wages, in this island, are from 70. to 9d. diately did. It is to be preinised, that this poor ingrase, and afford excellent pasture for cattle, sheep, sterling per day, besides the usual privileges ; but the nocent knew not the comparative value of silver and and goats. A large proportion of these animals be- negroes have no difficulty in earning from 25. to 3s. copper. Robby, taking advantage of his ignorance, long to the negroes. The cows are sleek and beauti- sterling per day by job work. Under this system, and eager to play a trick upon him, changed the coin ful, and the milk excellent.
particularly, they perform a far greater quantity of for a few coppers, with which Hal was at first much Another day was spent in a boat excursion to the work in a given time than could be obtained from pleased ; but, by and bye, one of the under-servants western extremity of the island, in order to visit some them under slavery. When we called on our excellent explained the matter, and Hal vowed vengeance against of the estates under the care of our friend Isaac friend R. Cleghorn, a faithful and intelligent stipen- the carpenter. Whether he executed it or not, the Thomas, another of the principal attorneys. In the diary magistrate, he summed up his favourable report reader will presently sec. course of our voyage, the sailors caught some fish, so of the labourers of St Christopher's by the following Hal was always ready to do errands, and sometimes curiously striped and spotted as to receive the name emphatic remark— They will do an infinity of work did them well. At all events he was no niggard of of lizard' fish; and, on landing, we observed the for wages.'
his time or trouble, when he liked his employer. His shore strewn with handsome specimens of the echinus, This state of things is accompanied by a vast in- will was good, but his power weak. . At one time a or sea egg. We found the sugar plantations, under crease in their own comforts. Our friend Cadman, young lady, Miss Jenny Ayrton, being on a visit at the care of our friend, in fair order. He employs the Methodist minister, was on this station, during Sir George Armitage's, to her great vexation distwo hundred and fifty free negroes, and assured us slavery, in the year 1826. He has now returned to it covered that she had forgotten a rich pair of ruffles that he had not the slightest coinplaint to make under freedom. The change for the better,' ho ob- and lappets. Every body was busy ; much company respecting them. On the examination of the ac- served, in the dress, demeanour, and welfare of the was expected, and a splendid toilet necessary: Poor counts of two of the properties, it appeared that he people, is prodigious. The imports are vastly increased. Miss Jenny, in all the sorrows of beauty and eighteen, was decidedly saving money by the substitution of The duties on them were L.1000 more in 1838 than in addressed herself in vain to the servants for a trusty free labour, on moderate wages, for the dead weight 1837 ; and in 1839 double those of 1838 within L.150. messenger to dispatch four miles for these important of slavery.
This surprising increase is owing to the demand on articles. Not one could be spared, until a good-natured At the different places at which he touched, Mr the part of the free labourers for imported goods, little dairy-maid, a simple cowslip of the north, sugGurney took occasion to exercise his religious vocar especially for articles of dress. The difficulty expe- gested an application to Hal Pierson. He could take tion, though, with becoming modesty and good taste, rienced by the gentry living in the town, in procuring a message ; was very fond of Miss Jenny ; it was a he says comparatively little on that point. At Tor-fowls, eggs, &c., from the negroes, is considerably in- fine day, and only four miles. But Hal had a dislike tola, he observes that “freedom is working well as a creased. The reason is well known—the labourers to carrying a note or letter, ever since a celebrated handmaid to religion." At one time, the island was make use of them for home consumption. Marriage humourist, in the practical joke line, had given him the seat of a little Society of Friends ; there are no is now become frequent amongst them, and a profusion a note, desiring the bearer might be rewarded for his members in the present day, but it is interesting to of eggs is expended on their wedding cakes ! Doubt-, pains with a tumbler of hot salt and water. No-Hal know that the moral worth of these good people has less, they will soon learn to exchange these freaks of would have nothing to say to a note ; but undertook left a happy influence on a small community of luxury for the gradual acquisition of wealth. cheerfully to go and fetch the ruffles and lappets. It negroes, who are settled as tenants in common on an We had much pleasure in calling at the Moravian was explained to him by Cowslip what they were, and estate once belonging to Samuel and Mary Notting- establishment at Cayon, under the care of Brother he sapiently replied, "I naw Jenny Ayrton wants ham, Quakers of high character. " About sixty years Münzer. It seemed to be admirably conducted : he her handy-cuffs and pinniers.” He repeated this ago they liberated their slaves, from conscientious has three hundred children in his sehool. Another several times to imprint it on his memory. Cowslip motives, and gave them their estate at Longlook, on of their establishments at Basse-terre is equally pro- thought it would be all right, and Hal started. The the eastern coast. A letter of Christian advice, ad sperous. We visited the school there, and examined whole way, as he went, he repeated aloud to himself, dressed to their predecessors by these pious persons, the children. Their answers to our questions were “I'se come for Jenny Ayrton's handy-cuffs and then living at Bristol, is still cherished by the negroes lively and correct. Crime and petty offences are pinniers.” As his habit was never to walk but to on the property, about sixty in number, and held as a greatly diminished since the date of full freedom. | dance along, clapping his hands as he went, this sort of title-deed to the estate. We had great pleasure Education in useful knowledge and religious instruc- formed the burden of the song, which helped him on in visiting them. Their land is on the brow of a tion are rapidly advancing. There are nine churches the way. Arrived at the house, he repeated his lesson ; mountain, and a considerable part of it is well culti- on the island under the Establishment ; six Methodist but no one knew what he meant, and, to his evident vated with yams and other vegetables. We held a chapels, and three Moravian institutions. The Mora- distress, he had to go back without his errand. On religious meeting with them in the largest of their vians have 3000 members by birth and otherwise ; the his return, he explained that they would not give him cottages, and were entirely satisfied with their respect Methodists 2899 in church communion, besides at any " handy-cutfs or pinniers.” Miss Ayrton then able appearance and orderly behaviour.
tenders. These numbers include a vast proportion of tried again to make him understand by showing him In the afternoon we crossed the water, on a visit to the population, which is calculated at 20,000.” her every-day ruffles; but said that, being in the the African settlement at Kingstown Bay. It consists This must conclude our extracts from Mr Gurney's country, and company expected, she wished her best of several hundred Africans, taken out of captured work for the present.
to be sent. He then willingly undertook to return, slave ships, and located on a tract of land allotted
though he had already walked or danced eight miles them by order of the British government. We had
INTERVIEW BETWEEN GEORGE II. AND JOSEPH
in her service. This time he tried hard, and said heard reports of their poverty and idleness ; but these
"ruffles and lappets” all the way; but he chanced to were beliсd by their decent and respectable appearA church is now in course of building for caster, I have sent for you to give me an account of your recollection of cuffs, and that they should be smarter On entering the royal presence, the king said, “ Lan get a fall, which completed the before muddled state
of his brains, and when he rose, he had only a vague their use, under the orders of the Bishop of Barbadoos; system of education, which, I hear, has met with and a school has been already formed for the education tion. One master teach five hundred children at the than usual in the country. So he arrived at Miss of their children. About three hundred of them as
same time! How do you keep them in order, Lancaster ?" Ayrton's house, shouting out, “Ruff cuffs and country sembled, under the shade of a large tamarind trce, and Lancaster replied, " Please thy majesty, by the same cuffs.” More puzzled than ever, the servants stood in it has seldom fallen to my lot to address a more feeling, principle thy majesty's army is kept in order-by the dismay, until, out of breath and patience with his now or apparently more intelligent, congregation.. One word of command." His majesty replied, “Good, good; twelve miles' walk, Hal insisted upon having various thing is clear and uzruestionable—that the African it does not require an aged general to give the command articles of the female wardrobe exhibited to him, when, mind is abundantly susceptible of instruction in the one of younger years can do it.” Lancaster observed his desire being complied with, he quiekly pounced upon great doctrines and principles of the Christian reli- that, in his
schools, the teaching branch was performed the commodity wanted. Having been allowed to take gion." by youths who acted as monitors. The king assented,
a pair of ruffles and lappets of rich point-lace, which From this island Mr Guruey proceeded to St Chris- and said, "Good.". Lancaster then described his
sys he triumphantly attached to his walking staff, le set topher's, with the social condition of which he expresses a liko satisfaction. On the morning after his attention, and were highly
delighted ; and when he had out, puffing and blowing, upon his second return to
Sir George Armitage's, where he presented himself to arrival
, “ I mounted," says he,“ one of the governor's of your system, and it is my wish that every poor child the anxiously expecting young lady, just in time to horses, and enjoyed a solitary ride into the country in my dominions should be taught to read the Bible ; 1 decorate her fair person with the result of his sixteen Although it was the seventh day of the week, usually will do anything you wish to promote this object." miles' labour. But he had his reward, for Miss Ayrton applied by the emancipated labourers to their private “ Please thy majesty," said Lancaster, " if the system smiled, and her smile was at that period of her life purposes, I observed many of them diligently at work meets thy majesty's approbation, I can go through the witchcraft itself, even to such a being as Hal Pierson. on the cano grounds, cutting the canes for the mill. country, and lecture on the system, and have no doubt, Hal wore Sir George Armitage's livery when he Their aspect was that of physical vigour and cheerful but in a few months I shall be able to give thy majesty chose, for he never was constrained by his kind benecontentment ; and all my questions, as I passed along, an account wisere ten thonsand, poor children are being factor, whose motive for keeping him in his household were answored satisfactorily. On my way, I ventured educated, and some of my youths instructing them.
was pure benevolence. Sauntering, as was his custom, to call at ono of the estates, and found it was the home His majesty immediately replied, “ Lancaster, I will sub
one day by the river side, he saw a young gallant riding of Robert Claxton, the solícitor-general of the colony, scribe L.100 annually, and." addressing the queen, you
on the other bank. Hal owed him a grudge for having a gentleman of intelligence and respectability. Lle shall subscribe L.50, Charlotte and the princesses L.25
once given him a pinch of very strong snuff. The was kind enough to impart a variety of useful, and, in each ;" and then added, “ Lancaster, you may have the
young man had no remembrance of the joke or the general, cheering information. One fact mentioned money directly;" Lancaster ok-erved, Please thy maby him is highly encouraging. Speaking of a small jesty, that will be setting thy nobles
a good example." person of the fool; and he asked him if the river was property on the island belonging to himself, he said, but the queen observed to his majesty, * How cruel it is Have you
seen any one pass it to-day” “I'roth and Six years ago. (that is, shortly before the act of that enemies should be found who endeavour to hinder I have a maist respectable family, father, mother, and emancipation), it was worth only L.2000, with the his progress in so good a work!" To which the king young ones,” replied Hal; "they came over right
merrily this morn's morning." Upon this assurance, An abominable festival in honour of this god is cele On the following day, in the afternoon, the cerethe young man put his horse to the stream, and though brated, when many Hindoos, assuming the name of mony called Churuku, or the swinging by hooks the animal, with instinctive sagacity, hesitated, whip sunyasees, inflict on themselves the greatest cruelties. fastened in the back, is performed. The posts are and spur soon compelled him to go in. It was won. On the first day of the festival, these sunyasees cast erected in some open place in the town or suburbs. derful that both were not drowned. After a hard themselves from a bamboo stage, with three resting. They are generally fifteen, twenty, or twenty-five cubits struggle, horse and rider gained the bank, which places, the highest about twenty feet from the ground; high. In some places a kind of worship is paid at the Hal no sooner observed than he ran off, to avoid a from this height these persons cast themselves on iron foot of the tree of Shivu, when two pigeons are let resentment expressed by menaces both loud and deep. spikes, stuck in bags of straw. These spikes are laid in loose, or slain. In other parts, that is, in the reighbourThe cavalier made the best of his way to the great a reclining posture, and when the person falls, they hood of Calcutta, the worship of Shivu is performed at house, to prefer his complaint against one bearing the almost constantly fall down, instead of entering his his temple, after which the crowd proceed to the Armitage livery having endangered his life. All the body. There are instances, however, of persons being swinging posts, and commence the horrid work of torservants were summoned. He could not identify killed, and others wounded, but they are very rare. À ture. The man who is to swing prostrates himself the mischievous one, until somebody suggested the few years ago, a person at Kideerpooru, near Calcutta, before the tree, and a person, with his dusty fingers, possibility of its being Hal Pierson. Hal was sought cast himself on a knife used in cleaning fish, which makes a mark where the hooks are to be put. Another for, and brought into presence ; but all he could be entered his side and caused his death. He threw himself person immediately gives him a smart slap on the back, got to say in answer to his master's queries and re from the stage twice on the same day; the second time and pinches up the skin hard with his thumb and proaches, was that he had seen a very respectable (which was fatal) to gratify a woman with whom he fingers, while another thrusts the hook through, taking family pass that morning, the grey drake, his duck, lived. In some villages, several of these stages are hold of about an inch of the skin. The other hook is and ducklings, and therefore he guessed a goose might erected, and as many as two or three hundred people then in like manner put through the skin of the other do the same.
Here was the pinch of snuff revenged. cast themselves on these spikes, in one day, in the side of the neck, and the man gets up on his feet. Hal had bitherto never done any thing very dan presence of great crowds of spectators. The worshippers he is rising, some water is thrown in his face. He then gerous ; but Robby was now to reap his reward for of Shivu make a great boast of the power of their god, mounts on a man's back, or is elevated in some other the dishonest tricks played with poor Hal's half-crown, in preserving his followers in circumstances of such way, and the strings which are attached to the hooks in as well as for a long course of minor teasings and an danger.
his back are tied to the rope at one end of the horinoyances. For some time Hal had contented himself In the year 1806, I went to Kaleeghatu, in company zontal bamboo, and the rope at the other end is held by with hiding the young carpenter's tools, or telling with two or three friends, to witness these practices ; at several men, who drawing it down, raise up the end on tales of him to his sweetheart, the pretty young house- / which place we arrived about five o'clock in the morn which the man swings, and by their running round maid ; but Robby at last provoked him beyond what ing. We overtook numerous companies who were pro- with the rope, the machine is turned. In swinging, the . was safe with a being of his order. Watching his ceeding thither, having with them drums and other man describes a circle of about thirty feet diameter. opportunity one day, when, as usual after dinner, he instruments of music ; also spits, canes, and different Some swing only a few minutes, others half an hour or took a short nap in the workshop, Hal entered un articles to pierce their tongues and sides. Some, with more. I have heard of men who continued swinging perceived, and accomplished his purpose. He then tinkling rings on their ankles, were dancing and exhibit for hours. In the southern parts of Bengal, a piece of returned to the servant's hall. By his exulting looks, ing indecent gestures, as they passed along, while others cloth is wrapped round the body underneath the hooks, the servants concluded he had been in mischief, but rent the air with the sounds of their filthy songs. As we lest the flesh should tear and the wretch fall and be thought no more about the matter. Supper time entered the village where the temple of this great god dashed to pieces, but the whole weight of the
body rests came, and as Robby was a merry fellow, and the life dess is situated, the crowds were so great that we could on the hooks. Some of these persons take the wooden of the party, his absenco was remarked. At length with difficulty get our vehicles along, and at last were pipe, and smoke while swinging, as though insensible of Hal observed, “I've played him a bonny trick this completely blocked up. We then alighted and went the least pain. Others take up fruit in their hands, and time.” “Why, what have you dore now }" cried the amongst the crowd. But who can describe a scene like either eat it or throw it among the crowd. I have others; crowding round him; “what have you hid this ? 'Here, men of all ages, who intended to have their heard of a person having a monkey's collar run through now ?"
"Oh, I've hid his head under the sharings; tongues pierced or their sides bored, were buying gar- bis Alank, in which state the man and the monkey and when he wakes, he'll be troubled to find it." lands of flowers to hang around their necks, or to tie whirled round together. On one occasion, in the north Misgivings arose from this declaration, and they went round their heads_there, others were carrying offer- of Bengal, a man took a large piece of wood in his in a body to the workshop to see what he had really ings to the goddess ; above the heads of the crowd were mouth, and swung for a considerable time without any done, when, horrible to relate, it was found that the seen nothing but the feathers belonging to the great cloth round his body to preserve him, should the flesh idiot had cut off the unfortunate young man's head drums, and the instruments of torture which each of his back tear. Ón some occasions, these sunyasees while he slept, and hid it under the shavings. Hal
, victim was carrying in his hand. These wretched slaves have hooks run through their thighs as well as backs. who had accompanied them, seemed quite astonished of superstition were distinguished from others by the About the year 1800, five women swung in this manner, to find Robby dead. He tried to put on the head quantity of oil rubbed on their bodies, and by streaks with hooks through their backs and thighs, at Kidur again, and, on finding that the effort was of no use, and dots of mud all over them. Some of the chief men pooru, near Calcutta. It is not very uncommon for the purst into tears. His delinquency of course subjected belonging to each company were covered with ashes, Aesh to tear, and
the person to fall; instances are rehim to a trial, which took place at York, when, his or dressed in a most fantastic manner, like the fool lated of such persons perishing on the spot. A few imbecility being clearly proved, instead of committing among mountebanks. For the sake of low sport, some years ago a man fell from the post at Kidurpooru, while him for the remainder of his life to a prison, the were dressed as English women, and others had on a whirling round with great rapidity; and, falling on a judges gave him over to the care of his humane pro- hat, to excite the crowd to laugh at Europeans. As soon poor woman who was selling parched rice, killed her tector, Sir George Armitage, in whose family he re as we could force our way, we proceeded to the ten ple on the spot: the man died the next day. At a village inained well watched; but his spirits never afterwards of Kalee, where the crowd, inflamed to madness, almost near Bujbuj, some years since, the swing fell and broke rallied. He was often found sitting by the side of a trampled upon one another, to obtain a sight of the a man's leg. The man who was upon it, as soon as he brook, mingling his tears with the stream. He never idol. We went up to the doorway, when a brahmin, was loosened, ran to another tree, was drawn up, and spoke a word respecting the melancholy event; but who was one of the owners of the idol, addressed one whirled round again, as though nothing had happened. no power could induce him to approach the workshop, of my companions in broken English: -money I have heard of one man's swinging three times in one or take in his hand any edged tool. He pined, and money-for black mother!' My friend, not much day on different trees; and a brahmin assured me his weak, intellect becoming more and more feeble, liking the looks of his black mother, declared he should that he had seen four 'men swing on one tree, and his health suffered, and he died a premature old man, give her nothing. From this spot we went into the while swinging, this tree was carried round the field by grey-headed under thirty years of age. The remem- | temple yard, where two or three blacksmiths had begun the crowd.” brance of Hal Pierson's Half-crown survived him, and the work of piercing the tongues and boring the sides has become a by-word to express any futilo and wild of these infatuated disciples of Shivu. The first man scheme for increasing money. Miss Jane Ayrton seemed reluctant to hold out his tongue, but the black
FASHIONABLE SPORTSMEN. lived to nearly eighty years of age, and, near the end smith, rubbing it with something like flour, and having the Countess of Blessington, in her “ Victims of Soof her days, communicated these anecdotes to a de a piece of cloth betwixt his fingers, laid firm hold, ciety," draws the following picture of this class of per scendant, the individual who now gives them to the dragged it out, and placing his lancet under it in the sons :world.
middle, pierced it through and let the fellow go. The “A young man of fashion, for to such only does my
next person whose tongue we saw cut, directed the censure apply, thinks that certain expenses are indisWOUNDING THE BODY AS A RELIGIOUS
blacksmith to cut it on the contrary side, as it had been pensably necessary to his happiness. The cost of a wife, EXERCISE.
already cut twice. This man seemed to go through the he calculates, must diminish the means of gratifying his
business of having his tongue slit with perfect sang personal luxuries; therefore he will not marry until he Health and Physical Welfare of Mankind, by Amariah Brigham, and the blacksmith, pocketing the trifling fee given by priated to these expensive pursuits may, he thinks, be
[Imom Pobservations on the Influence of Religion apon the froid. The company of natives were entirely unmoved, shall have lost the taste and activity for shooting, huntM.D." Boston : 1835.]
each for whom he did this favour, laughed at the sport directed to the support of a matrimonial establishment. WOUNDING or cutting the body has been often resorted I could not help asking whether they were not punishto as a religious exercise. This was the custom of the ing these men for lying. After seeing the operation shooting place in the country, with a train of keepers to
How could a young man of fashion exist without a prophets of Baal; as we read—Ist Kings, xviii. 28— performed on one or two more, we went to another preserve his game, and dogs to run it down, whatever * They cried aloud, and cut themselves after their man group, where they were boring the sides. The first we may be the cost ? A moor in the Highlands of Scotland ner with knives and lancets, till the blood gushed out saw undergoing this operation was a boy, who might for grouso-shooting, it would be impossible to forego. upon them.”. It is probable that something like this be twelve or thirteen years old, and who had been and a party to partake its amusements must be assembled was practised by the Hebrews, as in Leviticus, xix. 28, brought thither by his elder brother to submit to this This gratification is obtained at the sacrifice of several it is written" Ye shall not make any cuttings in your cruelty. A thread rubbed with clarified butter was hundreds ; but the payer has the pleasure of reading in tiesh for the dead, nor print any marks upon you." drawn through the skin on each side, with a kind of the papers, that he and his guests shot so many hundred
Plutarch, in his book “ De Superstitione," tells us lancet having an eye like a needle. He did not flinch, brace of birds on certain days, and he is satisfied. that the priests of Bellona, when they sacrificed to that but hung by his hands over the shoulders of his
Many are they who frequent the Highlands with little goddess, were wont to besmear the victim with their brother. I asked a man who had just had his sides or no desire for shooting; but who, having no rational own blood. The Persian magi, according to Herodotus, bored, why he did this? He said he had made a vow pursnit, are at a loss to know how to employ the twr used to appease tempests and allay the winds by making to Kalee at a time of dangerous illness, and was now
inonths that intervene between the close of the London incisions in their flesh. Strabo alludes to the practice performing this vow.
season and the opening of the hunting one; conse. A bystander added, it was an quently,
at the mandate of fashion, scek this mode of of the Etruscan priests tearing their own flesh, and act of holiness or merit. Passing from this group, we getting rid of time. cutting themselves in different parts of the body, and of saw a man dancing backwards and forwards, with two The young man of fashion must, therefore, hunt at walking on fire.
canes run through his sides, as thick as a man's little Melton; and to do so with detent dignity,' requires an Under this head, also, I should place the practices of finger. In returning to Calcutta, we saw many with establishment of grooms and helpers that would astonish the Hindoos, and particularly those in honour of Shivu, things of different thicknesses thrust through their sides Nimrod himself, could he behold them; and the bills for the destroyer. These are, falling on iron spikes, piercing and fungues, and several with the pointed handles of which seldom fail to astonish the purses of their owners. the tongue and the sides, swinging by hooks fastened shovels, containing fire, sticking in their sides. Into
But it is not the horses and grooms alone that consume into their flesh, &c. The following picture, from Ward, this fire, every now and then, they threw Indian pitch, thousands at Melton: the chasseurs find that French will suffice. which for the moment blazed very high. I saw one
cooks alone can produce such banquets as they acquire * This god (Shiva) is represented in various ways; man whose singular mode of self-torture struck me
to recruit their exhausted frames, and collect at the sometimes as a silver-coloured man, with five faces; much. His breast, arms, and other parts of his body,
tables the best society.' sometimes with three eyes and one face. Another were entirely covered with pins, as thick as nails or day furnishes the inexhaustible topic of conversation,
During the interminable evenings, the chase of the image of this deity is the lingu, which is nothing more packing needles. This is called vanu-phora (piercing cach biped arrogating to himself the merit that belongs than a smooth black stone, in the form of a sugar- with arrows). The person had made a vow to Shivu solely to his more intelligent quadrupeds. Prolix details loaf. This is often made of clay, for extemporaneous thus to pierce his body, praying the god to remove some of asserted equestrian prowess-each narrator the hero evil from him.
of his own tale-enlivened by episodical histories of their